Directorate-General for Education and Culture
TEACHING AND LEARNING:
1 Introduction ➨ an overview of the practical actions that
have been, and continue to be, undertaken
The European Community has been active in
➨ key facts and figures about the Language
the field of language learning for several decades
actions financed by the Community and
and has made a significant contribution to it.
➨ a summary of the main innovations in the
It has invested several hundreds of millions of world of foreign language teaching
Euros in practical actions to encourage people sponsored by the Commission.
to learn foreign languages and to improve the
opportunities available to them. Links to other sources of information are
However, because the Community is involved in
so many different aspects of foreign language
education, it is often easy to lose sight of its
impact. This document has therefore been
produced to provide, in a simple form,
2 The Lingua Programme 3 Languages in Education - the
On 28 July 1989, the Lingua programme was
created. Its objective: to improve the quantity The first phase of the Socrates programme for
and the quality of language teaching in the European cooperation in the field of education
European Union. It came into force on 1 lasted from 1995 to 1999. The second phase
January 1990 and lasted until 1994. Lingua had began in 2000 and runs until 2006.
➨ cooperation between language teacher 3.1 Languages in the first phase of
training institutions and individual training
the Socrates Programme
grants for language teachers;
➨ support for in-service training of language Within the first phase of the Socrates
teachers; programme, there were five Lingua actions:
➨ promotion of language skills in the world of ➨ A: programmes of cooperation between
work and creation of didactic materials; institutions of language teacher-training;
➨ Joint Educational Projects for language ➨ B: grants to language teachers for in-service
learning (including exchanges of young training abroad;
people); ➨ C: Lingua Assistantships for future language
➨ development of language learning materials teachers in educational establishments;
for less widely used and less taught ➨ D: development of instruments for language
languages. learning, teaching and skills assessment;
During the period 1990 to 1994 the Lingua ➨ E: Joint Educational Projects for language
learning between groups of young people in
different participating countries.
➨ enabled 19,000 teachers of a foreign In addition, other actions of the programme
language to undertake in-service such as Comenius (cooperation in school
training abroad; education) and Erasmus (cooperation in higher
➨ helped 83,000 young people and their education) also had a language dimension.
teachers to become involved in Joint
Educational Projects with schools
3.2 Languages in the second phase
of the Socrates programmei
➨ created 800 transnational partnerships to
promote the training of teachers of a Within the second phase of the programme, the
foreign language; promotion of language learning is a key theme
running throughout the programme. Actions A,
➨ gave 32,000 university students a B, C, and E of the first phase continue, and have
mobility grant. been integrated into the new action dealing with
With the creation of the Socrates programme of school education (Comenius ii). Actions on
action in the field of education, established on higher education (Erasmus iii) and adult
14 March 1995, and the Leonardo da Vinci education and other educational pathways
programme in the field of vocational training, (Grundtvig iv) also have a language aspect.
established on 6 December 1994, Lingua was
reinforced and integrated as a horizontal In addition, the new Lingua action v takes a
measure into each. more strategic approach through measures
designed to encourage and support linguistic
diversity throughout the Union, to contribute to
an improvement in the quality of language
teaching and learning and to promote access to
lifelong language learning opportunities
appropriate to each individual’s needs.
It includes new activities in the field of raising
awareness about language learning, motivating
citizens to learn languages, improving citizen’s Examples of the activities undertaken
access to language learning opportunities and include the creation of:
disseminating information about best practice in
➨ new materials for nine target languages
which are designed to train foreign
The target languages of the language actions language assistants and other non-
continue to be all the 11 official languages of the trained native speakers who are called
Union, plus Letzeburgesch and Irish. Norwegian on to provide language classes in
and Icelandic, the languages of the European schools;
Economic Area (EEA) countries participating in ➨ training materials for teachers of the 3-8
the programme, are eligible as well. The recent years age group in which some subjects
opening up of the programme to countries from can be taught in part through the
central and eastern Europe and Cyprus, has medium of a foreign language;
meant that eligible languages now include the
official languages of Romania, Hungary, the ➨ training courses on the effective use of
Czech Republic, Cyprus, Poland, Slovakia, youth literature in foreign language
Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Bulgaria and teaching;
Slovenia. ➨ projects which provide teachers with
Priority continues to be accorded to the less skills in using IT effectively in the
widely used and less taught languages of the languages classroom;
Community. ➨ modules training teachers to teach other
subjects (e.g. geography, science,
Whilst the structure of phase 2 of the mathematics) through the medium of a
programme is somewhat different from that of foreign language;
phase 1, the basic purpose of the language
actions remains: ➨ training on the management of
‘differentiated teaching’ (teaching
➨ to help create the conditions in which
mixed-ability groups) in the language
language teaching and learning can flourish, classroom.
➨ to help encourage European citizens to take Details of many projects are available at:
advantage of the possibilities available to http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languag
learn and speak the languages of the EU as es/lang/teaching.html#links
foreign languages. The benefits of taking part in a European
cooperation programme go far beyond the
3.3 Cooperation between Language creation of new training products for teachers.
Teacher-Training Institutions vi For the partner institutions, they include an
increased understanding of the methods and
Through European cooperation programmes, approaches to language teacher training in other
institutions responsible for training language participating countries, the sharing of ideas and
teachers develop closer working ties with best practice across national boundaries, and the
counterparts across Europe and produce opportunity to take part in a joint venture in the
practical teacher training courses and materials creation of new knowledge and methods.
that draw upon the best experience in Europe.
They may focus on the initial or the in-service
training of teachers of a foreign language, and 3.4 Grants to language teachers for
aim to improve the teaching of teachers in the in-service training vii
pre-primary, primary, secondary, vocational or Eligible courses last between two and four
adult education sectors. ECPs target all Lingua weeks. Each participating teacher benefits from
languages. a EU grant contributing to travel costs,
Since 1991, almost 22 million euros has been subsistence and tuition fees. Grants have
spent to joint-fund these projects. averaged around 1,100 euros.
The courses aim to improve teachers’
pedagogical as well as their linguistic abilities,
although some courses, particularly in less
widely used languages, concentrate on language introduction of such languages into schools.
Host schools have the opportunity to bring a
➨ Between 1995 and 1999, a total of 39 native speaker who is also a trainee teacher into
million euros was spent on grants to their lessons, to add extra languages to their
teachers for in-service training. curriculum or to improve the teaching of
➨ It is estimated that by the end of the existing languages. Assistants also often
same period, 34,600 teachers from EU participate in organising other European
and EFTA/EEA countries had taken projects, notably pupil exchanges under Joint
part in in-service training courses Educational Projects. In many cases, too, they
abroad. are active in projects involving the local
community around the school where they are
Demand for the action is high. Around two- working.
thirds of applicants are unsuccessful in obtaining
Lingua Assistants go to all countries
a grant. External evaluation reports highlight
participating in Socrates. Over a third of
participants’ positive appreciation of this action,
Assistants have undertaken their assistantships
the resolve of these participants to follow this
in countries where the main languages spoken
type of continuing training on a regular basis
are usually classified as less widely used (Danish,
and the added value this action brings to their
Dutch, Greek, Portuguese, Finnish, Swedish,
Icelandic or Norwegian) and have thus been
able to acquire or enhance their skills in those
3.5 Assistantships for future language languages.
teachers viii ➨ Between 1995 and 1999, 13.2 million
Assistantships last between three and eight euros was allocated to this action.
months. Assistants receive their travel expenses ➨ By the end of the same period, over
plus a monthly grant to meet basic needs, 2,800 future foreign language teachers
calculated according to the cost of living in the had undertaken Lingua Assistantships.
host country. The average total funding per
Assistantship is around 4,000 euros. Demand has risen dramatically since the action
began, reaching over six times the number of
There are significant differences between Lingua Assistantships available, and demand from host
Assistantships and assistantships organised schools has doubled.
under bilateral arrangements between certain
pairs of countries. Lingua Assistants are future
teachers of foreign languages. They are often 3.6 Language teaching and testing
speakers of languages not already taught in the materials ix
host school. They therefore bring to the school
and local community a linguistic and cultural This action is designed to help to improve the
resource that they might not otherwise quality of language teaching and to promote
encounter. There is thus a large potential to raise linguistic diversity, increasing both the number
pupils’ awareness of another, often lesser- of learners and the number of languages taught
known, European culture and help to break and used. It does this by promoting the
down prejudice. production and dissemination of new tools for
language teaching and learning and for the
Evaluations confirm that Lingua Assistantships evaluation of language skills.
have important benefits for assistants and host
schools. Assistants significantly improve both Community aid is given to transnational
their teaching skills and their command of the cooperation projects for the development of
language(s) spoken in the host country, thus resources for learners that are not yet available
ensuring that they are better equipped for their on the market. In many cases their targeted
future careers as language teachers and that their nature – either because they involve the less
future pupils also benefit from their improved widely used and taught languages, or because
skills. Assistants who travel to countries with they adopt an innovative methodology or target
less widely used languages are often motivated special learning needs – makes it difficult to
to continue learning the languages concerned on cater for their production in an exclusively
their return, and are potential catalysts for the commercial context. In other words this Lingua
action provides support for the development of project related to their education and training;
methods and learning tools in areas for which they travel abroad to work with them in person,
the market does not offer the required products and spend time in their families. These are Joint
or for which the resources are disseminated Educational Projects.
outside the conventional production and
distribution routes. This practical use of foreign languages enables
pupils to improve their language skills and their
Project activities include the production of new motivation to learn languages, thus making them
teaching methods, materials and curricula, the more confident in using their language skills.
adaptation of existing ones to other languages or
learner groups, and the development of The languages spoken in the partner countries
assessment instruments. are the target languages of the project. If the
partner language does not form part of the
➨ Since 1990, approximately 30 million curriculum of the school taking part,
Euros has been spent on producing participating pupils receive a basic introduction
practical language learning and testing to the partner language before their stay abroad.
tools under this action. Accommodation in the families of their partners
further stimulates the learning of the language as
Here are some examples of projects:
well as the culture of the host country.
➨ didactic materials aimed at raising
children’s awareness of linguistic As in all other Lingua actions, priority is given to
diversity creating a positive attitude projects involving partners speaking one of the
towards language learning and least widely used and least taught languages of
developing metalinguistic skills; the European Union. This action therefore gives
many European pupils an opportunity to meet
➨ multimedia package for 13 languages and experience languages that they would
which combines language acquisition normally not learn at school. It has promoted
with the acquisition of socio-cultural linguistic diversity very successfully for it has
knowledge; seen an increase in the number of projects
➨ teaching materials to develop and targeting a less taught language.
evaluate learners’ oral skills; This action ‘makes it possible, according to
➨ development of diagnostic language teachers interviewed, to motivate almost all
tests in 14 languages that will be beneficiaries to learn a language. The added
delivered over the Internet; value is all the greater as all European languages
➨ materials for teaching at least two are covered and as the action targets the
romance languages (in different professional and vocational streams (accounting
combinations) to students in secondary for over half the participants).’
school; Participation in a JEP has had a positive impact
➨ a reading course for Danish, Dutch and on pupils; 98% of those interviewed said that
German using authentic texts; their desire to learn had been stimulated.
According to 75% of teachers interviewed, the
➨ multimedia learning materials in Danish pupils also made progress in the understanding
for deaf students. of the spoken language and oral expression.
For detailed information on the products Clearly, incorporating mobility into a coherent
developed so far please visit the Lingua teaching context helps to improve pupil
Catalogue at the web site of the European performance and thus to improve the quality of
Commission, DG for Education and Culture: their training.
http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/socrates ➨ Each year, about 30,000 young people
/lingua/catalogue/home_en.htm . aged 14+ take part in these projects.
➨ Since 1991, over 250,000 pupils, together
3.7 Joint Educational Projects for with their teachers, have travelled in
language learning x Europe to improve their language skills
as part of one of these projects.
Young people aged 14 and over spend a year
working together with counterparts abroad on a ➨ Over 60 million Euros was invested in
this action between 1995 and 1999.
3.8 The Erasmus action in the take fuller advantage of the European dimension
Socrates programme to training, by extending the range of countries
where such opportunities exist.
A significant part of the Socrates budget is
devoted to enabling students to follow a course Moreover, numerous studies have shown that a
of study at a university in another participating high proportion of businesses lose significant
country. In many cases, students require market share because they literally do not speak
language preparation if they are to do this their customer's language, especially where it is
successfully. The universities of origin can, as one of the lesser-used languages.
part of support for the organisation of student ➨ In the first phase of the Leonardo da
mobility, offer students appropriate language Vinci programme, 174 pilot projects and
tuition prior to their departure. In addition, the 13 exchanges or placements were
host universities can organise integrated specifically concerned with promoting
language courses in order to extend the learning foreign language training for work.
of other languages spoken in the participant
countries to a greater number of students, ➨ These initiatives accounted for almost
including in non-language subject areas. 23.5 million euros, almost 5% of the
Intensive Language Preparation Courses,
launched in 1996, make it easier for university These projects targeted professional sectors, like
students to take part in courses of study at health or the environment, or occupational
institutions abroad where the teaching is groups, such as accountants or personnel
delivered through a less widely used and less managers.
taught language. All languages eligible for support in Leonardo da
➨ Approximately 1,000 students per year Vinci partnerships were represented at least
have benefited from this action. once. Besides the presence in at least 25 projects
of Danish (26), Greek (40), Dutch (28) and
4 Languages in vocational
Portuguese (33), interest in the Nordic
training - the Leonardo da languages, especially Swedish and Finnish was
Vinci Programme significant. English was a target language in 147
partnerships), German in 114 and French in 93,
The first phase of the Leonardo da Vinci followed by Spanish (79) and Italian (57).
programme for European cooperation in the
field of vocational training lasted from 1995 to Many projects had a cross-sectoral focus
1999. The second phase began in 2000 and runs apparent from titles such as ‘training in
until 2006. commercial language’ and ‘language training for
Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs);
they put a premium on skills transferable to a
4.1 Languages in the first phase of variety of sectors and staff categories.
the programme xi
One important aspect was the involvement in
Languages were a key element in the first projects of many more sectors than those in
Leonardo da Vinci programme for cooperation which the need for foreign languages is self-
in vocational training. It promoted the evident, such as international travel and tourism.
development of vocationally oriented language Examples included the construction industry
skills through transnational pilot projects and (the development of interactive multilingual
exchange programmes. tutorials on CD-ROM), fish farming (linguistic
materials for managers and employees) and
Multilingualism is a key aim in this field because, paper manufacturing in Finland (staff English-
in a Europe of free movement – for workers in language training).
particular – proficiency in several languages does
more than simply promote individual Language teaching at the workplace has to be
development: it also contributes to a genuine flexible, relying on different methods and
feeling of European citizenship. It opens up new materials employed in combination. Several
prospects for employment and professional approaches, including immersion and simulation
mobility beyond national borders. methodologies, emerged. They placed the
emphasis on enabling the student to ‘learn to
Multilingualism also encourages young people to
learn’, with or without assistance from a tutor. necessary language training courses or
autonomous learning programmes).
Many projects exploited the opportunities
created by new developments in Information ➨ Learning and/or training tools (training
Technologies (IT). The number of projects programmes; systems to assess, validate
employing software language learning materials and/or recognise language skills; materials,
easily overtook those that relied on traditional approaches and methods for the training
printed products. However the latter remain and learning of language and intercultural
very popular and are often used to supplement skills; tools to train trainers and tutors;
software-based approaches. Use of the Internet, language and cultural preparation for
e-mail, and of local area networks surged, with transnational mobility).
an increasing number of on-line products. ➨ Dissemination projects to broaden the
To ensure that findings and best practice are field of application for the results of
more widely known and exploited, several previous projects, allowing methodologies
international seminars were held: on Language and/or tools to be transferred and adapted
Learning using IT, on Language / to other sectors and other source and/or
Communication Skills and Competitiveness, and target languages.
on IT and Language Trainers.
4.2 Languages in the second phase
of the programme xii
Language measures are maintained and
developed in the framework of the second phase
of Leonardo da Vinci.
The language skills measure promotes
‘language skills, including for less widely used
and taught languages, and understanding of
different cultures in the context of vocational
training.’ The main aim is to enhance
multilingual and multicultural communication in
the training and working environment. Projects
design, test and validate, assess and disseminate
teaching material, as well as innovative
pedagogical methods tailored to the specific
needs of occupational areas and economic
This includes the use of language audits, and
also innovatory pedagogical approaches based
on language self-tuition and the dissemination of
their results. They contribute to making
enterprises, particularly SMEs, aware of the
importance of effective communication in a
foreign language in a work-related environment,
and to providing them with the tools needed to
develop an appropriate language-training
The following types of project may receive
➨ Language/communication audits
(diagnostic tools to help businesses, public
authorities and industrial sectors, to identify
their communication needs and plan the
5 Action in Favour of Regional 6. Innovative initiatives to
and Minority Languages xiii promote language learning
Respect for linguistic and cultural diversity is The Commission’s contribution in this field
one of the cornerstones of the European Union, combines the regular funding of projects and
now enshrined in Article 22 of the European activities of the kind described in previous
Charter of Fundamental Rights, which states sections with the encouragement of strategic
"The Union respects cultural, religious and developments and innovation in areas which it
linguistic diversity." considers to be of particular importance. It has
been able to finance, notably through the
On the initiative of the European Parliament, Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci programmes,
which has adopted a series of resolutions on this practical projects, which are already making a
subject, the European Union has taken action to difference to the lives of language learners and
safeguard and promote the regional and teachers. This section provides some examples
minority languages of Europe. of recent initiatives.
This action has taken two forms:
➨ Financial support for the European Bureau 6.1 White Paper ‘Teaching and
for Lesser Used Languages and the Learning’
Mercator information network.
In its 1995 White Paper on education and
➨ Up to the year 2000, project funding for training Teaching and Learning: Towards a
practical initiatives aimed at protecting and learning society, the Commission set as an
promoting regional and minority languages. objective that all EU citizens should be
The languages intended to benefit from these proficient in three European languages (their
activities are indigenous languages traditionally mother tongue plus two other community
spoken by part of the population of Member languages).
States of the European Union, or EEA In many countries it is quite normal for people
countries. This definition does not include the to be able to use up to three languages. In the
languages of immigrant communities, artificially European Union, such people are well placed to
created languages or dialects of an official take full advantage of European citizenship and
language of the state in question. of the single market. They are better able to
move between countries for educational,
professional or other reasons. Their linguistic
skills are attractive to employers. The
Commission wants everybody to share those
The White Paper considered language learning
at all ages: lifelong language learning. The White
Paper proposed highlighting new ideas and best
practice by the award of a European ‘Label’.
The White Paper has also been linked with
important developments in the following areas,
which have been the subject of project funding:
➨ ‘early’ language learning, at pre-school
and primary level;
➨ Content and Language Integrated
Learning (learning other subjects through
the medium of a foreign language);
➨ multilingual comprehension (between
people speaking different languages);
➨ the quality of language learning
programmes and materials; and
➨ exchange of information.
6.2 European label for innovative 6.4 Content and Language Integrated
initiatives in language teaching Learning
An excellent way of making progress in a
The aim of the European Label is to help foreign language is to use it for a purpose, so
stimulate interest in language learning by that the language becomes a tool rather than an
highlighting innovative language learning end in itself. Content and Language Integrated
projects at all stages of education and training, Learning (CLIL) involves teaching and learning
from pre-school to adult education. The first a subject (such as geography or science) through
awards were made in 1998, the pilot year of the a foreign language.
scheme. Following the success of the pilot, all
The Commission has contributed to developing
participating countries agreed that the Label
a network, ‘Euroclic’, of practitioners,
scheme should be continued and developed.
researchers, teacher trainers and other parties
The Label is coordinated by the European interested in the learning of other educational
Commission, but managed on a decentralised subjects through the use of a foreign language.
basis by Member States, along with Norway and The network produces regular bulletins, and has
Iceland. It is awarded by juries in each Member an Internet site (http://www.euroclic.net ),
State, according to criteria agreed at European including a materials bank, a calendar of events,
level and to additional national criteria. It can be and a discussion forum for teachers and
awarded to any initiative in the field of language language assistants.
teaching and learning, whatever type of
organisation is responsible. Successful applicants
6.5 Multilingual Comprehension
can use the Label and the associated logo on
their premises and in publicity material. It is usually much easier to learn to understand a
foreign language than to speak it fluently. This is
especially the case where languages are for
6.3 Early Language Learning historical reasons closely related, for example
The chances of creating a Europe of Dutch and German or Italian and Spanish.
multilingual citizens will be greatly improved if European communication can be greatly
those citizens have access to language learning at enhanced if more people can learn to
primary school or before. A conference of understand one another’s languages, so that
experts and decision-makers, ‘Early Learning participants in multilingual conversations or
and After’, was organised in Luxembourg in correspondence can speak or write their own
September 1997. European Union Education language, whilst still being largely understood.
Ministers subsequently adopted a Resolution Fluent understanding also tends to be a step on
(98/C/1) calling upon Member States to the way towards fluent speech.
encourage the early teaching of languages and
A seminar on multilingual comprehension in
European cooperation between schools
Europe was held under the auspices of the
providing such teaching.
Commission in Brussels in 1997 xvi. The
The Commission has funded a publication Commission has supported the development of
entitled ‘Foreign languages in primary and a Web site for the development and exchange of
pre-school education: contexts and information in this area
outcomes’ xv. Published in English, French and (http://crim.inalco.fr/recomu/ ) The aim of
German, this is based on an analysis of existing multilingual comprehension is to enable as many
projects and sets out the conditions for Europeans as possible to understand each other
successful early language learning. It is addressed and to interact, communicating in their own
mainly to those who hold posts of responsibility language – a realistic option in a European
related to the policy, provision and practice of Union where there is such a wealth of languages.
foreign languages at primary or pre-school level.
6.6 Quality indicators and quality those managed by the Directorate-General
systems for Education and Culture.
A Quality Guide for the evaluation and the Useful documents to view or download include:
design of language learning or teaching ➨ Compendia of Lingua projects
programmes and materials has been developed.
This Guide aims to raise awareness of the ➨ Good practice guide for Lingua Assistants
concept of quality in relation to modern and host schools
language learning and teaching; to serve as a ➨ Joint Educational Projects Handbook - A
reference or stimulus for designers of materials practical Guide for schools wishing to set
and programmes, teachers and trainers, up a Joint Educational Project (School
publishing companies, course decision-makers Language Project), and
etc; and to provide a tool to help teacher trainers ➨ An overview of language activities in the
or project managers to design and evaluate Leonardo da Vinci Programme Phase 1.
courses, review learning and training materials,
etc. The Guide is published as a CD-ROM, a i http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/lingua2.html
tool both for people developing methods and ii http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/socrates/comenius/index.html
materials and for those using them xvii. iii http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/socrates/erasmus/home.html
6.7 Exchange of information v http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/lingua2.html
vi Socrates phase 1: Lingua action A; Socrates phase 2: Comenius
The Commission subsidises the development of
European cooperation projects for the training of school staff.
Lingu@netEuropa, a virtual resource centre http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/comenius
for the teaching and learning of foreign .html#European co-operation projects between teacher
languages. It is being developed by a 10-nation vii Socrates phase 1: Lingua action B; Socrates phase 2: Comenius
consortium xviii. Individual Training Grants.
Lingu@netEuropa provides useful content, .html#individual
viii Socrates phase 1: Lingua action C; Socrates phase 2: Comenius
initially for teachers, trainers, policy makers and
multipliers and, later on for language learners in http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/comenius
general. This will include information and links .html#assistantships
to quality-assured on-line resources from ix Socrates phase 1: Lingua action D; Socrates phase 2: Lingua
Europe and further afield. It will offer access to action 2.
a unique collection of resources, from authentic http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/lingua2.ht
teaching materials and details of conferences x Socrates phase 1: Lingua action E; Socrates phase 2: Comenius
and events to policy and planning documents Language Projects.
and research bibliographies. http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/comenius
Access is multilingual – in the first instance in xi
six languages (Dutch, English, French, German, http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/leonardo
Italian and Spanish). An accessible common 1.html
interface is being developed, as well as links to
other relevant sites. Quality assurance issues will 2.html
be tackled through a combination of expert xiii http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/langmin.html
advice and user interaction. xiv
6.8 Website xv Blondin, 1998. Foreign Languages in Primary and Pre-School
The Commission’s website ‘Language learning’ Education, a review of recent research within the European
Union. Centre for Information on Language and Research,
is available in all 11 official languages at: London, 1998. ISBN 1 902031 22 9
http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languag xvi A summary, aimed at academic readers, is available from the
es/index.html. It contains: Centre de Recherche en Ingénierie Multilingue in Paris, 2 rue de
➨ useful information about the languages Lille, F-75343 PARIS (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
xvii Information on the Guide is available at
spoken in the European Union http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/lang/teaching.ht
➨ advice about learning languages in the EU. ml
➨ details about the many EU actions to xviii A prototype is already accessible at: http://www.linguanet-
promote language learning, particularly europa.org/y2/