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					     Негосударственное образовательное
                учреждение
          Институт «ТЕЛЕИНФО»
          Кафедра иностранных языков




         УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

«БИОГРАФИИ УЧЕНЫХ».ТЕКСТЫ
        ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ

    ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 1-3 КУРСОВ ЗАОЧНОГО
               ОТДЕЛЕНИЯ.
    ДИСТАНЦИОННАЯ СИСТЕМА ОБУЧЕНИЯ.
                      
              (английский язык)




                 Составила: ст.препод. Шутова С.Г.




                   САМАРА
                    2005г


                      1
                  ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ




    Данное учебное пособие предназначено для
студентов 1-3 курсов заочного отделения, обучающихся
по     системе     дистанционного      обучения    и
специализирующихся в области вычислительной
техники, промышленной автоматике, радиоэлектроники
и т.п.

   Цель пособия – формирование у студентов навыков
и умения чтения, понимания и перевода научно-
технической    литературы,    умения  работать   с
литературой по специальности.

   Пособие состоит из 3 частей. В текстах первой части
пособия даются биографии ученых и их научные
изобретения и открытия, что, несомненно, представляет
познавательный интерес. Во второй части представлены
тексты по таким темам, как электромагнитизм, волновое
движение, из истории радаров, природа радиосигналов
и другим. Тексты 3 части охватывают темы развития
современных научных технологий, достижений в
области микропроцессорной техники и перспективы ее
развития.

      Подбор текстового материала разного уровня
сложности позволяет осуществлять самостоятельную
работу студентов и индивидуальный контроль
преподавателя на занятиях


                          2
   PART I
                    EMILE BAUDOT
       Emile Baudot was born in France on the II-th
September 1845, very early in the era of the electric
telegraph. His father was a farmer, his mother a dressmaker.
       His formal education was limited to that provided by
the local primary school. His vocation was to follow in his
father’s footsteps and he trained as a farmer.
       At the age of 24 Baudot left agricultural work and
joined the telegraph service where he was to become famous
as the inventor of a new telegraph system. At the time he
joined the Telegraph Administration he was ignorant about
the existence of printing telegraph equipment. His
knowledge was limited to a superficial understanding of the
Morse and the dial telegraphs. In September 1869 he was
sent to Paris for a course on the famous Hughes telegraph,
which automatically printed its message at the receiver in
Roman type. Baudot studied the Hughes equipment until the
following Spring.
       After completing his course Baudot joined the
Central Paris telegraph station in July 1870 before moving
to Bordeaux at the end August. By then the Franco-Prussian
War had broken out and by the end of the year he had been
commissioned with the rank of Lieutenant and was serving
with the military telegraph service of the Second Army.
After the war ended, Baudot once again become a civilian
and returned to duty in Paris in February 1872.
       Baudot had already started to acquire a reputation as
an inventor for improvements he had suggested to existing
equipment. He was now encouraged by the Chief Inspector
of the exchange to design a ―multiple Hughes‖. But in the
evening he was designing his own printing telegraph. On the
25-th July, 1874 Baudot sent a letter to the authorities

                             3
describing his proposals. They recommended a budget of
2000 francs for the construction of a prototype. In December
the following year (1875) tests began which led to a
quintuple telegraph being made for regular service.
       Baudot died in 1903 at the early age of 58. Montoriol
described him as prematurely worn out by a life of labour
without rest but, unlike many inventive genuses, he was
privileged to have seen his genius ―radiate around the
world‖.
       His telegraph met with rapid success when it was
introduced in France and was soon in use throughout
Europe, India and South America. An early British use was
on the Anglo-French cable and it was used extensively by
the British Telegraph Service.

   Ответьте на вопросы:

   1.   When and where was Baudot born?
   2.   What did he know about the printing telegraph?
   3.   When did he join the Telegraph Administration?
   4.   What happened during the Franco-Prussian War?
   5.   How did Montoriol deseribe Baudot?


     ALAN DOWER BLUMLEIN (1903 - 1942)
        Alan Dower Blumlein was known as the greatest
circuit designer and originator. He is considered to be one of
the best electronics engineers in Britain. To a few
electronics enthusiasts Blumlein is a legend, to most and to
the general public he is unknown.
        Alan Dower Blumlein was born on 29 June, 1903 at
Hampstead in London, the son of Semmy Joseph Blumlein,
a French mining engineer, and Jessie Dower, the daughter of

                              4
a Scottish missionary. His parents met in South Africa but
had settled in London where Blumlein spent most of his
childhood. A year after Alan’s birth his father became a
British subject.
        At five Alan Blumlein entered school which, years
later, he still liked to visit. It was on one of these visits that
he met his future wife Doreen. They were married in 1933
and had two sons, Simon and David.
        At primary school he was allowed considerable
freedom in his choice of studies and it has been said that at
the age of twelve he ―could not read, but knew a lot about
quadratics‖.
       In 1923 he graduated with a first - class honours
degree in heavy electrical engineering from the City and
Guids College, part of the Imperial College, London. He
remained at the College as a demonstrator working with
Professor Edward Mallett who was running a telephone
engineering course. Together they devised a method of
high-frequency resistance measurement. It was the
publication of this work that led the IEE to demand that they
―improve the English‖. They must have done so, for the
final version was awarded a premium. Blumlein was just 21
years old. In September 1924 Blumlein’s industrial career
began when he joined International Western Electric. He
solved many complex problems. During his working life he
accumulated 128 patents, roughly one every seven weeks.
His achievements achievements would be a fitting memorial
if better known.
    Ответьте на вопросы:

   1.        What can you tell about A. Blumlein’s family
and his school years?
   2.        What education did he get? Where?
   3.        What happened in 1924 in Alan’s life?

                                5
                JOHN VON NEUMANN
        John von Neumann was born in Budapest in 1903 on
the 28th of December. He was the eldest of the three sons of
Max and Margaret von Neumann. His father was a well-to-
do banker.
        In 1914 John started secondary school, but as he was
a very talented boy, he was advised to study mathematics
under the guidance of University professors. At the ago of
19 he published his first paper. Later John studied at the
University of Berlin, Institute of Polytechnic in Zurich and
finally, at the University of Budapest, where he received his
SHD.
        In 1930 von Neumann left for the USA and since that
time up to 1933 he was a visiting professor of mathematical
physics at Princeton University. Later he was invited to the
newly formed Institute for Advanced Study (IAS). There he
met other scientific geniuses of the century, including Albert
Einstein. As for himself, he was considered to be the 20th
century’s greatest mathematician. Some scientists were of
the opinion that John von Neumann could represent a new
stage in human mental development.
        In 1937 von Neumann became an American citizen
and was elected to the US Academy of Science.
        As the Second World War approached, military work
has become very important. Von Neumann worked at the
atomic bomb project at Los Alamos, to which he made
major contribution. After the war his work on high-speed
computers hastened the work on the American H-bomb. By
this time his main work was directed at computers.
        In October 1954 President Eisenhower appointed him
a member of the US Atomic Energy Commission. Six moths
later von Neumann was examined for a pain in his shoulder.
It was cancer and his doctor informed him that he did not

                              6
have long left. Even after this he continued his work as the
AEC member and as the chairman of the Air Force ballistic
missile committee. In April 1956 von Neumann had to enter
a hospital and in 1957 he died at the age of 53.

   Answer the following questions:

    1.        Where and when was John von Neumann born?
    2.        Where did he study?
    3.        What was von Neumann’s speciality?
    4.        What did he do during the Second World War
and after it?
    5.        What posts did von Neumann occupy during the
last years of his life?
    6.        When did he die?



      SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE
                                                           .

       Morse was an artist, painting his great love. He was a
founder and the first President of the US National Academy
of Design. When he took up a second career as an engineer-
inventor he left his art unwillingly and grieved over the loss
for years.
       Samuel Finley Breese Morse - the American
Leonardo, according to a biographer - was born on 27-th
April, 1791 in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Named after his
mother’s parents taking their surnames as his Christian
names he was called Finley by his family.
       Whilst a student at Yale his reputation as an artist
began to grow, especially for his ivory miniatures. But his


                              7
father dissuaded him from art as a career and, for a time,
Morse became a clerk in a bookshop.
         His talent was not to be retrained. On 13-th July
1811, aged 20, he sailed for England where he studied art
for the next four years, mainly at the Royal Academy in
London. Among his works were three of outstanding merits.
One, ―The Dying Hercules‖, was exhibited at the Royal
Academy; another, a statuette of Hercules, won a gold
medal from the Society of Arts.
         Best known of his works are probably two portraits
of Lafayette, painted in Washington in 1823, and the
slightly earlier ―The old House of Representatives‖ which
includes 86 portraits.
         Even in those early years Morse appears to have been
something of an experimenter. For a portrait of his wife and
children he ground the pigments in milk. Another time he
used beer!
         The mid 1820’s brought change for Morse. In four
short years his wife, father and mother all died. In 1829 he
again sailed for Europe and Spent the next three years
mostly in France and Italy.
         On the return voyage in 1832 a fellow passenger
drew the dinner-time conversation to electricity. Soon
Morse was hooked. By the end of his voyage his notebook
was crammed with sketches and ideas. The next dozen years
transformed his life - and the world.
         By the end of 1835 he was at the University of the
City of New York as professor of painting and sculpture.
Apart from teaching and painting, both of which brought in
a little money and took most of his time he was working on
the telegraph. On 24-th May, 1844 after his 53rd birthday
Morse opened his telegraph.
         In 1843 the first two-wire 40-mile telegraph system
linked Washington and Baltimore. It was checked by

                             8
sending messages both ways. By 1845 this line was
extended to New York and Boston.
        At 57, after 23 years as a widower, Morse remarried.
Later, as he grew rich from the exploitation of his telegraph
system, he became a philanthropist and again supported the
furtherance of art, though his own skills were never really
recovered. In 1836 he had tried his hand at politics when he
ran for mayor of New York. Aged 63, he had another go,
this time attempting to become a Democratic Congressman.
    Samuel Morse died in 1872, at the age of 81.

   Пояснения:

   ivory miniature - миниатюра из слоновой кости
   to dissuade - отговаривать, разубеждать
   to restrain - сдерживать, подавлять
   to ground the pigments in milk - грунтовать части
(карты) молоком
   to be hooked - подцепить, поймать на удочку,
завербовать
   to cram the notebook with - заполнять записную
книжку
   to support furtherance of art - проявлять интерес к
искусству

   Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

        1. What was Morse?
        2. When did he live?
        3. What was his native place?
        4. What was Morse famous for whilst a student?
        5. Was his reputation as an artist restrained by his
           father?
        6. Where did he study art?

                             9
        7. What were his outstanding works?
        8. What events took place in Morse life in the mid
            1820’s?
        9. What problem did he pay his attention to in
            1832?
        10. Where did he work as professor of painting and
            sculpture?
        11. When did he try his hand at politics?
        12. When did Morse die?


    CARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS (1777 - 1855)
        C. F. Gauss was born into a family on April 30, 1777
at Brunswick in Germany. His father held various laboring
jobs. His mother is said to have been intelligent but
semiliterate.
        It is claimed that Gauss learned to calculate before he
could talk! Certainly he was an arithmetical prodigy who
astonished his school-teacher. His father was persuaded to
allow him to study instead of working to support his family.
At the age of 15 he became financially independent thanks
to a stipend from the Duke Ferdinand. He entered the
Brunswick Collegium. In 1795 he entered the University of
Cottingen, having already made some independent
mathematical discoveries previously made by other. Three
years later he was back in Brunswick, living alone and
working intensely on mathematical ideas which came thick
and fast.
        In 1807 he set his mind to astronomy and become the
director of the Cottingen observatory. Early in his work he
invented the heliotrope, a device which coupled mirrors to
reflect the sun’s rays with a telescope. There was now, he
said a method which could communicate with the moon.

                              10
       Gauss married twice and fathered six children. In
1931 Weber arrived in Gottingen to join him. Gauss was 54.
Weber almost 27. Gauss died in Gottingen on February 23,
1855, aged 77 after 24 years as a widower.


            HEINRICH RUDOLF HERTZ
        Hertz was born on February 22, 1857 in Hamburg,
the son of a prosperous barrister. He had three brothers and
a sister, all younger than himself.
        At the age of six he started school. Though he didn’t
demonstrate much artistic or musical aptitude, by twelve his
practical skills were such that they were to prove important
in his career.
        He also had a great aptitude for languages, coming
first in his class at Greek and taking private lessons in
Arabic.
        Engineering was a career he never followed but a
year was spent gaining practical experience and reading for
the state examination. As a side interest he also studied
natural science and mathematics, a hint of an internal
conflict between the rival attractions of science and
engineering. In 1877 he moved to Munich, planning to enter
the Technische Hochschule. Instead, with his father’s
financial backing, he entered the University to begin an
academic and scientific career. The mental tug of war
between engineering and science had been settled.
        At Munich he alternated between theoretical and
practical studies, a pattern which continued in his
professional life. After a year he moved to Berlin to
continue his studies. Berlin was the right decision. It
brought him directly into contact with Hermann von


                             11
Helmholtz, a major figure in German physics and the man
who was to become his mentor.
        In Berlin Hertz was drawn by a prize offered to solve
a problem concerning possible electrical inertia. Though a
university student for only a year he decided to go for it. He
won it by showing that electrical inertia, if any, is either
zero or very close to it.
        Helmholtz, who had suggested the problem, provided
facilities and his own growing respect.
        After writing his doctoral dissertation, which took
him a mere three months Hertz became a salaried assistant
to Hermholtz at the Berlin Physical Institute. It was a
position he held for three years from 1880. He performed
his duties, conducted research, published papers and
attended scientific meetings which brought him into contact
with the German’s greatest physicists.
        His next career as a university researcher he
undertook at the University of Kiel. As Kiel had no physics
laboratory, Hertz concentrated on theoretical work:
meteorology, electric and magnetic units and Maxwell’s
theory. But the lack of a laboratory at Kiel caused him in
1885 to move to the Karlsruhe Technische Hochschule as a
professor of physics. Here he published nine papers on
electromagnetic radiation. The next year 1856 changed his
life into two ways.
        In the first half of a year he met Elizabeth Doll and in
July they were married. In November he began the
experimental work which earned him his place in history.
He worked deeply on the experimental verification of
Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism. His work proved the
existence of electromagnetism. His work proved the
existence of electromagnetic or radio waves, posed
problems for electrical science and paved the way for radio
communications.

                              12
       During his not long life Hertz had received many
awards and medals. He found himself in the foremost rank
of world physicists. He was just 31 years old and the new
scientific megastar.
       Six years later in 1894 he was dead. Blood poisoning
had robbed the world of his genius. He was survived by his
wife and two daughters, all of whom fled to England from
Nazi Germany in 1937.



                       Пояснения:

   rival attraction - противоположная привязанность
   foremost rank - выдающееся место
   rudimentary - элементарный
   momentous - имеющий важное значение, важный
   mental tug of war - душевное противоборство

   Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

   1. What aptitude did Heinrich Hertz demonstrate in his
      childhood?
   2. How had the mental tug of war between engineering
      and science been settled by him?
   3. What problems (discoveries) did he make during his
      31 years?
   4. What is Hertz famous for?
   5. What work earned him the foremost rank in the
      history of electrical communication?




                            13
     JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879)
       Love him and hate him, Maxwell was a genius. Fully
comprehend his electronic theory and those famous
equations or a run a mile from them, they changed the
world. They are at the foundation of modern physics and
they are a major part of his legacy to us. From
electromagnetic theory, path can be traced to relativity and
quantum theory as well as the more obvious path to radio.
From quantum theory a path leads to semiconductors and so
to modern electronics.
       Born in Edinburgh on 13 June, 1831, just eleven
weeks after Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction,
Maxwell spent his childhood at the family estate of Glenlair.
       Maxwell’s father, John Clerk, inherited the estate and
took the name Maxwell to overcome a legal difficulty.
Though a lawyer, he was interested in mechanics and
attended meetings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
Maxwell’s mother, Frances Cay, died when he was eight.
Both his parents were religious and Maxwell himself held a
strong Christian faith.
       At the age of ten he went to school at the Edinburgh
Academy where he was at first regarded as shy and dull!
       After three years at Edinburgh University he moved
to Cambridge, where he spent most of his time at Trinity
College studying mathematics.
       In 1856 Maxwell was appointed to the chair of
natural philosophy at Marshal College, Aberdeen, where he
spent three years.
       His three years at Aberdeen were notable for two
achievements. Maxwell married the boss’s daughter
Katherine Mary Dewar, whose father was principal of the
college and he won the Adams Prize of the University of
Cambridge. This important prize was awarded every two

                             14
years for the best essay on a given subject. The subject for
1857 was the motion of Saturn’s rings and a decision was
sought between three hypotheses for the composition of the
rings: solid, liquid gas or loose particles.
        Soon he was appointed as a professor at King’s
College, London.
        The last five years of Maxwell’s life were partly
devoted to editing the papers of Henry Cavendish. In June
1879 he left London for Scotland because he was seriously
ill. In October he was told he had only a month to live. He
died of cancer on 5 November, 1879 aged 48.

   Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

         1. When and where was Maxwell born?
         2. What was his father?
         3. When did he go to school?
         4. Where did he spend most of his time studying
            mathematics?
         5. For what did Maxwell win the Adams Prize?
         6. What Maxwell’s discoveries changed the
            world?




              MICHAEL FARADAY (1791 - 1867)

       Michael was the third of four children of James and
Margaret Faraday. He was born on 22 September, 1791, in
London. The family was poor and Michael later recollected
that he was once given a piece of bread for a week. At 13
the young Michael became a newspaper delivery boy, so
Michael gained a large and changing library. Some of those
newspapers and books fired his love for science.
                            15
―Conversation on Chemistry‖ remained his favorite for his
long life. Encyclopedia Britannica introduced him to
electricity.
        Meanwhile, a group of young men had begin to meet
in London to discuss scientific problems. They called
themselves the City Philosophical Society. Faraday met
them in 1810 and their lectures extended his education. In
1812 he attended public lectures given by the great Davy,
tranks to him Faraday determined his future career.
        In 1812 Davy temporarily blinded in a laboratory
explosion and Faraday was recommended as a help. Davy
was employed at the Royal Institution, it was he who
recommended Faraday for employment. He became a
laboratory assistant. So on the 1 of March 1813 an
association began, which was to last all of Faraday’s
working life.
       Thus Faraday became assistant to Davy, one the
greatest scientists of the day. Most of Faraday’s long list of
scientific discoveries lie in the fields of chemistry and
electricity. Of his 158 published papers about half relate to
electrical science.
        Of course, all electrical and electronic engineers
know that Faraday made what is possibly most important
discovery in electrical science: that of electromagnetic
induction, he established some of our common terms,
including electrode, anode, cathode, electrolysis, electrolyte,
paramagnetism and diamagnetism (which he discovered)
and dielectric.
        Besides, chemical engineers are proud of him too-for
producing higher grade steels and for discovering benzene
in 1825.




                              16
Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Когда и как Фарадей был вынужден
   зарабатывать себе на жизнь?
2. Кто и когда помог Фарадею определить карьеру?
3. К каким областям науки относятся большинство
   открытий Фарадея?
4. В каком году была открыта электромагнитная
   индукция?
5. Как     магнетизм     был   преобразован     в
   электричество?




                     17
PART II

           RESISTANCE. OHM’S LAW.

         George Ohm, a German physicist, was the first to
notice that, when using a cell with a constant voltage, the
amount of current would change when different loads were
connected across it.
        For instance, Ohm noticed that more current would
flow through a copper wire than would flow through an iron
wire of the same size and that more current would flow
through a thick wire than through a thin wire of the same
material. George Ohm concluded that some types of
materials tend to resist the flow of current more than others.
Iron has greater resistance than copper.
        A thin wire has greater resistance than a thick wire.
To resist means to hold back. Resistance tends to reduce the
amount of current that is flowing through a circuit.
        If Ohm used a larger cell but kept the voltage and the
resistance in the load the same, would more current flow?
No. The size of the cell does not effect the amount of
current delivered. Only voltage and resistance control this.
        Ohm then connected a cell with a higher emf
   (voltage) to the same load, and he discovered that more
current flowed into the circuit. The unit used to measure
resistance was later named after its discoverer. The basic
unit of resistance is the ohm. An ohm is defined as the
amount of resistance that will allow 1 ampere of current to
flow at an electromotive force of 1 volt.
        George Ohm discovered that different types, shapes,
and quantities of materials subject to the same emf         tend
to resist the flow of current to varying degrees. Assuming
that voltage is constant, if the current in a circuit increases,
it is because the resistance in the circuit decreases.

                              18
     A good way to see the type of relation that exists
between current, voltage and resistance is in division:




       As we increase the numerator, the quotient will
become larger. As we increase the denominator, the quotient
(current) will become smaller. George Ohm saw this same
relationship between arithmetic and electricity and stated it
in a law (now called Ohm’s law). Since current increases as
voltage increases and decreases as voltage decreases, current
equals voltage divided by resistance.
       I is the letter symbol for current, E is the letter
symbol for electromotive force, and R stands for resistance.
Ohm’s law is expressed by



Notes:
   1. emf = electromotive force - электродвижущая сила
       (э. д. с.)
   2. subject to the same emf - зд. под действием одной
       и той же э. д. с.



            MAGNETS AND MAGNETISM
       Magnetism is a property of certain substances that
allow them to attract bits of iron and other ferrous materials.
The action of a magnet is exerted throughout the space
surrounding it. This space around a magnet is called a
magnetic field.

                              19
        Hundreds of years ago, man discovered a natural
substance called lodestone or magnetite, which could attract
other pieces of the same substance and pieces of iron. If a
bit of it was suspended to turn freely, it would always come
to rest with one end pointing north. This natural substance
came to be used as a direction finder. The lodestone was a
natural magnet. Man also learned how to make magnets are
subdivided into temporary and permanent magnets.
        When a lodestone, or artificial magnet, is suspended
so that it can turn freely, one end always comes to rest
pointing north. This end is called the north-seeking pole, or
simply, the north pole. The other end is called the south
pole.
        There is a law of magnetic forces that is very much
like the law of electrical charges. The law of magnetic
forces states that like magnet poles will repel each other and
unlike poles attract each other.
        When a sheet of paper is placed over a magnet and
iron filings are dropped on it, they will arrange themselves
in a pattern. This shows that magnetic force acts in a definite
direction at every point around a magnet. This direction
might be shown symbolically by the lines of force or flux
lines. The three characteristics of flux lines (lines of force)
are: (a) they never cross each other; (b) they pass through
almost any material; (c) they are elastic and stretch or
tighten like rubber bands.
        Flux density is greatest at the poles of a magnet.
This simply means that there are more lines of force per
square inch at the ends of poles. The force with which poles
repel or attract each other depends not only on the strength
of the poles, but on the distance between them.
        The opposition that a material offers to magnetization
is called reluctance. Permeability is the relative ease with
which flux lines can be established in a substances. Air has

                              20
the permeability of times greater than air. The greater the
permeability, the greater is the magnetic flux density.


Notes:

   1. came to be used as a direction finder - начали
      использовать в качестве указателя направления
   2. comes to rest - устанавливается
   3. is very much like - очень похож на
   4. Flux density - Плотность потока
   5. relative ease - относительная лѐгкость



         ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

        Electricity and magnetism are very closely
interrelated. Both have many similar features. In this section
we will discuss some of the ways in which magnetism is
related to electricity.
       When an electric current flows through a wire, a
magnetic field surrounds the wire. The lines of force which
surround a current-carrying wire have direction, just as in a
bar magnet. The direction of the lines of force is dependent
on the direction of current polarity. The direction of the
lines of force can be related to the direction of current flow
by the left-hand rule. The left-hand rule states that if you
grasp the current-carrying wire in your left hand with your
thumb pointing in the direction of electron-current flow,
your fingers will point in the direction of the flux lines. As
you know, a current going through a wire creates a magnetic
field and, therefore, flux lines. The number of flux lines
around the wire and the distance from the wire at which

                             21
their magnetic influence is felt is directly proportional to the
amount of current flowing. The number of flux lines
increases as current increases.
       A loop of wire as well as a straight piece of wire can
carry a current, but the magnetic field around a loop is
strengthened. The lines of force in a loop tend to combine
and strengthen the field. When current is carried in a loop of
wire, the magnetic field is stronger and the loop is
considered to have n - s poles.

Notes:

   1. The direction of the lines of force can be related to
      the direction of current flow - Соотношение между
      направлением силовых линий и направлением
      движения тока может быть получено
   2. left-hand rule - правило левой руки (магн.)


                   ELECTROMAGNETS
       A loop of wire which is carrying a current
concentrates the magnetic lines of force that surround a wire
and has polarity just like a regular magnet. A magnet that
consists of a loop of wire, or a series of loops (coils), is
called an electromagnet. Unlike a permanent magnet, an
electromagnet has the unique feature of being turned on and
off by controlling the current that passes through it. The
coil which is a series of wire loops represents a simple
electromagnet.
       Electromagnets are used as relays, solenoids, motors,
and other devices. In making such magnets, the proper field
strength should be maintained. The field strength of an
electromagnet depends upon some factors. There are three

                              22
factors that determine the field strength of an electromagnet:
1) the field strength of electromagnet is directly proportional
to the permeability of the core; 2) the field strength of a coil
is also proportional to current; 3) the field strength of a coil
is proportional to the number of turns of the product of
current multiplied by the number of turns and expressed as
ampere-turns.
        The magnetic polarity of a coil can be found by the
left-hand coil rule. The coil is grasped with the left hand
with the fingers pointing in the direction of current flow.
Your thumbnail then will point in the direction of the coil’s
north pole.
        Once of the most widely used application of
electromagnets is the relay. Another widely used application
of electromagnetism is the solenoid. Solenoid is an open coil
of wire, its length is great compared with its diameter. The
magnetic field intensity at the centre of the solenoid might
be given by a specific formula.


Notes:

     1. the unique feature of being turned on and off -
        характерное      свойство     включаться      и
        выключаться



                        A-C VALUES

       Alternating current changes both in magnitude and in
direction. A cycle of a-c voltage can be shown on a graph
and is called a sine wave. A sine wave is a graphic
representation of voltage alternation with respect to time.

                              23
An alternation begins when the sine wave, or voltage,
changes direction. Each cycle of a sine wave has two
alternations. A cycle of a sine wave can be measured from
any point on one wave to the same point on the next wave.
       The voltage which is measured at a specific point, or
instant, of time is called instantaneous voltage. The
instantaneous voltages during the positive half cycle of a
sine wave are all positive, the instantaneous voltage during
the negative half cycle are all negative. The average value of
a sine-wave voltage is the average of all the instantaneous
values in either the positive or negative half cycle.
       When speaking of a-c voltage, we not only speak in
terms of average voltage, but also in terms of effective
voltage unless otherwise specified. Effective voltage is
sometimes called the rms voltage; rms means root-mean-
square. The magnitude of change or the distance between
the horizontal axis (or the zero voltage level) and the
maximum positive or negative swing represents the peak
voltage. Still another term used in connection with a-c
voltage is peak-to-peak, or the distance between the
maximum positive swing and the maximum negative swing.

Notes:

   1. with respect to - по отношению к
   2. unless otherwise specified - если не указывается
      какое-либо другое значение напряжения
   3. rms (root-mean-square) - среднее квадратичное
      значение


                     WAVE MOTION



                             24
        Anything that can be heard is a sound. There are
high-pitched sounds and low-pitched sounds. Sounds also
vary in loudness (amplitude) from soft to loud. If you take
hold of one end of a rope and whip it up and down, waves
form and pass along the rope to the other end. The tuning
fork vibrating in the air is generating a sound wave. The
sound wave causes the air to be alternately compressed and
rarefied (expanded). The forward and backward vibration of
the tuning fork forms a type of wave pattern called a sine
wave. A sine wave has forms a type of wave pattern called a
sine wave. A sine wave has peaks and valleys. A form of
energy in motion that consists of repeated peaks and valleys
is called a wave motion. Sound is a form of wave motion
that can be heard. A sound wave is a form of sine wave.
Sine wave represents a form of distribution of energy not
only of sound waves but also of radio and light waves. They
are also used to represent alternating current and voltage.
The type of electricity in which the flow of electrons
changes direction (flows back and forth) is called alternating
current (a. c.). The electricity used in our homes is called
60-cycles a. c. because the electrons move back and forth 60
times per second.
        Each repetition of a wave motion is called cycle. A
new cycle begins every time the wave repeats. A sound
wave is a series of many cycles. The length of one cycle is
measured from peak to the next peak. The length of a wave
is straight-line distance from peak to peak. The number of
times per second that a given wave repeats its cycle is called
frequency. Frequency is measured in cycles per second.

Notes:
    1. high-pitched sounds - звуки высокой частоты
    2. low-pitched sounds - звуки низкой частоты
    3. tuning fork - камертон

                             25
        AUDIO AND RADIO FREQUENCIES
        Sound waves travel in air at 1,100 feet per second in
all directions from a source. Radio waves travel 186,000
miles per second in all directions from source. 186,000
miles per second is the velocity (speed) of light. Radio
waves travel at the speed of light (300,000,000 meters per
second). Lightning and thunder are produced from the same
source. But since light travels faster than sound you
generally hear the thunder after you see the light.
        The human ear can hear sounds from about 20 cps to
20,000 cps. This is called the audio-frequency range (audio
is the Latin word for hear).
        Very high radio frequencies are measured in
megacycles. A megacycle is 1,000,000 cps.
        The frequency is related to wavelength by the
formula:




    where λ is the symbol for wavelength.
       Radio waves alone cannot be used for transmitting
voice communication because radio frequencies (r. f.)
cannot be heard. Radio waves cannot be heard, but they
travel a great distance easily. Sound waves travel relatively
a short distance.
       Two principal means of human communication a
sound wave is first converted to an electrical audio-
frequency (a-f) wave and then combined with an r-f wave so
that the audio signal ―rides‖ the r-f wave. Thus, r-f wave is
called a carrier. The process of combining a-f and r-f wave.
Thus, r-f wave is called a carrier. The process of combining
a-f and r-f signals is called modulation.


                             26
Notes:

   1. cps=cycle per second - единица частоты,
      показывающая число периодов в секунду, герц

   2.                   λ equals to the ratio, dash, velocity
         divided by frequency.



           THE RADIO COMMUNICATION
                   SYSTEM
        The modulation of r-f waves by a-f waves made
modern radio broadcasting possible. A broadcast transmitter
combines a-f and r-f waves; the transmitter antenna radiates
(sends out) the modulated carrier wave. Antennas are used
for receiving as well as for transmitting r-f signals. A
broadcast-studio microphone converts sound waves to
electrical waves. Sound waves may originate with the voice.
When we speak we produce audible sound waves is called a
speaker. The a-f electrical wave (a-f signal) from the
microphone is amplified in the audio amplifier of the
transmitter to increase the amplitude of the a-f signal.
        The r-f carrier wave in a transmitter is generated by
an r-f oscillator. The oscillator r-f output is not modulated.
The last part of the radio transmitter is the transmitting
antenna; the first part of a radio receiver is the receiving
antenna. Radio frequencies are produced by electron tubes
(or transistors) in conjunction with             many other
components. A r-f tuner is a device in a radio receiver that
can select (tune in) one r-f carrier wave at a time and reject
(tune out) r-f carrier waves of other frequencies. Although
oscillators can also be used to generate audio frequencies, in

                              27
radio transmitters they are used to produce radio
frequencies. Transmitting antennas send and receiving
antennas receive modulated r-f carrier waves. Although the
symbols for the transmitting and the receiving antennas are
identical, their functions are different. The device that
separates the audio signal from the modulated r. f. in the
radio receiver is called the detector.

Notes:
   1. in conjunction with - в соединении с
   2. tune in - избрать, выделить
   3. tune out - отклонить

        THE NATURE OF RADIO SIGNALS
       The transmitter signals are always in the form of
electromagnetic waves with ocean waves. In the case of
ocean waves we have a certain variable quantity, the height
of the water level, whose magnitude differs from place to
place and which undergoes certain periodic variations in
time: at any given point, the water level periodically rises
and falls. Similarly, in the case of electromagnetic waves,
there is a certain variable quantity whose magnitude differs
from place to place to place and which undergoes periodic
fluctuations. This quantity is strength of electromagnetic
field. The existence of electromagnetic fields is a fact of
nature. The term ―field‖ in this context simply means a
region in space in which under certain conditions certain
things will happen. In case of the ocean waves there is a
certain relation between the length of the waves, their speed
and their frequency, which also exists for electromagnetic
waves and which is quite fundamental in radio. Let us
assume, that we have a train of exactly similar ocean
waves. These waves have a length (measured from wave-

                             28
top to wave-top) and they travel the path of the length l with
a velocity v. Now let us think of just one definite point in
the ocean. How many waves will pass that point in each
second? If v is measured in metres per second and l in
metres, the answer is . This number of waves passing the
point per second is called the frequency of the waves. If
the frequency is f, we have therefore




       This relation also holds for radio waves and here the
matter is further simplified by the fact that all radio waves
travel with the same velocity; this velocity is the same as
that of light (which also consists of electromagnetic waves)
:300,000,000 metres per second. If, therefore, we measure
the length of radio waves in metres, we have the simple
relation that wavelength frequency = 300,000,000.
       For instance, if we know that the transmitter sends
out radio waves which have a length of 150 metres, we can
calculate from this relation that these waves have a
frequency of 2,000,000 waves per second. Actually, the
term ―waves per second‖ is not used in radio engineering.
Instead one speaks of cycles per second or cps. And since
the frequency often runs into rather large number, a further
unit has become established, the megacycle per second or
Mcps. 1 megacycle per second = 1,000,000 cycle per
second. In the above example, therefore, we have a
frequency of 2 Mcps.
       A transmitter may send out waves in which it is
possible to distinguish more than one kind of wavelength
and frequency.




                             29
Notes:

   1. a train of exactly similar ocean waves - поток
      совершенно одинаковых волн в океане
   2. This relation also holds for - Это соотношение
      также справедливо для
   3. Instead one speaks - Вместо этого говорят
   4. the frequency often runs into - частота нередко
      доходит до



                  HISTORY OF RADAR
        In 1925 Edward Appleton used a system of radio
waves in an experiment to demonstrate the existence of the
Heaviside layer in the atmosphere, and the history of radar
may be said to have begun. Then a somewhat different
method was found by two American scientists, who sent
short, sharp pulses of radio-frequency energy towards and
caught them reflected as echoes. In this country, a team of
scientists developed these methods of atmospheric layer
detection into a system for the detection of smaller objects,
and as early as 1935 they succeeded radar system.
        Principles of Radar. Basically, radar employs very
short electromagnetic waves and utilizes the principle that
these waves can be beamed, that they travel at a different
speed in a straight line, and that they will be reflected by
any conductor they may meet. A beam of radio-frequency
energy is directed over some given area in search of targets,
by means of a highly directional aerial. If the beam strikes a
target a small portion of the reflected energy travels back in
the direction of the transmitter. A sensitive receiver, capable
of detecting this reflected energy, is arranged in the vicinity

                              30
of the transmitter, together with some time-measuring
device capable of measuring the extremely short periods of
time elapsing between transmission of energy and reception
of echoes. Range, bearing and elevation of the target may
then be obtained. Range of distance is proportional to the
time interval, measured from the instant at which the
returning echo is received. The bearing of the target is
indicated by the angle through which the aerial must be
rotated, in order that the centre of the beam may face the
target. Elevation of the airborne target can be obtained by
measuring the angle through which the aerial must be titled
in order that the centre of the beam may face the target.

Notes:

    1. Heaviside layer - специальное название
       атмосферного слоя
    2. in the vicinity of - в непосредственной близости от
    3. time-measuring device - прибор, измеряющий
       время
    4. bearing and elevation of the target - курс и высота
       цели
    5. in order that - с тем, чтобы



              HISTORY OF TELEVISION
       Television is, of course, an art involving the practical
application of scientific principles and, in common with
other arts of this kind, it is not possible to specify a point in
time when television began, especially as many of the
essential principles utilized in television are of much wider
application.

                               31
        Historical Development. The year 1873 is usually
taken as the first significant date in the history of television.
In that year an operator named May at a submarine-
telegraph station in Ireland noticed a slight inconsistency in
the selenium resistors of his testing apparatus and from this
proved that the resistance of selenium changes according to
the amount of light falling on it. Scientists in many parts of
the world saw in this the key to the transmission of picture,
but in point of fact virtually no practical progress was
achieved for more than a decade.
        Early Forms of Scanning. Clearly it was essential to
break up scene into a number of small areas or ―picture
elements‖ and to transmit information about the brightness
of each individually. For a picture with any reasonable
amount of details the number of elements is large, and it is
not practicable to use so many separate wires of radio
circuits for the purpose. The solution was to send the
information about the individual elements one after another
over a single circuit and to build up the picture at the
receiving end. This process is called ―scanning‖ and in 1884
a practical means of scanning was invented by Nipkow, who
used a rotating disc pierced with a row of small holes in a
spiral pattern, arranged in such a manner that the scene was
effectively divided into a number of narrow strips and each
strip was explored sequentially. The shortcoming of this
system was its dependence on rotating parts for the actual
scanning process, and the amount of details that could be
transmitted as well. Every attempt to improve the system
beyond a certain point demanded rotational speeds that were
at the time quite impracticable, although system using
scanning disc rotating in evocated chambers, rotating
mirror-drums and other complicated variations were tried
and indeed achieved a considerable degree of success. But
this all occurred much later, as at the time of the

                               32
introduction of the Nipkow disc the radio valve had not been
introduced.

Notes:

     1. in common with other arts - зд. наряду с другими
        видами искусства
     2. picture elements - элементы «картинки»
     3. at the time - зд. в те времена




         COMPUTERS AND COMPONENTS
       The earliest form of a digital computer is the abacus.
This simple, yet effective, digital machine finds mention in
History as being used by the Egyptians as early as 450 B. C.
In the form used then it consisted of a grooved clay board
which used round pebbles in the grooves. Historical
evidence indicates crude types of the abacus have been
employed some centuries preceding its use by the
Egyptians, later, modified forms of the early abacus
appearing in Japan, China, and other countries, and
consisted of a wood frame with wires or rods on which
wood beads were strung. Each group of beads represents a
―place‖ in the decimal system, such as tens, hundreds,
thousands, etc. The abacus is still in use in China and Japan,
and a skilled operator can compete in noteworthy fashion
even with a modern desk type calculator with respect to
speed in the common forms of addition, multiplication, etc.
The basic of a modern digital computer consists of input
device for entering the information and calculation

                             33
processes into the computer, storage device for retaining
information, control section which operates the computer
according to the instructions placed into the device, the
arithmetic section where calculations are performed, and
output device which produces the result of the calculations
and processes. In addition, a power supply unit furnishes the
necessary voltage and current for the various circuits. The
sequence of instructions is placed into storage initially, in
addition to the figures, numbers, and other data to be used in
the calculations. The control section will then act on the
instructions in storage by channeling the stored numbers to
the respective parts of the arithmetic section. Once the
calculation has been completed, the control section will
either store the result of the calculations or will channel it to
the output device in accordance with the instructions which
have been stored initially.

Notes:

    1. have been employed some centuries preceding its
       use - применялись за несколько столетий до того,
       как ими стали пользоваться
    2. can compete in noteworthy fashion - зд. может
       довольно успешно соревноваться
    3. Once - зд. Как только




             ABOUT OUR DEPARTMENT

       Rapid development of information technologies
influenced the creation of our department in 1997. It's not
a secret, mat today by applying to any highly paid job

                               34
special attention is paid to computer skills and information
technologies. Nowadays small businesses and larger
companies are creating their own computer networks thus
entering the Internet famous community and sometimes
winning the world through their own Web-sites. But still
there is a limited number of experts in designing and
servicing     networks.     Web-designers      and    system
programmers and they are in great demand. The services in
training specialists of these popular occupations are offered
today by Department of Information Technologies and
Information Management of Regional Management Center
at PSTU The more detailed information about training
courses is given in section Products, services, prices. There
is a number of courses with various periods of training,
taking into account different levels of students' background.
We offer short-term improvement of professional skills,
professional retraining with a period either a year and a
half or two years (it means granting the state diploma on
higher education). There are different forms of
training: evening courses, correspondence and half-
correspondence courses. All students receive methodical
manuals and State Certificate at the end of a course or in
case of a two-year-course -Diploma on professional
retraining. Modem computer equipment, wide range of
educational programs and methodical materials designed
by our department are used during the educational process.
All the computers have access to the Internet. Short-term
training is carried on PC and for the most successful
training the multimedia tools are used. Two-year-courses


                             35
include theoretical disciplines and practical studies.
Practical studies take place in the classes equipped with
modem projecting and computer equipment and on-line
with me Internet. The education is carried on by
experienced teachers: doctors of technical sciences, senior
lecturers, specialists of Microsoft Novell and IBM.
     Due to a small number of students in each group and
immediate access to PC for everybody, any student is
given teachers' attention and will receive the reply to any
question.

          COMMUNICATION SATELLITE
                SYSTEMS

     In the light of the present limited knowledge and
practical experience of the many factors involved, it is not
possible, at this stage, to define the form of global system
which may eventually be developed. However, it would
appear from the foregoing considerations that there would
be merit in the further study of a system in which 12 active,
station-keeping satellites are established in a circular
equatorial west-east orbit at 14000 km height. The actual
orbital period is assumed to be adjusted accurately to 8h,
each satellite being seen by an observer on Earth twice per
day at the same local times each day (although each satellite
would complete three orbits per day, the rotation of the
Earth would result in there being two passes per day). By
using a high-precision launching technique and control jets
on the satellites, it would appear that errors in angular
separation of the satellites need not exceed a few degrees
over periods of several years.
    The number of satellites (12) required in such a system

                             36
depends on the longest distances to be spanned by a single
satellite link, e. g. Europe to N. America.
     It is envisaged that the worldwide coverage of the
system could be divided into seven overlapping zones, each
spanning up to some 70 degrees of longitude and up to
about 4-5 hours of local time. All stations in a given zone
would use the same satellite at the same time, the period of
use, one hour, of that satellite being denoted by an "active
arc" for that zone. All stations within a zone would thus be
in single-hop communication with each other, zone-to-zone
communication being carried out via interconnection Earth
stations. Most international connections could be established
via not more than two satellite links and one
interconnection Earth station.
     It is noted that the zoning principle would also be useful
for television relaying, since each zone, of some 4 - 5 h time
difference, corresponds approximately to a convenient
maximum difference of time which could normally be
accommodated for live television broadcasts. Each zone
could, if desired, transmit different television programmes:
on the other hand, worldwide television links would be
possible via interconnection earth stations.
    A useful feature of such a system is that it would offer a
measure of redundancy which could be utilized, if
necessary, to provide partial but immediate compensation
for the failure of one or more satellites. As a faulty satellite
passes over each zone, many of the circuits within that zone
could continue to operate by using adjacent satellites whilst
they are traversing those parts of the orbit not normally
regarded as active.
    The choice of an orbital period precisely one third of 24
hours, corresponding to two passes per day at the same
local time day by day, would be operationally convenient
for the following reasons:

                              37
(a) when partial coverage is acceptable, e. g. in the initial
    stages of setting-up a system; such partial
    coverage would be available at fixed times of the
    day, e. g. for periods of peak traffic;
(b) additional satellites could be injected into a fully
    equipped system to cover peak-traffic periods
    over specific areas of the world, e. g. over the
    transatlantic path;
(c) breaks in transmission due to the failure of a satellite
    would occur at the same time each day
    instead of at different times, thus facilitating the
    rescheduling of traffic;
(d) the useful periods for each satellite and pair of co-
    operating Earth stations would occur at the
    same time each day, thus facilitating regular hour-
    by-hour automatic switching from satellite-to
    satellite.




                           38
PART III

         EVERYONE A PROGRAMMER

       The biggest, promise of the Information Age is the
great and still unrealized potential of tailoring information
technology to individual human needs. Today's applications
programs are like ready-made clothes-one size fits all. So
most are ill-fitting,, and we have to contort ourselves to
improve the fit. Another potential outcome of this practice
for business is that if every company used the same set of
canned programs, they would follow more or less the same
procedures, and no company would stand out against the
competition. Shrink-wrapped, ready-made software is good
enough for the state of information technology at the end of
the twentieth century. But it won't be as good in tomorrow's
information marketplace.

        Great gains will be achieved when individuals and
businesses can bend and fashion information tools to do
exactly what they want them to do, rather than beading
themselves to what the tools can do. This quest for
customizable information tools with specialized knowledge
will be no different than the current trend toward customized
manufacturing. It could well be that by the close of the
twenty-first century, a new form of truly, accessible
programming will be the province of everyone and will be
viewed like writing which was once the province of the
ancient scribes but eventually , became universally
accessible.

       This isn't as absurd as it sounds We invented writing
so that we could communicate better with one another.
Tomorrow we'll need to communicate better with our

                             39
electronic assistants, so we'll extend our «club» to include
them as well. Everyone will then be a «programmer, not
just the privileged few. And none of them will be conscious
of it. In fact, this is already happening on a small scale
among the millions of people who use spreadsheets and
who would be very surprised to learn that they are
programmers.

        When I say people will program, I am not talking
about writing the detailed code and instructions that make
computers run. That will still constitute the bulk of a software
program and will indeed be created by professional
programmers, who will fashion the many larger building
blocks mat we will use. Each individual's «programming»
will account for a very small fraction of the software code,
maybe 1 percent. But it will be the crucial factor that gives
the program its specificity It will be like building a model
railroad; you don't make all the track or engines or car, but
you do arrange the pieces to create your own custom railway
patterns.

        We can increase the usefulness of our machines in
the emerging information marketplace by correcting
current human-machine faults, by developing automatization
tools, and by creating a new breed of gentle-slope software
systems that understand specialized areas of human activity -
and that, can be easily customized by ordinary people to meet
their needs. Pursuing these directions should get us going on
our quest, which I expect will last, well into the twenty-first
century, to harness the new technologies of information for
the fulfillment of ancient human purposes.

       .


                              40
            HERCULES FORTISSIMO III
        A very nice audio card currently being sold is the
Hercules Fortissimo III which has generally received good
reviews and is priced very competitively at $49.99 list. The
Fortissimo III was one of the first add-on audio cards to
support 7.1 digital audio (8 speaker channels) and has been
available since last August. It is built around a Crystal CS
4624 SoundFusion chipset for which OS/2 drivers have been
available since June, 2000. Naturally, I was interested in just
how well this card would work with an OS/2 system.

        I obtained the card from my local CompUSA and and
brought it home for testing. After unpack aging it, the first
thing you notice about the actual card are the 6 outlet jacks on
the back of the card for "front out," "surround out",
"center/LFE," "headphones/7&8", "mic in." and "line in."
That is 3 more jacks than my old Aureal 8820-based PCI
sound card had.

        Installation of the card on OS/2 was relatively simple.
After placing it in an open PCI slot, the system powered up
properly and recognized the new card without problems. The
boot to OS/2 proceeded normally. The Crystal OS/2 v3.11
drivers obtained from Hobbes (file "CWOS2311 .ZIP")
installed easily using the standard "MINSTALL" multimedia
driver installer and the config.sys file was automatically
updated with the necessary lines for the drivers. After a
reboot, the OS/2 system sounds worked properly and the
sound quality seemed pretty good. There were no IRQ or
resource problems although the address for another PCI card
had changed slightly due to the addition of the Fortissimo III.
One small negative was that the Crystal audio devices do not
appear in the OS/2 "Hardware Manager" as most other OS/2

                              41
PCI sound device drivers do. They don't even show up with
the command-prompt 'RMVIEW" utility. Fortunately, this is
not necessary but it would be helpful to users if they
appeared. Crystal OS/2 drivers are notable for their support of
sound in Win-OS2 and DOS and the CS4624 drivers are no
exception. The DOS sound worked properly for the "Red
Baron" DOS game using the 'Adlib Music Synthesizer'
selection and the Win-OS2 'ta-da' sounds popped out at the
right times.

        Next, I tried playing some MP3 files with WarpAmp.
WarpAmp showed the Crystal PCI sound device listed in its
'settings' menu and began playing MP3s on command. The
sound quality was very good and sounded as good, or better,
as my old Aureal 8820-based sound card. High frequencies
were particularly clear and sharp. Next, I tried performance
with RealPlayer 8 running under Odin (the 6 December 2002
Odin release) and clicked on some Video' links on the BBC
website. These played okay and the sound and video were in
synch but the sound quality was slightly gravelly, although
easily understandable. Clicking on the RealPlayer 8
'preferences' (under the View' menu) and then selecting the
'performance' and 'sound card compatibility' tabs brought up
a radio buttom option for 'Disable Custom Sampling Rates'.
Clicking on this button, then saving and restarting, improved
the sound quality to a very acceptable performance that was
comparable to the Aureal card.

        The .MID midi files would play on the Fortissimo III
with the OS/2 driver, although the mixing of the sound
components was not as good as the Aureal card. Depending
on your file, you might hear more of the glockenspiel than
you really wanted to hear and less of another sound. The .MID
files provided with the base OS/2 install generally played

                              42
okay.

       Digital sound recording using the OS/2 'Digital
Sound' application worked very well. Sound quality was
good and all of the sound recording options were available
and seemed to work properly.

        The Fortissimo III supports 8 speaker channels but the
OS/2 drivers provide output for only 4 speaker channels via
the 'Front Out' and the 7&81 jacks. Volume control works for
all 4 channels. There is also a digital optical output S/PDIF
jack that was not tested.

        The most recent OS/2 drivers for the CS 4624 chipset
on the Cirrus website are only v3.06. Downloading and
testing these older drivers found several serious problems that
have been apparently fixed with the v3.11 drivers on Hobbes.
The v3.06 drivers had an initialization problem where the
playback tempo would occasionally speed up for mp3 songs
in a playlist. Sound in Realplayer 8 would network with these
drivers and would come through in garbled little soundbites
rather than a smooth play as it did with the newer v3.11
drivers. There were also v3.08 drivers on Hobbes that would
not load for the Fortissimo III. If you get the Fortissimo III
card, be sure you use the v3.11 drivers.

       The Fortissimo III with the v3.11 OS/2 drivers
provides a good all-around sound option for OS/2 that I
would recommend. It manages to do everything sound-related
in OS/2 very competently including DOS, Win-OS2, and
wave sound.




                              43
                      ABSTRACT

         This article presents an overview of high-rate
wireless personal area networks, its targeted applications,
and a technical overview of medium access control and
physical layers, and system performance. The high-rate
WPANs operate in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz band at data
rates up to 55 Mb/s that are commensurate with distribution
of high-definition video and high-fidelity audio. An industry
effort to create a MAC and PHY layer standard specification
for high-rate WPANs has been ongoing in the IEEE
802.15.3 High Rate WPAN Task Group.

                      Introduction

        Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) enable
short-range ad hoc connectivity among portable consumer
electronics and communications devices. The coverage area
for a WPAN is generally within a 10 m radius. The term ad
hoc connectivity refers to both the ability for a device to
assume either master or slave functionality, and the ease in
which devices may join or leave an existing network.
Bluetooth radio system [1] has emerged as the first
technology addressing WPAN applications with its salient
features of low power consumption, small package size, and
low cost. Data rates for Bluetooth devices are limited to 1
Mb/s, although actual throughput is about half this data rate.
A Bluetooth communication link also supports up to three
voice channels with very limited or no additional bandwidth
for bursty data traffic.
        The next wave of portable consumer electronics and

                             44
communications devices will support multimedia traffic that
requires high data rates (high-rate). Applications include
high-quality video and audio distribution, and
multimegabyte file transfers for music and image files.
Figure 1 illustrates a few example devices in a high-rate
WPAN that include digital camcorders and TVs, digital
cameras, MP3 players, printers, projectors, and laptops. In
addition, the high-rate WPANs may find compelling
applications as a cable replacement technology for home
entertainment systems capable of high-definition video and
high-fidelity sound, and DVD or high-quality graphics-
based interactive games with multiple consoles and virtual
reality goggles. The need for communications between these
multimedia-capable devices leads to peer-to-peer ad hoc
type connections that warrant data rates well in excess of 20
Mb/s and quality of service (QoS) provisions with respect to
guaranteed bandwidth. To accommodate the required
physical (PHY) layer data rates and medium access control
(MAC) layer QoS requirements, the IEEE 802.15 WPAN
Working Group initiated a new group, the 802.15.3 High-
Rate WPAN Task Group. The IEEE 802.15.3 Task Group
has been chartered with creating a high-rate WPAN standard
that provides for low-power low-cost short-range solutions
targeted to consumer digital imaging and multimedia
applications. The final version of the IEEE 802.15.3 high-
rate WPAN standard is expected to be approved in 2002.
The MAC and PHY layer descriptions presented in this
article only reflect the ongoing work based on the draft
Version of the standard[2].
    There are several alternative wireless local area network
(LAN) technologies, such as IEEE 802.1 la, b and
HiperLAN, that are also targeting the use of unlicensed
spectrum at 2.4 and 5 GHz bands. Compared to existing
wireless LAN systems, the 802.15.3 high-rate WPAN.

                             45
technology possesses desirable features suited for portable
communications and electronics devices and their
applications. The salient characteristics of the IEEE
802.15.3 high-rate WPAN standard are:
     Ability to form ad hoc connections withQoS support
       for multimedia traffic
     Ease of joining and leaving an existing net work
     Advanced power management to save bat tery power
     Low-cost and -complexity MAC and PHY
       implementations optimized for short-range (less than
       10 m) communications
     Support for high-speed data rates, up to 55 Mb/s, for
       video and high-quality audio transmissions

   MICROPROCESSOR INSTRUCTION SET AND
          COMPUTER LANGUAGES

   1. Microprocessors recognize and operate in binary
      numbers. However, each microprocessor has its own
      binary words, meanings, and language. The words
      are formed by combining a number of bits for a
      given machine. The word (or word length) is defined
      as the number of bits the microprocessor recognizes
      and processes at a time. The word length ranges
      from four bits for small, microprocessor-based
      systems to 64 bits for high-speed large computers.
      Another term commonly used to express word length
      is byte. A byte is defined as a group of eight bits. For
      example, a 16-bit microprocessor has a word length
      equal two bytes. The term nibble, which stands for a
      group of four bits, is found also in popular computer
      magazines and books. A byte has two nibbles.
   2. Each machine has its own set of instructions based
      on the design of its CPU or of microprocessor. To

                             46
   communicate with the computer, one must give
   instructions in binary language (machine language).
   Because it is difficult for most people to write
   programs sets of Os and 1 s, computer manufacturers
   have devised English-like words to represents birfary
   instructions of a machine. Programmers can write
   programs, called assembly language programs, using
   these words. Because an assembly language is
   specific to a given machine, programs written in
   assembly language are not transferable from one
   machine another. To circumvent this limitation, such
   general-purpose languages as BASIC and
   FORTRAN have been devised; a program written in
   these languages can be machine-independent. These
   languages are called high-level languages. This
   section deals with various aspects of these three
   types of languages; machine, assembly, and high-
   level. The machine and assembly languages are
   discussed in the context of the 8085 microprocessor.


             Machine Language
3. The number of bits in a word for a given machine is
   fixed, and words are formed through various
   combinations of these bits. For example, a machine
   with a word length of eight bits can have 256 (28)
   combinations of eight bits—thus a language of 256
   words. However, not all of these words need to be
   used in the machine. The microprocessor design
   engineer selects combinations of bit patterns and
   gives a specific meaning to each combination by
   using electronic logic circuits; this is called an
   instruction. Intimations are made up of one word or

                        47
    several words. The set of instructions designed into
    the machine makes up its machine language—a
    binary language, composed of Os and 1 s—that is
    specific to each computer. In this book, we are
    concerned with the language of a widely used
    microprocessor, the 8085, manufactured by Intel
    Corporation. The primary focus here is on the
    microprocessor    because     the    microprocessor
    determines the machine language and the operations
    of a microprocessors-based system.

 4. The 8085 is a microprocessor with 8-bit word length:
    its instruction set (or language) is designed by using
    various combinations of these eight bits. The 8085 is
    an improved version of the earlier processor 8080A.

MICROCOMPUTERS, MICROPROCESSORS, AND
        ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE

 5. An instruction is a binary pattern entered through an
    input device to command the microprocessor to
    perform that specific function.

 6. The 8085 microprocessor has 246 such bit patterns,
    amounting to 74 different instructions for performing
    various operations. These 74 different instructions
    are called its instruction set. In addition to the
    instruction set, the microprocessor also accepts data
    in eight bits as input from input devices, and sends
    out data in eight bits to output devices. This binary
    language of communication with a predetermined
    instruction set is called the 8085 machine language.
    Because it is tedious and error-inductive for people
    to recognize and write instructions in binary

                          48
       language, these instructions are, for convenience,
       written in hexadecimal code and entered in a single-
       board microcomputer by using Hex keys. For
       example, the binary instruction 0011 1100
       (mentioned previously) is equivalent to 3C in
       hexadecimal. This instruction can be entered in a
       single-board microcomputer system with a Hex
       keyboard by pressing two keys: 3 and C. The
       monitor program of the system translates these keys
       into their equivalent binary pattern.

             WHAT IS А MICROPROCESSOR?
       А microprocessor is the central arithmetic and logic
unit of, а computer, together with its associated circuitry,
scaled down so that. Д, fits on а single silicon chip
(sometimes several chips) holding of thousands of
transistors, resistors and similar circuit elements. *It is а
member of the family of large-scale integrated circuits
that reflect the present state of evolution of а
miniaturization process that began with the development
of the transistor in the late 1940's. *А typical
microprocessor chip measures half а centimeter on а side.
By adding anywhere from 10 to 80 chips to provide
timing, program memory, random-access memory,
interfaces for input and output signals and other ancillary
functions one can assemble а complete computer system
on а board whose area does not exceed the size of this
page. Such an assembly is а microcomputer, in which the
microprocessor serves as the master component. The
number of applications for micro- processors is
proliferating daily in industry, in banking; in power
generation and distribution, in telecommunications and in
scores of consumer products ranging from automobiles to
electronic games.

                              49
       As in the central processing unit, or CPU, of а
larger computer, the task of the microprocessor is to
receive data in the form of strings of binary digits (0's and
1's), to store the data for later processing, to perform
arithmetic and logic operations on the data in accordance
with previously stored instructions and to deliver the
results to the user through an output mechanism such as
an electric typewriter, а cathode ray-tube display or а two-
dimensional plotter. А typical microprocessor would
consist of the following units: а decode and control unit
(to interpret instructions from the stored program), the
arithmetic and logic unit, or ALU (to perform arithmetic
and logic operations), registers (to serve as an easily
accessible memory for data frequently manipulated), an
accumulator (а special register closely associated with the
ALU), address buffers (to supply the control memory with
the address from which to fetch the next instruction) and
input- output buffers (to read instructions or data into the
micro- processor or to send them out).
    *Present microprocessors vary in their detailed
architecture depending on their manufacture and in some
cases on the particular semiconductor technology adopted.
One of the major distinctions is whether all the elements of
the microprocessor are divided among several identical
modular chips that can be linked in parallel, the total
number of chips depending on the length of the "word" the
user wants to process: four bits (binary digits), eight bits,
16 bits or more. Such а multichip arrangement known as а
bit-sliced organization. А feature of bit-sliced chips made
by the bipolar technology is that they are
"microprogrammable": they allow the user to create
specific sets of instructions, а definite advantage for тапу
applications. *


                             50
                CLASSIFICATION OF
               MICROPROCESSORS
   The flood of microprocessors and microcomputers
reaching.the market, combined with the rapid rate of
innovation, guarantees that any attempt to catalogue them
will be instantly obsolete. А more fruitful introduction to
the "micro" market-place is to classify systems
hierarchically according to their . capability and function.
Along these two dimensions there is а well-defined
upward progression in both hardware and software. In
hardware the levels are chips, modules, "bread- board"
systems, small computer systems-, full-development
systems and multiprocessor systems.
   This hierarchy is not absolute because the evolving
technology creates ever more powerful chips, some of
which can bridge two or three hierarchic levels. Chips are
used to construct а module, modules to construct а small
computer system (SCS) and small computers to construct
а full-development system (FDS). Multiprocessor systems
can incorporate modules, SCS's or FDS's, depending on
the application and complexity.
   At the first level of the hierarchy are the
microprocessor chips, representing the large-scale
integration of tens of thou- sands of individual electronic
devices: transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors. At
this level there are also more specialized chips: random-
access memories (RAM's), read-only memories (ROM's),
programmable read-only memories
(PROM's), input-output (I/O) interfaces and others. The
  cutting edge of the technology works
most directly at the chip level, providing, for example,
  RAM's of ever higher storage capacity.
                             51
(Currently the most advanced commercially avail- able
  КАМ can store 16,384 bits: within а
year or two the maximum storage capacity will be 64,536
  bits.)
      Generally the various kinds of chips are grouped into
  families that are compatible with
particular microprocessors. The families will include а
series of RAN, RON and PROM chips to create а memory
system, а series of interface chips capable of handling both
parallel and serial input-output functions and miscellaneous
chips to enhance system capabilities, such as high-speed
arithmetic operations. Master-control chips are needed to
establish priorities and to keep signals flowing smoothly
through the complex maze of interconnections. The
compatibility of chips and chip families made by different
manufacturers varies widely.

         USES AND APPLICATIONS OF
            MICROPROCESSORS
        The uses and applications of microcomputers appear,
   at,' present; to fall somewhere between discrete logic, on
   the one hand, and minicomputers, on the other. The
   microprocessor fills the large gap between discrete
   circuits and the relatively sophisticated minicomputer.
       The microprocessor also fills the cost gap between
   discrete circuits.
       Because of its relatively low cost and flexibility, the
   microsystem has an abundance of
applications in the home and small business environment. It
fills the needs of small manufacturers who cannot afford, or
do not need, large computer systems.
       Some of the present applications which have already
   found their way into the market place are:

                             52
     — Video TV games;
     — Intelligent computer terminals;
     — Process controllers;
     — Telephone switching controls;
     — Programmable household appliances;
     — Computerized automotive electronic systems.
     Computers are being used as part of the educational
  process, and guidance and control
computers have made possible space exploration
and automated factories.
     Microprocessor can also be expanded to serve
  specialized control functions in the area of
industrial tools and machinery.           Because they are
programmable logic systems, they can be adapted to serve а
variety of job functions each of which previously required
individually designed circuits. The low cost of production
makes them extremely attractive.
      *It is perhaps this hardware/software trade that makes
  the impact of the microprocessor so
great. Entirely different circuit functions can now be
accomplished with the same hard-ware by means of а
different set of program instructions. The microprocessor is
recognized as the device which finally           unites two
previously separate areas: that of the hardware j designer
and the programmer.



           APPLICATION OF MICROPROCESSORS

     The applications of microprocessors are so numerous
 that it is hard to visualize any aspect of contemporary
 life that will escape its impact.

                            53
    Modern jet aircraft depends on а variety of
sophisticated microprocessor systems for navigation,
communication, passenger comfort and safety, engine
control and control of aero- dynamic surfaces.
    Automobiles include microprocessors both for emission
control and for optimizing engine adjustments to improve
gasoline mileage. Microprocessors will also be connected
to safety devices, such as sensors to prevent skidding on
wet or icy surfaces.
     In business offices among the first applications of
microprocessors will involve the distribution and control
of information. Desk-sized computers will become nearly
as common as typewriters. They will handle small,
specialized data bases appropriate to each person' s job as
well as accounting information and personnel data. The
transfer of typewritten documents between offices will be
largely replaced by electronic memorandums relayed
through the office computer system.
     In industry microprocessors are now used for such
 diverse tasks as machine-tool control and remote
 monitoring of oil fields. Microcomputers will also make
 possible а new generation of "intelligent" robot arms and
 hands capable of factory assembly operations heretofore
 too complex for mechanization.
     In the home microprocessors have already appeared
 in а host of video games and such household appliances
 as micro- wave ovens and food blenders. They will
 rapidly be extended to temperature controls,
 refrigerators, telephones, solar energy systems and to
 fire and burglary alarm systems.




                           54
                 PERSONAL СОМРUTER
    There has been talk of а "computer revolution" ever since
the electronics industry learned in the late 1950s to inscribe
miniature electronic circuits on а chip of silicon. What has
been witnessed so far has been а steady, remarkably speedy
evolution. With the proliferation of personal computers,
however, the way may indeed be open for а true revolution
in how business is conducted, in how people organize their
personal affairs perhaps even in how people think.
    А personal computer is а small computer based on а
micro-processor; it is а microcomputer. Not all
microcomputers, however, are personal computers. А
microcomputer can be dedicated to а single task such as
controlling а machine tool or metering the injection of fuel
into an automobile engine; it can be а word processor, а
video game or а "pocket computer" that is not quite a
computer. А personal computer is some-thing different: а
stand alone computer that puts а wide array of capabilities at
the disposal of an individual. А personal computer is
defined as а system that has all the following characteristics:
 1. The price of а complete system should be as low as
 possible.
 2. The system either includes or can be linked to secondary
 memory in he form of cassette tapes or disks.
 3. The microprocessor can support а primary memory
    capacity of 64 kilobytes or more. А 64-kilobyte memory
    can store 65,53Ь characters, or some 10,000 words of
    English text.
 4. The computer can handle at least one high-level
     language, such as Basic, Fortran or Cobol. In а language
     of this kind instructions can be formulated at а fairly
     high level of abstraction and without taking into account
     the detailed operations of the hardware.


                              55
 5. the operating system facilitates an interactive dialogue;
    the computer responds immediately (or at least quickly)
    to the user's actions and requests.
 6. The system is flexible enough to accommodate а wide
    range of programs serving varied applications, it is not
    designed for а single purpose or а single category of
    purchasers.
    The definition will surely change as improved
 technology makes possible the inclusion of more memory
 and of more special hardware and software features in the
 basic system.
    The personal-computer market can be divided into four
 segments: business, home, science and education. The
 business segment is becoming the largest one. The home-
 computer segment utilizes most of the units for recreation
 (primarily for playing video games) but they also serve as
 powerful educational aids for children, as word processors,
 electronic message canters and personal-finance tools. А
 broad range of new applications will be made possible by
 software now under
development.
    Computers intended for scientific and other technical
applications tend to be more powerful than other personal
computers and to have components that facilitate their
being linked to analytical and sensing instruments. The
market is therefore characterized by products with
specialized hardware and an array of specialized programs.
    The education segment is potentially very large.
 Computer assisted instruction involves the student in а
 lively interaction with subject matter in almost any field of
 study and allows the individual to proceed at his own pace.
 The ability to work with а computer is coming to be
 considered а necessary basic skill and even зоне
 programming ability may soon be required in many

                              56
occupations; clearly the place to acquire such skills is in
elementary and secondary school.




                   PCS IN ТНЕ НОМЕ
   At home, personal computers are most often used for
playing video games or for educational activities, for
teaching children.
   Most computers for home use have 4-64 K bytes of
main memory. Additional storage comes in two forms:
cartridges or disks. Because the main memory varies so
much, а home computer that is designed mainly for games
will not be suitable for business or professional use. It does
not have enough memory space for programs that would
perform effectively in an office.
   The basic parts of а personal computer for the home
are а microprocessor and keyboard. There are, however,
several important additional parts, often called peripheral
hardware. There are CRT (cathode-rat tube) screen, а
joystick, а printer, additional disk drives and а modem.
   The basic components, the microprocessor with the
keyboard, may be attached to the home TV screen, which
can be used for output. However, СКТ screen produces а
better video picture that is easier to read. If the computer is
to be used to play video games, а joystick is necessary to
control the movement on the screen. If the software is on
disks, it may be necessary to buy additional disk drives to
mount the disks. It is also possible to buy а printer if the
computer is to be used to print letters or other information.
Last, а modem which attaches the computer to the
telephone can be used. The telephone receiver fits into the


                              57
modem and allows the user to access much information by
dialling the telephone.
   The development of microprocessors has brought
computers into the office and the home where they have
increased productivity and provided new home
entertainments.




                           58
     ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ

         ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ
                  ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ


   Чтение иностранного текста представляет собой сложный
процесс и означает не только владение техникой перевода, но
и способность понимать мысль, выраженную на иностранном
языке. Чтение специальных научных текстов на английском
языке показывает, что для данных текстов характерен
сложный синтаксис, что требует не только специальной
подготовки в плане решения терминологических вопросов,
но и умения грамматически анализировать сложные
предложения.
   Основным приемом полного раскрытия и понимания
смысла     любого      предложения     является   лексики-
грамматический анализ текста, который осуществляется в
процессе грамматического чтения. Грамматическкое чтение
предложения – это членение предложения на отдельные
смысловые группы (смысловая группа – это группа слов,
входящих в одну синтаксическую группу, составляющую
одно из звеньев целого предложения, т.е. группу
подлежащего, сказуемого, обстоятельства и т.д.). При этом
важно раскрыть связь как между отдельными смысловыми
группами, так и      между словами в пределах каждой
смысловой группы.
   Прежде чем приступить к грамматическому чтению
предложения, следует твердо знать порядок слов в
английском утвердительном предложении.
   Связь слов в английском утвердительном предложении
определяется их местом в предложении относительно
сказуемого. Английское утвердительное предложение имеет
следующий порядок слов: первое место относительно

                              59
сказуемого занимает подлежащие, второе место принадлежит
сказуемому, третье место занимает дополнение, нулевое (или
четвертое) занимает обстоятельство. Следует отметить, что
определение не имеет постоянного места в структуре
предложения, оно обычно входит в состав смысловой группы
определяемого слова, располагаясь справа или слева от него.




                              60
                ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ




1. Part I                2-15
2. Part I I              15-35
3. Part III              36-58
4. Приложение            59
,




                    61

				
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