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Complex _ Compound-complex Sentences by zhangyun

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									Types of Sentences
          The Simple Sentence
What is a sentence?
 A group of words with a subject, a verb and a
  complete idea.
 We expect to make a profit this year.



What is a simple sentence?
 A sentence with one subject and one main verb.

 All of the employees and their husbands or
  wives enjoyed the annual dinner at the
  hotel.
       Simple Sentence Example

   Majed travels to
    Amsterdam every
    year in the summer
    time.



         This is a simple sentence. It contains one subject
         Majed and one verb travels.
  SIMPLE SENTENCE
  with compound subject


Tom and Mary play tennis.
   SIMPLE SENTENCE
   with compound subject
            and
    compound predicate

Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
               Compound Sentence
   A compound sentence consists of two or more
    independent clauses (or simple sentences) joined by
    coordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or":
   Simple
    •   Canada is a rich country.
   Simple
    •   Still, it has many poor people.
   Compound
    •   Canada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people.
What is an independent clause?
   A subject, verb and complete idea– it
    can be a sentence on its own!
   Everyone was celebrating.
          Compound Sentence
 A compound sentence contains two independent
 clauses that are joined together.

She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs.




  Independent                    Independent
     Clause                         Clause
 Compound Sentence with
Coordinating Conjunctions

 SUBJECT          PREDICATE

           and

 SUBJECT         PREDICATE
    COMPOUND SENTENCE:
     COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS




Hani swims, and Sami plays tennis.

   Clause 1               Clause 2
 Independent             Independent
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS


     FOR
     AND
     NOR
     BUT
     OR
     YET
     SO
     COMPOUND SENTENCE:
         CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS




Fahd is handsome; moreover, he is rich.

   Clause 1                Clause 2
 Independent             Independent
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
  CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

  MOREOVER
  HOWEVER
  OTHERWISE
  THEREFORE
Coordinating Conjunctions
Logical Relationship   Coordinating Conjunction



     Addition                   And


     Contrast                  But, yet


      Choice                   Or, nor

      Cause                      For


      Result                     So
Complex &
   Compound-complex
              Sentences




 “We can do anything we want as long as we stick to it long enough.”
                                                                    Helen Keller
   The Complex Sentence
A complex sentence contains one independent clause
and at least one dependent clause.
Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex
sentence contains clauses which are not equal.
Consider the following examples:
Simple
My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
Compound
My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
Complex
Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.
  The Complex Sentence
In the first example, there are two separate simple
sentences: "My friend invited me to a party" and "I do not
want to go."
The second example joins them together into a single
sentence with the coordinating conjunction "but," but
both parts could still stand as independent sentences --
they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tell which
is most important.
In the third example, however, the sentence has
changed quite a bit: the first clause, "Although my friend
invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a
dependent clause.
    The Complex Sentence
A complex sentence is very different from a simple
sentence or a compound sentence because it makes
clear which ideas are most important. When you write
My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
or even
My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of
information is most important to you. When you write the
subordinating conjunction "although" at the beginning of
the first clause, however, you make it clear that the fact
that your friend invited you is less important than, or
subordinate, to the fact that you do not want to go.
Are these sentences?
  When we went on a long journey through the
   woods on a sunny Friday morning.
  It was fine.
  Because he was not only tall but also one of
   the hardest workers in the area.
  Sing that song.
 (View answers on the next slide.)
Answers!
 (Dependent clause)When we went on
   a long journey through the woods
   on a sunny Friday morning.
 (Sentence)It was fine.
 (Dependent Clause)Because he was
   not only tall but also one of the
   hardest workers in the area.
 (Sentence)Sing that song.
What is a dependent clause?
 A group of words with a subject and verb, but
  not expressing a complete idea.

   Because the profits had been so great.
   Although it was late.
   Until the early hours of the morning.
   Whether they wanted to or not.
   Even if they’d rather be at home reading
    the newspaper.

 A dependent clause cannot stand on its own!
  A dependent clause…

 Cannot stand on its own because it does not
  express a complete thought because…
 It begins with a subordinating conjunction
   (because, although, until, whether, etc.) BUT…
 It can join an independent clause (simple
  sentence) to become a…
 Complex sentence!
The Complex Sentence
 Complex sentences have a different structure
  from simple and compound sentences:
       Independent Clause + Dependent Clause
                         or
   Dependent Clause + Comma + Independent Clause
                 = Complex Sentence
A complex sentence contains 1 independent clause and
1 or more dependent clauses. If a dependent clause
begins the sentence, there normally is a comma (,) after
it. If an independent clause begins a complex sentence
there should not be a comma after it.
Subordinating Conjunctions
After           how          Until
Although        if           Unless
As              in as much   as if
in order that   When         as long as
At least        Whenever     as much as
now that        whereas      soon
wherever        as though    Since
While           because      so that
Before          even if      That
even though     though
 Complex Sentences
 A complex sentence contains at least one
 independent clause and one dependent clause.


   John cannot set up his typewriter

                               Independent Clause

                because the wall has no outlet.

Subordinating                   Dependent Clause
 Conjunction
 An example of Complex Sentences


   A complex sentence contains at least one
   independent clause and one dependent clause.
           She will go to school in the city
                         Independent Clause


                until she finds a job.
Subordinating                      Dependent Clause
 Conjunction
 Complex Sentences
  Use a comma after a dependent clause if it begins
  the sentence.
When I first moved to the city,

       Subordinating                Use a comma if
        Conjunction                 the dependent
                                    clause is the first
                                    part of the
                                    sentence.

I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets.

                               Independent
                                  Clause
The COMPLEX Sentence

  A complex sentence contains an independent clause and at LEAST
   one dependent clause.
  Both clauses in the sentence are not equal. They can not both be
   dependent or independent.

 EXAMPLE:
 She planted the flowers that he enjoyed smelling.
Complex Sentence

    Bob                 is popular

          even though

    he                    is ugly.
 Complex Example
       Although she worked hard to gain
       recognition, many people did not
       know who she was.

Although she worked hard to gain recognition is a dependent
clause because it begins with the subordinating
conjunction although. Many people did not know who she was
would be an independent clause, therefore making the
sentence a complex sentence.
In a complex sentence, either the dependent or the
  independent clause can come first:
Even though it was late, everyone was
  celebrating.
Everyone was celebrating even though it was
  late.
          [You do not usually need a comma
          if the independent clause is first.]
although, but, however
All of these words join clauses in
sentences, but they are different
parts of speech.
This presentation explains the
impact of the word choice on
sentence pattern and punctuation.
although, but, however
Semantic similarity
 These three words are related
 semantically (in meaning):

  they all signal a contrast in the
  information that follows with the
  information that precedes.
although, but, however
Structural difference

However, these words differ

structurally: they are different parts of

speech and affect sentence patterns in

different ways.
           parts of speech
word       part of speech effect on sentence

although   subordinating makes clause
           conjunction   dependent
but        coordinating   joins like things
           conjunction    (2 independent
                          clauses)
however    conjunctive    modifies an
           adverb         independent clause
  Review          although, but, however


 Although makes a clause dependent
  and the sentence complex.
 But joins independent clauses in a
  compound sentence.
 However can join independent clauses
  but does not change their
  independence.
 The Compound-Complex Sentence
The compound-complex sentence has the following structure:

    Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + independent
                               clause
                        + dependent clause
                    = compound-complex sentence

  It does not have to be in that order. A dependent clause can
  stand in between two independent clauses. The rule is
  there should be at least two independent and at least one
  dependent clause in a compound-complex sentence.
Compound-Complex Sentences
 A compound-complex sentence is a
 sentence that has at least two independent
 clauses and at least one dependent clause.
 The same subordinating conjunctions are
 used to introduce the dependent clauses.
 The same coordinating conjunctions
 (FANBOYS) are used for joining the
 independent clauses.
Compound-Complex
Example
Although she worked hard to gain recognition, many
people did not know who she was, and her friends did
not even appreciate her work.

Here, we added an extra clause to the complex
sentence we used earlier – her friends did not even
appreciate her work. Adding this independent clause with
the coordinating conjunction and makes this a
compound-complex sentence.
         Compound/Complex
 The kitty purred softly, and she bounced on
  the pillow as her master read a funny
  magazine.


 The soldiers did not think they would reach
  the bridge because the bridge was far
  away, and they were being eaten alive by
  hundreds of mosquitoes.
  Sample Compound-Complex Sentences.
 After the two adversaries had spent years
  playing this “cat and mouse” game, they were
  joined by their children, and the fun continued.
 Even though it seems the two were bent on the
  other’s destruction, the cat and mouse were
  rather fond of one another, and neither wanted
  the other’s defeat.
 This game was begun thousands of years ago,
  and it will continue far into the future as other
  cats and mice revel in hide-and-seek.
Compound-Complex Sentence


Mike                     is popular

         because

he                 is good looking,


           but


he                 is not very happy.
Compound-Complex Sentence


Mike                     is popular

         because

he                 is good looking,


           but


he                 is not very happy.
        More practice
 Most of the rotten eggs missed the actors, but
  one hit the orchestra.
     Compound
 Because the weather along the coast was cold
  and rainy, we spent the day in the desert.
     Complex
 When he had finished the test, Ernie ate a gallon
  of chocolate ice cream, and Sandra drank a
  chocolate shake.
     Compound complex
 A lion, a tiger, and a bear appeared on stage.
   Simple
           Even more practice.
 Saul’s car started to fall apart after the mechanic
  adjusted the carburetor.
      Complex
 When his computer crashed for the third time, Bill began
  to weep, and his mother tried to console him.
      Compound complex
 Sylvia who is my sister’s best friend set out to find a red
  rose.
      Complex
 The rum was aboard, and the harpoons were sharp, but
  Ahab hesitated.
      Compound
  The Four Types of Sentences
Simple
We drove from St. John’s to Corner Brook in one day.
Compound
We were exhausted, but we arrived in time for my
     mother’s birthday party.
Complex
( Although she is now 81 years old ), she still claims to
     be 75.
Compound-complex
( After it was all over ), my mother claimed she knew we
     were planning something, but we think she was
     really surprised.
Review
1.  Mary went to the park, but John stayed at home.
2.  Tom wanted to exercise, so he went for a walk.
3.  The dog that ate my homework is sick.
4.  Mary likes reading; John likes television.
5.  Bill is the one who usually sits here.
6.  When the movie was over, we went to Moo Moos for
    ice cream, but my favourite flavour was all gone.
7. John who sits behind me is on the basketball team.
8. While we were away, the girl who was looking after our
    cat discovered that she had an allergy to them.
9. You can study now or pray later.
10. All that glitters is not gold.
Answers
 1.    Mary went to the park, but John stayed       1. Compound
       at home.
 2.    Tom wanted to exercise, so he went for       2. Compound
       a walk.
                                                    3. Complex
 3.    The dog that ate my homework is sick.
 4.    Mary likes reading; John likes television.   4. Compound
 5.    Bill is the one who usually sits here.
                                                    5. Complex
 6.    When the movie was over, we went to
       Moo Moos for ice cream, but my
                                                    6. Compound-Complex
       favourite flavour was all gone.
 7.    John who sits behind me is on the            7. Complex
       basketball team.
 8.    While we were away, the girl who was         8. Compound-Complex
       looking after our cat discovered that she
       had an allergy to them.                      9. Simple
 9.    You can study now or pray later.
                                                    10. Complex
 10.   All that glitters is not gold.

								
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