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Types of Sentences The Simple Sentence What is a sentence? A group of words with a subject, a verb and a complete idea. We expect to make a profit this year. What is a simple sentence? A sentence with one subject and one main verb. All of the employees and their husbands or wives enjoyed the annual dinner at the hotel. Simple Sentence Example Majed travels to Amsterdam every year in the summer time. This is a simple sentence. It contains one subject Majed and one verb travels. SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject Tom and Mary play tennis. SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject and compound predicate Tom and Mary play tennis and swim. Compound Sentence A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simple sentences) joined by coordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or": Simple • Canada is a rich country. Simple • Still, it has many poor people. Compound • Canada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people. What is an independent clause? A subject, verb and complete idea– it can be a sentence on its own! Everyone was celebrating. Compound Sentence A compound sentence contains two independent clauses that are joined together. She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs. Independent Independent Clause Clause Compound Sentence with Coordinating Conjunctions SUBJECT PREDICATE and SUBJECT PREDICATE COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Hani swims, and Sami plays tennis. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Independent COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Fahd is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Independent COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS MOREOVER HOWEVER OTHERWISE THEREFORE Coordinating Conjunctions Logical Relationship Coordinating Conjunction Addition And Contrast But, yet Choice Or, nor Cause For Result So Complex & Compound-complex Sentences “We can do anything we want as long as we stick to it long enough.” Helen Keller The Complex Sentence A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Consider the following examples: Simple My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go. Compound My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go. Complex Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go. The Complex Sentence In the first example, there are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me to a party" and "I do not want to go." The second example joins them together into a single sentence with the coordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still stand as independent sentences -- they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tell which is most important. In the third example, however, the sentence has changed quite a bit: the first clause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a dependent clause. The Complex Sentence A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentence because it makes clear which ideas are most important. When you write My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go. or even My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go. The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of information is most important to you. When you write the subordinating conjunction "although" at the beginning of the first clause, however, you make it clear that the fact that your friend invited you is less important than, or subordinate, to the fact that you do not want to go. Are these sentences? When we went on a long journey through the woods on a sunny Friday morning. It was fine. Because he was not only tall but also one of the hardest workers in the area. Sing that song. (View answers on the next slide.) Answers! (Dependent clause)When we went on a long journey through the woods on a sunny Friday morning. (Sentence)It was fine. (Dependent Clause)Because he was not only tall but also one of the hardest workers in the area. (Sentence)Sing that song. What is a dependent clause? A group of words with a subject and verb, but not expressing a complete idea. Because the profits had been so great. Although it was late. Until the early hours of the morning. Whether they wanted to or not. Even if they’d rather be at home reading the newspaper. A dependent clause cannot stand on its own! A dependent clause… Cannot stand on its own because it does not express a complete thought because… It begins with a subordinating conjunction (because, although, until, whether, etc.) BUT… It can join an independent clause (simple sentence) to become a… Complex sentence! The Complex Sentence Complex sentences have a different structure from simple and compound sentences: Independent Clause + Dependent Clause or Dependent Clause + Comma + Independent Clause = Complex Sentence A complex sentence contains 1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clauses. If a dependent clause begins the sentence, there normally is a comma (,) after it. If an independent clause begins a complex sentence there should not be a comma after it. Subordinating Conjunctions After how Until Although if Unless As in as much as if in order that When as long as At least Whenever as much as now that whereas soon wherever as though Since While because so that Before even if That even though though Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. John cannot set up his typewriter Independent Clause because the wall has no outlet. Subordinating Dependent Clause Conjunction An example of Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. She will go to school in the city Independent Clause until she finds a job. Subordinating Dependent Clause Conjunction Complex Sentences Use a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence. When I first moved to the city, Subordinating Use a comma if Conjunction the dependent clause is the first part of the sentence. I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets. Independent Clause The COMPLEX Sentence A complex sentence contains an independent clause and at LEAST one dependent clause. Both clauses in the sentence are not equal. They can not both be dependent or independent. EXAMPLE: She planted the flowers that he enjoyed smelling. Complex Sentence Bob is popular even though he is ugly. Complex Example Although she worked hard to gain recognition, many people did not know who she was. Although she worked hard to gain recognition is a dependent clause because it begins with the subordinating conjunction although. Many people did not know who she was would be an independent clause, therefore making the sentence a complex sentence. In a complex sentence, either the dependent or the independent clause can come first: Even though it was late, everyone was celebrating. Everyone was celebrating even though it was late. [You do not usually need a comma if the independent clause is first.] although, but, however All of these words join clauses in sentences, but they are different parts of speech. This presentation explains the impact of the word choice on sentence pattern and punctuation. although, but, however Semantic similarity These three words are related semantically (in meaning): they all signal a contrast in the information that follows with the information that precedes. although, but, however Structural difference However, these words differ structurally: they are different parts of speech and affect sentence patterns in different ways. parts of speech word part of speech effect on sentence although subordinating makes clause conjunction dependent but coordinating joins like things conjunction (2 independent clauses) however conjunctive modifies an adverb independent clause Review although, but, however Although makes a clause dependent and the sentence complex. But joins independent clauses in a compound sentence. However can join independent clauses but does not change their independence. The Compound-Complex Sentence The compound-complex sentence has the following structure: Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + independent clause + dependent clause = compound-complex sentence It does not have to be in that order. A dependent clause can stand in between two independent clauses. The rule is there should be at least two independent and at least one dependent clause in a compound-complex sentence. Compound-Complex Sentences A compound-complex sentence is a sentence that has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. The same subordinating conjunctions are used to introduce the dependent clauses. The same coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) are used for joining the independent clauses. Compound-Complex Example Although she worked hard to gain recognition, many people did not know who she was, and her friends did not even appreciate her work. Here, we added an extra clause to the complex sentence we used earlier – her friends did not even appreciate her work. Adding this independent clause with the coordinating conjunction and makes this a compound-complex sentence. Compound/Complex The kitty purred softly, and she bounced on the pillow as her master read a funny magazine. The soldiers did not think they would reach the bridge because the bridge was far away, and they were being eaten alive by hundreds of mosquitoes. Sample Compound-Complex Sentences. After the two adversaries had spent years playing this “cat and mouse” game, they were joined by their children, and the fun continued. Even though it seems the two were bent on the other’s destruction, the cat and mouse were rather fond of one another, and neither wanted the other’s defeat. This game was begun thousands of years ago, and it will continue far into the future as other cats and mice revel in hide-and-seek. Compound-Complex Sentence Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy. Compound-Complex Sentence Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy. More practice Most of the rotten eggs missed the actors, but one hit the orchestra. Compound Because the weather along the coast was cold and rainy, we spent the day in the desert. Complex When he had finished the test, Ernie ate a gallon of chocolate ice cream, and Sandra drank a chocolate shake. Compound complex A lion, a tiger, and a bear appeared on stage. Simple Even more practice. Saul’s car started to fall apart after the mechanic adjusted the carburetor. Complex When his computer crashed for the third time, Bill began to weep, and his mother tried to console him. Compound complex Sylvia who is my sister’s best friend set out to find a red rose. Complex The rum was aboard, and the harpoons were sharp, but Ahab hesitated. Compound The Four Types of Sentences Simple We drove from St. John’s to Corner Brook in one day. Compound We were exhausted, but we arrived in time for my mother’s birthday party. Complex ( Although she is now 81 years old ), she still claims to be 75. Compound-complex ( After it was all over ), my mother claimed she knew we were planning something, but we think she was really surprised. Review 1. Mary went to the park, but John stayed at home. 2. Tom wanted to exercise, so he went for a walk. 3. The dog that ate my homework is sick. 4. Mary likes reading; John likes television. 5. Bill is the one who usually sits here. 6. When the movie was over, we went to Moo Moos for ice cream, but my favourite flavour was all gone. 7. John who sits behind me is on the basketball team. 8. While we were away, the girl who was looking after our cat discovered that she had an allergy to them. 9. You can study now or pray later. 10. All that glitters is not gold. Answers 1. Mary went to the park, but John stayed 1. Compound at home. 2. Tom wanted to exercise, so he went for 2. Compound a walk. 3. Complex 3. The dog that ate my homework is sick. 4. Mary likes reading; John likes television. 4. Compound 5. Bill is the one who usually sits here. 5. Complex 6. When the movie was over, we went to Moo Moos for ice cream, but my 6. Compound-Complex favourite flavour was all gone. 7. John who sits behind me is on the 7. Complex basketball team. 8. While we were away, the girl who was 8. Compound-Complex looking after our cat discovered that she had an allergy to them. 9. Simple 9. You can study now or pray later. 10. Complex 10. All that glitters is not gold.
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