THIRD GRADE ENGLISH III The Passive Forming the passive a) Active: Mary helped the boy. b) Passive: The boy was helped by Mary. Note: Form of the passive BE + Past PARTICIPLE. a) Active: Mary helped the boy. a) Passive: The boy was helped by Mary. In the passive the object of the active verb becomes the object of the passive verb: “the boy” in (a) becomes the subject of the passive verb. In (a) and (b) have the same meaning. c) Active: An accident happened d)Passsive: (NONE) Only transitive verbs (that are followed by an object) are used in the passive. It is not possible to use verbs such as happen, sleep, come, and seem (intransitive verbs) in the passive. ACTIVE Simple Present: Mary helps John. Present progresive: Mary is helping John. Simple Past: Mary helped John. Past Progressive: Mary was helping John. Simple future: Mary will help John. Be going to: Mary is going to help John. PASSIVE Simple Present: John is helped by Mary . Present progresive: John is being helped by Mary. Simple Past: John was helped by Mary. Past Progressive: John was being helped by Mary. Simple future: John will be helped by Mary. Be going to: John is going to be helped by Mary. Exercise 1: Change the active to passive by supplying the correct form. 1. Tom opens the door. 2. Tom is opening the door. 3. Tom opened the door. 4. Tom was opening the door. 5. Tom will open the door. 6. Tom is going to open the door. Using the passive a) Rice is grown in India. b) Our house was built in 1890. c) This olive oil was imported. Usually the passive is used without a “by phrase.” The passive is most frecuently used when it is not known or not important to know exactly who performs an action. In sentence (a), it is not known or important to know exactly who grows rice in India. d) Life on the Mississippi was written by Mark Twain. The “by phrase” is include only if it is important to know who performs an action. In (d), by Mark Twain is important information. e) My aunt made this rug. (active) f) This rug was made by my aunt that rug was made by my mother (passive) If the speaker/writer knows who performs an action, usually the action is used, as in (e). The passive may be used with the “by phrase” instead of the active when the speaker/writer wants to focus attention on the subject of the sentence. In (f) the focus of action is on two rugs. Exercise 2: Why is the use of the passive appropriate in the following sentences? What would be the action equivalents of the passive sentences? 1) My sweater was made in England. 2) The new highway will be completed sometime next month. 3) Language skills are taught in every school in the country. 4) This composition was written by Ali. Exercise 2: 1) My sweater was made in England. Focus on the sweater. 2) The new highway will be completed sometime next month. Focus on the highway 3) Language skills are taught in every school in the country. Focus on the language skill 4) This composition was written by Ali. Focus on the composition and by is used because the writer/speaker knows ALI Exercise 2: Change the following active sentences to passive sentences if possible (some of the verbs are intransitive and cannot be change). Keep the same tense. Include the “”by phrase” only if necessary. 1. People grown corn in lowa. 2. Peter came here two months ago. 3. Someone made this antique table in 1734 4. An accident happended at the corner of the fifth and main 5. Someone stole my purse HOMEWORK 1. Jim´s daughter drew that picture. My son drew this picture. 2. Translators have translated that book into many languages. 3. Someone was making the coffee when I walked into the kitchen. 4. Julia rescued three cats. 5. Alex learned the poem 6. You make pizza.