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					Classification of seabed video observations
as a basis to predict biotopes and ecotopes




               Pål Buhl-Mortensen (IMR)
                Margaret Dolan (NGU)
Nature
Nature is a general and scale-independent term
referring to a specific area including the species
living there and the environment surrounding
them, or the environment alone



Nature type (”Biotope”)
a homogeneous type of nature, which
embraces all plant and animal life and
the environmental factors acting there.

Nature types are generally home to a
unique combination of species that
reflects the local environmental
conditions.
                                http://www.artsdatabanken.no/
        Video/camera-platforms

ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle)




Towed platforms/drop cameras

Manned submersibles
Recognition/definiton of habitats and
      biotopes in deep water


• Few existing habitat classes

• Deep sea less homogenous that perceived

• Many new nature types

• How to define?
         Nature types in the MAREANO-area
          Identified with DCA of results from video analysis of 200 m sequences
           analysed in field (landscape level) and post cruise (ecosystem level)

Landscape/landscape
                                                   Ecosystem level
element level
        Bank                         Sponge habitats on sandy mud, Sand,
                                     Gravelly sand, Gravel, Moraine ridges

   Sedimentation-
      bassain                        Fine mud, Seepages (Pockmark)*


    Shelf trough                     Fine mud, Sand, Gravelly sand, Coral reef*,
   (marine valley)                   Seepages (Pockmark)*


     Shelf break


  Upper continental
       slope                         Gravelly bottom with soft corals ++


  Lower continental                  Consolidated mud with large glass sponges,
       slope                         Fine deep sea mud, ++
Quantifying image and
     video data
              Analysis of videotransects
                                          Video-sequences:
Video transect divided into sequences:
                                          Average length = 12 m


                                          Counting of individuals an colonies

                                          Estimation of % coverage of
                             100 m
                                           bottomsubstrates and encrusting
                                           organisms

                                          Quantification of human impact:
                                              damaged organisms
                                              trawlmarks
                                              lost fishing gears
                                              garbage
Recording of video
and additional data
 Video-signal                              Monitor

                  Integration of
                  stored data
                  and image analysis       Semi-
Synchronization                         automatical
                                         extraction
                                          of data


   Stored data:
     Time
    Position                             Extracted data:
     Depth                             Taxon, Abundance,
    Altitude                           Bottom type, Cover,
     Pitch                               Position, Depth,
                                        Estimated area ….
   File     Edit      View   Insert       Format       Tools         HabiMap
N      7052000 Depth 150
E      576000     Time   03:27:56
Sequence 56.5 m Area     112,7          Start new               Pause Stop
  Main bottom type: Mud….78             sequence                     registration
      Bottomtypes                            % cover
 Predefined bottomtype A     <10 10-25 25-50 50-75 75-90 90-100 ….
 Predefined bottomtype B     <10 10-25 25-50 50-75 75-90 90-100 ….
 New bottomtype: ………..       <10 10-25 25-50 50-75 75-90 90-100 ….
           Taxa                         Counts and % cover
 Predefined species A (n)     1     2   2-5 5-10    10-20        …….
 Predefined species B (n)     1     2    2-5    5-10    10-20    …….
 Predefined species C (%)     1     2    2-5    5-10    10-20    …….
 New species A: ………….         1     2    2-5    5-10    10-20    …….
 New species B: ………….         1     2    2-5    5-10    10-20    …….
 New species C: ………….         1     2    2-5    5-10    10-20    …….
                                                                                Sand
                                                       Distan Cumul Dept Mu San with Sandy Pebb Cobbl Bould Bedro      Valu Laserbe Field Comme Laserbea
St          DateTime E                 N               ce     dist   h d d shells mud le          e    er    ck Species e     ams width nts        ms
R100VL116   11.04.07:11:11:47   840669.5   7807508.4       0.0          0    316   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0                       2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:11:47   840669.5   7807508.4       0.0          0    316   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0     Stichopus     1   2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:11:47   840669.5   7807508.4       0.8   0.7901093   316   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0    Cerianthidae   1   2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:11:56   840669.5   7807507.6       0.0   0.7901093   317   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0     Stichopus     1   2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:11:56   840669.5   7807507.6       1.2   1.9698279   317   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0     Teleostei     1   2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:08   840669.4   7807506.4       0.0   1.9698279   317   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0    Cerianthidae   1   2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:08   840669.4   7807506.4       0.0   1.9698279   317   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0     Stichopus     1   2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:12   840669.4   7807506.4       0.0   1.9698279   317   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0    Unidentified   1   2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:12   840669.4   7807506.4       0.4   2.3594394   321   5    85   0   0   10   0   0   0    Unidentified   1   2.4   198.8                       2.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:16   840669.3   7807506.0       0.8   3.1495477   318   5    90   0   0   5    0   0   0                       1.4   340.7                       1.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:23   840669.3   7807505.2       0.0   3.1495477   318   5    90   0   0   5    0   0   0     Teleostei     1   1.4   340.7                       1.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:23   840669.3   7807505.2       0.0   3.1495477   318   5    90   0   0   5    0   0   0     Stichopus     1   1.4   340.7                       1.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:23   840669.3   7807505.2       0.4   3.5391593   318   5    90   0   0   5    0   0   0     Stichopus     1   1.4   340.7                       1.4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:32   840669.3   7807504.9       1.3   4.8720789   319   5    90   0   0   5    0   0   0                                     muddy sand with lots of tubes

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:12:45   840669.1   7807503.5       3.0   7.8738224   319   10   90   0   0   0    0   0   0                       2.4   198.8                       2.4
                                                                                                                                                        whole last
                                                                                                                                                        section: no
                                                                                                                                                        sightsediment
R100VL116   11.04.07:11:13:47   840670.7   7807501.0       0.4   8.2351037   318   10   90   0   0   0    0   0   0                       2     238.5   turbulences          2

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:13:53   840671.1   7807501.1       2.0   10.233926   317   10   90   0   0   0    0   0   0     Stichopus     2
                                                                                                                                                        camera
                                                                                                                                                        zoomed
                                                                                                                                                        inwhole last
                                                                                                                                                        section
                                                                                                                                                        sediment
R100VL116   11.04.07:11:14:47   840672.8   7807502.0       7.9   18.137544   318   10   90   0   0   0    0   0   0                       7     68.1    turbulences          7

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:15:48   840673.0   7807509.9       3.7   21.832473   319   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0                                     no sightsediment disturbance
                                                                                                                                                        camera
R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:05   840672.2   7807513.5       0.0   21.832473   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0                       4     119.3   zoomed in            4
                                                                                                                                                        camera
R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:05   840672.2   7807513.5       0.9   22.747898   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0    Unidentified   2   4     119.3   zoomed in            4

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:09   840672.0   7807514.4       3.5   26.223316   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0    Unidentified   1

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:25   840672.3   7807517.9       1.9   28.098207   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0    Unidentified   2
                                                                                                                                                        camera zoomed in during the
R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:34   840672.6   7807519.7       0.0   28.098207   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0                                     whole transect

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:34   840672.6   7807519.7       1.1   29.208444   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0   Kophobelemnon   1

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:38   840672.7   7807520.8       1.7   30.884585   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0    Unidentified   1

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:44   840672.9   7807522.5       1.1   31.994822   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0    Unidentified   1

R100VL116   11.04.07:11:16:47   840673.0   7807523.6       0.6   32.549939   318   15   85   0   0   0    0   0   0                       6     79.5                         6
        Actiniaria Actiniaria Actiniaria Actiniaria Actiniaria Amphipoda Antho       Aplysilla          Ascidia    Asterias
          dark       pink        red       violet    white       cave     dichotoma sulfurea Ascidia sp virginea   rubens Asteroidea Axinella
100_1         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
100_2         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
100_3         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.31     0.00
100_4         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
100_5         0.24       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.24       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
101_1         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.23     0.00
101_2         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
101_3         0.00       0.00       0.19        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
101_4         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.19     0.00
101_5         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.53     0.00
102_1         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
102_2         0.49       0.97       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      1.22     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
102_3         0.37       0.37       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.37     0.00
102_4         0.00       0.65       0.00        0.33      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.33     0.00
102_5         0.25       0.25       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
103_1         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     1.13     0.00
103_2         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     1.68     0.00
103_3         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.33       0.00      0.00     1.80     0.00
103_4         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     1.81     0.00
103_5         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.83     0.00
103_6         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.17       0.00      0.00     1.02     0.00
103_7         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.23     0.00
104_1         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.20      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.20
104_2         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
104_3         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
104_4         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
104_5         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.22     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.43     0.22
105_1         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.60     0.00       0.00      0.00     2.39     0.00
105_2         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      3.49     0.00       0.00      0.00   15.49      0.00
105_3         0.00       0.00       0.22        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      2.87     0.00       0.00      0.00   11.71      0.00
105_4         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.67     0.00       0.00      0.00     3.33     0.00
105_5         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.71     0.00       0.00      0.00     9.03     0.00
106_1         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00     0.00
106_2         0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00      0.00       0.00       0.00      0.00     0.00       0.00      0.00     0.21     0.21
Variables derived from multibeam echosouder
(naturetype indicators)


    - Depth


    - Terrain
       -   Slope
       -   Aspect
       -   Curvature
       -   Rugosity
       -   ++

    - Backscatter
   General procedure for characterization and prediction of
                          habitats

1) Multivariate analysis of species data from bottom video-surveys to find groups
   of locations that are similar with respect to composition of species.
2) Identification of environmental variables (e.g. Depth, surface sediment
   composition, topography, etc) that best explain the composition of species
   identified on video records.
3) Comparison of the explanatory ability of variables derived from the MBE data-
   set and parameters collected by means of visual inspection.
4) ”Supervised” GIS analysis for classification with full areal coverage (Maxent).
5) Presentation of the general biodiversity of habitats based on species
   composition in samples collected with different bottom sampling gears.
                MAREANO mapping areas

                      Barents Sea




                        Tromsøflaket




Norwegian Sea
Shallow banks (50-200m)




     Andøy                        Trench with strong currents (200-300m)
                          Hola

Bleiksdjupet Canyon




                                  Continental slope (1000-1500m)




 Continental slope (1500-2000m)
                                   Surveyed locations 2008

Grovinndeling av marine landskap
             60
             55
             50




Number of taxa
             45
             40
             35
             30
             25
             20
             15
             10
              5
              0                                                                              0
                                                                                   NCW
                                                                                             200




                                                                                                           Depth (m)
                 Watermasses



                               NAW (>0,5 °C)                                                 400
                                                                                             600
                               NSAIW (-0,5 - 0,5 °C)                                         800
                               NSDW (-0,5 - 1,5 °C)
                                                                                             2400




                                                                                                                   (frequency of occurrence)
                                                                                             1.0




                                                                                                    Bottom types
                                                                                             0.8
                                                                                             0.6
                                                                                             0.4
                                                                                             0.2
                                                                                             0.0




                                                       Consolidated mud   Sand            Gravel
                                                       Mud                Gravelly sand   Boulder
                                                       Sandy mud          Sandy gravel    Bedrock
           DCA of field observations, cruise 2008104 june 2008
                                       266
                                                                                  Clasification of locations
                                                                                                                       Landscape
                                   265                                                                                   Fjord/Coast
                                                                                  based on DCA groups
                                       267
                                                      Shelf break                                                        Shelf trench
                           246                                                                                           Fan
                           201          217                                                                              Bank
                                                                                                                         Shelf terracee
         Bank
                     254                                  Upper slope                 Lower slope                        Slope terrace
         226              255           215
                       218                                                                                               Upper slope
           224           239             261                                                      253                    Lower slope
          225             240                                 264
                                                                                  198              229
          202                                                                                                            Canyon
                     241                            256
                                                                                                                         Deep sea plain
               245                                                              270     252 211
                                                      228
Axis 2




                            247                                                                     233         235
                                                              Gravel
                     244                         268                                       251            238
                                              Gravelly                                           Depth
                                                                                                       234
                                                    263                                               212 249
                                                                    Sandy mud   Mud           250             237
                                 260                   Sand                             213
                                                                                                 257
                 195                                       269                            210     209232 236
                                               219
                  203              262                                                      200      230 231     199
                                                                                                   259        258
                           242                                                                       271
         197               243
                204                    227
                                                                                                          248
                                   208

                                                221
                            222
                                               205
                                                             Shelf trench
                                  207                 223
                     196                      206

                                              220

                                                                       Axis 1
         DCA hele egga 09 2
                              Type
                                 1
                                 2
                                 3
                                 4
                                 5
                                 6
                                 7
                                 8
Axis 2




               Axis 1
                             DCA T II April

                                                                    Coral
                                                                    Gravel
                                                                    Sand
                                                                    Sandy mud
                                                                    Mud



                        3 Sand
Axis 2




                                              2 Sandy mud

                                 Coral
         4 Gravel



                    5 Gravelly
                    Sandy mud                               1 Mud
                                   Axis 1
Tromsøflaket
DCA, 200m video sequenses
        Calcareous foraminifera. Aplysilla. Geodia               Pelosina Asbestopluma.

2                                                        1



                Sandy mud                                     Fine-grained mud

4                                                                            3




    Gravelly sand                                                                    Sand
Aphrodite, Stylocordyla                                                          Bolocera. Sticopus

6                                                    5




       Morainic rocky ridges                                 Bouldery bottom
                   Polymastia. Antho                             Brachiopoda. Phakellia
Nature type prediction on Tromsøflaket, western part
              Using same predictors as for the eastern part




   1 – Mud in bassain, with pockmarks
   2 – Sandy mud, with iceberg ploughmarks
   3 – Sand/mud, on level bottoms
   4 – Gravelly and sandy sediments in gently sloping areas
   5 – Gravelly and sandy sediments, with iceberg ploughmarks
   6 – Gravelly and sandy sediments, with boulder on morainic ridges
Prediction in ”new” marine landscapes

Sources to ecosystem variation:
-   Terrain and landscape
-   Watermasses (temperature, salinity, etc)
-   Sediment composition
-   Bottom currents
-   Nutrient supply



Different regions often have different environmental
conditions
    MBE-derived predictors may change ”meaning”

				
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posted:6/26/2011
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