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International Relations Unit 3 Notes “A Good Enough England” Gilded Age Americans: 1877-1893 • Elevated traditional doctrines of non- entanglement treaties • More disposed to intervene in their own hemisphere and beyond Began moving decisively to strengthen their position at the expense of potential rivals “A Good Enough England” (Con’t) Technology allowed colonial holdings from greater distances • Sped up communications between countries Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species • Popularized idea of the survival of the strongest New rush by Europeans and U.S. for a bigger empire Rise of new powers • Germany, Italy, Russia, Japan, China, and especially U.S. No one grew economically stronger than the U.S. U.S. Changes Massive influx of new immigrants from all over the world • Helping to sway public opinion and special interests Distribution of property through the Homestead Act in the 1860’s and discovers of gold pushed people westward • Expansion of the railway system • Lessing willingness for National Government to work with Indians U.S. Changes (Con’t) Economically U.S. grew at a miraculous pace • Surpassing Britain in manufacturing output by 1900 • Still maintained high tariffs to protect companies from foreign competition Yet Diplomats energetically sought out and developed foreign markets for U.S. goods Diplomatic • No clear ideology during the Gilded Age • American know-how introduced to Japan Including Baseball U.S. Changes (Con’t) Missionaries • Began setting out to Christianize the world Often guilty of the worst kind of cultural imperialism • Able to spread Americanization and open up those markets for American goods Business Expansion After Civil War U.S. became more actively involved in International politics • First time U.S. had a surplus capital to export Began investing and exploit mines, railroads, oil, etc. around the world Politicians During Gilded Age Paid little time to foreign policy • Generally only concerned with expanding foreign markets and increase U.S. influence in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific Democrats view: • Advocated free trade and opposed protectionism • Did not seek to have territorial expansion Especially on non-whites Politicians During Gilded Age (Con’t) Republican view: • Strong Central Government and subsidizing economic growth through a protective tariff • Some sought territorial expansion and imperialism Signs of Changes The Consular service was upgraded and focused toward finding markets Army sought to better educate officers • Created an intelligence arm President Arthur sought to build a modern naval fleet • Created a Naval War College and Office of Naval Intelligence Completion of the State, War, Navy buildings in 1888 Greatest U.S. Change Complex problems in the Gilded Age foreign policy was the increasing number, size and diversity of ethnic groups • Provoked growing internal tensions and sparked conflict with other countries • To get the U.S. government to defend their compatriots from oppression in their home countries Greatest U.S. Change (Con’t) Chinese • Lured to America to perform backbreaking work in western industries Provoked a vicious nativist backlash in U.S. • In 1879, Congress passed a bill limiting the number of Chinese who could come into the country First of it’s kind in U.S., but many new exclusionary acts were passed in following decades Greatest U.S. Change (Con’t) “Jewish Question” • Russian treatment of Jews created a verbal conflict with U.S. government Jewish American interest groups persuaded the U.S. government to intervene in Russian treatment of Jews Marvel of U.S. Economy Due to Industrialization, exports of manufactured goods passed agricultural products by 1913 • Europe absorbed close to 80% of the total U.S. exports by late 1880’s Britain First, then Germany and France Began raising fears that producing more goods than needed would smother the “Home” economy • Thus drove politicians to expand and protect foreign markets Marvel of U.S. Economy (Con’t) Expeditions to Korea and Africa continued to excite the U.S. public • Attended a conference on Africa in order to promote freedom of trade and steer clear of European entanglements Continued to try and generate reciprocity treaties, however with less able to complete the treaties • Europeans began periodically limiting or banning American foods due to rumors of diseases Created upset individuals in U.S. Western Hemisphere and Pacific Gilded Age politicians mounted a concerted effort to expand its influence • Certain of the superiority of their institutions and conscious of their rising power they increasingly claimed their rightful place as head of the American nations Believed they could assist their southern neighbors to be stable and orderly • U.S. entrepreneurs began building up industries in Central and South American nations Ultimately dominating many of their economies • Openly came out insisting on an American owned and operated canal across the isthmus Western Hemisphere and Pacific (Con’t) Negotiations with South American countries left a deep legacy of suspicion and anger of the U.S. and it’s intentions • Chileans specifically saw themselves as the rival to the U.S. for hemispheric leadership • U.S. sought to support revolutionary governments, in order to have a more U.S. friendly government Rarely did it ever turn out that way Western Hemisphere and Pacific (Con’t) Hawaii • By 1880’s, it was a virtual satellite of the U.S. • Considered essential to the U.S. Commerce in the Pacific Hawaii was made a protectorate of U.S. • U.S. then instigated a plot to overthrow the queen Feared Queen Liliuokalani, who sought to restore Hawaii for Hawaiians The plotters seized power in a bloodless takeover • However President Cleveland vetoed the annexation bill “The Dawn of the American Century” Americans became conscious of their emerging power • Diplomatic activity quickened • More vigorously asserted themselves in defense of their perceived interests “The Dawn of the American Century” (Con’t) Great deal of turmoil in the early 1890’s • Depression in 1893 due to British banking crisis • Alleged corruption from “Robber Barons” Calls for strikes and unions • Europeans sought more influence in Pacific and somewhat of Caribbean • A generation of men who questioned their manhood Created a mood of conductive to war and expansion More Assertive Foreign Policy Some military leaders believed the U.S. no longer enjoyed freedom from foreign threat • Due to increase in communication and technology Thus requiring a change in foreign policy assumptions • A push for the building of a modern military machine • A strong Navy Including new Dreadnought • View Germany and Japan as potential enemies Control the seas, dominate global commerce More Assertive Foreign Policy (Con’t) Still driven by Darwinian struggle where only the strongest survive • Develop of the “Large Policy” Greater colonies in the pacific and Caribbean to protect future isthmus and trade routes • Businessmen increasingly looked to Washington to help Others continued to push for perfecting domestic institutions first, as opposed to opening new markets Change in American Foreign Policy President Harrison and Secretary of State Blaine helped begin the assertive diplomacy • Sought to coerce the Chinese government • Allowed the overthrow of the Hawaiian government Change in American Foreign Policy (Con’t) Though President Cleveland undid much of President Harrison’s action, he did allowed some coercion • Sent ships to Brazil in a show of force • Intervention in land disputes between Britain and Venezuela Allowing a broader definition of Monroe Doctrine Ultimately reinforcing Anglo-Saxon belief of superiority over “lesser peoples” Change in American Foreign Policy (Con’t) Alfred Mahan Influence of Sea Power • Captain teaching at the Naval War college International Best-Seller • Says we need a large navy to protect our trade routes Need midway points to refuel Spanish-American War Beginnings Driven mainly by public opinion and mass media’s portrayal of events Grew out of a revolution in Cuba, to free themselves from Spanish rule • Cuba had been a desired possession for U.S. since the Jefferson years • The war was a threat to American-owned sugar estates, mines, ranches and safety of U.S. citizens Businessmen feared Cuba Revolution would delay recovery for U.S. from depression of 1893 Spanish-American War Beginnings (Con’t) Cuban revolution leaders were leery of U.S. support • Afraid to trade one master for another U.S. increasingly had the conviction that it was their God-given duty to help their “Cuban brothers” A Push to War President McKinley • Sought to avoid war as long as possible and to steadily increase diplomatic pressure to Spain out of Cuba Unplanned instigation • Spanish Minister writes a scathing letter about McKinley Provoked U.S. popular outrage • Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine Mass Media blamed it on the Spanish, again provoking popular outrage A Push to War (Con’t) Despite trying to avoid war, McKinley chose to send troops to Cuba without asking Congress for a declaration • Chose to defend vital U.S. interests and remove Spanish from region Included the Teller Amendment, declaring the U.S. would not annex Cuba after the way War Has Begun In Military terms, the war did not amount to much • Big confusion between volunteer and professional armies Naval Officer Theodore Roosevelt masterfully destroyed much of the decrepit Spanish squadrons • Yet Spanish insurgencies were able to hold their own in Philippines and Cuba The of victory though, confirmed the rising view that the nation stood on the brink of greatness • McKinley created first war room New Islands to Annex Hawaii was officially annexed in 1898 due to increased importance from the war with Spain Puerto Rico was annexed due to it’s commercial and strategic value Guam and Philippines were annexed from Spain as well Cuban Problems Insurgency in Cuba, much like Philippines, proved to be costly • Philippines eventually declared a protectorate • Nearly 4,000 troops killed during war Racial tensions • American diplomats and soldiers treated the Cuban nationals as second-class citizens • Americans set out to control the island, while trying to appear as holding to the Teller Amendment Cuban Problems (Con’t) Business control • Occupation government made it easy for outsiders to acquire land, build railroads, and migrate Consistently pushing the Cuban nationals away from the resources Platt Amendment Kept from entering into any treaty that would impair its independence and allowed U.S. to intervene in Cuba’s internal affairs • Though greatly against it, Cubans accepted it into their constitution U.S. hoped to have Cuba fall into the Union much like Texas, Florida and Hawaii had • However Cuban population did not desire annexation These actions helped spur a new revolution in Cuba in the 1950’s Questions of Annexation U.S. actions during this time greatly diverted from traditional American actions • Some claimed that imperialism was dangerous to American ideals and that it violated the Constitution Others claimed the strategic importance outweighed the possible disadvantages • Also by virtue of superior institutions had an obligation to rescue lesser peoples from barbarism and ignorance • In 1899 Rudyard Kipling wrote of the “White Man’s Burden” Manifest Destiny Questions of Annexation (Con’t) Ultimately the islands are annexed due to the push of “White Man’s Burden” and strategic importance • Virtual military governments Isthmus Control Due to English involvement in the Boer Wars in South Africa, U.S. able to gain the rights to build and operate the Isthmus Canal • Ultimately started by McKinley’s successor Theodore Roosevelt Open Door Policy 1900 After establishing control in Philippines, U.S. becomes more involved in Chinese affairs • After years of Christian missionaries being murdered, McKinley beefed up the naval presence in China to protect missionary and ultimately businessmen’s rights Letter’s passed by Secretary of State Hay • Declared that Chinese trade was to be based on freedom and to get other nations to not discriminate against the commerce of there nations “Bursting With Good Intentions” 1901-1913 Trying to consolidate power over territory after the Spanish-American War, U.S. did not acquire new colonies or join alliances leading up to WWI • Began Building of Panama Canal, solidifying control over Puerto Rico and Philippines, and mediating great-power disputes and wars Continued to overflow with optimism, certainty of the virtue of their institutions and new found power • Americans began assuming leadership in promoting world peace and human rights around the world Though greatly criticize on both accounts by the international community High-Mark of Imperialism (1900) The great powers controlled nearly 2/3 of the earth’s surface through colonies and protectorates Existing order began being dismantled, creating uncertainty and fear among established powers • Rise of Germany, Japan and U.S., with the fall of Spanish Empire • Manifested into heated colonial rivalries, spiraling arms race and shifting alliances High-Mark of Imperialism (1900) (Con’t) Britain and France, long time enemies, joined an alliance to combat rising German power • Russian weaknesses began being exposed, through war with Japan and Germany Rise of new revolutions in countries across the globe • Included peasants, industrial workers, etc. • Limited success by revolutions Continued U.S. Population Change Immigrants continued to pour into the U.S. • Nearly 8 million immigrants entered the U.S. during Roosevelt’s Presidency alone Creating interest groups to persuade U.S. into interventions with their home countries • Also continued to inflame nativist passions Progressive Foreign Policy Shared a faith in progress and a conviction that problems could be solved by professional expertise They put great stock in bureaucracy and saw government as the essential instrument of order and progress • The defeat of Spain filled the nation with pride Progressive Foreign Policy (Con’t) The Internationalization of America and the Americanization of the world was under way by 1900 • Moves to have a more professional foreign service • American engineering, mass production, and business management ideals spread around world Push for humanitarian relief stricken by natural disasters and the uplifting of oppressed individuals both in the U.S. and worldwide • Creation of Carnegie Endowment, American Red Cross, NAACP, Tuskegee Institute etc. Theodore Roosevelt Traveled through Europe and the Middle East as a young man, broadening his horizons and expanding his views of other peoples and nations • Became President after the assassination of McKinley Keen interest in world affairs and supporter of “Large Policy” from the 1890’s • First politician to attain celebrity status • Able to master the art of press relations and especially the press release to monopolize the news Theodore Roosevelt (Con’t) Enjoyed policy making in the stealth and secrecy • Considered by many the start of the “Imperial Presidency” Greatly used Executive Agreements A heavy-handed imperialist, insensitive to the nationalism of people he considered backward • Appreciated the central role America must play in the world, and vigorously defended its interests • Believed the U.S. had a civilizing power to carry out its moral obligations to maintain peace Roosevelt and Root Elihu Root was Roosevelt’s secretary of war and state • Believed, like Roosevelt, in internationalism and committed to promoting an open and prosperous world economy Founded the eastern foreign policy establishment • Informal network connecting Wall Street, Washington, the large foundations, and prestigious social clubs Directed US. Foreign policy through much of the twentieth century Changes in Policy Devoted much attention to modernizing the instruments of national power • Professionalization of military and diplomatic services based on the notion that modern war and diplomacy required specialized training and highly skilled personnel Began to reform the army • Generally acknowledged as the father of the modern U.S. Army • Introduced military professionalism Also expanded and upgrade the Navy • Believed it would be an effective peace insurance • Able to grow to third place in Naval fleet numbers Immigration Influence in U.S. American Jews continued to protest the actions of the Russian government in the early 1900’s • Roosevelt, with an election year away, petitioned the Russian government for their actions against Jews Russian’s commented that is was “unbecoming for Americans to criticize” • Created strains in Russian-American relations Showed the growing importance of ethnic groups in foreign policy Immigration Influence in U.S. (Con’t) Japanese and Chinese governments expressed disgust at the treatment of their citizens within the U.S. • Though vague changes were called for by Roosevelt, relatively little changed Both Japan and China showed early manifestations of rising nationalism A Push for Peace Believed that the growth of capitalism and democracy would make war less likely • Many in U.S. believed that the new world power given to U.S. should be used to help those less fortunate Promoted peaceful resolution of disputes • U.S. historically believed in the use of arbitration Hague was used as an early site for meeting of nations to discuss steps maintain peace • Very little ever achieved those goals, but helped set the precedent for decades later Roosevelt’s Push for Peace Warmonger Roosevelt, actually took unprecedented steps to help negotiate between Russo-Japanese conflict and French-Germany conflict Russo-Japanese War • Roosevelt felt that it must work actively to promote peace • Though he disliked both countries, Roosevelt deemed it important to end conflict to protect Pacific interests Able to negotiate peace between the two and won a Nobel Peace Prize • However neither side like the agreement, causing strains in relations between the countries Eventually had to send Taft to create secret agreements to achieve cooled relations Roosevelt’s Push for Peace (Con’t) French-German conflict • Roosevelt moved cautiously on the verbal disagreements between the French and Germans • Eventually able to work out a settlement between the two nations The settlement heavily supported France, thus isolating and angering Germany Expansions in Latin America Roosevelt sought to incorporate the island of Puerto Rico without making it a state or a true colony • Exploitation of their economy by pushing them to be primarily based on sugar plantations • However, U.S. was able to rebuild much of Puerto Rican infrastructure Expansions in Latin America (Con’t) U.S. treated the Philippines quite differently than Puerto Rico • The infrastructure was rebuilt by the U.S. Yet self-government was very limited • Wilson administration eventually passes the Jones Act which committed U.S. to independence as soon as the Filipinos could establish a “stable government” First time ever done by a colonial government Expansions in Latin America (Con’t) Panama Canal was moved forward • U.S. supported Panama revolution from Colombia which allowed U.S. to put the wheels moving toward a canal Considered by many as a bully maneuver • Brought a great deal of U.S. pride once the Canal was finished in 1916 Roosevelt Corollary Upheld the original intent of the Monroe Doctrine by reversing one of its key provisions and explicitly giving the United State the right of intervention Dominican Republic • There was no interest in U.S. annexing or making it a protectorate • Sought means to stabilize the county economically and politically and give the U.S. some control without formal responsibilities • Used “scientific” methods to promote stability and modernization Sought to pay down debts to European banks Also developed their infrastructure Taft Presidency Carried out much of the same foreign policy of his predecessor Roosevelt • Used the Dominican model and called it the “Dollar Diplomacy” Taft and his Secretary of State lacked the political skills of his predecessor and was unable to have much success using the “dollar diplomacy” throughout Latin America • These actions greatly changed the way most Latin American countries view of U.S.
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