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The Latest Size Reduction Technology For Color _ Monochrome Toners

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The Latest Size Reduction Technology For Color _ Monochrome Toners Powered By Docstoc
					  NISSHIN SEIFUN




The Latest Size Reduction Technology
 For Color & Monochrome Toners
                by
       Dr. Satoshi Akiyama
                                 1st Asia Imaging
             Manager             Forum 2006 in
     Nisshin Seifun Group Inc.   Kuala Lumpur,
                                 Malaysia
         Dr. Carl K. Ishito      Place: Sunway Lagoon Hotel
         General Manager         Date: June 30, 2006 (Fri.)
      Nisshin Engineering Inc.   Organizer: AIF




  NISSHIN SEIFUN




   Content
    • Trends in particle characteristics of toners
    • Market size and growth
    • Improvement of grinding and classification
      processes
    • New mechanical mill system for monochrome
      toners
    • New jet mill system for color toners
    • Future outlook




                                                              1
 NISSHIN SEIFUN



Trends in particle characteristics of toners
                         Particle size
                               Smaller ( 5 6µm )
                         Particle size distribution
                               Narrower
                              ( Less fine particles & coarse particles )
                         Particle shape control
                               Spherical or round particles




                                            Conventional                  Chemical toner
                                            pulverized toner




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                                  140,000
                                                      Chemical
      Production in Japan [ton]




                                  120,000             Pulverized

                                  100,000

                                   80,000

                                   60,000

                                   40,000

                                   20,000

                                       0
                                            2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
                                                                   Year

                                      Production of chemical toner and
                                      pulverized toner in Japan




                                                                                           2
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                                    25.00           Color

       Revenue in billions of US$
                                                    Monochrome
                                    20.00


                                    15.00


                                    10.00


                                     5.00


                                     0.00
                                            2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

                                                                 Year

                                            Worldwide bulk toner revenue




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                                                      Raw Material

                                                        Mixer           Mixing

                                                       Extruder         Mulling

                                                        Crusher         Coarse grinding

                                                      Pulverizer        Fine grinding

                                                      Classifier        Coarse Classifying

                                                      Classifier        Fine Classifying
                                             SiO2
                                                         Mixer          Mixing

                                                        Product

                                        Process flow of grinding toners




                                                                                             3
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                                                                         Cyclone
                                                                                        Bag house
                        Bag house
                                       Raw material
                                                         Classifier

                                            Feeder

                    Blower


                             Cyclone    Mechanical
                                        mill                             Classifier    Blower
                                                      Air cooler

                                                                      Product




Flowsheet of grinding and classifying process for toner




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                                                               Liner




                                                               Rotor                                Rotor

                                                                                                    Liner




                                                                                Cross-sectional View

                   Mechanical mill; Super Rotor SR-25




                                                                                                            4
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                                                  Classification Rotor
                       Powder Feed                   Dispersion Blades
                                                        Dispersion Disc
                                                           Classification Blades
                                                               Coarse Fraction
                                                               Outlet

                                                               Air
                                                               Auxiliary Blades

                                                              Scroll Casing

                                                         Balance Rotor


                 Air Flow

           Cross-sectional view of Turbo Classifier




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                            Centrifugal Force
                                                           Large Particles
                                                      Centrifugal Force   Drag Force


                                       Air Flow

      Drag Force                                            Small Particles
                                                      Centrifugal Force   Drag Force




Particle Rotation


                   Principle of air classification
                   (centrifugal force classification)




                                                                                       5
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                 Fine particles less than 5µm [vol.%]
                                                        28
                                                                      Closed circuit system
                                                        24
                                                                               Mechanical mill
                                                        20                     Jet mill
                                                        16                       Magnetic toner with
                                                                                 styrene-acrylic resin
                                                        12

                                                         8

                                                         4

                                                         0
                                                             6    7    8    9 10 11 12 13
                                                                      Median diameter [µm]
       Relation between the median diameter of product and
       the volume percentage of fine particles less than 5µm




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                                                        100
                          Product yield [%]




                                                        90


                                                        80


                                                        70                        Mechanical mill
                                                                                  Jet mill
                                                                                 Magnetic toner with
                                                                                 styrene-acrylic resin
                                                        60
                                                              6   7     8   9 10 11 12                   13
                                                                      Median diameter [µm]
         Relation between the median diameter and product
         yield in grinding and classifying process




                                                                                                              6
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                   Specific energy consumption [kW h/kg]
                                                           7
                                                                          Closed circuit system
                                                           6
                                                                                           Mechanical mill
                                                           5                               Jet mill
                                                           4

                                                           3

                                                           2

                                                           1       Magnetic toner with
                                                                   styrene-acrylic resin
                                                           0
                                                               6      7    8    9 10 11 12               13
                                                                          Median diameter [µm]
 Relation between the median diameter of product and
 specific energy consumption of closed circuit grinding system




 NISSHIN SEIFUN


                                                           14
                                                                                 Styrene-acrylic toner
                                                                                 Polyester toner
                  Median diameter [µm]




                                                           12


                                                           10


                                                            8         Mechanical mill
                                                                      without classifier

                                                           6
                                                                    11,000     12,000      13,000
                                                                       Rotational speed [min-1]
Relation between the rotational speed of mechanical mill and
the median diameter of product ground with mechanical mill




                                                                                                              7
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Temperature control for mechanical mill
  Methods
         Inlet air temperature: from +5 to -40 degree C
                                 (from 41 to -40 degree F)
         Cooling rotor: water

  Conditions
       Feed Material: Non-magneticToner with Polyester Resin,
                       D50=500µm
       Grinding Mill : Mechanical Mill
       Product Diameter: 8 µm
       Temp. of Mill Outlet: 50 degree C (122 degree F)




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                                              20
                                                                Closed circuit system
                                                                with mechanical mill
                  Maximum throughput [kg/h]




                                              15


                                              10


                                               5
                                                         Polyester toner

                                               0
                                                -50     -40 -30 -20 -10 0             10
                                                      Temperature of cooling air [ C]
                                                                                 O




 Relation between the temperature of cooling air and
 the maximum throughput of the mechanical grinding system




                                                                                           8
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                      Specific energy consumption [kW h/kg]
                                                              10
                                                                      Closed circuit system
                                                                      with mechanical mill
                                                               8

                                                              6


                                                              4


                                                               2        Polyester toner

                                                              0
                                                               -50    -40 -30 -20 -10           0 10
                                                                     Temperature of cooling air [ C]
                                                                                              O




Relation between temperature of cooling air and specific energy
consumption of closed mechanical grinding system




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                                                                                                         Product




                                                                           Water


                                                                                                           Feed
                                                                                                        (Powder)
                                                                                     Water

                                                                                   Structure of cooling rotor

                    Super Rotor using cooling rotor




                                                                                                                   9
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                                           12



               Maximum throughput [kg/h]
                                                                          Conventional rotor
                                           10                             Cooling rotor


                                           8

                                           6

                                           4

                                           2       Polyester toner
                                           0
                                           8,000          10,000     12,000         14,000
                                                           Rotational speed [min-1]

            Effect of cooling rotor on throughput of
            mechanical mill




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Particle shape measurement
 Particle shape analyzer
    Malvern ; FPIA-2000
    ( Flow Particle Image Analyzer )
                                                                                                  Perimeter

 Definition of shape factor
                                                              (4π*Area)                        Area
     Circularity index                                =
                           ( C.I .)                           Perimeter
                                                          1

   Smooth & round surface shape                                              1 (Spherical shape)




                                                                                                              10
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                        10µm                      10µm                    10µm


          C.I. = 0.93               C.I. = 0.93             C.I. = 0.94
    (a) Target jet mill        (b) Pancake jet mill      (c) Mechanical mill

                  Effect of type of mills on particle
                  shape of monochrome toners




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Toner manufacturing plant using the mechanical mill




                                                                                 11
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New jet mill; Super Jet mill for color toners
   Features
       Narrow particle size distribution,
        less fine particles & coarse particles
       Simple inner structure without moving parts
        less powder accumulation and adhesion
       Easy maintenance and cleaning




                                               Super Jet mill SJ-10K




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       Grinding zone                     Grinding nozzle
(1st   stage classifying)
                                                     Outlet


                                                      Inlet


                Comp.air




                                          Classifying zone
                    Classifying ring    (2st
                                           stage classifying)

                        Structure of Super Jet Mill




                                                                       12
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                                             Conventional
                                             jet mill




                                              Super Jet Mill



        Relation between particle size distribution of
        product and mixture ratio (color toner)




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Conventional jet mill               Super Jet Mill

    SEM photos of color toners ( D50=7µm )




                                                               13
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 (1) Screw feeder             (4) Bag house         (1) Screw feeder
 (2) Mechanical Mill (5) Classifier                 (2) Super Jet Mill
 (3) Cyclone         (6) Blower                     (3) Cyclone
                                              (4)   (4) Bag house
       (4)

                                                                  (4)



                              (5)     (3)
                  (1)
                                                                         (1)

                                            (6)
                                                            (3)



         (3)            (2)
(6)
                                                                        (2)




       Closed circuit grinding system                   Grinding system of
            of mechanical mill                            Super Jet Mill

             Flowsheets of two kinds of grinding system




      NISSHIN SEIFUN




 Relation between the median diameter and percentage of fine
 particles less than 3µm ( color toner with polyester resin)




                                                                               14
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                   Relation between the median diameter
                   and specific energy consumption
                   ( color toner with polyester resin)




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                   (1) Screw feeder (4) Cyclone
             (3)
                   (2) Super Jet Mill (5) Bag house
                   (3) New classifier (6) Blower



                                      (1)


          (4)        (3)
    (5)




                                     (2)


                                                      A new classifier for
  Fine particles           Product                    fine classification
                           (Coarse particles)

   Super Jet Mill system with a new classifier
   without rotor for color toners




                                                                             15
     NISSHIN SEIFUN


                                            Pulverized toner using SJ system
                                            Median diameter : 7.7µm
                                            Less than 4µm : 26 pop%
                                            Product yield : 93%




                                                                         20µm

                                                    Conventional pulverized toner
                                                    Median diameter: 7.0µm
                                                    Less than 4µm : 53 pop%




    Comparison of two kinds of
                                                                         20µm
    pulverized toners




     NISSHIN SEIFUN




                      20µm                     20µm                          20µm
Median diameter : 7.5 µm     Median diameter : 6.2 µm       Median diameter : 5.6 µm
Less than 4µm : 12 pop%      Less than 4µm : 11 pop%        Less than 4µm : 24 pop%
Circularity Index : 0.99     Circularity Index : 0.97       Circularity Index : 0.97
      Canon                        Ricoh                        Fuji Xerox
   ( Suspension)             ( Ester elongation )          (Emulsion aggregation )

     Example of chemical toners on the market




                                                                                       16
      NISSHIN SEIFUN



                                            Pulverized toner
                                             Median diameter : 5.4 µm
                                             Less than 4µm : 26 pop%




                                            Chemical toner
                                             Median diameter : 5.6 µm
                                             Less than 4µm : 24 pop%




  Particle size distributions of pulverized toner
  using Super Jet Mill system and chemical toner




      NISSHIN SEIFUN




Median diameter : 5.6 µm             Median diameter : 5.4 µm
Less than 4µm : 24 pop%              Less than 4µm : 26 pop%
Circularity Index : 0.97             Circularity Index : 0.96
                                     Product yield: 80%




                              20µm                              20µm


             Chemical toner               Pulverized toner using
                                          Super Jet mill system
           Comparison of particle characteristics
           of chemical toner and pulverized toner
           using Super Jet Mill system




                                                                        17
NISSHIN SEIFUN




         Conclusions
           1) In order to save energy and running costs,
              it is important to use a suitable grinding
              machine for particle size and characteristics
              of toners because it consumes a lot of energy
              compared with other machines.
           2) Using grinding and classifying technologies,
              it is possible to produce toners similar to
              chemical ones in particle shape and size
              distribution.




NISSHIN SEIFUN




     Thank you very much
                     for your kind attention.




                                                              18

				
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