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					                           1   Final Exam
                               Computers in Law
                           2   Summer 2006
                               Michael Mortimer
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                           8                                         CANADA COLLEGE
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                                                                                    STUDENT ________________________
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                          14                                                        E-Mail___________________________
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                          15
                          16                                                RULES
                          17                                   (INSTRUCTIONS, TIPS AND HINTS)

                          18           1. The goal of this exam is to see if you have learned from the lectures. It is NOT to test
                          19   you on every subject. Answers to these questions may come from class notes, lectures, common
                          20   sense, prior knowledge, or by researching the Net.
                          21           2. There may be multiple answers to some questions. In those questions, the odds of
                          22   answering correctly are greater.
                          23           3. Although you have a 50/50 shot at getting a true-false question correct, think about the
                          24   answer because getting true-false answers correct helps your overall score, especially if you are
                          25   tanking on other parts of the exam. When answering true-false questions, don’t just throw darts
                          26   with your eyes closed, so to speak.
                          27   / / /
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CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                             FINAL EXAM

                                                                              -1-
                           1           4. If you do not know the answer off the top of your head [meaning from memory], then
                           2   refer to your notes. If you still do not know the answer, then use the Net. This process will save
                           3   you time.
                           4           5. Super bonus tip: You may want to first go through the entire exam and answer those
                           5   questions which you can. This is because some questions contain statements that answer other
                           6   questions.
                           7           6. You may turn in the exam in written form, during class on Thursday, July 27.
                           8           7. You can turn the exam in electronic form [MS Word or PDF format] by e-mail no
                           9   later than 12 midnight, Wednesday, July 26. This deadline assures that BEFORE the July 27
                          10   class I can send you a confirmation e-mail that I received your exam.
                          11           8. If you e-mail your exam, as a BACKUP, print your completed exam and bring it to the
                          12   July 27th class. If you do NOT get a confirmation e-mail that I have received your exam, you
                          13   MUST bring the printed exam to the July 27th class and turn it in at that time.
                          14           9. If you anticipate problems with e-mail, your computer, or access to the Net, then
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                          15   submit the exam on paper during the July 27th class. Because this is a final exam, no excuses
                          16   will be accepted as to why these rules were not followed.
                          17           10. If submitting your answers in Word format, you should simply delete the blank lines
                          18   and type in your answer. On the true/false, delete the blank line and insert an “x” for your
                          19   answer. For example:
                          20   Question: About _______% of computer users in the world use the Microsoft operating system.
                          21   Answer:      About 95 % of computer users in the world use the Microsoft operating system.
                          22   Question: This explains why there is less law office software for Apple or MAC. T____ F____.
                          23   Answer: This explains why there is less law office software for Apple or MAC. T x F____.
                          24           11. Of course, if you have scanning capability, you can hand write your answers on the
                          25   blank lines, scan the completed exam, and send it to me in PDF format.
                          26   / / /
                          27                                     Questions begin on next page.
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CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                             FINAL EXAM

                                                                              -2-
                           1          12. An excellent “first place to go” on the Net for answers to specific questions on just
                           2   about any subject is the _____________________ website, which means __________________
                           3   _______________________________________________________Hint:                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki




                           4          13. For answers on how to fix a problem with a computer, one should use the
                           5   ____________________search site by simply typing in the exact ___________ or error message
                           6   and see what turns up. This is a good first procedure because often others in the world have had
                           7   the exact same problem and have posted the solution or fix on the Net.
                           8          14. For answers on how to use a program, one should use the _________________search
                           9   site by simply typing in the search bar what he or she is trying to do and see what turns up. This
                          10   is a good first procedure because often others in the world post tips and solutions on the Net.
                          11          15. Using the Net is also good for checking reviews and ratings on computer products,
                          12   how to perform a computer task [e.g., install a device]. T____ F____.
                          13          16. Many computer terms, devices, equipment and processes are named or described
                          14   with acronyms. T____ F____.
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                          15          17. What is the definition of an acronym? _____________________________________
                          16           18. Laser as in “laser printer” is an example of an acronym? T____ F____.
                          17          19. If laser is an acronym, what words form the acronym?_______________________
                          18   ______________________________________________________________________________
                          19          20. Some acronyms [fill in the words that form each acronym]:
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                          21    PC___________________________                     USB_____________________________
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                          24    CD___________________________                     RW______________________________
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                          27    DVD_________________________                      ROM____________________________
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CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                             FINAL EXAM

                                                                              -3-
                           1
                           2    RAM________________________                       HD_____________________________
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                           5    PPM_____________________________                  TFT ______________________________
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                           8    SD Chip__________________________                 CF Chip____________________________
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                          11    LCD_____________________________                  PDA______________________________
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                          13          21. Computing equipment and programs can be categorized under two general
                          14   descriptions, ____________ware and ____________ware.
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                          15          22. An operating system, memory chips and even the computer’s hard disk have
                          16   “cache.” What is cache?_________________________________________________________.
                          17          23. Although there are various small devices considered to be computers [e.g., a PDA or
                          18   cell phone], computers fall under two main categories, notebooks and desktops. T____ F____.
                          19          24. When you have a deadline that is when most computer problems or other accidents
                          20   will occur. T____ F____.
                          21          25. If a computer is acting sluggish or slow, this may indicate that your computer’s
                          22   memory chips and processor cache are “overloaded” or taxed. When this happens, one should
                          23   simply save all work and ________________________ the computer. [Note: you may use the
                          24   technical word to describe the operation or describe the action].
                          25          26. If you are working close to a deadline for filing a document [meaning a few hours], if
                          26   the computer has been on all day it’s best to make sure the computer has been rebooted and that
                          27   documents are repeatedly saved as numbered drafts. [e.g., such as brief D1 – brief D2 – brief
                          28   D3]. T____ F____.

CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                            FINAL EXAM

                                                                              -4-
                           1          27. If you are working close to a deadline for filing a document, you should make sure
                           2   that programs [such as Word] have their preferences, settings or options set to “auto save”
                           3   documents as often as capable [e.g., Word allows doc saving every minute]. T____ F____.
                           4          28. It’s a given that while using computers, people will drink beverages. To prevent a
                           5   spill on to the keyboard, which may “fry” the computer, it’s best to use a __________________
                           6   _________________________while working on a computer.
                           7          29. To protect against spikes and surges, the computer and peripheral devices should be
                           8   plugged into a surge protector. This is inexpensive protection since surge protectors can cost as
                           9   little as $10. T____ F____.
                          10          30. Most computers priced at $500+ have components and software needed to perform
                          11   all functions the “home user” could want to do. Coincidentally, a law office could get by with a
                          12   basic computer [not recommended] because a law office limits computer use to operations
                          13   similar that of the home user, such as word processing, accounting, printing, researching, reading
                          14   books, accessing the Net, viewing pictures/media, and backing up files. T____ F____.
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                          15          31. Even a $500 computer may include a 17” LCD/TFT monitor, large hard disk,
                          16   recordable DVD-RW drives and USB 2.0 ports. T____ F____.
                          17          32. USB ports and cords have pretty much become the predominant “plug and play”
                          18   method for connecting devices to a computer. T____ F____.
                          19          33. Older computers have USB 1.1 ports. The “1.1” designation tells you the port is
                          20   ______________ than a USB 2.0 port.
                          21          34. Notebook USB 1.1 ports CANNOT be upgraded, but if one’s desktop computer has
                          22   USB 1.1 ports, the desktop unit computer be upgraded to USB 2.0 ports with an inexpensive
                          23   USB 2.0 “card.” T____ F____.
                          24          35. USB 2.0 ports are _______ times faster than USB 1.1 ports?
                          25          36. A device [such as a printer] that indicates it has USB 2.0 connectivity will work on a
                          26   computer with USB 1.1 ports. T____ F____.
                          27          37. A computer with USB 2.0 ports will work with devices, such as printers, that are
                          28   designated USB 1.1 T____ F____.

CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                            FINAL EXAM

                                                                              -5-
                           1           38. Notebook and desktop USB ports have electrical current or power running through
                           2   them. T____ F____.
                           3           39. Because a USB port has electrical power, one can simply connect the USB cable and
                           4   electrically operate any external device [such as printers]. T____ F____.
                           5           40. To add more USB ports to a notebook or desktop computer, you can buy an
                           6   inexpensive USB hub, and plug it into an existing USB port on the computer. This will give you
                           7   additional USB ports. T____ F____.
                           8           41. To assure that a USB port hub has the same power running to it as the USB port that
                           9   is built into the notebook or desktop, you should make sure the USB hub comes with a
                          10   ______________________________________.
                          11           42. Although limited in comparison to five years ago, there are still monitors sold that
                          12   are “dual scan.” Generally, you do not want a dual scan display; you want an _____________
                          13   matrix or TFT monitor/display.
                          14           43. A concern you should have when buying an LCD display is if the screen has
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                          15   ____________ pixels. [Hint: In the Sixth Sense, a famous quote was “I see _______ people.”].
                          16           44. What does a defective pixel look like on your screen?______________________.
                          17           45. A monitor manufacturer’s warranty typically includes a provision that permits a
                          18   certain number of bad pixels before the monitor is considered defective. T____ F____.
                          19           46. If your newly-purchased monitor has even a single bad pixel, most retailers will
                          20   exchange the monitor, notwithstanding what the manufacturer warranty says. T____ F____.
                          21           47. You should never touch an LCD monitor with your fingernails or foreign objects
                          22   such as pens. If you must point to your computer screen, it is best to use the soft side of a finger.
                          23   T____ F____.
                          24           48. Older mice have been replaced by those that use optical _____________ to detect
                          25   movement and register actions on the screen.
                          26           49. If a mouse and cursor are acting erratically, you may want to check the mouse’s laser
                          27   light to see if cinnamon rolls crumbs worked their way into the lighted area. T____ F____.
                          28   / / /

CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                             FINAL EXAM

                                                                               -6-
                           1           50. If you see cinnamon roll crumbs or frosting obstructing the laser light, the best
                           2   method to fix the problem is to A)____ lick off the frosting or crumbs; B) ___ get a new mouse;
                           3   or C) ___ use compressed air in-a-can or a paper towel to clean the area, much like cleaning a
                           4   pair of glasses.
                           5           51. On wireless devices, such as a cordless mouse, often times erratic behavior can be
                           6   caused by mouse ___________________ wearing out.
                           7           52. Because   batteries   can wear out, it is best to have spare sets of        batteries   in the event the   batteries




                           8   decide to wear down or die when you are working against a filing deadline. Nothing is worse
                           9   than getting close to the filing deadline only to have the mouse           batteries   wear out and to not have
                          10   spares. T____ F____.
                          11           53. Generally, the one feature a scanner must have in order to be functional in a law
                          12   office is an ADF. T____ F____.
                          13           54. What does “ADF” mean?_______________________________________________
                          14           55. The ADF feature is important because otherwise for each page or documents one
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                          15   would have to _______________________ individual pages into the scanner.
                          16           56. Although possible, it is impracticable for a law office scanner to operate while
                          17   connected to USB 1.1 port. This is because the scanner will operate too slowly. T____ F____.
                          18           57. Unless one wants to go insane and miss deadlines, a scanner needs to scan at the rate
                          19   of at least 15 pages per minute, even though that is considered slow. T____ F____.
                          20           58. Scanner manufacturers deceptively [or optimistically] advertise high ppm [pages per
                          21   minute] output/scans, but the advertised ppm is deceptive because the scans are unreadable or
                          22   sloppy looking. This is because the pages were scanned at a low resolution or low DPI [dots per
                          23   inch] scanner setting. T____ F____.
                          24           59. Computer programs or software are sometimes purchased, but not used. This can be
                          25   because of the program being difficult to master or the lawyer not having time to learn how to
                          26   use it. Software that ends up sitting somewhere collecting dust is euphemistically called
                          27   ___________ware.
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CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                                      FINAL EXAM

                                                                                        -7-
                           1            60. A good way to avoid software becoming shelfware is to ONLY buy programs where
                           2   the company offers a _________ version of the program for evaluation.
                           3            61. In the industry, devices that are external to a computer “box”, such as printers and
                           4   scanners, are generally referred to as “peripherals.” T____ F____.
                           5            62. With printers there are two dominant [or most common] technologies to print on
                           6   paper, __________________ printers and __________________ printers.
                           7            63. It’s less expensive to print b/w documents rather than in color. T____ F____.
                           8            64. It is less expensive to print back and white documents on a laser printer. T____
                           9   F____.
                          10            65. In a law office, other than reliability, the most important feature of a printer is its
                          11   “ppm.” What is “ppm?” _____________________________.
                          12            66. Why is “ppm” important in a law office?__________________________________
                          13   _____________________________________________________________________________.
                          14            67. When working under an impending deadline, that is NOT the time to run out of
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                          15   printer toner or ink and paper. As a precaution, it is best to make sure there is plenty of paper on
                          16   hand and extra inks or toner in the cabinet. T____ F____.
                          17            68. Generally laser printers are faster than ________________________printers.
                          18            69. The reason inkjet printers are so inexpensive is because the manufacturer is
                          19   intending to make money by selling you ____________.
                          20            70. A DVD-ROM drive is limited to doing what?_____________________________
                          21            71. Which disc holds more information ___CD or ___DVD?
                          22            72. A DVD-RW drive and disc is capable of recording how many gigabytes of
                          23   information?____________. A CD-RW and disc __________?
                          24   73. A DVD that can hold twice the information of a regular DVD disc is called a _________
                          25   layer disc, which needs a ________ layer DVD-RW drive to record. A _________layer disc
                          26   holds _________GB of information.
                          27   / / /
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CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                               FINAL EXAM

                                                                                 -8-
                           1          74. DVD-RW drives are less than $50 nowadays because of new technologies being
                           2   introduced, one being Blu-ray which will allow you to record 25-50GB of information on one
                           3   CD-sized disc. T____ F____. Hint:      http://www.blu-ray.com/info/




                           4          75. Currently, there are no federal or state court rules requiring use of DVD or CD in
                           5   litigation; however, lawyers can agree to exchange documents and pleadings on DVD or CD
                           6   [typically DVD].    T____ F____.
                           7          76. If discs are going to be given to the opposition or a court, it is best to have a
                           8   _________________ affixed to it so to give the disc a professional appearance.
                           9          77. Although you can get by on a CD-RW drive while in college, there is no excuse for a
                          10   law office to NOT have DVD-RW drives. T____ F____.
                          11          78. In these days of the Internet, especially in the federal court system, the first thing you
                          12   should do in a case, before the complaint is even filed, is to access a court’s ________________
                          13   and look up the court’s ____________________ and judge’s standing orders. [hint: standing
                          14   orders are a judge’s rules that are posted on the Net and all lawyers are required to read and
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                          15   adhere to].
                          16          79. Most state courts do NOT have electronic case filing. T____ F____.
                          17          80. Most, if not all, California state courts have websites. These websites are a good
                          18   source for looking up court rules, hours of operation, phone numbers, judges’ rulings, access to
                          19   case documents, etc. T____ F____.
                          20          81. Many state courts post case files and documents on their websites, with the exception
                          21   of criminal and family law matters. T____ F____.
                          22          82. In contrast to state courts, all federal courts located in California have electronic case
                          23   filing [ECF], meaning that almost all aspects of a civil case can be handled online or through e-
                          24   mail. T____ F____.
                          25          83. Federal ECF has eliminated requirements that documents be _______________
                          26   by the lawyer or have attached a _____________ of ________________.
                          27          84. In contrast to federal court ECF litigation, state courts require that all pleadings
                          28   contain the lawyer’s original, blue ink signature. T____ F____.

CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                                      FINAL EXAM

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                           1          85. In federal court it is important to read the court’s posted rules on ECF filing because
                           2   there are many technical procedures that must be followed; the posted ECF rules are the only
                           3   way to find the information. T____ F____.
                           4          86. For example, the ECF rule on a midnight deadline for filing documents means the
                           5   filing ____________________________by midnight. Hint:          https://ecf.cand.uscourts.gov/cand/index.html




                           6          87. Another example, there is an ECF rule that each document filed online may NOT
                           7   exceed 3MB in size. If the document is larger than 3MB, then the lawyer should break it down
                           8   into small segments. T____ F____.
                           9          88. Because in federal court one can communicate via e-mail with federal judges, you
                          10   should triple check all e-mails, attachments and addresses to make sure that you do not
                          11   accidentally send the judge the wrong message or attachment. T____ F____.
                          12          89. The advent of computers, word processing, spell checker, the Net, e-mail and online
                          13   access to porn, eBay, and shopping have made “online lawyering” perilous. Give three examples
                          14   of the type of perils that exist or have occurred [discussed in class or that you are aware about].
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                          15   A) __________________________________________________________________________;
                          16   B)___________________________________________________________________________;
                          17   C)___________________________________________________________________________.
                          18          90. Net access leaves you subject to attack by viruses, spyware and trojans. What is a
                          19   trojan attack? ________________________________________________________________
                          20          91. A law office needs to protect computers and files from attacks because otherwise
                          21   client confidentiality may be breached or a case may be lost due to files being corrupted or
                          22   destroyed. T____ F____.
                          23          92. The best way to protect a computer from attacks is through software. Such programs
                          24   include anti-virus, anti-spyware, firewall and backup software. T____ F____.
                          25          93. A firewall monitors a computer’s ports [which are doors into your computer] and
                          26   prevents access to your PC through the ports. One way a firewall works is to make your
                          27   computer ___________________ to hackers [crackers] who may be searching the net for open
                          28   ports or doorways to computers.

CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                             FINAL EXAM

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                           1           94. One of the best ways to prevent corruption of law office computers is to have main
                           2   office computers that are NOT hooked up to the internet and to have separate “net access only”
                           3   computers. T____ F____.
                           4           95. One of the most common ways that malicious programs get into a computer is
                           5   through e-mail. T____ F____.
                           6           96. For this reason, it is best to first check e-mail through your ISP’s website. When
                           7   checking your e-mail through the Net, you have NOT _________________ the mail to your
                           8   computer. So you are generally protected from SPAM and viruses.
                           9           97. Only after checking your mail on the Net, should you then download mail with your
                          10   e-mail program such as Outlook or Eudora, to name a few.
                          11           98. One of the most essential ways to organize files and documents on your computer is
                          12   to have separate __________________ set up in Windows Explorer [your computer’s file
                          13   manager] and in your e-mail program. T____ F____.
                          14           99. In Windows Explorer, rather than the generic manila folder, you can change the
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                          15   folder icons to something more easily seen on your display or monitor. T____ F____.
                          16           100. A law office should set up folders and _____________folders on each matter or
                          17   case. For example, under a main litigation folder, one could have _____________ folders that
                          18   break down the litigation into discovery, pleadings, judge’s orders, letters, research, etc.
                          19           101. You should back up all computer data on a weekly basis, if not more frequently.
                          20   [Most larger law firms perform daily backups]. Unfortunately, in small offices, lawyers rarely
                          21   backup data. T____ F____.
                          22           102. If one is not going to do complete computer backups, then at the minimum one
                          23   should manually backup the My Documents folder and accounting data by quickly copying such
                          24   to a DVD or CD. T____ F____.
                          25           103. It is wise to keep additional discs containing backup data at a place separate from
                          26   the office, such as at your house. T____ F____.
                          27   / / /
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CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                             FINAL EXAM

                                                                               - 11 -
                           1          I declare under the laws of Canada College that I did not consult other students when
                           2   answering the above questions and that I did not wait until the last minute to take this exam.
                           3   Signed at ___________________________, on July ____, 2006.
                           4                                                ___________________________________
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CANADA COLLEGE
 REDW OOD CITY                                                            FINAL EXAM

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