Hotels_ Gastgewerbe_ Catering_ Tourismus

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					3.        Hotels, Restaurants, Catering, Tourism

3.1.      Introduction

In most countries hospitality is a growth sector which creates a large number of jobs. However,
the hospitality industry also faces numerous challenges and problems which affect the
employment situation in this sector:

-      Over 90% of businesses in the hotel, restaurant and contract catering sectors are small or
       medium-sized enterprises (SME), many of which are family-owned businesses with limited
       capital, a small number of staff, few career opportunities and low levels of automation and
       computerisation.

-      Growing competition and a strong process of concentration have led the large hotel chains to
       pursue a policy of rationalisation and cost-cutting, to the detriment of human resources.
       There is a particularly strong demand for cheap labour.

-      Changes in eating habits are resulting in a constant expansion of the fast food sector, which
       offers great potential for creating jobs. However, the sector mainly employs untrained or
       poorly qualified staff, mostly young people, who work part-time and belong to the lower
       wage categories.

-      Contract catering is also a growth industry. In the face of privatisation and cost saving
       programmes, more and more companies and public institutions are turning to contract
       catering services for their staff and customers. In this sector, too, growing competition has
       brought a process of concentration in its wake. The battle for contracts, which revolves
       predominantly around the criterion of price, is leading to rationalisation and cost cutting,
       with negative consequences for jobs.

-      Working conditions in the hotel, restaurant and catering sectors are characterised by longer
       than average and irregular working hours, a high proportion of fixed-term contracts, part-
       time and seasonal work and below-average pay and social security insurance.

-      The shortage of attractive jobs and the lack of sufficient training and career opportunities
       have led to high staff turnover rates and a shortage of qualified, motivated staff.

-      In the contract catering sector there is a growing tendency for companies to outsource
       activities previously performed by their own staff. This includes the award of contracts for
       room cleaning or restaurant service in hotels to external service providers. This results in
       reductions in company staff, and, because the main reason for subcontracting is to cut costs,
       frequently goes hand in hand with a deterioration in working and employment conditions for
       staff employed by subcontractors.

-      The growing level of automation in some areas (e.g. kitchens, reception) puts traditional
       career profiles in jeopardy and creates new challenges for staff training.

-      The hotel, restaurant and catering sector is one of the sectors with the highest proportion of
       illegal employment. Undeclared employment is a threat to the existence of law-abiding


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       companies, as it forces them into cutthroat competition, erodes existing social security
       systems and undermines the credibility of the sector as a whole.

-      Consequences of the various scandals and crises in the agriculture and food sectors are also
       to be seen in the hospitality industry. For example, entire regions found themselves without
       tourist activity after reports of cases of foot and mouth disease. New regulations for food
       safety and hygiene developed at European level also affect the hotel, restaurant and catering
       sector. Workers are frequently not sufficiently involved in the development and
       implementation of these regulations and in policing compliance. In many cases they also
       receive no proper training, although they are ultimately responsible for ensuring that safety
       and hygiene regulations are complied with in their day-to-day work.

-      Scandinavian studies have shown that workers in the hospitality sector are exposed to
       increased health risks. In some countries, hospitalisation and death rates for cooks, waiters
       and other catering staff are higher than for other categories of worker, and their average life
       expectancy is a few years below the general average.

-      The recent acceleration of the concentration process in the tourism sector and the growing
       presence of a handful of large tour operators which have integrated the entire chain of tourist
       activities under a single umbrella and are gaining an increasingly dominant position the
       tourism market are affecting employment and working conditions, particularly at tourist
       destinations.

-      Compared with the traditional industrial sectors, the level of unionisation among workers in
       the hospitality industry is relatively low. This fact, which is attributable to the specific
       characteristics of this sector (e.g. small businesses, seasonal and temporary work, use of
       subcontractors) represents the main obstacle to an effective representation of workers‟
       interests at national and European level.

All of the above factors combined reduce the ability of the hospitality industry to provide high
quality services, putting one of the most important competitive advantages of the sector at risk.

However, other events have also had a general effect on tourism over the past few years: terrorist
attacks, such as those in New York and Madrid, wars, such as those in Iraq and Afghanistan,
epidemics, such as the SARS outbreak in China, and environmental disasters, such as the
tsunami, have had a serious detrimental effect in some sectors, and in some cases have also had
severe consequences for employment in these sectors in Europe.

3.2.      Objectives and areas of activity in the work of the Sector

EFFAT‟s general objectives for the tourism sector are:
- to improve employment and working conditions
- to improve initial and continued vocational training and the recognition of qualifications
- to increase workers‟ information and consultation rights
- to promote equality and equal opportunities
- to make occupational mobility easier for workers
- to support its member organisations in the EU enlargement process



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3.2.1.   Employment and working conditions

The key concern in the work of EFFAT‟s Tourism Sector is to improve working conditions for
staff in the hospitality industry. This would also make jobs in the sector more attractive and
make it possible to recruit and retain sufficient qualified and motivated staff.

The measures needed to achieve this, such as
-    greater sustainability of employment, by, for example, reducing precariousness and
     implementing special measures for seasonal workers
-    the provision of career perspectives and opportunities for workers in the sector
-    the introduction of regulated systems for planning working time which enable employees to
     combine professional and private life
have been proposed by EFFAT in the social dialogue with the employers‟ associations, in its co-
operation with the institutions, in European Works Councils and other areas.

-    EU Directives

The Sector has devoted a great deal of attention to legislative initiatives at European level, such
as the proposal for a Directive on services in the Single Market and the proposal for a Directive
concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time, which have potentially serious
consequences for employment conditions in the hotel and restaurant sector if implemented in the
envisaged form.

In the case of the services Directive, we are opposed in particular to the “country of origin
principle”, which would make it more difficult to monitor compliance with statutory and
collectively agreed employment conditions and social provision in the country in which a service
is provided. In a sector such as the hospitality industry, where abuses in posting employees are
already widespread in the provision of services across borders, it is essential to prevent any
further erosion of protective provisions for workers; rather, measures are needed to prevent social
dumping and create conditions for fair competition.

In the case of the working time Directive, we are strongly opposed to the extension of the period
for calculating average weekly working time to 12 months, retention of the “opt-out” from the
maximum weekly working time of 48 hours and the definition of the “inactive part of on-call
time” as non-working time.

Working time regulations negotiated by trade unions and employers‟ associations giving
companies the flexibility they need to accommodate periodic fluctuations in demand are already
in force in the hospitality sector in most countries. We therefore expressly oppose any further
relaxation of the provisions to protect workers.
In a series of targeted initiatives, EFFAT warned the decision makers in the European institutions
and Member States of the particular dangers for the hospitality sector associated with the
application of the new principle of “inactive part of on-call time” in the working time Directive.

EFFAT tried to issue joint positions with HOTREC on both of the above issues, partly because
joint positions by the social partners lend greater emphasis to our concerns. Unfortunately,
HOTREC was not prepared to co-operate.



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-       Working and employment conditions in the European hotel and restaurant sector

EFFAT and many of its national member organisations were involved from the outset in the
sector study on work and employment conditions in the European hotel and restaurant sector
conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
in Dublin. The consolidated report based on the national reports was published at the beginning
of 2004 1. On the whole, it did not contain anything new, but provided a realistic description of
the situation in the sector.

On 13 May 2004, EFFAT took part in the seminar held by the Dublin Foundation in Brussels
“Creating more and better employment – a sector-wide initiative”, which was organised to give
the social partners the opportunity to discuss the results of the study and agree possible follow-up
measures.
Under the pretext that most of the topics concerned were already covered in the social dialogue,
the employers in the hotel and restaurant sector rejected the idea of joint follow-up measures.
The employers‟ representative in the contract catering sector was alone in highlighting the need
to improve working conditions in the fast-growing, dynamic hospitality sector in order to secure
its ability to compete in the long term and hence its ability to survive.

EFFAT took part in the following meetings as part of the work carried out on the study:

     15-16 July 2002, Brussels, “Sector studies on employment conditions” steering committee
     12-13 December 2002, Dublin, steering committee
     3-4 April 2003, Brussels, steering committee
     13 Mai 2004, Brussels, seminar “Creating more and better employment – a sector-wide
      initiative”

3.2.2.      Training and qualifications

Another key concern in the work of the Sector is that of initial and continued vocational training
and qualifications for employees. These are not only important for the personal and career
prospects of workers, but are also essential for the success of companies, for guaranteeing quality
standards and for ensuring compliance with health and safety and hygiene regulations.

EFFAT is therefore committed to measures aimed, among other things, at
-  achieving a general improvement in initial and continued vocational training and lifelong
   learning
-  providing improved comparability and mutual recognition of vocational qualifications
   (important wherever there is a high level of cross-border mobility)
-  achieving transferability of qualifications gained in in-house training (important in the light
   of the frequent changes of contract in the contract catering sector)
-  providing special services for seasonal workers, such as training during interseasonal
   periods
-  increasing the involvement of the social partners in planning, implementing and evaluating
   training measures



1
    See: http://www.eurofound.eu.int/publications/files/EF0398EN.pdf
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-    Training guidelines for “responsible service of alcohol”

The Amsterdam Group (TAG), an international alliance of leading beer, wine and spirit
producers (Allied Domecq, Bacardi-Martini, Diageo, Pernod-Ricard, Heineken, Interbrew, Moët
Hennessy, Scottish & Newcastle, Rémy Cointreau, Brown-Forman, Coors), is concerned about
efforts by the European Commission to combat alcohol-related harm, which include the
possibility of taking action against “irresponsible stakeholders”, i.e. anyone responsible for
supplying alcoholic beverages.
In anticipation of Community action in this area, TAG has launched an initiative to develop
guidelines for training programmes for “responsible service” to support the introduction of
training of this kind in all Member States of the EU.

With the aim getting other major stakeholders to join this initiative, TAG has contacted EFFAT
to ask it to support this project. After consultation with its member trade unions, EFFAT has
agreed to become involved. A colleague from PAM, Finland, is representing EFFAT in the
group of experts responsible for preparing a handbook on the development of training
programmes for the responsible service of alcohol.

EFFAT took part in the following meetings as part of its co-operation with TAG:
 23 June 2004, Brussels, task force on “Guidelines for national training programmes for the
   responsible service of alcohol”
 13 January 2005, Brussels, expert working group for the preparation of “Guidelines for
   national training programmes for the responsible service of alcohol”

3.2.3.   EU enlargement

EFFAT supported the process of reforming the tourism sector in central and eastern Europe, and
in particular pressed for the early inclusion of member organisations from the new Member
States in the social dialogue and the activities of the European Works Councils.

EFFAT invited representatives of the tourism trade unions from Slovenia, Hungary and Austria
to a round table on “Trade union strategies for the development of trans-regional labour markets
and the integration of workers in the enlargement process of the EU” on 29 and 30 August 2002
in Maribor, Slovenia. The potential impacts of accession to the EU by the CEE countries on the
labour markets and collective bargaining in the border regions were discussed with major
regional and international operators (politicians, chambers, employment offices, EURES) and
strategies were developed for cross-border sectoral co-operation. The aim of the event was to
support the social and labour market aspects of the enlargement process. The issue of recognition
of training qualifications plays an important role in securing social standards, and the participants
agreed that in view of the high level of cross-border mobility among workers in the hotel and
catering sector the introduction of a European qualification passport for the sector was essential.
However, a document of this kind only makes sense if it is accompanied by a genuine recognition
of qualifications and improved international career opportunities.

In November 2003 EFFAT conducted a survey of member trade unions in the candidate countries
on “Transnational companies and the representation of workers in the future EU Member States”
to prepare for the inclusion of employee representatives from these countries in the existing

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EWCs and gather information about companies which would become obliged to set up EWCs
after enlargement.


3.2.4.    Recruitment of trade union members and mutual recognition of trade union
          membership

The recruitment of trade union members is one of the most important challenges to be addressed
by trade unions all over Europe. Faced with a high percentage of young workers, large numbers
of skilled workers leaving the hospitality sector after a short time because of poor employment
conditions, and a generally high staff turnover rate, trade unions in the hotel and restaurant sector
need to make special efforts to maintain and increase membership numbers.

Member organisations have reported regularly on successful recruitment measures at the annual
conferences of EFFAT‟s Tourism Sector, and EFFAT has compiled a list of proven good
practices to enable all member organisations to benefit from the positive experiences of others 2.

In order to put into practice the principle of mutual recognition of trade union membership
enshrined in its Constitution in the tourism sector and to support its member organisations‟
efforts to recruit new members, EFFAT produced the leaflet “Protection of rights across Europe
for trade union members in the hotel and restaurant sector”. Workers engaged in occupational
activity in a foreign country can access information, advice and legal protection from EFFAT
member organisations in their country of employment, provided that they are full members of a
trade union affiliated to EFFAT in their own country. In an industry characterised by a high level
of cross-border mobility such as the hotel and restaurant sector, services of this kind can be
offered as an additional service for union members and provide a further incentive for non-
unionised workers to join a trade union.

3.2.5.    Gender equality

In line with the aims of EFFAT‟s Constitution and its work programme on equality, which
require the dimension of equal opportunities and the gender perspective to be taken into account
in all areas of policy planning (“gender mainstreaming”), the Sector discussed the conditions of
female employees in the hotel and restaurant sector at its general assemblies.

It was resolved that a study should be carried out on the problems specific to the sector in the area
of gender equality. In a survey of member trade unions information would be gathered on
employment conditions specific to women in the sector, the statutory and collectively agreed
regulations aimed at achieving equality and measures by trade unions and companies to promote
women, and results would be used as a basis for identifying solutions and preparing initiatives.

3.2.6.    European Works Councils

The general assemblies received regular updates on the activities of the European Works
Councils in the hotel, restaurant and catering sector.



2
 see Annex: Initiatives of EFFAT member organisations in the tourism sector for the successful recruitment of trade
union members
                                                                                                                 6
The responsible European institutions were informed of problems in setting up European Works
Councils which can be attributed to special characteristics of the sector (e.g. franchising,
management contracts) so that they could be taken into account in the revision of the Directive on
European Works Councils (definition of the controlling undertaking).

The establishment of and support for European Works Councils in companies belonging to a
number of tourism sub-sectors (e.g. Thomas Cook, TUI, MyTravel) were co-ordinated within the
framework of the European Trade Union Liaison Committee on Tourism (ETLC).

Further information on the activities of EWCs is provided in section ...

3.2.7.   Co-ordination of collective bargaining

The hotel sector is one of seven EFFAT sectors in which data are being gathered on the demands
and results of collective bargaining with the aim of creating a system of mutual reporting on
collective bargaining. The synoptic tables containing the results of the annual surveys are
regularly brought to the attention of the member trade unions.

Examples of the regional co-operation between sectoral trade unions propagated by EFFAT are
given below.

The following meetings were organised as part of the co-operation between the German-speaking
EFFAT affiliates in the hotel and restaurant sector:
 8-9 January 2002, Vienna
 9-10 July 2002, Lucerne
 8-9 January 2003, Amsterdam
 25-26 March 2004, Berlin
Topics on which information was exchanged included:
- the employment and labour situation in the sector
- review of collective bargaining
- vocational training and pension insurance systems in the various countries and opportunities
   for trade union intervention
- protection of young workers and youth work
- the eastward enlargement of the EU and consequences for the sector
One concrete result of this co-operation was the publication of a joint information leaflet on
mutual recognition of trade union membership for employees working in a foreign country.

The Nordic hotel and restaurant trade unions organised a conference for trade unionists and
employee representatives from transnational hotel and restaurant chains in Sweden, Denmark,
Norway, Finland and Iceland on 27-29 January 2001 in Norrköping, Sweden, with the aim of
exchanging experiences gained in the work of existing EWCs and developing strategies to
improve the work of the EWCs in the future.

3.2.8.   Sectoral Board

The composition of the Sectoral Board was confirmed as follows at the general assembly of the
Tourism Sector in February 2005:


                                                                                                7
Region                                 Member                             Deputy
Nordic countries                       Aage JENSEN                        Birgitta KIHLBERG
Central and eastern Europe             Pal KOVACS                         NN
East Mediterranean                     Emilio FARGNOLI                    Nicos EPISTITHIOU
West Mediterranean                     Fernando MEDINA                    Joaquin ALITE
BeNeLux/France                         Valter SURIAN                      Réné LAOUENAN
Germany/Austria/Switzerland            Michaela ROSENBERGER               NN
Ireland/Great Britain                  NN                                 NN

The death of our Sector President, John HERRSTRÖM, HRF, Sweden in December 2003 was a
severe blow for all our member organisations. As there were three candidates for the post of
Sector President at the general assembly, and consensus could not be reached on a proposed
solution, and in order to avoid a divisive vote at the meeting, it was decided that the election of
the Sector President should be postponed to the next general assembly. The continued
functioning of the Sector is assured by the Sectoral Board.

The following colleagues stepped down from the Sectoral Board during the last congress period:
Zlatko VORACEK, COSPHCR/Czech Republic, Claudio TREVES, FILCAMS-CGIL/Italy,
Reiner WITTORF, NGG/Germany, Harry DONALDSON, GMB/Great Britain, Javier
SIGUERO, FECHTJ-UGT/Spain and Carmelo CARAVELLA, FILCAMS-CGIL/Italy. The
Sector would like to thank them for all their hard work.

3.2.9.   Conclusions

Since the first congress period, it is clear that the Sector has stepped up its activities, co-operation
between member organisations has been improved, and the profile of the sector as a whole has
been raised.

As staff and financial resources for the activities of the Sector are limited, we must continue to
set clear priorities. The general assembly is responsible for defining the priorities of the Sector
and the strategies and instruments needed to achieve the agreed objectives.

To increase our collective muscle further, we must strive to improve the co-ordination of EFFAT
activities at European level with the activities of the member organisations at national level.

3.2.10. EFFAT Tourism Sector events:

   18 April 2001, Luxembourg, Tourism Sectoral Board
   25-26 October 2001, Brussels, seminar: “Improving the social dialogue in the European hotel,
    restaurant, catering and tourism sector” and general assembly of the Tourism Sector
   24 April 2002, Brussels, Tourism Sectoral Board
   29-30 August 2002, Maribor, EFFAT round table: “Trade union strategies for the
    development of trans-regional labour markets and the integration of workers in the
    enlargement process of the EU”
   2-3 October 2002, Brussels, conference: “New developments in the social dialogue in the
    tourism sector: eastward enlargement of the EU, Agenda 21 / sustainability” and general
    assembly of the Tourism Sector
   27 June 2003, Brussels, Tourism Sectoral Board

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   11-12 November 2003, Brussels, conference: “Corporate social responsibility in the European
    hotel and restaurant sector – innovative measures” and general assembly of the Tourism
    Sector
   24-25 February 2005, Brussels, conference: “Socially responsible change” and general
    assembly of the Tourism Sector

3.3.     Sectoral social dialogue

3.3.1.   Social Dialogue in the European hotel and restaurant sector

The social dialogue with the European employers‟ association for hotels, restaurants and cafés
has existed since 1984.

In 2000, due to the attitude of HOTREC, which blocked all issues and initiatives proposed by
EFFAT, the social dialogue was abandoned. Work was resumed in 2001 after HOTREC received
an express mandate from its general assembly to continue the social dialogue.

The principal topics covered in the social dialogue with HOTREC were:

-   developments in the hotel and restaurant sector
-   initial and continued training and qualifications
-   EU enlargement
-   Corporate Social Responsibility
-   legislative initiatives at EU level, e.g. Value Added Tax, temporary agency work, working
    time, anti-discrimination

3.3.1.1. Study on medium-term trends in the hospitality sector and their impact on
         enterprises and the labour market

On resumption of the social dialogue in 2001, EFFAT and HOTREC commissioned a study on
“Medium-term trends in the hospitality sector and their impact on enterprises and the labour
market” 3 from the Hotel School of the Hague.

The study examined the challenges which the hospitality sector will need to overcome as a result
of predicted demographic, sociocultural, technological and ecological-economic changes in the
medium term, and made recommendations for possible responses by the sector with regard to
labour, consumers, enterprises and the environment.

3.3.1.2. Training and qualifications

One of the main conclusions reached in the study “Medium-term trends in the hospitality industry
and their impacts on companies and the labour market” was that the hospitality industry must
respond to new challenges such as demographic change, changing consumer habits, better
informed consumers, demand from customers for higher quality and technical innovation
primarily by improving vocational and continued training for its workers if it wishes to remain
attractive as a sector on the labour market.

3
  see Annex: “HOTREC/EFFAT study on medium-term trends in the hospitality sector and their impact on
companies and the labour market”, complete version at www.effat.org
                                                                                                  9
Follow-up measures:

-    Identification of new training and development models in the hospitality sector

A specific follow-up measure from the study on medium-term trends was the joint study on
“New training and development models in the hospitality sector” carried out by the social
partners, which aimed to collect examples of successful training initiatives tailored to take
account of the changing environment for the European hospitality industry. The results of the
study were summarised in a report entitled “Training and development under construction – the
hospitality sector in a changing environment” 4. At an interactive seminar on 11 December 2003,
selected examples of innovative practices were presented and discussed by the social partners.

-    Guidelines of the social partners for continued training in the hotel and restaurant sector

At the plenary meeting of the social dialogue on 11 June 2004, EFFAT and HOTREC adopted a
series of joint recommendations for the implementation of continued training and staff
development measures 5. These recommendations should, above all, encourage small and
medium-sized enterprises in the hospitality sector to do more to promote the continued training of
their employees and provide them with ideas on how to carry out successful training measures.

The document outlines approaches to solving the problems faced by small and medium-sized
enterprises in the hospitality sector in particular in the area of staff training, such as their small
size, infrastructure, time and financial resources.

The guidelines are based on the results of the joint study by EFFAT and HOTREC on “New
training and development models in the hospitality sector”, which aimed to compile a set of
examples of successful training initiatives tailored to take account of the changing environment
for the European hospitality industry.

-    Electronic and flexible learning in the hospitality sector

To encourage greater use of new information and communication technologies for continued
vocational training in the hospitality sector, EFFAT and HOTREC discussed the possibility of
working together to produce a continued training programme which would be of particular
interest to workers in small and medium-sized enterprises, who often find it difficult to take part
in external training programmes of long duration.

The plan was to develop a pilot programme on the subject of conflict management in the
workplace based on existing programmes for electronic and flexible learning. However, after
examining various funding options, it became clear that this project would exceed the financial
and staff resources of the respective Secretariats. The partners now plan to organise a meeting
with representatives of national training establishments responsible for vocational and continued
training in the hospitality sector and interested social partners and to take an inventory of existing

4
    see Annex: report “Training and development under construction – the hospitality sector in a changing
    environment” (English version), complete version, at www.effat.org
5
    see Annex: “Guidelines for training and development especially in SMEs in the hotel, restaurant and café sector”
    (English version)
                                                                                                                 10
electronic and flexible learning methods in the hospitality sector and consider possible ways
forward.

-    Survey on structures and institutions of the national social partners responsible for training
     and employment

To learn more about the structures, institutions and methods of the national social partners in the
various countries in the area of employment and vocational training and to enable their
experiences to be used in activities at European level, EFFAT and HOTREC conducted a survey
of their national member organisations on joint structures and institutions in each country and
their activities in the area of employment, vocational and continued training and the recognition
of qualifications. The results of this survey were discussed at the plenary meeting of the social
dialogue on 31 May 2001 6.

-    Documentation of skills acquired in vocational and continued training and qualification

EFFAT has once again placed the development of a qualification passport for the European hotel
and restaurant sector on the agenda.

EFFAT and HOTREC followed the development of the Europass introduced at EU level, which
expressly allows the possibility of supplementary sectoral documents, and kept each other
informed of the experiences gained with European qualification certificates in a number of
sectors (landscape gardeners, metal industry).
Using identified current initiatives and instruments as a basis, the social partners examined the
feasibility of a joint project.

-    Improving the attractiveness of the hospitality sector on the labour market

At the plenary meeting of the social dialogue on 15 January 2004, representatives of national
associations in France, Great Britain and The Netherlands gave presentations on national
programmes to improve the image of the hospitality sector and accompanying measures.

3.3.1.3. EU enlargement

-    EFFAT/HOTREC joint declaration on EU enlargement

In the joint declaration on EU enlargement signed by EFFAT and HOTREC at the plenary
meeting of the social dialogue on 22 November 2002 7 the social partners gave their response to
the expectations and fears aroused by the enlargement of the EU in the Member States and
candidate countries.

In this document, the European employers in the hotel and restaurant sector acknowledge for the
first time, among other things, that:

-    the same statutory and/or collectively agreed provisions should apply to all workers employed
     at a particular location
-    steps must be taken to combat illegal/undeclared employment
6
    see EFFAT website: www.effat.org
7
    see Annex: “EFFAT – HOTREC joint declaration on EU enlargement”
                                                                                                11
-   all initiatives by EFFAT and HOTREC member organisations to combat exploitation and
    social dumping should be supported
-   solid and constructive working relations should be developed between the member
    organisations of EFFAT and HOTREC in the acceding countries
-   employers and trade unions in all EU countries should launch joint initiatives to inform
    migrant workers about their rights and obligations

This joint declaration is an important step forwards in our efforts to avoid any potentially
negative consequences of enlargement. The use of migrant labour must not be permitted to lead
to discrimination, exploitation, social dumping and poor labour relations in the European
hospitality sector. It is now up to HOTREC to prove in practice that it takes these obligations
seriously.

As measures to put their joint declaration on EU enlargement into practice, EFFAT and
HOTREC support initiatives in which employers and trade unions work together to inform
migrant workers about their rights and obligations or to train them for work in enterprises in the
hotel and restaurant sector.
In February 2003, EFFAT and HOTREC conducted a survey in the EU Member States on
measures of this kind, with the aim of gathering information on good practices. A number of
initiatives were presented at the plenary meeting on 20 June 2003 by representatives from
Denmark, Italy and Ireland.

In addition, EFFAT supported the production of a joint brochure for migrant workers which
would provide them with information on tourism in Europe and current social legislation and a
list of contact details for national trade unions and employers‟ associations which could provide
further information on subjects such as working conditions, qualifications and collective
agreements. However, this project was not realised, as HOTREC did not see any need for action
in view of the fact that most Member States have introduced waiting periods for access by
workers from the new Member States.

-   Participation of social partners from the new Member States

EFFAT and HOTREC had urged the Commission repeatedly from a very early stage to enable
representatives from the candidate countries to take part in the European dialogue before their
countries‟ accession to the EU, as early involvement would strengthen labour relations in the
candidate countries.

In May 2003, HOTREC and EFFAT conducted a survey of their member organisations on the
“Situation of the social dialogue in the hotel and restaurant sector in the future Member States of
the EU”. The purpose of this survey was to gather information on the representativeness of the
sectoral trade unions and employers‟ associations in the candidate countries and to find bodies
interested in participating in the sectoral social dialogue in the European hotel and restaurant
sector in the capacity of observers.
The social partners from Hungary were the first to send representatives to the meetings of the
social dialogue committee on a regular basis.
Unfortunately, participation by representatives from the new Member States is still limited by the
fact that interpreting into the new Community languages is not available. EFFAT has been
pressing the Commission to provide this for a long time.


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3.3.1.4. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

At the plenary meeting of the social dialogue on 10 December 2004, EFFAT and HOTREC
signed a joint paper on “Initiatives for improving Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the
hospitality sector” 8.

The paper defines CSR measures as a voluntary instrument which goes beyond statutory and
collectively agreed obligations. The need to comply with the ILO Conventions on basic
principles and fundamental rights of work, the EU charter of fundamental rights, etc. is expressly
emphasised. The social partners acknowledge that CSR must not replace statutory and
collectively agreed obligations and that companies must not use CSR initiatives as an excuse for
withdrawing from these obligations.

The areas for which measures exceeding statutory and collectively agreed requirements have
been proposed are: equal opportunities and non-discrimination, working conditions and the
organisation of work, fair pay, vocational and continued training and lifelong learning, health and
safety, restructuring and relations between social partners.

Measures to implement, monitor and revise the agreement comprise: requests to national member
organisations to disseminate and discuss the paper at national level, the gathering and
dissemination of good CSR practices as the most important means for exchanging experiences
and as a source of learning and inspiration, and regular evaluation of collected examples of good
practices and revisions of the paper within the framework of the sectoral social dialogue.

Although the draft version does not reflect EFFAT‟s ideas in all respects, it is nevertheless a step
forwards. Ultimately, it is essential to use this document, for example, as a basis for pushing
forward CSR initiatives at national and enterprise level and evaluating the results of these
initiatives at European level.

3.3.1.5. Value Added Tax

For many years, EFFAT and HOTREC have been calling for a harmonised, lower rate of VAT to
be applied throughout Europe for the hospitality sector, as they believe this would have a direct
effect on employment and help to reduce undeclared employment.

At the plenary meeting of the social dialogue on 20 December 2001, HOTREC and EFFAT
signed an updated version of their joint declaration on the effects of VAT on business and
employment in the hotel, restaurant and café sector 9.

The French employers in the hospitality industry carried out a one-day action on 3 June 2002 in
which they reduced the Value Added Tax on their services from the current rate of 19.6% to
5.5% for one day and promised that a general reduction to this level would enable the sector to
create 158,000 new jobs within 18 months. In addition, this measure should, among other things,
enable a 5% reduction in prices, higher wages and increased growth and allow important
investments to be made.


8
    see Annex: “Initiatives for improving Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the hospitality sector”
9
      see Annex: “Joint declaration by EFFAT/HOTREC on the effects of VAT on business and employment in the
      hotel, restaurant and café sector”
                                                                                                        13
Based on the conviction that the joint initiative could achieve greater success if a comparable
“offer” were to be made at European level, EFFAT invited HOTREC to give an undertaking that
a certain number of jobs would actually be created if a lower, uniform rate of VAT were to be
introduced in the hospitality sector across Europe. Unfortunately, HOTREC was not prepared to
give such an assurance.

3.3.1.6. Internal rules of procedure for the social dialogue committee for the hotel,
         restaurant and café sector at European level

At the meeting of the social dialogue on 11 June 2004, EFFAT and HOTREC signed the paper
“Internal rules of procedure for the social dialogue committee for the hotel, restaurant and café
sector at European level”, in which they define the objectives, tasks and procedures for the
activities of the sectoral social dialogue 10.

3.3.1.7. The following meetings took place within the framework of the social dialogue in
         the European hotel and restaurant sector:

     22 February 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     31 May 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC social dialogue plenary meeting
     21 September 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC seminar “Medium-term trends in the
      hospitality sector and their impact on enterprises and the labour market”
     8 November 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     20 December 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC social dialogue plenary meeting
     15 January 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     15 March 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     12 April 2002, Copenhagen, HOTREC seminar on Value Added Tax
     23 April 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC social dialogue plenary meeting
     29 May 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     13 September 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     22 November 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     13 December 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     22 January 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     14 March 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     11 April 2003, Catania, HOTREC seminar on EU enlargement
     14 May 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     20 June 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC social dialogue plenary meeting
     10 September 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     7 November 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     11 December 2003, Brussels, interactive EFFAT / HOTREC seminar “New training and
      development models in the European hospitality sector”
     12 December 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee
     15 January 2004, Brussels, EFFAT/HOTREC social dialogue plenary meeting
     19 February 2004, Brussels, EFFAT/HOTREC steering committee
     14 May 2004, Brussels, EFFAT/HOTREC steering committee
     11 June 2004, Brussels, EFFAT /HOTREC social dialogue plenary meeting

10
     see Annex: “Internal rules of procedure for the social dialogue committee for the hotel, restaurant and café sector
     at European level” (English version)
                                                                                                                     14
   17 September 2004, Brussels, EFFAT/HOTREC steering committee
   18 November 2004, Brussels, EFFAT/HOTREC steering committee
   10 December 2004, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC social dialogue plenary meeting
   3 February 2005, Brussels, EFFAT / HOTREC steering committee

3.3.2.   Social dialogue in the European contract catering sector

The co-operation started in 1998 with the European federation of contract catering organisations,
FERCO, continued to prove highly constructive. FERCO has a positive attitude towards the
social dialogue and is interested in investing in activities on specific topics.
The representativeness of FERCO remains limited at EU level: through the large contract
catering chains FERCO does, indeed, represent the companies with the largest market share, but
it does not have affiliates in all EU Member States which are recognised social partners at
national level. Progress in developing the contract catering sector is also slow in the new
Member States.

The social dialogue with FERCO covered the following main topics:

-   Initial and continued vocational training
-   Food safety and hygiene
-   Analysis of collective agreements specific to the contract catering sector
-   Inclusion of social and quality criteria in the award of contracts
-   Corporate Social Responsibility
-   EU enlargement
-   Value Added Tax
-   Transfers of undertakings

3.3.2.1. Training and qualifications

-   Agreement on vocational training in the European contract catering sector

Progress in implementing the 1999 agreement between EFFAT and FERCO on principles for
vocational training in the European contract catering sector is reviewed on a regular basis at the
plenary meetings of the social dialogue.

To date, the Belgian and French social partners have adopted these principles specifically in
national agreements on vocational training. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an
agreement between the sectoral social partners at European level has been used as a basis for
national agreements.




                                                                                               15
-     Survey on employment, recruitment and continued training in the contract catering sector

The results of the survey into recruitment, employment and training within contract catering
companies were presented at the plenary meeting of the social dialogue on 11 December 2002 11.

3.3.2.2. Food safety and hygiene

EFFAT and FERCO monitor progress with the adoption of new EU draft Directives on food
safety and hygiene on a regular basis to enable the training manual on hygiene in the contract
catering sector to be revised jointly to reflect new regulations.

3.3.2.3. Study on collective agreements specific to the contract catering sector

EFFAT and FERCO carried out an analysis of existing collective agreements in the European
contract catering sector in collaboration with the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI). The
aim of this study was to gain an overview of the collective bargaining situation in the European
contract catering sector and extract provisions specific to collective agreements for the sector.
The report “A comparative study on collective agreements specific to the contract catering sector
in five EU Member States” 12 was presented at the plenary meeting of the social dialogue on
11 December 2002.

3.3.2.4. Inclusion of social and quality criteria in the award of contracts

EFFAT and FERCO agreed to carry out a joint project to promote the inclusion of social and
quality criteria in the award of contracts in the contract catering sector.
An EFFAT / FERCO steering committee was tasked with managing the production of the guide
“Promoting the criterion of the most economically advantageous offer in the contract catering
sector” by an external consultant. A specific aim of the guide was the improvement and
recognition of social standards in the sector by providing decision-makers in public and private
establishments responsible for the award of catering contracts with a tool which would enable
them to take account of other criteria besides price.
A preliminary draft of the guide was presented at the plenary meeting of the social dialogue on
9 March 2005 13.
Further planned activities are translation of the guide into various Community languages and
production of a brochure and an interactive website. The guide will be presented at a conference
scheduled for October 2005, after which it will be distributed.

3.3.2.5. Corporate Social Responsibility

FERCO is also interested in working with EFFAT on the subject of Corporate Social
Responsibility. A preliminary draft of an agreement produced by FERCO was discussed at the
plenary meeting of the social dialogue on 9 March 2005.

11
     see Annex: “EFFAT/FERCO questionnaire on recruitment, employment and training in contract catering
     companies – summary of results”, complete version at www.effat.org
12
     see Annex: “A comparative study on collective agreements specific to the contract catering sector in five EU
     Member States”, complete version at www.effat.org
13
     see Annex: “Promoting the criterion of the most economically advantageous offer in the contract catering sector”,
     complete version at www.effat.org
                                                                                                                   16
3.3.2.6. EU enlargement

The question of how to prepare the candidate countries for implementation of the EU‟s high
standards for food safety within the context of enlargement and of how to ensure that expertise
and training are transferred to the acceding countries is a matter of great importance for the
contract catering sector.
The social partners discussed the situation at the plenary meeting of the social dialogue on
11 December 2002, and identified a particularly urgent need for action in the area of training for
workers in enterprises, administrative bodies and regulatory agencies.

3.3.2.7. Transfers of undertakings

A preliminary survey of member trade unions in 1998 revealed that there were problems in the
contract catering sector in many countries with application of the Directive on safeguarding
employees‟ rights in the event of transfers of undertakings.
The Directive requires the Commission to present a report on the effects of the provisions of the
Directive and propose any necessary amendments by 17 July 2006. The social partners have
brought the particular concerns of the contract catering sector on this issue to the attention of the
Commission.

3.3.2.8. Value Added Tax

On 24 February 2003, EFFAT and FERCO signed a joint declaration in favour of a reduced rate
of VAT for the contract catering sector 14. Against the background of the discussions on the
introduction of a harmonised system of VAT, the European institutions and Member States are
being urged to guarantee a reduced rate of VAT for the sector in view of its social nature, and to
avoid any negative consequences on employment in the sector which might arise as a result of
applying the normal (higher) rate of VAT.

3.3.2.9. The following meetings took place within the framework of the social dialogue in
         the European contract catering sector:

     1 March 2001, Paris, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     6 June 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     27 August 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     7 September 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     22-23 November 2001, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO social dialogue plenary meeting
     21 May 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     4 June 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     5 July 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     17 September 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     10-11 December 2002, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO social dialogue plenary meeting
     4 February 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     5 March 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
     9 April 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
14
     see Annex: “EFFAT – FERCO joint declaration in favour of a reduced VAT rate for the contract catering sector“
     (English version)
                                                                                                               17
   30 June 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
   29 October 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
   1-2 December 2003, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO social dialogue plenary meeting
   10 February 2004, Brussels, EFFAT/FERCO steering committee
   30 March 2004, Brussels, EFFAT/FERCO steering committee
   12 May 2004, Paris, EFFAT/FERCO steering committee
   22 June 2004, Paris, EFFAT/FERCO steering committee
   15 September 2004, Paris, EFFAT/FERCO steering committee
   19 October 2004, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO steering committee
   8-9 March 2005, Brussels, EFFAT / FERCO social dialogue plenary meeting

3.3.3.   Conclusions

Although the social dialogue in the European hotel and restaurant sector has become more
constructive, it has still not progressed beyond exchanges of information and joint projects and
positions.

In comparison, the social dialogue in the European contract catering sector has made far more
concrete progress, with the establishment of an initial agreement on vocational training which has
been used as a basis for national regulations in some countries and production of a guide on
achieving the most economically advantageous offer in tendering for contracts which provides
decision-makers responsible for defining award criteria with a tool developed by the social
partners for evaluating proposals.

The activities of the social dialogue must be made more results-oriented, with concrete results
which improve working conditions for employees in enterprises and strengthen the position of
the trade unions at national level.

We are keen to make better use of the increased powers available to the social partners at the
sectoral level, too, to enable us to influence European policy and negotiate and conclude
agreements, as envisaged by Articles 189 and 139 of the Amsterdam Treaty.

EFFAT has repeatedly urged the European institutions to play a more active role and, among
other things, to recognise the social dialogue and the special role of the social partners in all
services of the Commission.




                                                                                               18
3.4.     European Trade Union Liaison Committee on Tourism (ETLC)

The European Trade Union Liaison Committee on Tourism (ETLC), founded in 1995 by the
European trade union federations and the international trade secretariats representing workers in
the tourism sector, is a forum for co-operation which aims to combine the strength of the trade
unions in representing workers‟ interests.

In April 2002, the participating secretariats resolved to continue their collaboration in the ETLC.

The objectives of the ETLC are:
- to influence European tourism policy
- to improve cross-border collaboration of trade unions in transnational tourism companies and
   strengthen international solidarity
- to exchange information on employment, working conditions and the unionisation of workers
   in the European tourism industry and on the activities of the secretariats in the tourism sector
- to organise joint tourism events in Europe
- to promote initial and continued vocational training in the tourism sector
- to promote the social dialogue in the European tourism sector
- to represent common opinions and interests wherever possible

Its major working priorities of the past few years were:

3.4.1.   Transnational companies / concentration in the tourism industry

Information on developments in transnational travel and tourism companies was exchanged on a
regular basis at the meetings of the ETLC.

The conference on “The impact of concentration in the travel and tourism industry on the tourism
sector in countries of destination” organised by the ETLC on 12-13 March 2001 in Tenerife
provided an opportunity to discuss the future of tourism in Europe, the concentration process in
the European travel and tourism industry and the significance of integrated tour operators for
tourist destinations with representatives from travel and tourism companies and international
institutions.
It became clear that the large tour operators intend to use the dominant market position gained as
a result of their economic strength primarily to offer “cheap” deals for customers, so that
competition will be based entirely on price. The representatives of these companies denied any
form of responsibility for social and other consequences in destination countries. Of particular
significance in this regard was the last-minute cancellation by the hotel association of Tenerife,
which chose to distance itself from a contribution on the subject of “the influence of integrated
travel companies on the tourism industry in areas of destination” as negotiations were about to
commence with the large tour operators on the quotas for the season.
Trade union representatives from Spain and Italy outlined the impacts of the concentration
process in the European travel and tourism industry on the tourism sector at tourist destinations,
particularly with regard to employment, social and employment conditions, quality, staff
management and vocational and continued training.
Employee representatives from the European Works Councils of Preussag/TUI and Club
Méditerranée spoke about the role of the EWCs in representing workers‟ interests during
corporate restructuring processes caused by mergers and takeovers.
                                                                                                 19
This conference once again highlighted the importance of international meetings of this kind and
the need for employee representatives and trade unions in the tourism sector to collaborate
extensively across borders and sectors.

3.4.2.      EU enlargement

At the conference “Strengthening cross-border co-operation of workers‟ representatives in
transnational transport, travel and tourism companies” organised by the ETLC on 13-14 October
2004 in Budapest, employee and trade union representatives discussed the new challenges facing
the tourism sector as a result of the EU of 25 and the activities of transnational transport, travel
and tourism companies in the new Member States.

The conference underlined the importance of including employee representatives from the new
Member States in the existing European Works Councils at the earliest possible opportunity and
of establishing EWCs in companies which would gain a Community-wide dimension on
enlargement.
The action points adopted by the conference to improve the information, consultation and
participation rights of workers in the new enlarged Europe describe, among other things, the tasks
of the various stakeholders in gathering and disseminating information on the presence of
transnational companies in the new Member States and the legal principles for the appointment of
employee representatives, the important role of the European trade union federations in co-
ordinating the process, and the need for training on EWCs for union and staff representatives in
the new Member States 15.

3.4.3.      Sustainable tourism

In November 2002, the ETLC adopted a position paper on sustainability in the tourism sector 16.
In July 2003, EFFAT and ETLC issued a joint response to a hearing by the Commission on
policy options for sustainable European tourism.
Two trade union representatives nominated by the ETLC were appointed in the capacity of
experts to the Commission‟s Tourism Sustainability Group, which has been tasked with
producing an Agenda 21 for the European tourism industry.

3.4.4.      Co-operation on the Mediterranean region of the EU

The Mediterranean is one of the world‟s major tourist destinations.
The ETLC examined the possibility of organising a European Mediterranean conference for the
tourism sector, for which suggested topics included:
- social conditions
- free movement of workers / migration
- human resources / vocational and continued training
- transnational companies
However, in view of the tense political situation in the Middle East this project was put on ice
until further notice.



15
     see Annex: Action points for “Strengthening the information, consultation and participation rights of workers in
     transnational companies in the enlarged Europe” (English version)
16
     see Annex: “ETLC position paper on sustainability in the tourism sector” (English version)
                                                                                                                  20
3.4.5.     Co-operation with employers’ associations

Representatives from ETIN (European Tourism Industry Network), BITS (Bureau International
du Tourisme Social) and UNICE were invited to attend meetings of the ETLC with a view to
exchanging information on goals and activities in the tourism sector and identifying possible
areas of co-operation.

3.4.6.     Terrorism and Tourism

At its meeting on 12 October 2001, the ETLC discussed the impacts of the terrorist attacks in the
USA on tourism and decided to publish a joint position on tourism and terrorism 17, in which they
state that during the temporary economic difficulties in tourism companies employers and trade
unions must negotiate with each other to find socially acceptable solutions in order to maintain
jobs and working conditions as the basis for high quality services in the tourism sector.
However, it is necessary to address the underlying reasons for international terrorism and conflict
by making greater efforts to reconcile the diverse political, economic, social and cultural interests
of the world‟s societies in a peaceful manner.

3.4.7.     The following meetings took place as part of the co-operation in the ETLC:

     12-13 March 2001, Tenerife, ETLC conference: “The impact of concentration in the travel
      and tourism industry on the tourism sector in countries of destination”
     8 May 2001, Brussels, ETLC meeting
     12 October 2001, Brussels, ETLC meeting
     11 April 2002, Brussels, meeting of the secretariats participating in the ETLC
     7 Mai 2002, Luxembourg, ETLC meeting
     21 October 2002, Luxembourg, ETLC meeting
     19 February 2003, Geneva, UNI Tourism
     5 Mai 2003, Brussels, ETLC meeting
     21 November 2003, Brussels, ETLC meeting
     6 May 2004, Brussels, ETLC meeting
     13-14 October 2004, Budapest, ETLC conference: “Strengthening cross-border co-operation
      between workers‟ representatives in transnational transport, travel and tourism companies”

3.4.8.     Conclusions

The activities of the ETLC have resulted in an increased recognition of the trade unions by the
European institutions. The ETLC is consulted by the institutions on all initiatives relevant to
tourism and included in related activities.

The endeavours of the trade unions to speak with one voice wherever possible have, in fact, led
the institutions to suggest to the employers‟ and industrial associations in the tourism sector that
they should work together in a similar fashion to represent their interests.

The cross-sector collaboration proved highly successful, particularly in setting up and assisting
European Works Councils in tourism companies which employ workers from a range of

17
     see Annex: ETLC statement “The impact of the terrorist attacks in the US and of the subsequent events on
     tourism”
                                                                                                          21
subsectors. The tourism conferences provide a frequent opportunity for preliminary consultations
between employee and trade unions representatives on common ways forward in establishing
EWCs.

3.5.       European institutions

3.5.1.     European Commission

In recent years, EFFAT has been included to an increasing extent in the Commission‟s activities
on tourism.

-     Future of European tourism

Trade union representatives were included in 4 of the 5 working groups appointed by the
Commission in 2000 on the subjects of information, vocational and continued training, high
quality tourism, sustainable tourism and new technologies and tourism, the results of which were
used in the Commission‟s Communication on “Providing a framework for the future of European
tourism: a strategic and co-operative approach”, which was submitted to the Council of Ministers
for the internal market/consumer affairs in November 2001 and provided the foundation for a
European tourism policy for the medium term. EFFAT issued a position on the proposed
Communication in October 2001 18.

The Communication contained a number of important aspects regarding vocational and continued
training, improving the quality of tourism services and the need to develop tourism in an
economically and socially sustainable way. EFFAT stressed that the role played by the social
partners in particular in the practical implementation of the proposed activities should be
emphasised more strongly by the Commission and supported by concrete measures.

-     Tourism in the draft European constitution

EFFAT has pushed for the inclusion of an article on tourism in the proposed European
constitution. The newly-adopted Article 181a does not reflect all our demands, but can
nevertheless be used as a springboard for new initiatives to improve general conditions in the
hospitality industry.

-     European Tourism Forum

Since 2002, the Commission under the respective Presidencies has been organising annual
European Tourism Forums. EFFAT has ensured that trade union representatives were included
in these forums as speakers, rapporteurs or participants and that the views of the trade unions
were reflected in the discussions and results, particularly on issues such as employment and
qualifications, taxation, new trends in tourism and sustainability.

-     Agenda 21 for European tourism

EFFAT took part in the consultations held by the Commission to explore the options for a policy
on sustainable European tourism. In October 2002, EFFAT adopted a “Position paper on
18
     see Annex: “EFFAT position on the proposed Communication of the Commission on „Providing a framework for
     the future of European Tourism: a strategic and co-operative approach‟”
                                                                                                          22
sustainability and tourism” 19. EFFAT representatives are included in the capacity of experts in
the Commission‟s Tourism Sustainability Group, which has been tasked with producing an
Agenda 21 for European tourism.

The European Commission organised the following tourism events:

     5 September 2001, Brussels, Tourism Advisory Committee
     18 October 2001, Brussels, special meeting on the impacts of the terrorist attacks in the USA
      on tourism
     16 April 2002, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2002 European Tourism
      Forum
     11 June 2002, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2002 European Tourism
      Forum
     1 October 2002, Brussels, Tourism Advisory Committee
     10 December 2002, Brussels, European Tourism Forum
     25 March 2003, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2003 European Tourism
      Forum
     9 April 2003, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of an Agenda 21 for sustainable
      tourism in Europe
     17 June 2003, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2003 European Tourism
      Forum
     4 September 2003, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of an Agenda 21 for
      sustainable tourism in Europe and Tourism Advisory Committee
     26 September 2003, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2003 European
      Tourism Forum
     28-29 November 2003, Abano Terme, European Tourism Forum
     29 January 2004, Brussels, “Networks in tourism” and “Areas of training in tourism” steering
      committees
     5 February 2004, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2004 European Tourism
      Forum
     6 February 2004, Brussels, “Sustainable tourism and transport” steering committee
     29 March 2004, Brussels, conference: “EU support for the tourism sector”
     30 March 2004, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2004 European Tourism
      Forum
     20 April 2004, Brussels, “Networks in tourism” steering committee
     20 April 2004, Brussels, “Sustainable tourism and transport” steering committee
     7 May 2004, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2004 European Tourism
      Forum
     16 June 2004, Brussels, “Areas of training in tourism” steering committee
     2 July 2004, Brussels, “Networks in tourism” steering committee
     9 July 2004, Brussels, “Sustainable tourism and transport” steering committee
     15-16 October 2004, Budapest, European Tourism Forum
     18 February 2005, Brussels, Steering committee for preparation of the 2005 European
      Tourism Forum
     23 February 2005, Brussels, Tourism Sustainability Group (TSG)


19
     see Annex: “EFFAT position paper on sustainability and tourism”
                                                                                                23
3.5.2.   European Parliament

During the last term, the European Parliament reduced its activities on tourism. The Committee
on Transport and Tourism, which had been extended to include regional policy, devoted hardly
any attention to tourism issues and suspended the activities of the Intergroup on tourism.

After the elections to the European Parliament in 2004, the old structure of the Committee on
Transport and Tourism was reinstated, and at the beginning of 2005, a group of interested MEPs
started a new Tourism Intergroup. EFFAT will take part in these activities.

The European Parliament organised the following tourism events:

   19 February 2002, Brussels, hearing on “The future of tourism in Europe”
   1 February 2005, Brussels, hearing on “The future of tourism in Europe”

EFFAT sent speakers to both of the above hearings of the EP.

The resolution adopted by the European Parliament on 14 May 2002 on the future of European
tourism, which was based on the results of the hearing, identifies the need to improve the quality
of employment in tourism by paying greater attention to vocational and continued training, career
opportunities, recognition of qualifications, the protection of workers in insecure employment
and the fight against illegal employment. The resolution proposes that a study be carried out on
the human resources requirements in the various sectors and regions. It also calls for the
introduction of quality standards for vocational and continued training and invites the
Commission to issue a Communication on the recognition of vocational qualifications of workers
in the tourism sector at European and national level.

The Committee for Transport and Tourism will draw up another position on tourism based on the
results of the hearing on 1 February 2005.

3.5.3.   EU Presidencies

EFFAT continued its policy of making early contact, in collaboration with the national trade
unions, with the politicians responsible for tourism in the Presidencies of the Council and
informing them about the priorities of the trade unions in tourism.

On 20 February 2002, representatives from EFFAT and the Spanish trade unions FECOHT-
CC.OO and FECHTJ-UGT met the general secretary responsible for tourism of the Spanish
Minister for economic affairs, trade and tourism for an exchange of views on their respective
activities and priorities in the tourism sector. The Spanish Presidency supported, among other
things, the creation of a European observatory for tourism, improvements in the gathering of
statistical information on tourism, which should include information on employment and
employment contracts, and the inclusion of social criteria and the sustainability aspect in
assessing the quality of tourism services.

However, the resolution on the future of European tourism presented by the Spanish Presidency
of the Council in May 2002 and approved by the Council of Ministers for the internal
                                                                                               24
market/consumer protection/tourism fell some way short of meeting our expectations. In a press
release issued on 16 May, EFFAT welcomed the resolution, as it contained a number of
important elements which were also on our own agenda, such as the need to assess the impacts of
Community policy and measures on tourism, to examine the economic and social reality of the
sector and gather reliable statistical information, to promote sustainable, high-quality tourism, to
step up consultation and collaboration with the tourism industry, and to co-operate with candidate
countries and the Mediterranean region. At the same time, we expressed our disappointment at
the fact that the Council resolution made no mention of the important role played by the trade
unions and the social partners in implementing the proposed measures.

On 12 July 2002, EFFAT and the Danish trade union RBF met representatives of the Danish
Tourism Board in Copenhagen for an exchange of views on their respective activities and
priorities in the tourism sector. The union representatives were disappointed to discover that
there would be few, if any, initiatives on tourism under the Danish Presidency. The Danish
Tourism Board, appointed by the Danish government to represent the sector under the
Presidency, supported many of the initiatives proposed by EFFAT, such as improving the social
dialogue in the existing and candidate countries, increasing the quality of tourism services by
improving employee training and qualifications, the introduction of quality certificates and the
development of minimum social standards to prevent unfair competition, the need for better
statistics, including statistics on employment, and so forth. However, there were no plans to
integrate these topics into EU tourism policy, as not a single meeting of the ministerial working
group on tourism was scheduled for the second half of 2002.

Co-operation with representatives of the Irish and Hungarian Presidencies was developed within
the framework of the preparations for the various tourism events.

The following meetings took place:

   20 November 2001, Brussels, meeting with the Belgian Minister for employment and tourism
   20 February 2002, Madrid, meeting with the Spanish Minister for economic affairs, trade and
    tourism
   12 July 2002, Copenhagen, meeting with the Danish Tourism Board
   5 April 2004, Dublin, participation at the conference organised by the Irish Presidency on
    “Tourism – competitiveness and sustainability in the European context”

3.5.4.   European Economic and Social Committee (EESC)

EFFAT co-ordinates the nomination of experts for Group II of the European Economic and
Social Committee (Employees) on tourism issues. EFFAT was consulted by the EESC on the
preparation of opinions relating to tourism.

Documents published by the EESC included: “The Future of Tourism in Europe” (2002),
“Socially sustainable tourism for everyone” (2003), “New Forms of Tourism” (2003), “Tourism
policy and co-operation between the public and private sectors” (2004) and “Tourism and Sport”
(2004).




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3.6.     Other international organisations

3.6.1.   International Labour Organisation (ILO)

Tripartite ILO HOTOUR conference

The special tripartite conference organised by the International Labour Organisation on the
subject “Human resources development, employment and globalisation in the hotel, catering and
tourism sector” on 2-6 April 2001 in Geneva reached the following conclusions which are of
particular relevance to us and form the basis of the ILO‟s future activities in the sector:
- The need to respect the ILO Conventions on trade union and collective bargaining rights and
    the principles of the declaration on transnational companies and social policy, particularly in
    view of the impacts of trends towards privatisation and deregulation which go hand-in-hand
    with globalisation.
- Non-acceptance of subcontracting as a means to undermine industrial relations, retention of
    employment conditions
- Priority of full-time employment over all other forms of employment and equal treatment of
    full and part-time employment with regard to statutory and collectively agreed framework
    provisions.
- The need to improve employment conditions for female workers, and in particular to combat
    all forms of discrimination and sexual harassment.
- Harmonisation and mutual recognition of qualifications
- The need to establish consultation structures in the event of restructuring measures
- Recognition of the social dialogue at regional and international level
- The need to combat child labour and in particular the sexual exploitation of children in
    tourism.
The conference adopted three resolutions:
- on occupational health and safety in the hotel, restaurant and tourism sector
- on equal treatment of men and women working in the hotel, restaurant and tourism sector,
    and
- on special measures to promote tourism during the low seasons by offering tourist
    programmes for senior citizens.
Aims which remained unachieved were the inclusion of a reference in the conclusions to
implementation of ILO Convention 172, the establishment of a permanent tripartite working
structure in the sector and the adoption of a resolution on trade union rights.

Special meeting of the ILO on the impact of the tourism crisis

The ILO called a special meeting on 25-26 October 2001 to discuss the impacts of the crisis in
the tourism sector on employment. The representatives of the trade unions and employers‟
associations agreed joint recommendations for measures to be undertaken by governments, the
ILO and the social partners themselves to deal with the crisis in the tourism sector caused by the
events of 11 September.
Governments were urged to support consultation between the social partners at national and local
level with a view to alleviating negative consequences of the crisis. Cost-saving measures should
be monitored by tripartite structures to ensure that the principles of preserving jobs and
acceptable employment conditions were followed. In addition, programmes for continued
training which would encourage workers to remain in the sector and safeguard the future of the
industry should be supported.
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Employers‟ associations and trade unions were urged to find common approaches to expanding
employment and avoiding and limiting job losses, and to give priority wherever possible to
reintegrating workers facing short-term job losses.

The meetings were attended by EFFAT representatives.

   2-6 April 2001, Geneva, tripartite conference: “Human resources development, employment
    and globalisation in the hotel, catering and tourism sector”
   25-26 October 2001, Geneva, special meeting on the impacts of the crisis in the tourism
    sector


3.6.2.   World Tourism Organisation (WTO)

The WTO organised a seminar on 22-23 May 2003 in Malta on European integration and the
development of tourism. It was attended by an EFFAT/IUF representative, who presented the
activities of the European social partners in the hotel and restaurant sector and their joint
endeavours to prevent any negative consequences of European enlargement, particularly for
employment and working conditions.

The ETLC conference on “The impact of concentration in the travel and tourism industry on the
tourism sector in countries of destination” in March 2001 in Tenerife was attended by a
representative from the WTO, who gave a contribution on the topic “The future of tourism in
Europe”.

   22-23 May 2003, Malta, WTO seminar on European integration and the development of
    tourism

3.6.3.   Bureau International du Tourisme Social (BITS)

EFFAT has maintained contact with the International Bureau of Social Tourism (BITS), the
central body for organisations offering tourism programmes for special groups of the population
such as the young and the elderly, families, workers, etc. The sector employs approx. 500,000
people.

BITS indicated at an early stage that it would be willing to increase co-operation, but EFFAT has
always made the possibility of joint initiatives conditional on a statement from BITS on its
understanding of its role as an employers‟ association. A draft of a joint declaration which would
form the basis for co-operation between EFFAT and the regional section of the BITS, the
European Commission for Social Tourism (CETS), was approved by the General Assembly of
the Tourism Sector in February 2005.

EFFAT representatives attended the BITS world congresses in 2002 and 2004.

   13 May 2002, Mexico, BITS world congress
   28 April 2004, Blankenberge, BITS world congress




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