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					In Union! Teaching Labor Relations to
   Maritime Industry Professionals
                  Christopher Clott
                  California Maritime Academy

                  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
                  =BCVHB7RlEAU
Who Are These Guys?
Unions and the Shipping Industry


   “It’s at the bargaining table we’ll have an
    opportunity to address some of the things
    that add to the cost of doing business in the
    port” – Joseph Curto, President of the New
    York Shipping Association. Journal of
    Commerce, Nov. 10, 2010
Introduction

   Understanding the role of seagoing and waterfront unions is an
    essential aspect of the business of shipping.
   Union representation in the United States has shrunk to 11.9%
    of the U.S. workforce. Half of this is in the public sector.
   Within the maritime industry, the influence of unions is still
    profound.
   How can maritime union issues be taught effectively within
    maritime institutions? If an understanding of unions is as
    crucial to managers as an understanding of global supply
    chains, what types of skills and knowledge regarding unions will
    be needed going forward?
Labor Relations in Context

   How Unions Operate
    –   Majority of students will have little practical experience
    –   Wagner Act & National Labor Relations Board
    –   Collective Bargaining contracts and Negotiation
   Impact of Deregulation on Unions
   Right to Work Laws
   Strikes and work stoppages (e.g. Philadelphia & Los
    Angeles 2010; 2002 work slowdown).
Federal and Regional Legislation

   Taft-Hartley Act – 1947 restriction of labor
    rights. Stop strikes that “imperil the national
    health or safety”.
   Landrum-Griffin Act – 1959 curb abuses of
    union leadership.
   Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor
    – 1953. aggressive investigations recently.
Benefits of Union Membership?

   To owners and management- steady supply
    of skilled labor.
   For union members- protection
   Old agreements and new agreements-
    retooled agreements for new realities.
   Pensions and benefits are under attack.
The Major Maritime Unions/Bargaining
Groups

   American Federation of Labor-Congress
    of Industrial Organizations (A.F.L.-C.I.O.)
    www.afl-cio.org

   Change to Win Federation www.changetowin.org
   International Longshoremen’s
    Association (ILA) www.ilaunion.org
   United States Maritime Alliance, LTD.
    (USMX) www.usmx.com/html/about/USMX/Usmx.htm
The Major Maritime Unions (cont.)

   International Longshore and Warehouse Union
    (ILWU) www.ilwu.org
   Pacific Maritime Association (PMA) www.pmanet.org
   International Brotherhood of Teamsters- Ports
    Division (Teamsters) www.teamster.org/content/port-division
   Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union 510-
    Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
    www.iww.org/unions/dept500/iu510/
The Major Maritime Unions (cont.)

   Longshore Workers’ Coalition (LWC)
    www.lwcjustice.com

   Marine Engineers Beneficial Association (MEBA)
    www.d1meba.org

   International Association of Masters Mates &
    Pilots (MM&P) www.bridgedeck.org
   American Maritime Officers (AMO) www.amo-union.org
   Seafarers International Union of North America
    (SIU) www.seafarers.org
The Major Maritime Unions (cont.)

   Marine Firemen's Union (MFOW)
    www.mfoww.org

   Sailors Union of the Pacific (SUP)
    www.sailors.org

   International Transport Workers
    Federation (ITF) www.itfglobal.org
   International Labour Organization (ILO)
    www.ilo.org
The Historical Record

   Harry Bridges (ILWU)- from “Bloody
    Thursday” to the M&M agreement
   Teddy Gleason (ILA)- from the Brooklyn
    docks to White House conferences
   Paul Hall- Founder of the SIU- won gains in
    wages and benefits
   Joseph Curran- NMU founder introduced
    hiring halls and combated discrimination
Jones Act

   Involves cabotage (coastal shipping) that requires all goods
    transported by water between U.S. ports be carried in ships that
    are American built, owned and staffed.
   Jones Act created far reaching benefits for sailors and their
    respective unions.
   Critics of the Jones Act argue that it drives up costs for the
    transport of cargo between U.S. ports as the restrictions result
    in higher costs for ship owners.
   Supporters of the Act state that it benefits the U.S. on security
    grounds, economically through employment, and in wartime if
    necessary.
How the Union Works

   Contract Negotiations-
   Bargaining Issues- Macro and Micro
   Training Programs
   Local Disputes can become national disputes
   Buying labor peace?
Getting Into the Union

   Applicants, Casuals and Union Members
   Seniority
   Hiring Halls
   Job Postings, Bribes and Connections
   Pensions and Benefits
The Future of Maritime Unions

   Maritime Unions face continued globalization
    and automation of the waterfront. Intermodal
    moves reduce the amount of work offered.
   Flags of convenience and competing port
    alternatives.
   Strong anti-union sectors of the industry.
   Reach of the unions does not extend beyond
    the sea and docks.
Why Unions Remain Influential

   The Jones Act
   The Maritime Security Program
   Effective Congressional Lobbying
   Monopolistic collective bargaining
    agreements
   Laws that need an organized labor presence
Conclusion

   It is vital that maritime students understand
    the role of unions within the greater maritime
    industry. An explanation of labor relations
    and an appreciation for the continued role of
    unions needs to be addressed. The
    overriding goal should be to provide objective
    information for future employment in the
    maritime industry.

				
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