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					          THE MOROCCAN EXPERIENCE IN THE

          CENSUS CARTOGRAPHY AND THE GIS



                  Introduction
                  Cartography
                   – Objectives
                   – Methodology
                            Urban
                            Rural
                   – Difficulties
                  GIS
                   –   Objectives
                   –   Setting up
                   –   Achievements
                   –   Difficulties
                  Conclusion
                                           1
HCP, MOROCCO
                 Introduction
   The Population and Housing General Census (PHGC)
    involves extensive financial, human, material, and technical
    resources.
   It requires, among others, a previous cartographic work that
    consists mainly in:
    – collecting adequate cartographic mediums permitting to assure the
      exhaustiveness of the census;
    – constituting the different geographical entities of the census (districts,
      zones of control, zones of supervision) ;
    – gathering the necessary statistical information to plan and execute all
      the census phases;
    – setting a coding system facilitating the processing of the data
      collected through the census.
   For the censuses previous to 2004, this statistical
    cartography was essentially a tool to produce plans
    permitting to appropriately achieve the works of data
    collection.
                                                                                   2
HCP, MOROCCO
                     Introduction

   The last decades technological progress in geographical
    information digitalization revolutionized the cartography and
    allowed it to serve the works of data collection, processing,
    analysis and the dissemination of the results.

   In this presentation, we attempt to relate the Moroccan
    experience concerning:
     – The objectives, the methodology, and the problems and difficulties met
       during the census cartographic process phases.
     – The setting up of the Geographical Information System: Objectives,
       implementation, achievements and difficulties.




                                                                                3
    HCP, MOROCCO
                   Cartography
   The cartography has always been associated with the
    operations aiming at the country population counts. It
    consists indeed in providing the staff with necessary
    elements to carry out the data collection works.
   It is thus of fundamental importance for the censuses
    since it assures one of the latter’s universal basic
    principles: exhaustiveness.
   In Morocco, the methodology adopted in the setting of
    the statistical cartography takes in consideration the
    differences that exist between the two residence
    surroundings.

                                                             4
    HCP, MOROCCO
                   Cartography

    In urban area, this methodology didn't witness major
     modifications across the censuses. Based essentially on the
     actualization of the restitution plans of the cities, this
     approach has always been considered efficient to
     appropriately fulfill the census needs in reliable cartographic
     documentation.

    On the other hand, the natural specificities of the rural area,
     as well as the lack of recent and reliable cartographic
     materials, generally influenced the recommended approach for
     the statistical cartography in the rural area.



                                                                       5
    HCP, MOROCCO
               Objectives
   Provide coverage of the national territory with recent, reliable
    and exhaustive maps for the cities, as well as for the farming
    areas.
   Conduct the partition of the entire national territory in
    geographical zones (census districts) permitting to ensure the
    exhaustiveness of the census.
   Endow data collection teams (supervisors, controllers and
    surveyors) with cartographic documents assuring easy
    localization of the different observation units at the time of
    census execution (households, constructions, lodgings,
    professional use locals, etc.).
   Collect geographical information required to put in place the
    adequate organizational device and to assess the human and
    material means in order to succeed all the census stages.
   Build a ground sampling basis permitting to set up the inter-
    census program of households and population surveys on
    reliable data.
                                                                       6
HCP, MOROCCO
                   Urban area cartography
    The cartography conceived for the cities and urban centers
     kept a large constancy in the methodological content
     recommended for all censuses achieved since the country
     independence.

    It is based on the method of islets, and consists in achieving
     the main following tasks, prior to each census operation :




                                                                      7
    HCP, MOROCCO
               Urban area cartography
1.   Update the available cartographic funds of the urban
     communes for the whole territory.
     This is based on the previous census maps, completed by
     plans collected from different departments that are producing
     maps (restitution plans, physical planning, housing plans,
     etc.), notably for the peripheries and the extension zones of
     the cities. The scale of these cartographic mediums generally
     varies between 1 over 2000 and 1 over 5000.




                                                                     8
HCP, MOROCCO
               Urban area cartography
This activity consists in:
   1.  Noticing and reporting on these funds the shapes and the
       geographical positions of the islets and their components:
       constructions, lodgings, professional premises, etc.
   2.  Transcribing, on these maps, useful elements for addresses
       system to facilitate the localization of observation units, at
       the time of the census and the sampling surveys. This
       concerns the names of streets, avenues, facilities (schools,
       colleges, high schools, clinics, hospitals, hotels, etc.).




                                                                        9
HCP, MOROCCO
               Urban area cartography
2.   Partition the territory of cities and urban centers into census
     districts, on the updated map funds. A district is a well
     delimited geographical zone including a number of
     households to be counted by a census taker during legally
     fixed census data collection time. The sectors of control and
     the zones of supervision are then defined from the districts, as
     basic geographical units.




                                                                        10
HCP, MOROCCO
               Rural area cartography
      Approaches proposed for the farming areas underwent
        important innovations aiming to improve the quality of
        the cartographic documents.

      For the earlier censuses (after the independence: 1960,
        1971 and 1982), the approach combined the
        topographic maps, permitting to materialize and to set
        up the communes boundaries, and the lists of the
        farming localities: douars (villages) and sub-douars.
      The census districts are constituted in this case by a set of
        douars according to size criteria, in terms of
        households and especially of minimum distances to
        browse.
                                                                      11
HCP, MOROCCO
               Rural area cartography
    For the census of 1994, a great effort has been carried out
     by conducting the area partition of all the national farming
     territory, in the same way as in the cities and urban centers.

    The farming districts are defined thus as being the parts of
     the communes, having clear boundaries and an average
     number of households likely to be counted by one census
     taker during the census execution time.




                                                                      12
HCP, MOROCCO
                   Rural area cartography
   The methodology recommended for the cartographic
    partition in farming area takes notably into account the
    specificities relating to relief difficulties and the typology
    of the douars.

   The latter are characterized either by their “explosion” or
    by the scattering of their lodgings through generally
    large and uneasily accessible territories.

   The douars constituted in grouped agglomerations
    represent only the third of the total douars at the
    national level.

                                                                     13
    HCP, MOROCCO
                   Rural area cartography
   For each commune, the partition in census districts is
    made on the basis of topographic maps on the scale of
    1 over 50.000. These mediums give a detailed and
    accurate representation of the reported natural
    elements of the territory (roads, buildings, railroad
    tracks, transportation and electric energy lines, lakes,
    rivers, relief, etc.).

   However, we do not have thorough cartographic
    mediums for the farming localities (douars). In these
    cases, the cartographers are called on to prepare
    maps giving roughly the structures of habitat,
    construction and road network for the high seized
    douars.

                                                               14
    HCP, MOROCCO
                   Main difficulties met
   Insufficient cartographic coverage:

On the occasion of each passage of the cartographers
  (before every census operation), the cartographic
  teams seek cartographic funds permitting to
  appropriately update the statistical cartography.
To this end, the main departments and organisms from
  which we seek maps are: the Land-registry National
  Agency “Agence Nationale du Cadastre, de la
  Cartographie et de la Conservation Foncière”, the
  Urban Agencies, the Provinces and Prefectures
  technical services, the Urbanism and Regional
  Development Department.

                                                       15
    HCP, MOROCCO
                   Main difficulties met
The outcome is not always conclusive, either because the
  collected maps were old or because of lack of
  coverage, notably in the cities peripheries. In these
  cases, the cartographic staff is constrained to set up
  maps by using the steps method.

 Frequent changes in the borders of the communes
The limits between the communes are among the
  difficulties that hinder the cartographic work good
  progress. These are not defined by any cadastral plan
  and are subject to frequent changes because of new
  administrative partitions.

                                                           16
    HCP, MOROCCO
             Main difficulties met
 Incomplete system of addresses
Inexistent in farming areas, the system of addresses
  adopted in the cities and urban centers show important
  gaps, especially in the peripheral districts. To make up
  for this difficulty, we try to gather, during the
  cartographic work, a maximum of information to help
  better localizing the observation units (names of
  households heads, names of the basis facilities, etc.). In
  farming areas, the contribution of local authority
  representatives provide important support to surveys
  interviewers and census takers at the data collection
  time.
                                                               17
    HCP, MOROCCO
             Main difficulties met
 The programming of the censuses
The programming of the field cartographic works is set
  up according to the date planned for the population
  census execution. Any postpone of this date is likely to
  influence the quality of the maps prepared for the
  census. Updating tasks, caused by such rescheduling,
  often require important time and means mobilization.

 incompatibility of the douars “villages” with land
  partitioning
The “douar” is more an ethnic than a geographical
  concept. It is not always compatible with the
  principles of the adopted partition approach.

                                                             18
    HCP, MOROCCO
             Main difficulties met
   Appeal to insufficiently skilled staff for the
    cartography

The important mass of activities, generally required by
  the statistical cartography, and the buffer delays to
  respect for a guaranteed quality of the cartographic
  documents, require the mobilization of human means
  exceeding the potential of the department in charge of
  the census.
  This makes it necessary to resort to less than suitably
  skilled staff (in cartography training and
  qualifications).


                                                            19
    HCP, MOROCCO
    The Geographical Information System

   The geographical information occupies a growing
     place in the national statistical information
     systems. It includes two main components:
       – The map : conventional space representation;
       – The territory indexed statistical data.
   The technological progress permitted to bind these
     two components through the setting up of
     geographical information systems (GIS).
       – GIS include software and computer procedures
         conceived to enter, process, analyze and present data
         with spatial reference in link with their geographical
         localization.
       – They allow enriching the analysis and diffusion of
         statistical data and the publication of thematic maps.
                                                                  20
HCP, MOROCCO
    The Geographical Information System

   Aware of its contribution, and having all necessary
     elements for its development (maps, statistical
     databases), the Moroccan Statistics Directory
     undertook, since 1997, the process of setting up the
     geographical information system.




                                                            21
HCP, MOROCCO
                   Objectives

The objectives of the GIS of the Statistics Directory
  are mainly:
 to produce, for the censuses and the surveys, the
  maps and up-to-date geographical data, of good
  quality in terms of reliability and precision, and
  with savings in terms of costs and delays;

   to integrate the spatialized data of the different
    statistical databases, facilitating the follow-up of
    the demographic, socioeconomic and
    environmental evolution of the different
    territorial entities;
                                                           22
    HCP, MOROCCO
                   Objectives
 to provide a modern analysis tool for the
  presentation and dissemination of the statistical
  information, illustrating the phenomena that it
  describes on the corresponding cartographic
  medium;
 to provide new solutions for the development and
  management of the sampling bases and the
  drawing of the samples for the surveys purpose;
 to present a conceptual framework of
  management, organization and follow-up of the
  fieldworks of different statistical operations.
                                                  23
    HCP, MOROCCO
                   Setting up
   Throughout its activities (censuses, surveys, collection
    of administrative statistics), the Statistics Directory
    generates some databases relating to several themes:
    demography, economy, social, environment, etc.
    These data can be processed and analyzed on
    cartographic mediums allowing the visualization of the
    information for each geographical entity (region,
    province, circle, township, district, etc.).

   The digitalization of the cartographic mediums was the
    first work undertook in the process of setting up the
    GIS, and consisted in recording the maps of the
    different division levels as digital cartographic files
    including the real geographical coordinates.

                                                               24
    HCP, MOROCCO
                      Setting up
Plotting of the coordinates
 The cartographic medium used to constitute the GIS
  digital cartographic basis, which is the one of the
  1994 census, does not include any geographical
  coordinates; hence causing georeferencing
  difficulties. That is why the first task to achieve was to
  endow this medium with geographical coordinates.
 In urban areas, the superposition of the 1994 census
  cartographic mediums, and the plans of restitution or
  cities plans, permitted to put the geographical
  coordinates (X,Y) of at least three distinct points, by
  board, and that correspond to real reference marks.
 In farming areas, this operation consisted in reporting
  the limits of the different geographical entities on
  topographic papers.
                                                               25
HCP, MOROCCO
               Setting up
The geographical data entry: The geographical data
  entry was realized by the following processes:
 Scanning : transforming the analogical
  cartographic mediums in raster files, using AO
  format scanners.
 Digitalization : transforming the analogical
  cartographic mediums in vector files, using
  digitizing tables.
 Keyboard Data entry, notably with regard to the
  toponymy and the symbols of the geographical
  reference marks.
Georeferencing of the raster data
  It consists in transforming raster data, entered
  notably by scanner into data of vector type in the
  Lambert cartographic projection system.
                                                       26
HCP, MOROCCO
               Setting up
 Conception of the geographical database

 The previous stages have been achieved in an
   environment that includes a software of automated
   drawing engineering (Computer Aided Design)
   combined with a computer application that assures
   the link with the databases.
 For the ambitions of the Statistics Directory in spatial
   analysis, it has been judged appropriate to conceive
   a system that includes, in a same basis, the geometry
   as well as inherent data. The conception of such a
   geographical basis is structured as layers of
   information (points, lines or polygons).


                                                            27
HCP, MOROCCO
                Setting up
Each of these layers corresponds to an administrative entity
  (region, province, and township) or statistical (districts,
  sectors of control, segments, douars, etc).
This operation requires the transfer of data from the CAD
  files and their structuring according to the layers
  composing the geographical database.

Data transfer
 Data transfer process, started after the realization of the
  2004 census, adopts a methodological approach which
  respects the geographical database structure and retrace
  a priority order in the migration of information layers.



                                                                28
 HCP, MOROCCO
               Setting up

   Some layers are already transferred, controlled and cleaned:

      Layer of the regions representing the administrative limits
       of the 16 regions ;
      Layer of the provinces :62 provinces and Prefectures;
      Layer of the communes: 1.532 urban and rural
       communes ;
      Layer of the urban centers: 157 centers;
      Layer of the census districts; 37.000 districts ;
      Layer of the sectors of control: geographical zones
       composed from 3 to 4 census districts;

                                                                     29
HCP, MOROCCO
               Setting up
   Other data layers are now under transfer and integration in
     the database:

      Layer of the segments which are parts of farming districts
       (infra district);
      Layer of the douars represented as points illustrating the
       positioning of the farming localities.




                                                                    30
HCP, MOROCCO
               Achievements
Since its setting up, the GIS has enabled the Statistics Directory
   to:

   Elaborate the requested digital maps to realize the
    Economic Census of 2001 and its cartography;
   Produce and disseminate the population main features in the
    shape of a socio-demographic Atlas for the censuses of 1994
    and 2004;
   Produce the maps of the districts, sectors and supervision
    zones, required for the realization of the Population and
    Housing General Census of 2004 ;
   Constitute the ground sampling units for the purpose of the
    Master Sample ;
   Contribute to update the poverty maps 2004.


                                                                     31
HCP, MOROCCO
               Difficulties
   Lack of recent and reliable geo-referenced maps,
    sometimes causing the recourse to incompatible
    cartographic mediums. This affects data quality,
    especially the precision of the geographical
    coordinates and the positioning of the limits of
    administrative and statistical entities;
   Difficult access to the digital cartographic files
    belonging to the specialized departments in
    cartography and geographical information;
   Lack of coordination between the different
    departments that are producing the geographical
    information;
   Shortage in skilled human resources for
    geographical information processing.
                                                         32
HCP, MOROCCO
                   Conclusions
 Despite the difficulties, and what GIS
  implementation costs, our Department has
  benefited from the new maps.
 They provide an essential control device that
  guarantees consistency and accuracy of the
  census.
 They support data collection and help monitor
  census execution. Census takers and surveyors
  can more easily identify their assigned set of
  households.
                                                   33
    HCP, MOROCCO
An example of urban district map




                                   34
HCP, MOROCCO
       An example of rural district map




                                          35
HCP, MOROCCO
               An example of control sector map




                                                  36
HCP, MOROCCO
               Conclusions


Maps make it easier to present, analyze and
 disseminate census results. The Statistics
 Directory has published:

 Census results, and Socio-demographic atlas,
 Poverty maps (regional, provincial,
  communal,…)


                                                 37
HCP, MOROCCO
        Thematic map : Socio-demographic atlas 2004
        Population density by province




                                                      38
HCP, MOROCCO
       Thematic map : Infant mortality by province 2004




                                                          39
HCP, MOROCCO
     Poverty maps


A poverty rate for each commune
(urban and rural)
An estimated “Human Development
Index” for each commune;
An estimated “Social Development
Index” for each commune.

These Communal Poverty Rates
have been used to select the most
needy Communes for the “National
Human Development Initiative”
initiated in May 2005.




                                    40
    HCP, MOROCCO
               Perspectives


   Decentralization through the GIS at the level
    of the 16 Regional Directories of the HCP.
    This activity, placed in the forthcoming
    census preparation, includes:

    – Providing of hardware and software material;
    – Transfer of regional files and databases to
      Regional Directories (RD);
    – Training of the staff of the RD;
    – Technical assistance for the staff of the RD.

                                                      41
HCP, MOROCCO
                Perspectives

    Data conversion for the new environment: Up to
     now, some layers are transferred: regions,
     provinces, communes, districts and douars. Other
     layers transfer is ongoing.

    Reinforcement of technical and professional
     capability of the GIS staff through continuous
     technical knowledge update.

    Realization of a website permitting to provide users
     with GIS geographical information online.



                                                            42
HCP, MOROCCO
           Thank you very much


               M. Mohamed BENKASSMI

        High Commission of Planning,
                 Morocco.


                                       43
HCP, MOROCCO