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Multimedia English Listening And Speaking

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Multimedia English Listening And Speaking Powered By Docstoc
					                   Handout for the First Semester
                            Finding Faults
     Our ability to communicate is often marred by some very common faults.
     For instance:
     1. A lazy speaker who mumbles often can‟t be heard
     2. A flat, monotonous, dreary voice makes us tune out—we can’t help it.
     3. A harsh voice is irritating.
     4. A flabby tongue can‟t produce crisp speech.
     5. Poor quality breathing results in poor quality speech.
     6. A lot of “ums” and “ers” make speakers seem nervous and unsure of their
        facts.
 How Do We Sound?
     Finding fault with ourselves can be depressing, but is part of our progress to
good speech. The fault that is most irritating is a dull voice. So much goes down the
drain, so much excitement gets flattened, so much personality disappears when
monotony creeps in.
      Of course, to be understood, first of all we have to be hard. Mumbles are
frustrating to listen to. They don‟t open their mouths, their lips hardly move, their
tongues are lazy, and their jaws seem to be locked into position.


UMS And ERS
     If there is any one thing that spoils a person‟s speech, and speech making in
particular, it‟s the “Um”, “er”, “ah”, “eh”, “and a”, “kind of”, “you know” syndrome.
     Too many people shove these meaningless, silly little words into gaps when they
run out of something to say, when they‟re nervous and can‟t think of what to say, and
because they‟ve done it for so long they don‟t know how to get rid of them.
      There is one way that helps you throw them away, shoot them down. Every
time you say them, or start to say them, stop! Say nothing. Always remember a
pause is far more effective.
     They do absolutely nothing for your speaking. They detract from its
effectiveness. You‟ve got to get rid of them. Remember, only you can do it. No one
else can do it for you.
                      Your Talk: Getting to Know You
     The professor calls your name—it‟s your turn to address the class. Your heart
pounds with such force that you think it can be heard across the room, your forehead
breaks out with beads of perspiration, your mouth goes dry, and your stomach quivers.
      You are experiencing an attack of nerves—stage fright—that is not unique to
you. Most people get it, whether they admit it or not. This sensation, in varying
degrees, occurs thousands of times daily: on an individual‟s first day on a new job, on
a first date, and on a student‟s first day at a new school. It happens to actor and
actresses just before the curtain goes up or the camera starts to roll. Even professors
aren‟t immune.
     Nervousness can be a form of positive energy that will keep you on your toes.
If you accept it as normal, which it is, it will help you do your best. In a new
environment, there is no stigma to feeling nervous or even frightened before speaking.
It is a normal reaction, and its intensity will lessen the more you speak.
       Even the great and the powerful suffer from nervous attacks. In a talk before
London journalists years ago, a famous British cartoonist, David, Low, said that every
time he had to make a speech he felt as if he had a block of ice, nine inches by nine
inches, in the pit of his stomach. Later he was approached by a member of the
audience, Winston Churchill, one of the greatest speakers of this century. “Mr. Low,”
asked Churchill, “how large did you say that block of ice is?”
     “ Nine inches by nine inches,” replied Low.
     “What an amazing coincidence,” said Churchill, “exactly the same size as
mime.”
     There is no cure for nervousness, but to help control it, you should admit that
you are nervous, a bit uptight, queasy, even petrified; some textbooks call it speaking
apprehension. You should be greatly relieved to learn how many of your peers share
your feelings, and things don‟t seem quite that bad if you are able to talk freely about
them. Discuss them at home, at school, at work, with other members of your class,
and certainly with your professor.
                 Importance of Nonverbal Communication
     In all communication you don‟t always have to say it to convey it, and in
nonverbal communication you may often transmit messages entirely different from
what you think you are transmitting. Call it what you like—body language, the silent
language, soundless speech, or nonverbal communication—it is an eloquent form of
message transmitting and reception.
Eye Contact
      Eye contact with your audience is extremely important. Without it you will have
immense difficulty conveying interest and sincerity. As tempting as it is, don‟t gaze
out windows, at notes, or at the floor or walls. Some speakers, by looking at people in
the last row or a large audience, can give the impression that they are looking at
everyone in front of them. In a smaller group, however, look at the students, to your
left, then to your right, the in between. Don’t make the mistake of some speakers
who focus their eyes solely on the professor. Just remember that people like to be
talked to and looked at simultaneously.


Gestures
    Many people gesture as naturally as they breathe. Perhaps you know people who
would be speechless if their hands were tied behind their back. If you find it natural to
move your hands and arms while communicating, continue to do so. If , however,
you tend to be carried away by gestures, don’t be to concerned about them.


Moving Around
   As far as movement is concerned, many speakers feel that they must stay in one
place and remain completely motionless. Not so. You should feel free to move
around. Taking a few steps in either direction from the stand is desirable as long as
you move smoothly, not jerkily like a puppet.


Standing Tall
     Good posture—standing straight, but not like a ramrod, and squarely on both
feet—conveys an impression of confidence and alertness. Perhaps the best way to
improve your posture is to observe yourself on videotape and in a full-length
mirror.


Take Note
     Using notes is recommended because it can give you a feeling of confidence and
security. ----An Abstract of Harold K. Mintz‟s Speaking Confidence
                                                  Poor Good  Excellent
     Partner’s Assessment ( on the scale of 5-point, 1……….3………..5)
 1. Eye contact ______
 2. Gesture ______
 3. Moving Around ______
 4. Stand Tall ______
Self-examination

1. How do I rate as a speaker?
2. How confident am I?
3. Am I fluent?
4. Do I make an impact on others?
5. Am I nervous?
6. Is my speech sloppy?
7. What makes me tongue-tied?
8. Do I breathe properly?
9. Why does my mind go blank sometimes?
10. Do I jump from one subject to another?
11. Have I ever listened, really listened to the sound of my voice?
Self-appraisal

    If you have answered all the questions faithfully, you will now have a better
understanding of the quality of your speech and ability to communicate.


    If some of your answers were negative, don‟t worry. Anyone at any age can
improve. If you feel you are already quite good, don‟t stop learning, for there is a
wide gap between quite good and very good. The “quite” is amateurish, the “very”
more professional.


     With the minimum of training, the cutoff point is “good”. You can not be bad, for
no matter how nervous or tense you are, your technique will carry you through. But if
you are feeling well and your adrenaline is flowing, you can be brilliant.
FORMATS OF DELIVERY

    Have you ever had a conversation in the middle of a thought, forgot what you
were going to say: We all have memory lapses, but when a person is presenting a
formal speech, memory lapses or long pauses hurt the speech‟s effectiveness.
Audience members become uncomfortable waiting for the speaker to say something.
    There are several options for preparing notes for your speech. Each of these
represents a format or type of delivery. The four major formats are:
     1. Impromptu                                  2. Outline
     3. Manuscript                                 4. Memorized


Impromptu Delivery

      The type of delivery requiring the least preparation is impromptu. Impromptu
delivery is not rehearsed and does not involve notes or prior planning. When teacher
calls on you in class, your response is impromptu. Even though you read the less
being discussed, you probably did not prepare answers to possible questions the
teacher would ask.


     Occasionally a person will not have any advance warning or preparation before
giving a speech. This often happens on special occasions, such as when person
receives an unexpected award. While impromptu speeches require the least amount of
work, they are very difficult to give. An impromptu speech should also be
organized. It must have a clear messages, even if that message is as simple as
“Thank you, I appreciate your thoughtfulness.” An impromptu speech should also be
lively and should maintain interest. Impromptu speeches are usually brief. Audiences
do not expected them to be long since there is no prior preparation. If you have
watched a presidential press conference or postgame interview with a winning coach
on television, you have observed impromptu speeches.


Activity: Present a one-minute impromptu speech on the following topics.
1. What is your favorite fast food restaurant and why?
2. What would you do with a $1000 gift?
3. If you could take an expense-paid trip anywhere, where would you go and why?
4. What person has influenced you the most and why?
Outline Delivery

     One of the most common forms of delivery is from an outline. The outline
includes key words and phrases that serve as reminders to the speakers. The
major advantage of an outline is flexibility. A speaker can adjust the length of the
speech, the number and type of examples, and the language to fit the group. By using
an outline of general ideas, a speaker can address many groups from the same basic
outline. Outline delivery also allows a speaker to make changes immediately before
speaking. If a previous speaker said something that applies to your speech, you can
make a brief note on the outline reminding you to mention to other speaker‟s
comments. An outline can save preparation time and allow better organization than
impromptu delivery.


    For beginning speakers, the outline is the best method. It provides a “crutch”
without tying the speaker‟s attention to a manuscript for every word.


     An outline can be written on a notecard or on a sheet of paper. Whichever
method is used, there should be enough white space or blank areas to make it easy
to see key words. White space allows for additions at the very last minute without
crowding. Everything should be written large enough that it is easy to see when
placed in front of a speaker.


     An outline can be written in words and phrases or in complete sentences. It
is best to use as few complete sentences as possible. A speaker wants to glance at a
few words which guide at least fifteen to thirty seconds of speaking. With the
exception of the introduction and conclusion, most points should not be written in
complete sentences or paragraphs. Even though introductions and conclusions should
be written out, the speaker should practice them so they are partially memorized.


     Since only a few words and phrases are on each card, a speaker should practice
the speech several times. Only practice will help a speaker select and remember the
explanation for each point.


      Beginning speakers might want include some complete sentences on an outline.
The sentences can serve as transitions, which are used to connect the ideas in one part
of a speech to those in another.
Manuscript Delivery

     Manuscript delivery requires a speaker to write out every word of a speech. A
manuscript guarantees you will not forget what to say. It also helps you adjust to time
limits. A manuscript is especially useful when you must word your comments
carefully. Public figures, business leaders, and political speakers use manuscripts for
several reasons:
     1. They need to have a record of what they have said.
     2. They need to be consistent in public statements.
     3. They need to supply a copy of comments to the news media.
     4. They need to select language carefully.
     5. They must fill a precise amount of time.


       On the surface, a manuscript is appealing to many beginning speakers. However,
it is difficult to write a speech that sounds natural. Professional speech writers earn as
much as $90,000 a year. They are paid that much because it is not easy to write a
speech that sounds conversational.


     A manuscript should begin with an outline. After completing the outline, talk
through the speech. Tape-recorder your ideas if possible. As you begin to write, talk
through each section of the speech before writing. Write what you have said. Read
through the last sentence or two of what you have written and then talk through the
next. Write the next section. Follow this system until the speech is completed. Then
you may smooth out the rough stops and read it aloud.


     Once you have finished the manuscript, you should prepare it fore ease of
reading. Once, again, large type or writing and white space are helpful. It is also
helpful to mark the script. Read through the speech and consider where you should
pause or emphasize words. Underline words and use slash marks (/) to indicate pauses.
One slash can indicate a short pause and two a long pause.The following is a section
from a manuscript:
     One morning when I sat down at the table for breakfast/ my mother handed me
                                                               SLOW
     the morning paper. She didn‟t say anything.// She just looked at me/ and then/


     walked back to the stove.
Activity: Prepare a manuscript speech.
Memorized Delivery
     The final format is memorized delivery. This is the most difficult delivery to use,
because you must prepare a manuscript and then memorized it.
     Memorized delivery is the common format in speech contests. It is also used by
many professional speakers. Often, professional speakers prepare a general speech on
a topic with broad appeal, such as motivation or how to be successful. They give the
same speech to audiences across the country, with little or no adaptation. Much of the
speech‟s appeal is in the delivery. By memorizing the speech, the speaker can give full
attention to movement, gestures, and appealing vocal delivery.
     Often a memorized speech sounds and looks more like a dramatic performance
than a conversational talk. If the original manuscript is written in a conversational
style, the memorized speech will sound conversational. Depending on the purpose is
to entertain, a well-rehearsed, memorized speech produces the best comic timing.
     Speakers using a memorized format also encounter problems with physical
delivery. What do they do with their hands since there are no notes to hold? Should
they move about since there is no reason to stand behind a podium: Many students
address these problems by planning their gestures and movements; however, too often
planned movements look planned. They can distract more than help. Work on
memorization and vocal delivery and let gestures flow naturally.
     One important point to remember when giving a memorized speech is that
audience members are not following along with a copy. If you do not say something
exactly as it was written, now one will know.
     Perhaps the biggest disadvantage to a manuscript speech is that it is inflexible. If
an audience looks confused, you can not add another example easily.
     Summery
     Good deliver begins with the selection of a delivery format which best suits the
speaker, audience, and situation. In most cases, a speaker has prior warning that he or
she will give a speech. There are three delivery formats a speaker can select for
speeches prepared ahead of time: outline, manuscript and memorized. When a speaker
has no advance notice, the speech format used is impromptu.
     Each delivery format has advantages and disadvantages. A speaker should weigh
each before selecting a format. Beginning speakers are advised to use the outline
format.
     All speeches, regardless of format, should be organized, should have beginning
and ending point, and should be fluent. Practice is essential for success; even the
impromptu speaker must have experience to perform well.
                                   THE VOICE

      A trademark is a very important part of any business. Individuals and companies
spend hundreds of thousands of dollars establishing and protecting their trademarks.
Makers of soft drinks, automobiles, and other consumer products recognize the need
for a unique, identifiable symbol of their goods. In an important way, your voice is
also a trademark.
     Whether you know it or not, your voice is your trademark. It may not be known
beyond your won group of friends, but it is associated with you and your ideas. Like a
major corporation, you can control your trademark to some extent. By thinking about
your voice and its effect on others, you can develop an appealing and clear vocal
style.
    Your voice is equipped with a set of controls. The three basic controls you can
adjust are volume, rate and pitch. By learning to manipulate these controls, you can
make your voice very expressive. Almost without thinking, you can communicate
anger, disappointment, sorrow, excitement and countless other emotions. You can
even say one word in many different ways.
Volume
      The first control we worry about is volume—that is, how loud and soft you
voice is. This is the first concern because without good volume, no one can hear you,
no matter how good your speech might be. If your speech is audible, you can begin
work on variety in volume. By using your volume control, you can emphasize certain
words, phrases or passages of a speech.


         Activity: Read these sentences aloud and then think about how punching the
         italicized word changes the meaning.
         a. I saw the game.
         b. I saw the game.
         c. I saw the game.
         d. I saw the game.
         e. The photographer took my picture.
         f. The photographer took my picture.
         g. The photographer took my picture.


 Rate
        Speed is a synonym for rate. The speed at which you speak helps communicate
you ideas to an audience. A rapid rate may communicate anger, excitement, or
impatience. A slow rate might show fatigue, hopelessness, caution, or some other
mood or emotion.

       Activity: Read the poem written by the English poet Robert Brwoning. He
       describes a town overrun by rats.


            Rats!
            They fought the dogs and killed the cats.
                And bit the babies in the cradles,
            And ate the cheeses out of the vats,
                And licked the soup from the cooks‟ own ladles,
            Split open the kegs of salted sprats,
            Made nests inside men‟s Sunday hats,
            And even spoiled the women‟s chats
                   By drowning their speaking
                   With shrieking and squeaking
            In fifty different sharps and flats.
Pitch
 Nowhere is being control more necessary than in pitch. Pitch is the word used to
describe the highness or lowness of your voice. You can think of it as motes on a
musical scale. Just as a melody takes you up and down a musical scale, speaking
requires you to use varieties of pitch to express your meaning. You learn to use pitch
very early in life. Even small children know a question requires a rise in pitch at the
end. The sentence “Have a nice day” may be a question or a statement, depending on
how you use pitch on the word day. Naturally, your pitch is determined in part by the
range of your speaking voice. If your voice is quite low, you seek variety within the
range you naturally use. Likewise, your voice is high, you would be foolish to try to
speak using low pitch. You must find a range that suits you. Within your natural range,
you establish patterns of the changes in pitch. These patterns are called inflection.
Some actors are so skilled that a one-syllabus word like me or no can be inflected
many different pitches.
       Activity: Pronoun the words in the list, altering your pitch to reflect the
       meaning indicated in parentheses.
       a. Me (Are you talking to me?)
       b. Me (I didn‟t do it.)
       c. Me (I‟ll do it.)
       d. Four dollars (Is that all?)
       e. Four dollars (That‟s what it costs.)
       f. Four dollars (not five)



Clarity

1. Pronunciation. The first thing you should do to improve clarity is pronounce
words correctly. Most of the time you have no trouble pronouncing words. In normal
conversation you choose from a fairly limited set of familiar words. Because a speech
or a special topic may require using a broader word choice, you may have to use
words that are less familiar. Make sure the unfamiliar words and the key words
are pronounced correctly.

2. Enunciation. Even if you pronounce your words correctly, your vocal clarity may
suffer from poor enunciation. In other words, you are not forming your sounds
clearly and distinctly. When you speak in small groups with people who are familiar
with you speech pattern, enunciation may not be a problem. In large groups and with
people less familiar with your voice, good enunciation is essential. Many
enunciation problems stem from lazy habits. Your tongue and lips, since you can
control them, must be used to form clear, accurate sounds. Lazy use of tongue and lips
leads to mumbled, muffled sounds that may be barely intelligible to a listener. Other
enunciation problems result from speed. If your rate of delivery is too fast, you may
find yourself slurring words and phrases. Your tongue, teeth, and lips are falling
behind in you “speed race!” Listen to yourself, taking others into consideration.
Watch their reactions to your speaking and listen to their comments.


  Activity: Practice articulation by trying these tongue twisters. Remember to start
  slowly and build speed.
  Rubber baby buggy bumpers.
  Shall she sell sea shells?
  Toy boat (Repeat several times, building speed.)
  Ten tiny trumpeters tunefully tooting their ten tiny trumpets.
  She thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of her thumb.
Self-Evaluation

      You can control your voice by changing volume, rate, and pitch. These three
controls contribute to effective speaking, both formal and informal. At the same
time, your effectiveness as a speaker is helped or hindered by how you pronounce
words and enunciate them.


    Always ask yourself these questions:
    1. Was my speech loud enough to be heard?
    2. Did I vary my volume to express emotion, emphasis, etc.?
    3. Did I use pauses effectively?
    4. Did I frame important words?
    5. Did my voice vary in pitch, or was it monotonous?
    6. Did I know how to pronounce all the words?
    7. Were the words enunciated clearly?
    8. Was my delivery natural?


     You may use this checklist to make the most of your vocal delivery and
establish your own vocal trademark.
                              WORD CHOICE
    If you want someone to stop talking, you may say any of the following: shhh;
hush; shut up; be quiet; quiet; stop talking. Each conveys the same meaning, but
each also conveys much more. You own attitude is expressed by your word
choice. Depending on the situation, some of the words may not even be appropriate
or fitting.
     Good word choice may differ from situation to situation. One difference
you need be aware of is the difference between writing and speaking. First, you
writing vocabulary is probably larger than your speaking vocabulary. Casual
conversation my draw on only a few hundred common words, but writing usually
requires more. Second, writing follows stricter rules of grammar than speaking. For
example, sentence fragments are not acceptable in writing, but they may be used
effectively in speaking.
     You must also decide if the situation requires formal or informal word
choice. In a pep talk during halftime, a coach will use less formal language than he
or she might during an awards ceremony at the end of the season. If your audience
expects formality, you will have to respond with formal word choice. If not, you
my need to rely on common, familiar words.


Activity : Many formal words have an informal synonym. Write an informal
synonym for the words in list A and a formal synonym for list B. You may use a
dictionary or thesaurus.


                     A
1. The concession stand sells many beverages.
2. At noon we took an intermission for lunch.
3. The movie was interrupted by paid commercial advertisements.
4. Her boss passed around a memorandum on using the new office machines.
5. This new product will sanitize the kitchen floor in just seconds.


                    B
 1. Linda went to work for the new car dealer.
 2. Leroy‟s new employer went broke last month.
 3. The old cabin was full of bugs.
 4. My boss checks my work each night.
 5. The minister told the kid to wait for her father.
Effective Word Choice: Exactness
      One of the most troublesome problems in speaking is finding the exact words
to communicate an idea. Because our conversation are full of very general, almost
meaningless words, we sometimes use them is speaking. Words like stuff and
things are so general that no one knows what they mean. If a friend says he‟s got
“some stuff to do,” Hardly anything. If he says, “I have some errands to run,” you
know more because the word errands expresses more than the word stuff. If he says,
“ I have to pick up my aunt‟s plane tickets and run them over to her apartment,”
you know precisely what he will do.


     Listeners appreciate specific, concrete word choice. Concrete words are
accurate and precise. A concrete word will give the audience an image that
helps communicate exactly what you mean. Abstract words are the opposite.
They are not precise. They give no vivid mental picture. For example, if a friend
walks in the room and says, “ Something funny just happened in the hall,” you are
not sure what she means. Funny could mean hilarious, puzzling, unusual, amusing,
or shocking—all of which are more concrete words than funny. Even more concrete
would be a description of what your friend saw: “I just saw tow students wheeling
Mr. Chambers down the hall on a library cart.”


     Sometimes making a speech more concrete is as simple as answering the six
basic questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Another means of
increasing the concreteness of your speech is to emphasize sense impressions. Try
to give your listener specific ideas of how things look, smell, taste, feel and sound.
When you can, describe a person, place, thing, idea, or event so the listen can
imagine exactly what you have in mind.
Activity: The following paragraph is full of words that are very abstract. First,
identify those words, then rewrite the paragraph so it is more concrete. Remember
to us specific words and ask the questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why?
How?
   I like summer days. They‟re really neat. I think the sunlight is nice. It makes me
feel good. There are so many things to do on a summer day that I have trouble
deciding. Of course, a lot of stuff to do depends on nice weather. It‟s kind of weird
when I plan something and it rains. It makes me feel bad. But the next time the sun
shines, I forget all about the bad times and try to enjoy the day.
Word meaning
     Changing a word‟s meaning does not mean changing it altogether. It means
using a word in a new and exciting way. You are already familiar with many of
theses stylistic changes because you have read and studied them in literature
classes.
    1. Metaphor and simile. Both metaphors and similes are comparisons
       between two unlike things. A simile uses the words like or as to make a
       comparison. A metaphor does not.
    2. Irony. Irony occurs when you use a word but intend it to mean the opposite
       of its normal meaning.
    3. Exaggeration. When you say something that everyone knows is
       exaggerated, you often call attention to your point. This technique is also
       called hyperbole.
       “They‟ll never get the idea in a million years.”
       “My car was so dirty that the automatic car wash spit it out.”
    4. Understatement. When you intentionally say less than you mean, you do
       the opposite of hyperbole. Still, you can attention to your point.
    5. Rhetorical question. When you ask a question during a speech but expect
       no answer, you are asking a rhetorical question. A rhetorical question is
       another way of making a statement or of getting your audience to think.
       “Have Americans forgotten the meaning of the word freedom? My answer
       is „No!‟”
       Activity: Select a pet peeve from the list below or provide yo7ur won.
       Write a manuscript speech making use of the ideas in this lesson. Focus on
       using appropriate language, effective word choice.
                                     Topics
       TV ads                  kind of clothing          pets
       sports broadcasters    a brother or sister        going to the dentist
       kinds of food          eating in a restaurant     going to the doctor
       nervous habits         big dogs                   homework
       diets                   little cats                people‟s voice
       phone calls             nosy people               entertainment
       the weather              cooking                  cars
       interruptions            girls                    makeup
       other drivers            boys                      long trip
                            RESEARCH

     When we speak to an audience, we prefer to talk about things we already know
about. Our experience, hobbies, jobs, and opinions are fairly easy to talk about since
the material for the speech comes from within us. Like a store clerk, we simply take
inventory of the information we already hold in our memories.


     Nevertheless, we are often required to speak on topics that are new to us.
Even when you can choose your topic, you often cannot find a topic on which you are
an authority.


     If you wonder why using research materials is so important, think about giving a
speech on women and sports. You probably do not know much, so you need to get
information form somewhere or from someone. Even if you know a little about
women athletes, you have to convince your listeners that your speech is correct. You
can “borrow” the authority you lack by referring to famous, well-qualified people
who write about the subject. After all, you audience would be likely to believe
information from the president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association.


     A quick survey of speech purposes reveals the importance of using resource
books and resource people. In a speech to entertain, you may need to find interesting
facts, clever sayings, humorous anecdotes, or funny stories. Do you have all these
things stored in your memory? An informative speech must present new
information to an audience. Do you always have new information on any topic
ready to present in an interesting manner? A persuasive speech must change people‟s
minds. Can you recall the kind of convincing, authoritative information that will cause
people to think seriously about your position? Even if you have a fine memory, the
answer to these questions is probably no. We all need help from outside sources that
include reference books, periodicals, audiovisual materials, pamphlet files, films,
records, pictures, videotapes and biographies. In addition, you may interview
someone who has special knowledge about your subject.
                          DEMONSTRATION SPEECH
Name:_______________________
Instructions: Each category will be rated on a scale of 1-5: 1-poor, 2-fair, 3-good,
4-very good, 5-excellent.
1. SPECIFIC ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA
_____ Speech met the 3-minute time limit.
_____ Speech met criteria for a demonstration speech.
_____ Visual aid was used.
_____ Speech was presented in outline form.
2. ANALYSIS
_____ Speaker adhered to general and specific speech purpose.
_____ Speaker was narrow enough to be fully developed and handled adequately in
      time allotted.
_____ Topic was appropriate for demonstration development.
_____ Topic was appropriate for the audience.
3. SUPPORTING MATERIALS
_____ Visual aids were appropriate.
_____ Visual aids were used correctly.
_____ Speech utilized sufficient clarifying (i.e., example, illustrations, etc.)
4. ORGANIZATION
Introduction was properly developed:
_____ Gained audience attention and created interest.
_____ Oriented audience to the speech.
_____ Included a clear and precise thesis statement.
_____ Major ideas were forecast.
_____ Organization of the speech was clear and easy to follow.
_____ Translations provided necessary links between ideas.
_____ Speech utilized appropriate signposts and internal summaries.
Conclusion was developed properly:
_____ Summarized the speech content.
_____ Provided a link back to introductory comments.
_____ Provided an idea for the audience to remember.
5. DELIVERY TECHNIQUES
_____ Stance and posture were appropriate.
_____ Eye contact was appropriate.
_____ Facial expressions helped to convey/clarify ideas.
_____ Gestures added emphasis and description.
      Vocal delivery was effective:
       _____ appropriate volume
       _____ conversational style
       _____ clear enunciation
       _____ vocal variety
       _____ appropriate rate
       _____ enthusiastic
       _____ used pauses correctly
        _____ fluent delivery
6. WORD USAGE/LANGUAGE
_____ Language was direct and made the speaker‟s point clearly.
_____ Words were used appropriately.
_____ Grammar was appropriate.
_____ Word pronunciation were correct.
_____ Language was suitable for the audience.


Total Score:__________________
COMMENTS AND SUGGESTION FOR IMPROVEMENT:
                             Handouts for the Second Semester
                              LANGUAGE SKILLS
1. Interpretive Reading
   What is interpretive reading? It is communicating the writers and the reader’s
imagined experience to the audience. What did the writer imagine? What was the
experience? What did the people and place look like? You make the audience
experience, see and feel. Make the reading as specific as possible.
Exercises:
(1) Surrogate Mother
For most women, to bear a child is very natural. Instead, the hope of getting married
and the happiness of starting a family vanish absolutely for some women with
congenially undeveloped uterus. Therefore, a group of infertile women meet the press.
They hope surrogate mothers should be legalized in Taiwan to offer a chance for
infertile women to have their own children. And the government should not evade the
issue just because it could involve a lot of legal problems.
(2) Director General Chen, honored guests, publishing friends, ladies and gentlemen,
good evening:
     On the eve of the opening ceremony of the Sixth Taipei National Book
Exhibition, I am highly pleased to be invited to join in the welcoming party, meeting
together with the publishing friends from forty countries.
(3) Why Shall I Marry
I hate to be lonely.
I detest old or bad women (men) keeping bothering me or following me like hungry
dogs.
I can‟t stand young couple playing kissing game or hugging each other in front of me.
I need someone to answer the door after my return from tedious office hell and say to
me with the tenderest voice in this world “My dear puppy, come in. I have prepared
something special for you tonight!”
I need a shoulder to cry when I watch “Somewhere in Time”.
I need a woman to jump on me whenever she wants a strong man.
(I need a man to hold whenever I want.)
I need an honest voice to remind me whether or not I have done too much, said too
much.
I need an angel to purify my evil soul.
When at my 70, I need a woman (man) to make hot chocolate milk for me, even there
is no hair upon my head, no teeth for kissing game.
(4) In politics, if you want anything said, ask a man. If you want anything done, as a
woman. ----Margaret Thatcher


2. Sound and Movement
Work with your partner. Mirror each other‟s sound and movement. But also try to
capture the inner life and essence, rather than just the external effect of the sound. If
your partner isn‟t mirroring and important part of the sound or movement, don‟t stop
and tell him or her what to do. Simply amplify or make clearer what is missed. Often,
the speaker thinks that the message is clear when it actually isn‟t.
Exercises:
(1) Variation in Sounds: Notice that the sound of the word, as it released with the
   breath, it will develop and change. Don‟t try to remember and maintain the same
   sound. Add to the experience it and release the new experience. When the same
  word is repeated in a text, either give each a different meaning, intensify the
  meaning, or develop the complexities of the meaning.
  (I love) life.
  (I hate) life.
  (I am afraid of) life.


  (I am a little) hungry.
  (I am very) hungry.
  I am hungry (for life).


  It is (a boring idea).
  It is (an interesting but unpopular idea).
  It is (an effective but unpopular unless made convincing) idea.


(2) Reading Prose: A poem or piece of prose contains the following elements: a who,
   a what, a why, a how, a to whom, a when, and a where. The who is the speaker. The
   what is the speaker‟s objective. And not just the objective but the reasons behind
   the objective, the why. In Catherine Dai‟s story, the speaker finds pleasure in the
   appearance of the old apartments. Why is this important to her? Put yourself in her
   place. How do you want the audience to react the apartments beautified by plants
   and flowers? You make this decision.
       Still, nature had gradually restored some dignity to the old apartments; hedges
of jasmine lined the sidewalks and the flowers in the front yards spilled over their
boundaries of wire in a profusion of lilac, red and green.
3. Radio Play
A good way to train the voice is a radio play because characters, facial expressions,
movements, and environment must revealed through the voices and sound effects only.
This is a real challenge but never fails to provide endless enjoyment for both the
listener and performer. When writing a radio script, you must first place yourself in
the position of the audience. This is true of all speech forms but is especially crucial
in radio theater since the conventions and needs are not familiar, we tend to make
assumptions based upon our experience with theater or film which can convey
changes of place and character visually.


Exercise:
(1) Choose a story that matches the number of men and women in your group. Avoid
    too much similarity in characters and voices.
(2) Select a story whose characters don‟t need lengthy introductions or development.
(3) Interesting environments, imagined through sounds, create a more novel
    presentation.
(4) A variety of environments stimulate interest.
(5) Shocking or intriguing endings to scenes to maintain interest.
(6) Unambiguous vocal readings are preferable since the audience can not see facial
    reactions. You may reverse the expectations but let the audience know how they
    are supposed to react.
(7) Engaging vocal presentations of characters: quirks of voice, pronunciation, or uses
    of words to allow the audiences to visualize the characters.
(8) Musical or sound transitions which will maintain or better still, increase attention.


Exercise: Compile a radio commercial that includes the elements illustrated above.
4. Stage Play
When a scene of a scripted play is presented, you should consider the following:
(1) Setting: What is required? How should these set pieces be best located so that the
    audience can see the characters and the actors can have the greatest freedom of
    movement and most variety of choices in movement.
(2) Casting: Consider the type. Is the character tall or short, young or old? What kind
    of person is the character: sensitive or gruff, high energy or passive? Who would
    best play that part? Since this is a class exercise, allow your classmates to
    challenge themselves and play a part they would never be considered for.
(3) Interpretation: A play is more than just a string of emotions, like beads on a
    necklace. Emotions are actually just the reactions to what other characters do.
    Decide what each character wants and how this is achieved through a process of
   choices and changes—a development in character and relationship.


Exercise: Present a scripted play.
Situation : Someone called the police to the house of the eccentric and rich Lady
Gerta. She is dead. The police suspect that someone poisoned her during dinner by
putting something into her drink. There are three guests at the table. They refuse to
talk to the police. So the police must solve this crime themselves, but they have many
clues.
Clues:
(1) The butler was off for the evening.
(2) All three guests belong to Lady Gerta‟s rather strange family—one is a mad
    scientist; on is a professional weight lifter; one is a fashion model.
(3) One of the guests has only a right arm.
(4) The model does not eat any meat.
(5) The professional weight lifter sat opposite Lady Gerta.
(6) The mad scientist is married to a vegetarian.
(7) Lady Gerta‟s nephew does not drink alcohol.
(8) The mad scientist sat to the right of Lady Gerta.
(9) The weight lifter is a teetotaler.
(10) Lady Gerta is left-handed.
(11) The model has a beard.
(12) The cat was asleep in the fading sunlight behind Lady Gerta‟s chair.
(13) The married couple is Lady”Gerta‟s daughter and son-in-law.
(14) The vegetarian is right-handed.
5. Storytelling and Joke Telling
    Storytelling can be a useful and creative method to develop expressiveness and
fluency. What is storytelling? First, it is not just a mechanical list of what happened in
the story. Storytelling is not a memory exercise or comprehension test. It is a chance
to become involved in an art and form of literature that predates the printed word.
Long before people could read or even thought of a written language, stories were
told to charm, delight, thrill, and even teach. It is no trick to make even the most
uninteresting story exciting. Just add a few words to boost mood, character, and
action.
     Telling a joke is just the same as telling a story. But don‟t laugh at your own
humor. Let the audience laugh at it. Don‟t drag it on and on or the audience will be
predict what will happen. Don‟t wait for their laughter or reaction to end. That will
kill the momentum. Likewise, don‟t step on the laughter by starting to talk while the
audience is still laughing.


Exercise: Practice telling the following stories. Or choose a story of your own to tell.
You will have to add dialogue, description, and action because the stories below have
been simplified.
                            A Goat in a Tiger‟s Skin
A mountain goat found a tiger‟s skin and hid it away lie a treasure. Winter came, and
when the goat felt unbearably cold, he dragged out the tiger‟s skin and put it on.
Feeling nice and warm all over, the goat joyfully ran back and forth along the
mountain ridge. When he saw another animal‟s skin which a hunter had dropped by
the road side, he wanted to drag it back home, but when he spotted a coyote, he
trembled with fear and quickly fled to his cave. The goat could not forget that he was
only a goat after all.
                       The Fox Makes Use of the Tiger‟s Awe
A tiger caught a fox in the forest and was about to devour it, when the cunning animal
said to him: “The Lord of the Heavens has sent me to this forest to be the King of the
Beasts. You can‟t devour me!” Seeing that the fox was such a little fellow, the tiger
really found it hard to believe that this could be the King of the Beast. “If you don‟t
believe me, you can follow me on a stroll through the forest and see for yourself
whether the beasts are afraid of me.” The tiger consented, and so the fox went ahead.
The tiger, following close behind him, walked along the path. When the beasts of the
forest saw the tiger following the fox, they were so frightened that they all fled for
their lives. “See! Everyone is afraid of me!” the fox said proudly. “That‟s right. You
are really awe-inspiring. They all ran away as soon as they saw you.


6. Analogies
The analogy game is designed to teach extend metaphors or analogies which compare
abstracts or ideas such as love, truth, beauty, education with concrete objects such as a
book, a party, honey, or cake. Analogies and extended metaphors are used to give
unity to an explanation, add and sustain interest, provide humor, and add clarity
through the use of a specific example which can be seen and has been experienced.
Exercise:
Step 1: Cut up paper into two-inch squares and lay them into piles, one pile for ideas
and one for objects.


Step 2: On each piece of paper write one word, one pile for ideas and one for object.
Make the lists consistent. Objects should be nouns, and ideas should be nouns, too.
IDEAS: love, truth, beauty, greed, nationalism, power, ownership need luck value
health success, friendship, hope, happiness, control, life, talent, prosperity, freedom,
creativity, knowledge
OBJECTS: weather, honey, rain, cake, wine, clothes, an apple, a computer, a movie,
music, a clock, a bird, a television, housework, a banquet, war school, a book, a zoo, a
candle, a dictionary a family, a fire, a plant.


Step 3: shuffle the squares like cards to mix up the choices.


Step 4: Make your choices randomly so that you will be more likely to make
comparisons which are original. This will stimulate your creativity and imagination.


Step 5: Relate the statement about the object to the idea.


Step 6: Organize and outline the comparisons using time, space, process, natural order,
cause and effect of whatever method best suits the comparison. Try more than one
method and see which fits best.


Example: Love is like wine.
         Wine ages.
         If you drink too much, you can get drunk.
          When you first drink win, you feel strange.
          Choose wine carefully.
          Some wines can make you sick.
7. Stress Practice:
A. Change the stress in the question.
(1) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(2) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(3) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(4) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(5) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?

(6) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(7) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(8) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(9) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(10) How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


(11)How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?


B. Change the question into a rap (with rapid talk and sharp blow).


C. Tongue Twister:
(1) giggle, gaggle, google, guggle, goggle
(2) Moses supposes his toes are roses but Moses supposes erroneously.


D. Practice stressing questions and answers.
The sixth sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick.
Which sheik’s sheep is sick?    The sixth sheik‟s sheep‟s sick.
Which sheep is sick?               The six sheik‟s sixth sheep‟s sick.
Is the sixth sheik‟s sixth sheep happy? No, the sixth sheik‟s sixth sheep‟s sick?
Is the sixth farmer’s sixth sheep sick? No, the sixth sheik’s sixth sheep‟s sick.
How does the sixth sheik‟s sixth sheep feel? The sixth sheik‟s sixth sheep‟s sick.
Which sheik‟s sixth sheep‟s sick? The sixth sheik‟s sixth sheep‟s sick.
8. Discussion
An effective discussion is shared equally by the entire group. It is a stimulating
exchange of information which will captivate the audience. It should even be exciting
and have some of the qualities of a debate where the discussant can disagree and try,
politely. To prove their points of views and convince the other members of the
discussion.
How do you plan a discussion?
(1) Choose a moderator. The moderator has a key role in the discussion. First, the
    moderator outlines the information to be sure that the audience can follow and be
    stimulated by the topic. There will also be time limits to consider. If the discussion
    is to be completed during minutes, for example, the topic will have to be limited.
    Likewise, the moderator tries to have each person speak and all the opinions and
    information expressed fairly and equally. No one person ore aspect should
    dominate.
(2) Choose and limit the topic. Select a topic which can be completed within the time
    limit. Don‟t try to discuss the whole world in an hour. Choose a topic you can find
    information.
(3) Divide up the research sources of information among the members. This does not
    mean that the other members can‟t research as they can. All members are
    encouraged to become acquainted with all the information so that during the
    discussion they can comment on what they haven‟t fathered themselves. Your
    objective is maximum participation.
(4) Research the topic. Work alone or in groups to gather as much information as
    possible.
(5) Meet, share data, outline the discussion, and decide what data is still needed,
    dividing up the new research.
(6) Meet again to add the new data to the outline.
(7) Have the discussion and be spontaneous.


Note that there is no rehearsal of the discussion in the process.
(Topic for discussion: Surrogate Mother, Organ Transplant, Sexual Harassment)
9. Role Play
Role plays are discussions when the participants do not play themselves but talk from
the point of view of a real person or type of person such as a doctor, lawyer,
psychologist, parent. The choice of role will be determined by the information and
topic. If you are discussing cram schools, then obvious roles would be a student,
teacher, parent, counselor, or someone involved in education. If you are discussing
protection of endangered species and have information on the legal, environmental,
political, and social aspects, then you might choose a law professor, an
environmentalist, a government official from the ministry of Foreign Affairs, a
Chinese medicine importer , and a sociologist. In the dialogue and choice of roles,
remember to keep the sides balanced and the objective of the discussion in sight.
Exercise:                          Limbo
LITCHFIELD, July 1--A Rainbow Airlines plane has just crashed on landing. There
were few survivors. They were taken a nearby hospital.
July 18—Among the survivors of yesterday‟s devastating Rainbow Airlines crash are
Mrs. Bell Lynbrook, age fifty-six, and her daughter, Peggy Lynbrook, age twenty-two.
Both are in critical condition with severe burns.
July 19—Mrs. Lynbrook and her daughter are still unconscious and are not expected
to live. Their survival so far has amazed their doctors and relatives.
July 27—Mrs. Lynbrook and her daughter, two victims of the Rainbow Airlines crash
are now in stable condition, but neither has regained consciousness. They have been
breathing on life-support systems since the crash. Doctors have very little hope that
they will pull through.
Dec. 20—It has been over five months since the two crash victims were put on
life-support machines. Doctors are puzzled by the patients‟ conditions.


The roles include the husband and father, Mr. Fred Lynbrook, Peggy‟s boyfriend, a
doctor, a neighbor, and a priest. They should take the following questions into
consideration.
(1) Mr. Lynbrook wants both his wife and daughter to remain on the life-support
machines. However, he has to pay for this service and he has enough money for only
one machine. Which person should continue on the machine—his wife or his
daughter?
(2) If the doctor uses the life- support system, should he use a. indefinitely or only for
a certain period of time? b. with older patients or with younger patients? c. with
patients who have terminal diseases or with patients with temporary disease.
(3) From an ethical point of view why life-support systems should or shouldn‟t be
    used by doctors?
10. Pro/Con Discussion (Debate)
    The discussion members are divided into affirmative and negative teams, with the
odd numbered member serving as moderator. Choose a topic, definitions, and
arguments which both teams can agree upon. Each team will then separate and
prepare their arguments, counter arguments, proof, and questions.
    The moderator leads the discussion to allow both sides to present their arguments
and then gives a review and conclusion. During this discussion, participants are
encouraged to give immediate feedback and rebuttal so long as it doesn‟t become a
shouting match.
    A successful debate offers both arguments through two speakers, groups, or teams
of speakers representing the affirmative and negative arguments. The affirmative tries
to prove that their plan will solve the problems. The negative tries to prove that
change is not beneficial and may even create more problems.


Exercise:
A. Use the following speaking order.
(1) First Affirmative Speech (3 minutes)
(2) First Negative Questions First Affirmative (2 minutes)
(3) First Negative Speech (3 minutes)
(4) Second Affirmative Questions First Negative (2 minutes)
(5) Second Affirmative Speech (3 minutes)
(6) Second Negative Questions Second Affirmative (2 minutes)
(7) Second Negative Speech (3 minutes)
(8) First Affirmative Questions Second Negative (2 minutes)
(9) Review and Conclusion
         Once again, the strategy which the negative or affirmative takes will change
    with each topic. If a change is clearly needed, then the negative would do best to
    have an alternative plan. However, no matter how many people are involved or
   which form is used, each debate will include 1. )needs for change, 2.)plans for
    change, and 3.) proof.
(B) Controversial Topics for Debates:
(1) The university entrance examination should be abolished
(2) Men should give vacation time to accompany their wives during childbirth
(3) Taipower should not build a fourth nuclear power plant
(4) Advertisements aimed at children should be banned
(5) The isolation of AIDS victims
(6) Taiwan should adopt a group-by-ability system at the junior high school level
(7) Beauty pageants are a contemptible activity
11. Demonstration
       Showing „how‟ is the key to effective demonstration speeches. They must
include actions which will get and hold the audience attention and make your
explanation understood through the actual doing of the process: making a cake
determining real from fake antiques, or grooming a dog. Without actually seeing how
it is done, the audience will not understand and remember the process. They will
become confused, frustrated, bored and then disinterested.
     What makes you, first, want to watch, and then, want to make the food shown on
TV cooking shows? Seeing the master cut fresh vegetables and meats, stir in the
spices, fry the fragrant mixture, and then serve up the final delicious outcome. You get
hungry, don‟t you. It is made to look so easy. Once again, as with all speeches the
process is made simple and easy to follow by organizing the steps, practicing, and
then presenting the speech with interest and enjoyment which proves how easy and
much fun it is to do. Furthermore, problems and their solutions are shown to save time
and money.


Exercise: In the demonstration, the following patterns are used.
(1) (First) Step one
    a. explain
    b. dos and reasons
    c. don‟ts and reasons
(2) (Next) Second step
    a. explain
    b. dos and reasons
    c. don‟ts and reasons
(3) (After that) Third step
    a. explain
    b. dos and reasons
    c. don‟ts and reasons
(4) (Then) Fourth step
    a. explain
    b. dos and reasons
    c. don‟ts and reasons
(5) (Finally) Fifth step
    a. explain
    b. dos and reasons
c. don‟ts and reasons


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