Dual Language Immersion

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					Dual Language
Jewelee Hotchkiss
Dual Language and Head
Start Similarities
• Hands-on learning
• Print rich environments
• Parent, support, participation, and input on
• Appreciation and value of students’ cultures
• Focus on staff development
• Use of language models
• Research demonstrated results
One path to establishing a
Dual-Language program
1. Parent request to school board
2. Agreement and support of superintendent
3. Agreement, support, and action of school
4. Teacher and parent training
5. Recruitment of parents
What is a Dual
What is a Dual Language
An educational model that integrates native English speakers and
native speakers of another language for all or most of the day, with
the goals of promoting high academic achievement, first- and
second-language development, and cross-cultural understanding
for all students.

In two-way immersion programs, language learning takes place
primarily through content instruction. Academic subjects are taught
to all students through both English and the non-English language.
As students and teachers work together to perform academic tasks,
the students' language abilities are developed, along with their
knowledge of content area subject matter.

                                    Tools for Schools - April 1998
Why did it get started?
The earliest two-way immersion programs began in the 1960s and
1970s, in programs such as Coral Way in Miami and the Inter-
American Magnet School in Chicago.

Recent increasing interest in the two-way immersion model is most
likely due to the convergence of bilingual education research,
which has indicated that extended native language development
has positive educational outcomes for language-minority students,
and foreign language immersion research, which has shown that
native English speakers benefit from early foreign language
instruction through the immersion model.

                                  Tools for Schools - April 1998
What does it look like?
• Programs require a balance of Spanish-Dominant
  and English-Dominant students.
• There are several program models, the most
  common being 50/50 and 90/10.
• Spanish-speaking, bilingual, and English-only
  students are intermixed, and generally not divided.
• Can be implemented school-wide.
• Entry into the Dual-Language program generally
  occurs in kindergarten or first grade. Spanish-
  speaking students who have been schooled in
  Spanish may add later.
 Class Composition
Children   Optimal   Acceptable Acceptable

English-   10        7          13
Spanish-   10        13         7
Class      20        20         20
Instructional Time—50/50
Grade level    Spanish   English

  Kinder-6th    50%       50%
Instructional Time—90/10
 Grade level      Spanish   English
 Kindergarten      90%       10%
            1st    90%       10%
           2nd     80%       20%
            3rd    70%       30%
            4th    60%       40%
        5th-6th    50%       50%
Video 1
Morning welcome
Funding for Dual Language
•   Title I
•   Title III
•   Comprehensive School Reform (CSR)
•   No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
Dual Language Program
―In recent years, many school districts in the
U.S. have implemented dual language
programs. Dual language programs may also
be called two-way bilingual programs. Both
these names reflect the fact that all students
develop their first languages and add a second
language that is also developed to a high level
of proficiency.‖

                          ―Literacy for Dual Language
                          Programs‖ by Freeman (Language
                          Magazine—January 2005)
Benefits to
Spanish-Speaking Students
• Fluency in both English and Spanish at
  an academic level
• Long-term home language support
• Increased achievement in all academic
• Self-esteem because language and
  culture is supported and valued
English-Only Students
• Fluency in both English and Spanish at
  an academic level
• Increased achievement in all areas
• Increased awareness and value of other
Research indicates that dual
language students…
• Work hard in school.
• Are successful in high level classes in high
• Are more likely to attend college.
• Are highly employable in both local and world
• Develop strong pronunciation and expression
  skills in both English and Spanish.
• Develop excellent communication skills.
Second Language of Business
What executives of the USA’s 1,000 largest companies say is
the most valuable second language in business:
                                                     2%    4%





                              Source: Accountemps By Cindy Hall and Marcy E. Mullins, USA TODAY
Successful Dual Language
Immersion programs have…
• A Master Plan
• Qualified teachers who are fluent in English and
• Knowledgeable and committed administrators
• Full parental commitment ensuring continuous
  student enrollment
• A variety of Spanish and English learning materials
• A balance of Spanish and English-speaking students
1. High academic achievement for all
2. English and Spanish language fluency
   and literacy for all students
3. Positive cross-cultural attitudes
   promoting high self-esteem for all
Video 3
Show and Tell

PARENTS                    TEACHERS

Getting buy-in from the
• Parent Interest
• Research
  –   Student achievement scores
  –   Program goals
  –   Other Dual Language programs
  –   Eligible students
Getting buy-in from the
• Staff Development:
  – Research/Principles of Dual Language instruction
  – Teaching methods for Dual Language instruction
  – Interaction/support from current Dual Language
• Materials
  – Providing teachers with many Spanish & English
Getting buy-in from the
• Research
   – Student achievement
   – Dual Language program goals
   – Ability to learn English will not suffer
   – Advantages to children for the future
• Hearing other parents’ stories
• Seeing current Dual Language students present
Getting buy-in from the
• Cultural festivals
• Literacy festivals
• Get community sponsors for the program in whole or
  specific activities
• Media
   – Newspaper/TV coverage on the Dual Language
   – Recruit students in Newspaper or at community
Dual Language in
Tools for Language
•   Daily songs
•   Games
•   Hands-on science and math lessons
•   Cassettes & Videos
•   Books
•   Radio & TV
                    Dual Language Instruction, A Handbook for
                    Enriched Education (Cloud et.al)
Instructional Emphasis for
Early/Emergent Learners
• Vocabulary development (matching words and
• Phonemic Awareness
• Language pattern acquisition (songs & chants)
• Comprehension (dramatizations & illustrations)
• Decoding (producing rhyming words)
• Innovating (personalizing & creating stories)
• Story mapping (visual representations of reading)
• Technology (audio/videotaped stories/ CD ROM)

                          Dual Language Instruction, A Handbook for
                          Enriched Education (Cloud et.al)
  Materials for Second
  Language Learners should…
• Have an attractive and inviting layout
• Use many useful illustrations/graphics to aide conceptual
• Not have an overwhelming amount of text
• Be written in a logical and cohesive manner
• Be written at a level that students can read independently
• Be free of cultural bias and culturally diverse
• Have an easy typeface (easy to decipher & sized
  appropriately for children’s age)

                             Dual Language Instruction, A Handbook for
                             Enriched Education (Cloud et.al)
Video 3
Cooperative Learning
Wayne P. Thomas
Virginia P. Collier

A National Study of School Effectiveness
  for language Minority Students’ Long-
  Term Academic Achievement
Thomas & Collier
Major Policy Implications
 Parents who refuse bilingual/ESL services for their
 children should be informed that their children's long-
 term academic achievement will probably be much
 lower as a result, and they should be strongly
 counseled against refusing bilingual/ESL services
 when their child is eligible.

 The research findings of this study indicate that ESL
 or bilingual services, as required by Lau v. Nichols,
 raise students' achievement levels by significant
Thomas & Collier
Major Policy Implications
• Enrichment 90-10 and 50-50 one-way and
  two-way developmental bilingual education
  (DBE) programs (or dual language, bilingual
  immersion) are the only programs we have
  found to date that assist students to fully
  reach the 50th percentile in both L1 and L2 in
  all subjects and to maintain that level of high
  achievement, or reach even higher levels
  through the end of schooling. The fewest
  dropouts come from these programs.
                   Dual language

Submersion               additive             English
Sink or swim
        subtractive                subtractive
     ESL                                   Transitional
   Pull-out             additive            Early-exit
Self-contained                               Late-exit

                   Heritage lang.
                                     Dual Language Teaching and Learning
                                     in Two Languages (Soltero)
Thomas & Collier
Major Policy Implications
The strongest predictor of L2 student
achievement is amount of formal L1 schooling.
The more L1 grade-level schooling, the higher
L2 achievement.

Bilingually schooled students outperform
comparable monolingually schooled students
in academic achievement in all subjects, after
4-7 years of dual language schooling.
Figure A-1
Quasi-longitudinal analyses
Figure A-2
Quasi-longitudinal analyses

                              Thomas & Collier — Northeast Figures
Thomas & Collier
Major Policy Implications
 When ELLs initially exit into the English mainstream,
 those schooled all in English outperform those
 schooled bilingually when tested in English. But the
 bilingually schooled students reach the same levels
 of achievement as those schooled all in English by
 the middle school years, and during the high school
 years the bilingually schooled students outperform
 the monolingually schooled students (see Figure C-
Video 4
Story time & English time
Alicia Chacón Dual Language
• Comparison of Dual Language school to
  district and state averages on state mandated
• Program began over ten years ago.
• 90% Spanish
• 10% English
• 10% German, Chinese, Japanese or Russian
Spring 2000     Students       Students      Students      Students
 5th Grade      meeting at     meeting at    meeting at    needing any
   TAAS         least          least         least         remediation
Performance     minimum        minimum       minimum
Comparison      expectation    expectation   expectation
                on all tests   in math       in reading

  State of          84%            92%           87%          15.5%

Ysleta School       89%            96%           91%          10.6%

Alicia Chacón       95%            97%           97%          4.9%
 DL Program
Alicia R. Chacón International
School—El Paso Texas
Program coordinator—
  ―We start literature in Spanish in kindergarten. We
  don’t separate the groups, we don’t translate.‖

Third-grade teacher—
  ‖When they come to third grade, most of the students
  have a very solid foundation in Spanish
  literacy…They make a natural transition somewhere
  toward the middle or end of second grade. They start
  to read in English all by themselves. They pick up a
  book in English and say, ―Hey, I can read!‖
                             Designing and Implementing Two-Way
                             Bilingual Programs (Calderón &
   Alicia R. Chacón International
   School—El Paso, Texas
Parent—(translated from Spanish)
  ―At home, with my five children, my husband speaks English and I
  speak Spanish. But I noticed that the three older sons were beginning
  to forget Spanish…and they don’t want to speak Spanish...right now I
  have a daughter in seventh grade and she speaks and writes in
  Spanish very well and a daughter in second grade and she also
  speaks Spanish very well and she writes it well…I believe that my
  young girls will have more opportunity to be completely bilingual in this

Eighth-grade student—(translated from Spanish)
   ‖I think I am going to go to college because I want to study politics and
   maybe become an ambassador to Germany.‖

                                        Designing and Implementing Two-Way
                                        Bilingual Programs (Calderón &
Madawaska & Gateway
Elementary Schools, Maine
 • Two-Way Bilingual Education
   Immersion Program is a K-5
   French/English program which will
   eventually go through grade 8.
 • Between these two school districts,
   there are eight bilingual classes
   involving a total of about 300 students.
Madawaska & Gateway
Elementary Schools, Maine
 • CTBS/4 Grade 2 (Madawaska) (1997)
   Immersion program students outperform non-
   immersion students in reading, vocabulary, language
   mechanics, and total language score
 • CTBS/4 Terra Nova Grades 1-2 (Van Buren)
   Immersion students outperform non-immersion
   students in all areas of the test (reading, language
   mechanics, math, vocabulary, language composite,
   and computations)
Barbieri Elementary, Two-Way
Bilingual—Framingham, Mass.
• The Two-Way Bilingual Program in
  Framingham started in 1990-1991 with
  support from a Title VII grant in first
• Each year a grade level was added and
  the first cohort of students is currently
  (SY 1999-2000) in the 10th grade at the
  high school.
  Barbieri 4th Grade MCAS
  (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System)

Average Scaled Score Language Arts
     2-Way       School      District    State
     1998 1999 1998 1999 1998 1999 1998 1999

NES 241    247 233 234       236 236 233         234
NSS 225    226               222 221 221         222
 Barbieri 4th Grade MCAS
 (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System)

Average Scaled Score Mathematics
     2-Way      School      District    State
     1998 1999 1998 1999 1998 1999 1998 1999

NES 248 255 237 236 242 241 236 237
NSS 223 230                 222 219 221 218
Question &
Jewelee Hotchkiss
Recommended Reading
• Designing and Implementing Two-Way Bilingual
  Programs by Calderón & Minaya (2003)
• Dual Language Education by Lindholm (2001)
• Dual Language Instruction, A Handbook for Enriched
  Instruction by Cloud et.al. (2000)
• Dual Language, Teaching and Learning in Two
  Languages by Soltero (2004)
• ―A National Study of School Effectiveness for
  Language Minority Students’ Long-Term Academic
  Achievement‖ conducted by Thomas & Collier (2002)