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                                      CHEM 1180
                                    Chapter Objectives
Chapter 2

FUNDAMENTAL CHEMICAL LAWS
  Know the Law of Conservation of Mass
  Know the Law of Definite Composition
  Know the Law of Multiple Proportions
  Know the consequence of each law as pertains to the study of chemistry

ATOMIC STRUCTURE
  Understand Thomson’s, Milliken’s and Rutherford’s experiments and how they helped reveal the
     structure of the atom.
  Atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
  Atomic number is the number of protons
  Mass number is the number of neutrons and protons
  Charge of atoms depends on number of electrons relative to atomic number
  Know parts of atomic symbol
  Know what an isotope is
  Know how to calculate an average atomic mass

CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
  Know difference between metal, metalloid and nonmetal
     -what are characteristics of each
  Be able to identify element as metal, metalloid or nonmetal
  Know groups of elements
     Alkali metals
     Alkaline earth metals
     Pnictogens
     Chalcogens
     Halogens
     Noble gases
     Transitions Metals
     Rare Earths
  Know the molecular elements

IONIC COMPOUNDS
   Know how to name ionic compounds
   Know how find charge of monatomic ions from periodic chart
   Know how to combine ions to form a proper ionic compound

EMPIRICAL FORMULA
  Know relationship between empirical formula and molecular formula
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NOMENCLATURE
  Know the names and charges of common ions as given in nomenclature handout
  Know how to name ionic compounds
  Know how to name nonmetal-nonmetal compounds
  Know how to name binary acids and oxyacids
  Know how to name hydrates
  Be sure to be able to write the name of a compound from its chemical formula

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
  Know how to balance chemical equations
  Know why chemical equations need to be balanced

Chapter 7

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
  Know the how the wave nature of light and particle nature of light conflict with one another
  Know the equation c =    and how to convert between wavelength and frequency
  Know the equation E = h  and how to convert between energy and frequency
  In terms of energy, frequency and wavelength; know the relative order of the different types of
      electromagnetic radiation
  Understand how the photoelectric effect gives evidence for the particle nature of light
  Understand how line spectra implied quantized energies in the atom

BOHR’S MODEL OF THE ATOM
  Understand the relationships between the energy of an electron in an atom, the principal quantum
     number, the distance of the electron from the nucleus and the attraction of the electron and
     nucleus
  Know how to use the Bohr model to explain the absorption and emission of light in the hydrogen
     atom
  Understand how the Bohr model of the atom is incorrect.

QUANTUM MECHANICS
  Know qualitatively the deBroglie’s relationship between the momentum of an atomic particle and its
     wavelength
  Know what Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and its implication for measuring properties of atomic
     particles

ATOMIC ORBITAL MODEL OF THE ATOM
  Know the different quantum numbers in the atom and what their values represent
  Know the relationship between shells, subshells and orbital and how they relate to quantum numbers
     shells      principal quantum number – n
     subshells azimuthal quantum number – l subshells are within a shell
     orbitals        magnetic quantum number – ml orbitals are within subshells
  Know the difference between a good set of quantum numbers and a bad set of quantum numbers
  Know how to recognize the order of the energies of the orbitals by examining the periodic table
  Be able to draw rough sketches of s, p and d orbitals with different principal quantum numbers
                                                                                                         3

Chapter 8

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS
  Know what electron spin is and how it relates to the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
  Be able to state the Pauli Exclusion Principle in terms of quantum numbers and with simpler
     language
  Know the Aufbau principle and Hund’s principle and how they relate to electron configurations and
     orbital diagrams
  Know how to write the orbital diagram for an atom
  Know how to write the electron configuration for an atom
  Understand how to use the periodic table to find the subshell for an electron
  Know how to use noble gas abbreviations in electronic configurations
  Know the difference between core electrons and valence electrons

STRUCTURE OF IONS
  Know the principles of stable electron configurations
  Explain the charges of common ions with principles of stable electron configurations

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
  Understand the difference between diamagnetic and paramagnetic atoms and how they are related to
     Hund’s rule.

ATOMIC RADIUS
  Know three ways that chemists define the atomic radius
  Know why the value of the atomic radius is ambiguous
  Know the periodic trends for the atomic radius
  Know the reasons for the periodic trends
  Understand what information the radial distribution function gives
  What is shielding and effective nuclear charge?

ELECTROSTATIC EFFECTS ON ATOMIC STRUCTURE
  Understand the electrical interactions within the atom and how they affect the structure of the atom
     - Increasing nuclear charge, increases attraction of electron to nucleus.
     - Electrons far away from nucleus are repelled by electrons that are closer to the nucleus.
     - Electrons within the same subshell repel each other.
     - Electrons within the same orbital repel each other.

IONIZATION ENERGY
   Know what ionization energy is
   Know periodic trends for the ionization energy
   Know the reasons for the periodic trends
   Know the difference between the first, second, third, etc…, ionization energy
   Know that s electrons ionize before d electrons within transition metals
   Know the reasons for exceptions to the trends
                                                                                                       4



ELECTRON AFFINITY
  Know what electron affinity is
  Know the periodic trends for the electron affinity
  Know the reasons for the periodic trends
  Know the reasons for exceptions to the trends

METALLICITY
  Know the physical and chemical characteristics of a metal and nonmetal
  Know the periodic trends of metallic character of elements

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS
  Know the simple chemical properties, such as common ionic charge, formula for oxide and formula
     for chlorides of the main group element.


Chapter 9

TYPES OF CHEMICAL BONDING
  Know the three types of chemical bonding
  Know the Octet Rule and its common exceptions
  Know the difference between ionic, covalent and metallic bonding

IONIC RADII AND LATTICE ENERGY
   Understand and be able to predict the trends of ionic radii
   Know what lattice energy is
   Understand how lattice energy is constructed for the energy changes of many different small steps
   Know Coulomb’s law
   Know how to compare the lattice energies of two ionic compounds using Coulomb’s law

ELECTRONEGATIVITY AND POLAR COVALENT BONDS
  Understand what charges attract to form a covalent bond
  Know what electronegativity is
  Know the periodic trends for electronegativity
  Know what a polar covalent bond is
  Know what a coordinate covalent bond is
  Know how to use values of electronegativity to identify whether bonding between two atoms is
     ionic, covalent or metallic.

METALLIC BONDING
  Be able to describe the characteristics of metallic bonding
  Be able to describe the consequences of metallic bonding
                                                                                                       5

LEWIS STRUCTURES
  Know how to draw Lewis structures
  Know how Lewis structures illustrate ionic and covalent bonding
  Know how to draw Lewis structure with more than one central atom
     Loose key to drawing organic Lewis structures
         Carbon has four bonds (including multiple bonds)
         Oxygen has two bonds (including multiple bonds)
         Nitrogen has three bonds (including multiple bonds)
         Hydrogen has one bond only
  Know how to assign formal charge in a Lewis structure
  Know how to draw resonance forms of Lewis structures
  Understand why resonance forms are necessary to describe the bonding of certain molecules
  Be able to predict relative bond lengths within covalently bonded molecules

BOND ENTHAPLIES
  Know what bond enthalpy is and how it is related to the strength of a covalent bond.
  Be able to use bond enthalpies to estimate the enthalpy of a reaction.


Chapter 10

VSEPR MODEL
  Know the difference between electron domain geometry and molecular geometry
  Know how to use Lewis structures to identify electron domain geometry and molecular geometry
  Be able to approximate bond angles in molecular compounds
  Know why actual bond angles deviate from ideal bond angles
  Be able to qualitatively compare bond lengths in different molecular compounds

POLAR MOLECULES
  Know what a dipole moment is
  Know how to identify polar molecules

VALENCE BOND THEORY
  Know what hybridization is and why chemists use the concept
  Know the relationship between hybridization and electron domain geometry
  Know how the difference between sigma and pi bonds
  Know how sigma and pi bonds come from the overlap of atomic orbitals (often hybridized atomic
     orbitals)
  Understand the concept of resonance in terms of delocalized pi orbitals
  Relate the different regions of a potential energy curve to the equilibrium bond distance, nuclear
     repulsion and increased atomic overlap
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Chapter 23

Be able to write Lewis structures for organic compounds from structural formulas
Know the difference between alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes
Be able to name hydrocarbons and cyclic hydrocarbons from molecular structures
Be able to draw molecular structures from the names of hydrocarbons and cyclic hydrocarbons
Know what is meant by a primary, secondary, or tertiary carbon
Know what is meant by an aromatic hydrocarbon
Be able to identify functional groups on carbon chains or rings
Be able to draw and name the following functional groups: alcohols, ethers, haloalkanes, amines,
   aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and nitro hydrocarbons.
Be able to identify the above functional groups in a complex molecule and also the following functional
   groups: esters, amides, nitriles.


Chapter 1

MATTER
  Be able to classify matter into the below scheme.
     Pure Substances
         Elements
         Compounds
     Mixtures
         Solutions
         Heterogeneous
  Know the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter
  Be able to identify a property as physical or chemical
  Be able to identify a physical property as extensive or intensive
  Be able to identify a change as physical or chemical

UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS
  Know the SI Base Units
      Kilogram      Mass
      Meter         Length
      Second        Time
      Kelvin        Temperature
      Mole          Amount of Substance
      Ampere        Electric Current
      Candela       Luminosity
  Know the following SI Contrived Units
      Liter         Volume         1mL = 1 cm3
      Newton        Force
      Joule         Energy
      Pascal        Pressure
  SI Prefixes – know how to convert between different prefixes
             – know how the prefixes from femto- to tera-
                                                                                                 7

TEMPERATURE
  Given the equation, know how to convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius and Celsius to Fahrenheit
  Know the equation and how to convert from Celsius to Kelvin and Kelvin and Celsius
     K = C + 273.15

PRECISION AND ACCURACY
  Know difference between them

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
   Know how to judge the number of significant figures in a number
   Know how to add, subtract, multiply and divide numbers and report the proper number of SF

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
   Be able to apply dimensional analysis to the conversion of units
   Know the definition for density
   Be able to apply dimensional analysis to do calculations involving density


Chapter 3

FORMULA WEIGHTS
  Know how to calculate formula weights

THE MOLE
  Know Avogadro’s number and the definition of a mole
  Know how to calculate the average molar mass for an element
  Know how to convert between the mass of a substance, the number of moles and the number of
     molecules of substance    Grams  Moles  Number
        - use molecular weight and/or Avogadro’s number
  Know the relationship between the definition of the mole and the atomic mass unit

STOICHIOMETRY
  Know significance of coefficients within a balanced chemical equation
  Know how to calculate an empirical formula for a compound from its mass percentages
  Know how to calculate an empirical formula for a compound from its combustion analysis
  Know how to calculate theoretical yield
     Grams  Moles  Moles  Grams
  Know how to calculate the amount of product made and amount of reactant used in a limiting
     reagent problem
  Know how to calculate the percent yield
                                                                                              8

Chapter 4

GENERAL TYPES OF REACTIONS
  Be able to identify the following reactions
     Combination
         - including formation and hydration reactions
     Combustion
         - products are CO2, H2O and N2
     Decomposition
         - including decomposition of carbonates and chlorates
     Single Replacement
     Metathesis
         - including neutralization and precipitation reactions
     Addition
     Substitution         Chapter 23
     Elimination

AQUEOUS PHASE
  Understand the attractions involved in the creation of an aqueous solution
  Know how soluble salts dissociate

ELECTROLYTES
  Know the difference between an electrolyte and nonelectrolyte
  Know the difference between a strong electrolyte and weak electrolyte
  Know the physical basis for the term electrolyte

ACIDS AND BASES
  Know the difference between an acid and a base
  Be able to differentiate between a strong acid and a weak acid
  Be able to differentiate between a strong base and a weak base
  Know what a neutralization reaction is

IONIC EQUATIONS
   Know how to properly dissociate a salt into its ionic components when dissolved in water
   Know how to write an ionic equation and a net ionic equation
   Know what is meant by spectator ions

METATHESIS REACTIONS
  Know three driving forces of metathesis reactions
     formation of precipitate
     formation of nonelectrolyte (weak electrolyte)
     formation of gas
  Know the solubility rules
  Be able to predict products of a metathesis reaction
                                                                                                         9

OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS
  Know difference between oxidation and reduction
  Know relationship between oxidation-reduction reactions and single replacement reactions
  Know what is meant by activity
  Know how to use an activity table to predict if a single replacement reaction will occur or not
  Know the principle of conservation of charge
  Be able to write balanced single replacement reactions based on conservation of mass and
         conservation of charge

BASICS OF SOLUTIONS
  Know difference between solvent and solute
  Molarity
     Know definition of molarity
     Know how to calculate moles of solute given a volume and the molarity of solution.
  Dilutions
     Know how to calculate dilutions
     Understand the laboratory procedure for making dilutions
  Be able to apply principles of solutions within a stoichiometric problem
     Gravimetric Analysis
     Volumetric Analysis
     Limiting Reactants


Chapter 6

ENERGY
  Know difference between potential and kinetic energy
  Know difference types of energy (e.g., light, heat, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc…)
  Know how chemical energy is stored and released.
  Know microscopic types of internal energy (e.g., translational, rotational, vibrational, electronic, etc…)
  Know what state functions are and why they are useful for calculations
  Be able to differentiate between system and surroundings
  Know difference between work and heat
  Know sign convention of heat and work
     +q system absorbs heat         +w work done on system (system contracts)
     -q system gives of heat        -w work done by system (system expands)
  Know the first law of thermodynamics
     E = q + w
     - know how to perform calculations

ENTHALPY
  Enthalpy is another name for heat at constant pressure
  Know what the enthalpy of formation is
     Know what a formation reaction is
  Enthalpy of formation of elements in natural state is zero
  Know the definition of exothermic and endothermic
                                                                                                      10

CALORIMETRY
  Know general principles of calorimetry
     1.) heat lost = - heat gained
     2.) q = m  c  T
  Be able to explain what is specific heat is and what it means that one substance has a higher specific
     heat than another substance
  Know how to calculate the enthalpy of a reaction from tabulated values of enthalpies of formation
  Know how to calculate the enthalpy of a reactant given an enthalpy of reaction (such as combustion),
     a table of enthalpies of formation and calorimetric data.

HESS’ LAW
  Know what Hess’ Law is
  Know how Hess’ Law arises from the fact that enthalpy is a state function
  Be able to manipulate chemical equations and reaction enthalpy to find unknown reaction enthalpy
      of a specified chemical reaction.
  Enthalpy of reaction
      Know how to calculate enthalpy of reaction from enthalpies of formation
      Know how to calculate enthalpy from molar enthalpy

Chapter 5

BASICS OF PRESSURE
  Know definition of pressure
  Know how to convert from units of atmospheres to mmHg to torr
       1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr
  Know the difference between an open-end and closed-end manometer and how to calculate pressures
     from their readings

IDEAL GAS EQUATION
   Know the ideal gas equation
      -know how to calculate the 4th variable when the other 3 variables are known
      -know how use the ideal gas equation to set up proportions between 2 variables
   Know the physical assumptions behind the ideal gas equation and how under what conditions the
      assumptions are bad
   Know how to use the ideal gas equation to calculate the density or the molar mass of a gas

STOICHIOMETRY
  Know how to use the ideal gas equation within a stoichiometric problem
  Be able to perform stoichiometric calculations with gases
  Pressure Volume  Moles  Mass

PARTIAL PRESSURE
  Know what is partial pressure
  Know what is mole fraction
  Know what is Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
  Know the physical basis for Dalton’s law.
  Know how to account for the vapor pressure of water when collecting gases over water
                                                                                                       11

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
   Understand the behavior of gases at the microscopic level by applying the kinetic theory of gases
   Understand the assumptions that make an ideal gas different from a real gas
   Understand the relationships between, effusion rates, molecular speeds and molecular mass


Chapter 11

PHASE TRANSITIONS AND PHASE DIAGRAMS
  Know how to use the strengths of intermolecular forces to explain the differences of boiling and
     melting points in different substances
  Know the role of molecular kinetic energy in explaining differences in boiling and melting points
  Know the names of the six types of phase transitions
  Know why the temperature remains constant during a phase transition
  Phase Diagrams
     Be able to identify the axes on a phase diagram
     Be able to identify the phase regions of gas, liquid and solid in a phase diagram
     Know what is meant by the triple point, the critical point and supercritical fluid
     Be able to identify triple point and critical point on a phase diagram
     Be able to reason how phases change when the pressure changes

VISCOSITY
   Know what is viscosity
   Be able to explain why one liquid is more viscous that another liquid in terms of intermolecular
      bonding

SURFACE TENSION
  Know what is surface tension
  Be able to explain why one liquid has greater surface tension that another liquid in terms of
     intermolecular bonding

CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS
  Know what is the difference between ion, dipole and induced dipole
  Know what is polarizability and its periodic trends
  Know what is a fluctuating dipole

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
   Types
      1. Ion - dipole
      2. Hydrogen
      3. Dipole (dipole – dipole)
      4. Induction (dipole – induced dipole)
      5. Dispersion (induced dipole – induced dipole) (London)
   Know to assess the relative strengths of different types of intermolecular forces
   Know how to identify relative strengths within the same type of force
      - Know how polarizability of molecule is affected by total number of electrons
                                                                                                      12

THE SOLID STATE
  Know the types of solids
     Crystalline
         Ionic
         Molecular
         Metallic
     Amorphous
         Covalent network
         Polymers
  Be able to identify a solid as one of the types listed above
  Know what is meant by a unit cell
  Be able to identify a simple cubic, face-centered cubic or body-centered cubic unit cell from a picture
  Be able to properly count the atoms within a unit cell
  Know what a polymer is
  Know the distinction between linear, branched and crosslinked polymers

				
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