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					International Relations
       Unit 3 Notes
    “A Good Enough England”
       Gilded Age Americans: 1877-1893
    •    Elevated traditional doctrines of non-
         entanglement treaties
    •    More disposed to intervene in their
         own hemisphere and beyond
            Began moving decisively to strengthen
             their position at the expense of potential
             rivals
         “A Good Enough England”
                   (Con’t)
       Technology allowed colonial holdings from
        greater distances
    •        Sped up communications between countries
       Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species
    •        Popularized idea of the survival of the
             strongest
              New rush by Europeans and U.S. for a bigger empire
       Rise of new powers
    •        Germany, Italy, Russia, Japan, China, and
             especially U.S.
              No one grew economically stronger than the U.S.
                 U.S. Changes
       Massive influx of new immigrants from
        all over the world
    •     Helping to sway public opinion and special
          interests
       Distribution of property through the
        Homestead Act in the 1860’s and
        discovers of gold pushed people
        westward
    •     Expansion of the railway system
    •     Lessing willingness for National Government
          to work with Indians
              U.S. Changes (Con’t)
       Economically U.S. grew at a miraculous
        pace
    •        Surpassing Britain in manufacturing output
             by 1900
    •        Still maintained high tariffs to protect
             companies from foreign competition
              Yet Diplomats energetically sought out and
               developed foreign markets for U.S. goods
       Diplomatic
    •        No clear ideology during the Gilded Age
    •        American know-how introduced to Japan
              Including Baseball
             U.S. Changes (Con’t)
       Missionaries
    •    Began setting out to Christianize the
         world
            Often guilty of the worst kind of cultural
             imperialism
    •    Able to spread Americanization and
         open up those markets for American
         goods
             Business Expansion
       After Civil War U.S. became more
        actively involved in International
        politics
    •    First time U.S. had a surplus capital to
         export
            Began investing and exploit mines,
             railroads, oil, etc. around the world
Politicians During Gilded Age
       Paid little time to foreign policy
    •        Generally only concerned with expanding
             foreign markets and increase U.S. influence
             in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific
       Democrats view:
    •        Advocated free trade and opposed
             protectionism
    •        Did not seek to have territorial expansion
              Especially on non-whites
    Politicians During Gilded Age
                 (Con’t)
       Republican view:
    •    Strong Central Government and
         subsidizing economic growth through
         a protective tariff
    •    Some sought territorial expansion and
         imperialism
              Signs of Changes
       The Consular service was upgraded and
        focused toward finding markets
       Army sought to better educate officers
    •     Created an intelligence arm
       President Arthur sought to build a
        modern naval fleet
    •     Created a Naval War College and Office of
          Naval Intelligence
       Completion of the State, War, Navy
        buildings in 1888
          Greatest U.S. Change
       Complex problems in the Gilded
        Age foreign policy was the
        increasing number, size and
        diversity of ethnic groups
    •    Provoked growing internal tensions
         and sparked conflict with other
         countries
    •    To get the U.S. government to defend
         their compatriots from oppression in
         their home countries
    Greatest U.S. Change (Con’t)
       Chinese
    •        Lured to America to perform backbreaking
             work in western industries
              Provoked a vicious nativist backlash in U.S.
    •        In 1879, Congress passed a bill limiting the
             number of Chinese who could come into the
             country
              First of it’s kind in U.S., but many new exclusionary
               acts were passed in following decades
    Greatest U.S. Change (Con’t)
       “Jewish Question”
    •    Russian treatment of Jews created a
         verbal conflict with U.S. government
            Jewish American interest groups
             persuaded the U.S. government to
             intervene in Russian treatment of Jews
        Marvel of U.S. Economy
       Due to Industrialization, exports of
        manufactured goods passed agricultural
        products by 1913
    •        Europe absorbed close to 80% of the total
             U.S. exports by late 1880’s
              Britain First, then Germany and France
       Began raising fears that producing more
        goods than needed would smother the
        “Home” economy
    •        Thus drove politicians to expand and protect
             foreign markets
    Marvel of U.S. Economy (Con’t)
       Expeditions to Korea and Africa
        continued to excite the U.S. public
    •        Attended a conference on Africa in order to
             promote freedom of trade and steer clear of
             European entanglements
       Continued to try and generate
        reciprocity treaties, however with less
        able to complete the treaties
    •        Europeans began periodically limiting or
             banning American foods due to rumors of
             diseases
              Created upset individuals in U.S.
Western Hemisphere and Pacific
       Gilded Age politicians mounted a
        concerted effort to expand its influence
    •        Certain of the superiority of their institutions
             and conscious of their rising power they
             increasingly claimed their rightful place as
             head of the American nations
              Believed they could assist their southern neighbors
               to be stable and orderly
    •        U.S. entrepreneurs began building up
             industries in Central and South American
             nations
              Ultimately dominating many of their economies
    •        Openly came out insisting on an American
             owned and operated canal across the
             isthmus
Western Hemisphere and Pacific
             (Con’t)
       Negotiations with South American
        countries left a deep legacy of suspicion
        and anger of the U.S. and it’s intentions
    •        Chileans specifically saw themselves as the
             rival to the U.S. for hemispheric leadership
    •        U.S. sought to support revolutionary
             governments, in order to have a more U.S.
             friendly government
              Rarely did it ever turn out that way
Western Hemisphere and Pacific
           (Con’t)
       Hawaii
    •        By 1880’s, it was a virtual satellite of the
             U.S.
    •        Considered essential to the U.S. Commerce
             in the Pacific
              Hawaii was made a protectorate of U.S.
    •        U.S. then instigated a plot to overthrow the
             queen
              Feared Queen Liliuokalani, who sought to restore
               Hawaii for Hawaiians
              The plotters seized power in a bloodless takeover
    •        However President Cleveland vetoed the
             annexation bill
        “The Dawn of the American
                 Century”
       Americans became conscious of
        their emerging power
    •    Diplomatic activity quickened
    •    More vigorously asserted themselves
         in defense of their perceived interests
        “The Dawn of the American
              Century” (Con’t)
       Great deal of turmoil in the early 1890’s
    •        Depression in 1893 due to British banking
             crisis
    •        Alleged corruption from “Robber Barons”
              Calls for strikes and unions
    •        Europeans sought more influence in Pacific
             and somewhat of Caribbean
    •        A generation of men who questioned their
             manhood
       Created a mood of conductive to war
        and expansion
More Assertive Foreign Policy
       Some military leaders believed the U.S.
        no longer enjoyed freedom from foreign
        threat
    •        Due to increase in communication and
             technology
       Thus requiring a change in foreign policy
        assumptions
    •        A push for the building of a modern military
             machine
    •        A strong Navy
              Including new Dreadnought
    •        View Germany and Japan as potential
             enemies
              Control the seas, dominate global commerce
    More Assertive Foreign Policy
                 (Con’t)
       Still driven by Darwinian struggle where
        only the strongest survive
    •        Develop of the “Large Policy”
              Greater colonies in the pacific and Caribbean to
               protect future isthmus and trade routes
    •        Businessmen increasingly looked to
             Washington to help
       Others continued to push for perfecting
        domestic institutions first, as opposed to
        opening new markets
    Change in American Foreign
               Policy
       President Harrison and Secretary of
        State Blaine helped begin the
        assertive diplomacy
    •    Sought to coerce the Chinese
         government
    •    Allowed the overthrow of the Hawaiian
         government
    Change in American Foreign
            Policy (Con’t)
       Though President Cleveland undid much
        of President Harrison’s action, he did
        allowed some coercion
    •        Sent ships to Brazil in a show of force
    •        Intervention in land disputes between Britain
             and Venezuela
              Allowing a broader definition of Monroe Doctrine
              Ultimately reinforcing Anglo-Saxon belief of
               superiority over “lesser peoples”
    Change in American Foreign
          Policy (Con’t)
       Alfred Mahan Influence of Sea
        Power
    •    Captain teaching at the Naval War
         college
            International Best-Seller
    •    Says we need a large navy to protect
         our trade routes
            Need midway points to refuel
              Spanish-American War
                    Beginnings
       Driven mainly by public opinion and
        mass media’s portrayal of events
       Grew out of a revolution in Cuba, to free
        themselves from Spanish rule
    •        Cuba had been a desired possession for U.S.
             since the Jefferson years
    •        The war was a threat to American-owned
             sugar estates, mines, ranches and safety of
             U.S. citizens
              Businessmen feared Cuba Revolution would delay
               recovery for U.S. from depression of 1893
          Spanish-American War
             Beginnings (Con’t)
       Cuban revolution leaders were
        leery of U.S. support
    •    Afraid to trade one master for another
       U.S. increasingly had the conviction
        that it was their God-given duty to
        help their “Cuban brothers”
                    A Push to War
       President McKinley
    •        Sought to avoid war as long as possible and
             to steadily increase diplomatic pressure to
             Spain out of Cuba
       Unplanned instigation
    •        Spanish Minister writes a scathing letter
             about McKinley
              Provoked U.S. popular outrage
    •        Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine
              Mass Media blamed it on the Spanish, again
               provoking popular outrage
          A Push to War (Con’t)
       Despite trying to avoid war,
        McKinley chose to send troops to
        Cuba without asking Congress for a
        declaration
    •    Chose to defend vital U.S. interests
         and remove Spanish from region
       Included the Teller Amendment,
        declaring the U.S. would not annex
        Cuba after the way
               War Has Begun
       In Military terms, the war did not
        amount to much
    •     Big confusion between volunteer and
          professional armies
       Naval Officer Theodore Roosevelt
        masterfully destroyed much of the
        decrepit Spanish squadrons
    •     Yet Spanish insurgencies were able to hold
          their own in Philippines and Cuba
       The of victory though, confirmed the
        rising view that the nation stood on the
        brink of greatness
    •     McKinley created first war room
      New Islands to Annex
   Hawaii was officially annexed in
    1898 due to increased importance
    from the war with Spain
   Puerto Rico was annexed due to it’s
    commercial and strategic value
   Guam and Philippines were
    annexed from Spain as well
               Cuban Problems
       Insurgency in Cuba, much like
        Philippines, proved to be costly
    •     Philippines eventually declared a
          protectorate
    •     Nearly 4,000 troops killed during war
       Racial tensions
    •     American diplomats and soldiers treated the
          Cuban nationals as second-class citizens
    •     Americans set out to control the island, while
          trying to appear as holding to the Teller
          Amendment
        Cuban Problems (Con’t)
       Business control
    •    Occupation government made it easy
         for outsiders to acquire land, build
         railroads, and migrate
            Consistently pushing the Cuban nationals
             away from the resources
               Platt Amendment
       Kept from entering into any treaty that would
        impair its independence and allowed U.S. to
        intervene in Cuba’s internal affairs
    •     Though greatly against it, Cubans accepted it into
          their constitution
       U.S. hoped to have Cuba fall into the Union
        much like Texas, Florida and Hawaii had
    •     However Cuban population did not desire annexation
       These actions helped spur a new revolution in
        Cuba in the 1950’s
        Questions of Annexation
       U.S. actions during this time greatly
        diverted from traditional American
        actions
    •        Some claimed that imperialism was
             dangerous to American ideals and that it
             violated the Constitution
       Others claimed the strategic importance
        outweighed the possible disadvantages
    •        Also by virtue of superior institutions had an
             obligation to rescue lesser peoples from
             barbarism and ignorance
    •        In 1899 Rudyard Kipling wrote of the “White
             Man’s Burden”
              Manifest Destiny
Questions of Annexation (Con’t)
       Ultimately the islands are annexed
        due to the push of “White Man’s
        Burden” and strategic importance
    •    Virtual military governments
              Isthmus Control
       Due to English involvement in the
        Boer Wars in South Africa, U.S.
        able to gain the rights to build and
        operate the Isthmus Canal
    •    Ultimately started by McKinley’s
         successor Theodore Roosevelt
         Open Door Policy 1900
       After establishing control in Philippines,
        U.S. becomes more involved in Chinese
        affairs
    •     After years of Christian missionaries being
          murdered, McKinley beefed up the naval
          presence in China to protect missionary and
          ultimately businessmen’s rights
       Letter’s passed by Secretary of State
        Hay
    •     Declared that Chinese trade was to be based
          on freedom and to get other nations to not
          discriminate against the commerce of there
          nations
“Bursting With Good Intentions”
            1901-1913
       Trying to consolidate power over
        territory after the Spanish-American
        War, U.S. did not acquire new colonies
        or join alliances leading up to WWI
    •        Began Building of Panama Canal, solidifying
             control over Puerto Rico and Philippines, and
             mediating great-power disputes and wars
       Continued to overflow with optimism,
        certainty of the virtue of their
        institutions and new found power
    •        Americans began assuming leadership in
             promoting world peace and human rights
             around the world
              Though greatly criticize on both accounts by the
               international community
    High-Mark of Imperialism (1900)
        The great powers controlled nearly 2/3
         of the earth’s surface through colonies
         and protectorates
        Existing order began being dismantled,
         creating uncertainty and fear among
         established powers
     •     Rise of Germany, Japan and U.S., with the
           fall of Spanish Empire
     •     Manifested into heated colonial rivalries,
           spiraling arms race and shifting alliances
    High-Mark of Imperialism (1900)
                  (Con’t)
        Britain and France, long time enemies,
         joined an alliance to combat rising
         German power
     •     Russian weaknesses began being exposed,
           through war with Japan and Germany
        Rise of new revolutions in countries
         across the globe
     •     Included peasants, industrial workers, etc.
     •     Limited success by revolutions
        Continued U.S. Population
                  Change
       Immigrants continued to pour into
        the U.S.
    •    Nearly 8 million immigrants entered
         the U.S. during Roosevelt’s Presidency
         alone
            Creating interest groups to persuade U.S.
             into interventions with their home
             countries
    •    Also continued to inflame nativist
         passions
    Progressive Foreign Policy
       Shared a faith in progress and a
        conviction that problems could be
        solved by professional expertise
       They put great stock in
        bureaucracy and saw government
        as the essential instrument of order
        and progress
    •    The defeat of Spain filled the nation
         with pride
        Progressive Foreign Policy
                   (Con’t)
       The Internationalization of America and
        the Americanization of the world was
        under way by 1900
    •     Moves to have a more professional foreign
          service
    •     American engineering, mass production, and
          business management ideals spread around
          world
       Push for humanitarian relief stricken by
        natural disasters and the uplifting of
        oppressed individuals both in the U.S.
        and worldwide
    •     Creation of Carnegie Endowment, American
          Red Cross, NAACP, Tuskegee Institute etc.
           Theodore Roosevelt
       Traveled through Europe and the Middle
        East as a young man, broadening his
        horizons and expanding his views of
        other peoples and nations
    •     Became President after the assassination of
          McKinley
       Keen interest in world affairs and
        supporter of “Large Policy” from the
        1890’s
    •     First politician to attain celebrity status
    •     Able to master the art of press relations and
          especially the press release to monopolize
          the news
    Theodore Roosevelt (Con’t)
       Enjoyed policy making in the stealth and
        secrecy
    •        Considered by many the start of the
             “Imperial Presidency”
              Greatly used Executive Agreements
       A heavy-handed imperialist, insensitive
        to the nationalism of people he
        considered backward
    •        Appreciated the central role America must
             play in the world, and vigorously defended
             its interests
    •        Believed the U.S. had a civilizing power to
             carry out its moral obligations to maintain
             peace
               Roosevelt and Root
       Elihu Root was Roosevelt’s secretary of
        war and state
    •        Believed, like Roosevelt, in internationalism
             and committed to promoting an open and
             prosperous world economy
       Founded the eastern foreign policy
        establishment
    •        Informal network connecting Wall Street,
             Washington, the large foundations, and
             prestigious social clubs
              Directed US. Foreign policy through much of the
               twentieth century
             Changes in Policy
       Devoted much attention to modernizing
        the instruments of national power
    •    Professionalization of military and diplomatic
         services based on the notion that modern war
         and diplomacy required specialized training
         and highly skilled personnel
       Began to reform the army
    •    Generally acknowledged as the father of the
         modern U.S. Army
    •    Introduced military professionalism
       Also expanded and upgrade the Navy
    •    Believed it would be an effective peace
         insurance
    •    Able to grow to third place in Naval fleet
         numbers
    Immigration Influence in U.S.
        American Jews continued to protest the
         actions of the Russian government in the
         early 1900’s
     •        Roosevelt, with an election year away,
              petitioned the Russian government for their
              actions against Jews
               Russian’s commented that is was “unbecoming for
                Americans to criticize”
     •        Created strains in Russian-American
              relations
               Showed the growing importance of ethnic groups in
                foreign policy
    Immigration Influence in U.S.
                (Con’t)
       Japanese and Chinese governments
        expressed disgust at the treatment
        of their citizens within the U.S.
    •    Though vague changes were called for
         by Roosevelt, relatively little changed
            Both Japan and China showed early
             manifestations of rising nationalism
              A Push for Peace
       Believed that the growth of capitalism
        and democracy would make war less
        likely
    •     Many in U.S. believed that the new world
          power given to U.S. should be used to help
          those less fortunate
       Promoted peaceful resolution of disputes
    •     U.S. historically believed in the use of
          arbitration
       Hague was used as an early site for
        meeting of nations to discuss steps
        maintain peace
    •     Very little ever achieved those goals, but
          helped set the precedent for decades later
    Roosevelt’s Push for Peace
       Warmonger Roosevelt, actually took
        unprecedented steps to help negotiate
        between Russo-Japanese conflict and
        French-Germany conflict
       Russo-Japanese War
    •        Roosevelt felt that it must work actively to
             promote peace
    •        Though he disliked both countries, Roosevelt
             deemed it important to end conflict to protect
             Pacific interests
              Able to negotiate peace between the two and won a
               Nobel Peace Prize
    •        However neither side like the agreement,
             causing strains in relations between the
             countries
              Eventually had to send Taft to create secret
               agreements to achieve cooled relations
        Roosevelt’s Push for Peace
                    (Con’t)
       French-German conflict
    •    Roosevelt moved cautiously on the
         verbal disagreements between the
         French and Germans
    •    Eventually able to work out a
         settlement between the two nations
            The settlement heavily supported France,
             thus isolating and angering Germany
    Expansions in Latin America
       Roosevelt sought to incorporate the
        island of Puerto Rico without
        making it a state or a true colony
    •    Exploitation of their economy by
         pushing them to be primarily based on
         sugar plantations
    •    However, U.S. was able to rebuild
         much of Puerto Rican infrastructure
    Expansions in Latin America
                (Con’t)
       U.S. treated the Philippines quite
        differently than Puerto Rico
    •    The infrastructure was rebuilt by the
         U.S.
            Yet self-government was very limited
    •    Wilson administration eventually
         passes the Jones Act which committed
         U.S. to independence as soon as the
         Filipinos could establish a “stable
         government”
            First time ever done by a colonial
             government
    Expansions in Latin America
             (Con’t)
       Panama Canal was moved forward
    •    U.S. supported Panama revolution
         from Colombia which allowed U.S. to
         put the wheels moving toward a canal
            Considered by many as a bully maneuver
    •    Brought a great deal of U.S. pride
         once the Canal was finished in 1916
               Roosevelt Corollary
       Upheld the original intent of the Monroe
        Doctrine by reversing one of its key
        provisions and explicitly giving the
        United State the right of intervention
       Dominican Republic
    •        There was no interest in U.S. annexing or
             making it a protectorate
    •        Sought means to stabilize the county
             economically and politically and give the U.S.
             some control without formal responsibilities
    •        Used “scientific” methods to promote
             stability and modernization
              Sought to pay down debts to European banks
              Also developed their infrastructure
               Taft Presidency
       Carried out much of the same foreign
        policy of his predecessor Roosevelt
    •     Used the Dominican model and called it the
          “Dollar Diplomacy”
       Taft and his Secretary of State lacked
        the political skills of his predecessor and
        was unable to have much success using
        the “dollar diplomacy” throughout Latin
        America
    •     These actions greatly changed the way most
          Latin American countries view of U.S.