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FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

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FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Powered By Docstoc
					                      EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                      Directorate-General for Education and Culture

                      Vocational training
                      Language policy




                       FOREIGN LANGUAGE
             TEACHING AND LEARNING:

              EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

                                            ACTION




1 Introduction                                                 ➨      an overview of the practical actions that
                                                                      have been, and continue to be, undertaken
The European Community has been active in
                                                               ➨      key facts and figures about the Language
the field of language learning for several decades
                                                                      actions financed by the Community and
and has made a significant contribution to it.
                                                               ➨      a summary of the main innovations in the
It has invested several hundreds of millions of                       world of foreign language teaching
Euros in practical actions to encourage people                        sponsored by the Commission.
to learn foreign languages and to improve the
opportunities available to them.                               Links to other sources of information are
                                                               provided throughout.
However, because the Community is involved in
so many different aspects of foreign language
education, it is often easy to lose sight of its
impact. This document has therefore been
produced to provide, in a simple form,


                                                                                                                  1
2 The Lingua Programme                                  3 Languages in Education - the
                                                          Socrates programme
On 28 July 1989, the Lingua programme was
created. Its objective: to improve the quantity         The first phase of the Socrates programme for
and the quality of language teaching in the             European cooperation in the field of education
European Union. It came into force on 1                 lasted from 1995 to 1999. The second phase
January 1990 and lasted until 1994. Lingua had          began in 2000 and runs until 2006.
five strands:
➨   cooperation between language teacher                3.1 Languages in the first phase of
    training institutions and individual training
                                                            the Socrates Programme
    grants for language teachers;
➨   support for in-service training of language         Within the first phase of the Socrates
    teachers;                                           programme, there were five Lingua actions:
➨   promotion of language skills in the world of        ➨   A: programmes of cooperation between
    work and creation of didactic materials;                institutions of language teacher-training;
➨   Joint Educational Projects for language             ➨   B: grants to language teachers for in-service
    learning (including exchanges of young                  training abroad;
    people);                                            ➨   C: Lingua Assistantships for future language
➨   development of language learning materials              teachers in educational establishments;
    for less widely used and less taught                ➨   D: development of instruments for language
    languages.                                              learning, teaching and skills assessment;
During the period 1990 to 1994 the Lingua               ➨   E: Joint Educational Projects for language
                                                            learning between groups of young people in
programme:
                                                            different participating countries.
➨   enabled 19,000 teachers of a foreign                In addition, other actions of the programme
    language to undertake in-service                    such as Comenius (cooperation in school
    training abroad;                                    education) and Erasmus (cooperation in higher
➨   helped 83,000 young people and their                education) also had a language dimension.
    teachers to become involved in Joint
    Educational Projects with schools
                                                        3.2 Languages in the second phase
    abroad;
                                                            of the Socrates programmei
➨   created 800 transnational partnerships to
    promote the training of teachers of a               Within the second phase of the programme, the
    foreign language;                                   promotion of language learning is a key theme
                                                        running throughout the programme. Actions A,
➨   gave 32,000 university students a                   B, C, and E of the first phase continue, and have
    mobility grant.                                     been integrated into the new action dealing with
With the creation of the Socrates programme of          school education (Comenius ii). Actions on
action in the field of education, established on        higher education (Erasmus iii) and adult
14 March 1995, and the Leonardo da Vinci                education and other educational pathways
programme in the field of vocational training,          (Grundtvig iv) also have a language aspect.
established on 6 December 1994, Lingua was
reinforced and integrated as a horizontal               In addition, the new Lingua action v takes a
measure into each.                                      more strategic approach through measures
                                                        designed to encourage and support linguistic
                                                        diversity throughout the Union, to contribute to
                                                        an improvement in the quality of language
                                                        teaching and learning and to promote access to
                                                        lifelong language learning opportunities
                                                        appropriate to each individual’s needs.
                                                        It includes new activities in the field of raising
                                                        awareness about language learning, motivating



                                                    2
citizens to learn languages, improving citizen’s          Examples of the activities undertaken
access to language learning opportunities and             include the creation of:
disseminating information about best practice in
                                                          ➨   new materials for nine target languages
language teaching.
                                                              which are designed to train foreign
The target languages of the language actions                  language assistants and other non-
continue to be all the 11 official languages of the           trained native speakers who are called
Union, plus Letzeburgesch and Irish. Norwegian                on to provide language classes in
and Icelandic, the languages of the European                  schools;
Economic Area (EEA) countries participating in            ➨   training materials for teachers of the 3-8
the programme, are eligible as well. The recent               years age group in which some subjects
opening up of the programme to countries from                 can be taught in part through the
central and eastern Europe and Cyprus, has                    medium of a foreign language;
meant that eligible languages now include the
official languages of Romania, Hungary, the               ➨   training courses on the effective use of
Czech Republic, Cyprus, Poland, Slovakia,                     youth literature in foreign language
Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Bulgaria and                      teaching;
Slovenia.                                                 ➨   projects which provide teachers with
Priority continues to be accorded to the less                 skills in using IT effectively in the
widely used and less taught languages of the                  languages classroom;
Community.                                                ➨   modules training teachers to teach other
                                                              subjects (e.g. geography, science,
Whilst the structure of phase 2 of the                        mathematics) through the medium of a
programme is somewhat different from that of                  foreign language;
phase 1, the basic purpose of the language
actions remains:                                          ➨   training on the management of
                                                              ‘differentiated teaching’ (teaching
➨   to help create the conditions in which
                                                              mixed-ability groups) in the language
    language teaching and learning can flourish,              classroom.
    and
➨   to help encourage European citizens to take           Details of many projects are available at:
    advantage of the possibilities available to           http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languag
    learn and speak the languages of the EU as            es/lang/teaching.html#links
    foreign languages.                                    The benefits of taking part in a European
                                                          cooperation programme go far beyond the
3.3 Cooperation between Language                          creation of new training products for teachers.
    Teacher-Training Institutions vi                      For the partner institutions, they include an
                                                          increased understanding of the methods and
Through European cooperation programmes,                  approaches to language teacher training in other
institutions responsible for training language            participating countries, the sharing of ideas and
teachers develop closer working ties with                 best practice across national boundaries, and the
counterparts across Europe and produce                    opportunity to take part in a joint venture in the
practical teacher training courses and materials          creation of new knowledge and methods.
that draw upon the best experience in Europe.
They may focus on the initial or the in-service
training of teachers of a foreign language, and           3.4 Grants to language teachers for
aim to improve the teaching of teachers in the                in-service training vii
pre-primary, primary, secondary, vocational or            Eligible courses last between two and four
adult education sectors. ECPs target all Lingua           weeks. Each participating teacher benefits from
languages.                                                a EU grant contributing to travel costs,
Since 1991, almost 22 million euros has been              subsistence and tuition fees. Grants have
spent to joint-fund these projects.                       averaged around 1,100 euros.
                                                          The courses aim to improve teachers’
                                                          pedagogical as well as their linguistic abilities,
                                                          although some courses, particularly in less


                                                      3
widely used languages, concentrate on language            introduction of such languages into schools.
skills alone.
                                                          Host schools have the opportunity to bring a
➨   Between 1995 and 1999, a total of 39                  native speaker who is also a trainee teacher into
    million euros was spent on grants to                  their lessons, to add extra languages to their
    teachers for in-service training.                     curriculum or to improve the teaching of
➨   It is estimated that by the end of the                existing languages. Assistants also often
    same period, 34,600 teachers from EU                  participate in organising other European
    and EFTA/EEA countries had taken                      projects, notably pupil exchanges under Joint
    part in in-service training courses                   Educational Projects. In many cases, too, they
    abroad.                                               are active in projects involving the local
                                                          community around the school where they are
Demand for the action is high. Around two-                working.
thirds of applicants are unsuccessful in obtaining
                                                          Lingua Assistants go to all countries
a grant. External evaluation reports highlight
                                                          participating in Socrates. Over a third of
participants’ positive appreciation of this action,
                                                          Assistants have undertaken their assistantships
the resolve of these participants to follow this
                                                          in countries where the main languages spoken
type of continuing training on a regular basis
                                                          are usually classified as less widely used (Danish,
and the added value this action brings to their
                                                          Dutch, Greek, Portuguese, Finnish, Swedish,
professional development.
                                                          Icelandic or Norwegian) and have thus been
                                                          able to acquire or enhance their skills in those
3.5 Assistantships for future language                    languages.
    teachers viii                                         ➨   Between 1995 and 1999, 13.2 million
Assistantships last between three and eight                   euros was allocated to this action.
months. Assistants receive their travel expenses          ➨   By the end of the same period, over
plus a monthly grant to meet basic needs,                     2,800 future foreign language teachers
calculated according to the cost of living in the             had undertaken Lingua Assistantships.
host country. The average total funding per
Assistantship is around 4,000 euros.                      Demand has risen dramatically since the action
                                                          began, reaching over six times the number of
There are significant differences between Lingua          Assistantships available, and demand from host
Assistantships and assistantships organised               schools has doubled.
under bilateral arrangements between certain
pairs of countries. Lingua Assistants are future
teachers of foreign languages. They are often             3.6 Language teaching and testing
speakers of languages not already taught in the               materials ix
host school. They therefore bring to the school
and local community a linguistic and cultural             This action is designed to help to improve the
resource that they might not otherwise                    quality of language teaching and to promote
encounter. There is thus a large potential to raise       linguistic diversity, increasing both the number
pupils’ awareness of another, often lesser-               of learners and the number of languages taught
known, European culture and help to break                 and used. It does this by promoting the
down prejudice.                                           production and dissemination of new tools for
                                                          language teaching and learning and for the
Evaluations confirm that Lingua Assistantships            evaluation of language skills.
have important benefits for assistants and host
schools. Assistants significantly improve both            Community aid is given to transnational
their teaching skills and their command of the            cooperation projects for the development of
language(s) spoken in the host country, thus              resources for learners that are not yet available
ensuring that they are better equipped for their          on the market. In many cases their targeted
future careers as language teachers and that their        nature – either because they involve the less
future pupils also benefit from their improved            widely used and taught languages, or because
skills. Assistants who travel to countries with           they adopt an innovative methodology or target
less widely used languages are often motivated            special learning needs – makes it difficult to
to continue learning the languages concerned on           cater for their production in an exclusively
their return, and are potential catalysts for the         commercial context. In other words this Lingua



                                                      4
action provides support for the development of          project related to their education and training;
methods and learning tools in areas for which           they travel abroad to work with them in person,
the market does not offer the required products         and spend time in their families. These are Joint
or for which the resources are disseminated             Educational Projects.
outside the conventional production and
distribution routes.                                    This practical use of foreign languages enables
                                                        pupils to improve their language skills and their
Project activities include the production of new        motivation to learn languages, thus making them
teaching methods, materials and curricula, the          more confident in using their language skills.
adaptation of existing ones to other languages or
learner groups, and the development of                  The languages spoken in the partner countries
assessment instruments.                                 are the target languages of the project. If the
                                                        partner language does not form part of the
➨   Since 1990, approximately 30 million                curriculum of the school taking part,
    Euros has been spent on producing                   participating pupils receive a basic introduction
    practical language learning and testing             to the partner language before their stay abroad.
    tools under this action.                            Accommodation in the families of their partners
                                                        further stimulates the learning of the language as
Here are some examples of projects:
                                                        well as the culture of the host country.
➨   didactic materials aimed at raising
    children’s awareness of linguistic                  As in all other Lingua actions, priority is given to
    diversity creating a positive attitude              projects involving partners speaking one of the
    towards language learning and                       least widely used and least taught languages of
    developing metalinguistic skills;                   the European Union. This action therefore gives
                                                        many European pupils an opportunity to meet
➨   multimedia package for 13 languages                 and experience languages that they would
    which combines language acquisition                 normally not learn at school. It has promoted
    with the acquisition of socio-cultural              linguistic diversity very successfully for it has
    knowledge;                                          seen an increase in the number of projects
➨   teaching materials to develop and                   targeting a less taught language.
    evaluate learners’ oral skills;                     This action ‘makes it possible, according to
➨   development of diagnostic language                  teachers interviewed, to motivate almost all
    tests in 14 languages that will be                  beneficiaries to learn a language. The added
    delivered over the Internet;                        value is all the greater as all European languages
➨   materials for teaching at least two                 are covered and as the action targets the
    romance languages (in different                     professional and vocational streams (accounting
    combinations) to students in secondary              for over half the participants).’
    school;                                             Participation in a JEP has had a positive impact
➨   a reading course for Danish, Dutch and              on pupils; 98% of those interviewed said that
    German using authentic texts;                       their desire to learn had been stimulated.
                                                        According to 75% of teachers interviewed, the
➨   multimedia learning materials in Danish             pupils also made progress in the understanding
    for deaf students.                                  of the spoken language and oral expression.
For detailed information on the products                Clearly, incorporating mobility into a coherent
developed so far please visit the Lingua                teaching context helps to improve pupil
Catalogue at the web site of the European               performance and thus to improve the quality of
Commission, DG for Education and Culture:               their training.
http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/socrates            ➨   Each year, about 30,000 young people
/lingua/catalogue/home_en.htm .                             aged 14+ take part in these projects.
                                                        ➨   Since 1991, over 250,000 pupils, together
3.7 Joint Educational Projects for                          with their teachers, have travelled in
    language learning x                                     Europe to improve their language skills
                                                            as part of one of these projects.
Young people aged 14 and over spend a year
working together with counterparts abroad on a          ➨   Over 60 million Euros was invested in
                                                            this action between 1995 and 1999.

                                                    5
3.8 The Erasmus action in the                             take fuller advantage of the European dimension
    Socrates programme                                    to training, by extending the range of countries
                                                          where such opportunities exist.
A significant part of the Socrates budget is
devoted to enabling students to follow a course           Moreover, numerous studies have shown that a
of study at a university in another participating         high proportion of businesses lose significant
country. In many cases, students require                  market share because they literally do not speak
language preparation if they are to do this               their customer's language, especially where it is
successfully. The universities of origin can, as          one of the lesser-used languages.
part of support for the organisation of student           ➨   In the first phase of the Leonardo da
mobility, offer students appropriate language                 Vinci programme, 174 pilot projects and
tuition prior to their departure. In addition, the            13 exchanges or placements were
host universities can organise integrated                     specifically concerned with promoting
language courses in order to extend the learning              foreign language training for work.
of other languages spoken in the participant
countries to a greater number of students,                ➨   These initiatives accounted for almost
including in non-language subject areas.                      23.5 million euros, almost 5% of the
                                                              programme budget.
Intensive Language Preparation Courses,
launched in 1996, make it easier for university           These projects targeted professional sectors, like
students to take part in courses of study at              health or the environment, or occupational
institutions abroad where the teaching is                 groups, such as accountants or personnel
delivered through a less widely used and less             managers.
taught language.                                          All languages eligible for support in Leonardo da
➨   Approximately 1,000 students per year                 Vinci partnerships were represented at least
    have benefited from this action.                      once. Besides the presence in at least 25 projects
                                                          of Danish (26), Greek (40), Dutch (28) and
    4 Languages in vocational
                                                          Portuguese (33), interest in the Nordic
    training - the Leonardo da                            languages, especially Swedish and Finnish was
    Vinci Programme                                       significant. English was a target language in 147
                                                          partnerships), German in 114 and French in 93,
The first phase of the Leonardo da Vinci                  followed by Spanish (79) and Italian (57).
programme for European cooperation in the
field of vocational training lasted from 1995 to          Many projects had a cross-sectoral focus
1999. The second phase began in 2000 and runs             apparent from titles such as ‘training in
until 2006.                                               commercial language’ and ‘language training for
                                                          Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs);
                                                          they put a premium on skills transferable to a
4.1 Languages in the first phase of                       variety of sectors and staff categories.
    the programme xi
                                                          One important aspect was the involvement in
Languages were a key element in the first                 projects of many more sectors than those in
Leonardo da Vinci programme for cooperation               which the need for foreign languages is self-
in vocational training. It promoted the                   evident, such as international travel and tourism.
development of vocationally oriented language             Examples included the construction industry
skills through transnational pilot projects and           (the development of interactive multilingual
exchange programmes.                                      tutorials on CD-ROM), fish farming (linguistic
                                                          materials for managers and employees) and
Multilingualism is a key aim in this field because,       paper manufacturing in Finland (staff English-
in a Europe of free movement – for workers in             language training).
particular – proficiency in several languages does
more than simply promote individual                       Language teaching at the workplace has to be
development: it also contributes to a genuine             flexible, relying on different methods and
feeling of European citizenship. It opens up new          materials employed in combination. Several
prospects for employment and professional                 approaches, including immersion and simulation
mobility beyond national borders.                         methodologies, emerged. They placed the
                                                          emphasis on enabling the student to ‘learn to
Multilingualism also encourages young people to



                                                      6
learn’, with or without assistance from a tutor.              necessary language training courses or
                                                              autonomous learning programmes).
Many projects exploited the opportunities
created by new developments in Information                ➨   Learning and/or training tools (training
Technologies (IT). The number of projects                     programmes; systems to assess, validate
employing software language learning materials                and/or recognise language skills; materials,
easily overtook those that relied on traditional              approaches and methods for the training
printed products. However the latter remain                   and learning of language and intercultural
very popular and are often used to supplement                 skills; tools to train trainers and tutors;
software-based approaches. Use of the Internet,               language and cultural preparation for
e-mail, and of local area networks surged, with               transnational mobility).
an increasing number of on-line products.                 ➨   Dissemination projects to broaden the
To ensure that findings and best practice are                 field of application for the results of
more widely known and exploited, several                      previous projects, allowing methodologies
international seminars were held: on Language                 and/or tools to be transferred and adapted
Learning using IT, on Language /                              to other sectors and other source and/or
Communication Skills and Competitiveness, and                 target languages.
on IT and Language Trainers.

4.2 Languages in the second phase
    of the programme xii
Language measures are maintained and
developed in the framework of the second phase
of Leonardo da Vinci.
The language skills measure promotes
‘language skills, including for less widely used
and taught languages, and understanding of
different cultures in the context of vocational
training.’ The main aim is to enhance
multilingual and multicultural communication in
the training and working environment. Projects
design, test and validate, assess and disseminate
teaching material, as well as innovative
pedagogical methods tailored to the specific
needs of occupational areas and economic
sectors.
This includes the use of language audits, and
also innovatory pedagogical approaches based
on language self-tuition and the dissemination of
their results. They contribute to making
enterprises, particularly SMEs, aware of the
importance of effective communication in a
foreign language in a work-related environment,
and to providing them with the tools needed to
develop an appropriate language-training
strategy.
The following types of project may receive
Community support:
➨   Language/communication audits
    (diagnostic tools to help businesses, public
    authorities and industrial sectors, to identify
    their communication needs and plan the


                                                      7
5 Action in Favour of Regional                          6. Innovative initiatives to
  and Minority Languages xiii                              promote language learning
Respect for linguistic and cultural diversity is        The Commission’s contribution in this field
one of the cornerstones of the European Union,          combines the regular funding of projects and
now enshrined in Article 22 of the European             activities of the kind described in previous
Charter of Fundamental Rights, which states             sections with the encouragement of strategic
"The Union respects cultural, religious and             developments and innovation in areas which it
linguistic diversity."                                  considers to be of particular importance. It has
                                                        been able to finance, notably through the
On the initiative of the European Parliament,           Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci programmes,
which has adopted a series of resolutions on this       practical projects, which are already making a
subject, the European Union has taken action to         difference to the lives of language learners and
safeguard and promote the regional and                  teachers. This section provides some examples
minority languages of Europe.                           of recent initiatives.
This action has taken two forms:
➨   Financial support for the European Bureau           6.1 White Paper ‘Teaching and
    for Lesser Used Languages and the                       Learning’
    Mercator information network.
                                                        In its 1995 White Paper on education and
➨   Up to the year 2000, project funding for            training Teaching and Learning: Towards a
    practical initiatives aimed at protecting and       learning society, the Commission set as an
    promoting regional and minority languages.          objective that all EU citizens should be
The languages intended to benefit from these            proficient in three European languages (their
activities are indigenous languages traditionally       mother tongue plus two other community
spoken by part of the population of Member              languages).
States of the European Union, or EEA                    In many countries it is quite normal for people
countries. This definition does not include the         to be able to use up to three languages. In the
languages of immigrant communities, artificially        European Union, such people are well placed to
created languages or dialects of an official            take full advantage of European citizenship and
language of the state in question.                      of the single market. They are better able to
                                                        move between countries for educational,
                                                        professional or other reasons. Their linguistic
                                                        skills are attractive to employers. The
                                                        Commission wants everybody to share those
                                                        benefits.
                                                        The White Paper considered language learning
                                                        at all ages: lifelong language learning. The White
                                                        Paper proposed highlighting new ideas and best
                                                        practice by the award of a European ‘Label’.
                                                        The White Paper has also been linked with
                                                        important developments in the following areas,
                                                        which have been the subject of project funding:
                                                        ➨   ‘early’ language learning, at pre-school
                                                            and primary level;
                                                        ➨   Content and Language Integrated
                                                            Learning (learning other subjects through
                                                            the medium of a foreign language);
                                                        ➨   multilingual comprehension (between
                                                            people speaking different languages);
                                                        ➨   the quality of language learning
                                                            programmes and materials; and



                                                    8
➨     exchange of information.

6.2      European label for innovative                     6.4 Content and Language Integrated
         initiatives in language teaching                      Learning
         and learning
                                                           An excellent way of making progress in a
                                    xiv
The aim of the European Label is to help                   foreign language is to use it for a purpose, so
stimulate interest in language learning by                 that the language becomes a tool rather than an
highlighting innovative language learning                  end in itself. Content and Language Integrated
projects at all stages of education and training,          Learning (CLIL) involves teaching and learning
from pre-school to adult education. The first              a subject (such as geography or science) through
awards were made in 1998, the pilot year of the            a foreign language.
scheme. Following the success of the pilot, all
                                                           The Commission has contributed to developing
participating countries agreed that the Label
                                                           a network, ‘Euroclic’, of practitioners,
scheme should be continued and developed.
                                                           researchers, teacher trainers and other parties
The Label is coordinated by the European                   interested in the learning of other educational
Commission, but managed on a decentralised                 subjects through the use of a foreign language.
basis by Member States, along with Norway and              The network produces regular bulletins, and has
Iceland. It is awarded by juries in each Member            an Internet site (http://www.euroclic.net ),
State, according to criteria agreed at European            including a materials bank, a calendar of events,
level and to additional national criteria. It can be       and a discussion forum for teachers and
awarded to any initiative in the field of language         language assistants.
teaching and learning, whatever type of
organisation is responsible. Successful applicants
                                                           6.5 Multilingual Comprehension
can use the Label and the associated logo on
their premises and in publicity material.                  It is usually much easier to learn to understand a
                                                           foreign language than to speak it fluently. This is
                                                           especially the case where languages are for
6.3 Early Language Learning                                historical reasons closely related, for example
The chances of creating a Europe of                        Dutch and German or Italian and Spanish.
multilingual citizens will be greatly improved if          European communication can be greatly
those citizens have access to language learning at         enhanced if more people can learn to
primary school or before. A conference of                  understand one another’s languages, so that
experts and decision-makers, ‘Early Learning               participants in multilingual conversations or
and After’, was organised in Luxembourg in                 correspondence can speak or write their own
September 1997. European Union Education                   language, whilst still being largely understood.
Ministers subsequently adopted a Resolution                Fluent understanding also tends to be a step on
(98/C/1) calling upon Member States to                     the way towards fluent speech.
encourage the early teaching of languages and
                                                           A seminar on multilingual comprehension in
European cooperation between schools
                                                           Europe was held under the auspices of the
providing such teaching.
                                                           Commission in Brussels in 1997 xvi. The
The Commission has funded a publication                    Commission has supported the development of
entitled ‘Foreign languages in primary and                 a Web site for the development and exchange of
pre-school education: contexts and                         information in this area
outcomes’ xv. Published in English, French and             (http://crim.inalco.fr/recomu/ ) The aim of
German, this is based on an analysis of existing           multilingual comprehension is to enable as many
projects and sets out the conditions for                   Europeans as possible to understand each other
successful early language learning. It is addressed        and to interact, communicating in their own
mainly to those who hold posts of responsibility           language – a realistic option in a European
related to the policy, provision and practice of           Union where there is such a wealth of languages.
foreign languages at primary or pre-school level.




                                                       9
6.6 Quality indicators and quality                                  those managed by the Directorate-General
    systems                                                         for Education and Culture.

A Quality Guide for the evaluation and the                 Useful documents to view or download include:
design of language learning or teaching                    ➨        Compendia of Lingua projects
programmes and materials has been developed.
This Guide aims to raise awareness of the                  ➨        Good practice guide for Lingua Assistants
concept of quality in relation to modern                            and host schools
language learning and teaching; to serve as a              ➨        Joint Educational Projects Handbook - A
reference or stimulus for designers of materials                    practical Guide for schools wishing to set
and programmes, teachers and trainers,                              up a Joint Educational Project (School
publishing companies, course decision-makers                        Language Project), and
etc; and to provide a tool to help teacher trainers        ➨        An overview of language activities in the
or project managers to design and evaluate                          Leonardo da Vinci Programme Phase 1.
courses, review learning and training materials,
etc. The Guide is published as a CD-ROM, a                 i      http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/lingua2.html
tool both for people developing methods and                ii      http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/socrates/comenius/index.html
materials and for those using them xvii.                   iii     http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/socrates/erasmus/home.html
                                                           iv   http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/socrates/adult/home.html
6.7 Exchange of information                                v http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/lingua2.html
                                                           vi   Socrates phase 1: Lingua action A; Socrates phase 2: Comenius
The Commission subsidises the development of
                                                                    European cooperation projects for the training of school staff.
Lingu@netEuropa, a virtual resource centre                          http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/comenius
for the teaching and learning of foreign                            .html#European co-operation projects between teacher
languages. It is being developed by a 10-nation            vii      Socrates phase 1: Lingua action B; Socrates phase 2: Comenius
consortium xviii.                                                   Individual Training Grants.
                                                                    http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/comenius
Lingu@netEuropa provides useful content,                            .html#individual
                                                           viii     Socrates phase 1: Lingua action C; Socrates phase 2: Comenius
initially for teachers, trainers, policy makers and
                                                                    Language Assistantships.
multipliers and, later on for language learners in                  http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/comenius
general. This will include information and links                    .html#assistantships
to quality-assured on-line resources from                  ix       Socrates phase 1: Lingua action D; Socrates phase 2: Lingua
Europe and further afield. It will offer access to                  action 2.
a unique collection of resources, from authentic                    http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/lingua2.ht
                                                                    ml#Lingua action
teaching materials and details of conferences              x        Socrates phase 1: Lingua action E; Socrates phase 2: Comenius
and events to policy and planning documents                         Language Projects.
and research bibliographies.                                        http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/comenius
                                                                    .html#Action1
Access is multilingual – in the first instance in          xi
six languages (Dutch, English, French, German,                      http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/leonardo
Italian and Spanish). An accessible common                          1.html
                                                           xii
interface is being developed, as well as links to
                                                                    http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/leonardo
other relevant sites. Quality assurance issues will                 2.html
be tackled through a combination of expert                 xiii     http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/langmin.html
advice and user interaction.                               xiv
                                                                    http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/actions/languagel
                                                                    abel.html
6.8      Website                                           xv       Blondin, 1998. Foreign Languages in Primary and Pre-School
The Commission’s website ‘Language learning’                        Education, a review of recent research within the European
                                                                    Union. Centre for Information on Language and Research,
is available in all 11 official languages at:                       London, 1998. ISBN 1 902031 22 9
http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languag                xvi      A summary, aimed at academic readers, is available from the
es/index.html. It contains:                                         Centre de Recherche en Ingénierie Multilingue in Paris, 2 rue de
➨ useful information about the languages                            Lille, F-75343 PARIS (e-mail: crim@inalco.fr).
                                                           xvii     Information on the Guide is available at
     spoken in the European Union                                   http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/languages/lang/teaching.ht
➨ advice about learning languages in the EU.                        ml
➨ details about the many EU actions to                     xviii A prototype is already accessible at: http://www.linguanet-
     promote language learning, particularly                     europa.org/y2/




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