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Introducing Orienteering to Tasmanian schools

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					     Introducing Orienteering to Tasmanian schools
1.      ORIENTEERING IN TASMANIAN SCHOOLS ...................................................... 2
2.      WHAT IS ORIENTEERING? .................................................................................... 2
     2.1   The Importance of Map reading ......................................................................... 2
     2.2   Sport, Recreation or Education? ......................................................................... 3
     2.3   Why orienteering should be part of the school curriculum................................. 4
     2.4   Understanding Orienteering through Participation ............................................. 5
3       BASIC RESOURCES................................................................................................. 5
     3.1   Publications ......................................................................................................... 5
     3.2   Maps.................................................................................................................... 5
     3.3   Control Markers .................................................................................................. 6
     3.4   Control Description List ..................................................................................... 6
     3.5   Control Card........................................................................................................ 6
     3.6   Compasses........................................................................................................... 7
4       ORGANISING AND COURSE SETTING................................................................ 7
     4.1   Organising a School Event.................................................................................. 7
     4.2   Course Standards ................................................................................................ 7
     4.3   School ground Courses ....................................................................................... 8
     4.4   Starting and Timing of Courses .......................................................................... 8
     4.5   Permanent Courses.............................................................................................. 9
     4.6   Organised School Events .................................................................................... 9
     4.7   Organising Your Own Event Away From School .............................................. 9
5       TEACHING THE BASICS ........................................................................................ 9
     5.1   Map Interpretation ............................................................................................ 10
     5.2   Map Orientation ................................................................................................ 10
     5.3   Other Skills ....................................................................................................... 10
     5.4   Physical Fitness ................................................................................................. 11
6       SCHOOL ORIENTEERING PROGRAMMES ....................................................... 11
     6.1   Four-session Primary School Programme ........................................................ 11
     6.2   Six-session Primary School Programme at School ........................................... 12
     6.3   Six-session Primary School Programme using Other Areas............................. 12
     6.4   Longer Primary School Programmes ................................................................ 12
     6.5   High School Programmes ................................................................................. 13
     6.6   Wet Weather Options ........................................................................................ 13
     6.7   School Orienteering Clubs ................................................................................ 13
7       OTHER ORIENTEERING OPPORTUNITIES ....................................................... 14
     7.1   Aussie Sport Expos ........................................................................................... 14
     7.2   School Camps ................................................................................................... 14
     7.3   OT School Orienteering Programme ................................................................ 14
     7.4   Other OT Events ............................................................................................... 15
8       SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE ................................................................................. 15
     8.1   Orienteering Tasmania Inc. ............................................................................... 15
     8.2   Orienteering Service of Australia ..................................................................... 16
    1. ORIENTEERING IN TASMANIAN SCHOOLS
        Tasmania is probably the best state in Australia for conducting orienteering in the school situation.
Virtually all schools have large grounds or associated parkland which provide an area large enough to teach
the basic principles of orienteering in a familiar and safe environment. Many schools, certainly those in the
major population centres, are also within walking distance of large urban parks, bush land areas or forests
which are suitable for orienteering in less familiar terrain.
        A large number of these areas are covered by accurate, detailed multi-coloured orienteering maps
prepared by Orienteering Tasmania Inc. (OT) and, for those that are not, black and white maps suitable for
orienteering can readily be prepared from available Government maps.
        There is a considerable body of expertise within OT and its member clubs to assist school teachers
in establishing orienteering. In addition, the Association offers an extensive programme of events for
schools or individual students or teachers wishing to pursue orienteering outside school hours.
        Orienteering is established as a regular component of the AUSSIE SPORT programme, and is
featured at expos, teachers' in-service courses and coaching courses.
        Increasing numbers of teachers, most of whom have little or no prior orienteering experience, are
introducing orienteering into their schools. OT endeavours to provide as much assistance as possible within
the limits of its resources. This booklet, which has been prepared specifically for the Tasmanian situation
by OT, is intended as a resource to assist teachers to provide orienteering opportunities for their students.



    2. WHAT IS ORIENTEERING?
         Orienteering is basically a simple sport in which one navigates around a series of checkpoints using
a large-scale map and sometimes a compass. Although the fastest back wins, navigating skills are more
important than running speed and the competition is often more with one self than with others.
         Personal equipment needed is simple: sensible outdoor clothes and a pair of running shoes with
good grip.
         Like all sports, success demands a mastery of basic skills - map orientation, map reading, distance
estimation, etc - but, unlike many sports, orienteering can take a variety of forms (cross country, score, line,
relay,...). It can be performed recreationally or competitively by all ages and levels of technical and
physical ability, with everyone competing at the same event at the same time.
         It can take place in the classroom, in school grounds, in parks, in the bush. Courses can take a few
minutes or a few hours and competitors can walk, run, ride a bike or even ride a horse or paddle a canoe if
the opportunity exists.
         The basic criteria are that maps must be large scale and accurate, the control points must be
identifiable by skill and not luck, and the emphasis in course planning should be on following a chosen
route successfully and not in looking for a hidden control marker.
         Experience shows that children introduced to the sport by a positive system which builds on
confidence are much more likely to continue than those haunted by fears of getting lost. If we can avoid the
trauma of getting badly lost, orienteering can be magic. The thrill of sighting the orange and white markers
through the trees, touches the David Livingstone in all of us.


2.1      The Importance of Map reading
         In many orienteering situations, a compass is used as a navigational aid, but this is not essential and
a competent orienteer can complete even the most difficult course without one, although perhaps less
efficiently than with compass assistance.
         In the school situation, particularly at the introductory level, it is important to emphasise map
reading, and the compass is often a liability as much as an asset. As students become more advanced and
move on to more difficult courses in unfamiliar terrain, the need for compass use increases, and compass
skills should be taught.
       There are many navigational exercises using a compass which can be taught and practised in the
school situation in the course of developing compass skills, but these exercises are not orienteering and
should not be described as such.

             REMEMBER: ORIENTEERING IS FINDING YOUR WAY WITH A MAP.


2.2      Sport, Recreation or Education?
        Orienteering in its traditional form is a competitive sport. Indeed it is one of the most physically
demanding sports in terms of the range of skills required and also one of the most mentally demanding. At
the top level of competition it caters for an extremely wide range of ages, with national championships held
for both men and women (or boys and girls) ranging in age from under 10 to over 70, and Australian
representative teams selected from under 16 to over 60. Competition is also graded at each age
        class within different levels (e.g. elite, A, B) so that all participants can compete at their own levels
of physical fitness and navigational ability. Orienteering is perhaps unique in being the only organised sport
in which all members of a family can compete at their own levels in the same place at the same time, which
is one reason why it is often described as 'the family sport'.
        Not all orienteers, however, are competitive. There are many regular orienteers who participate
purely for the enjoyment of being in the outdoors and for the challenge of finding the controls that make up
the course, with little concern for the time spent on the course. The recreational component of orienteering
is important, particularly at the beginner level, so that orienteering skills can be learnt properly without the
pressure of competition.
        Many recreational orienteers become sufficiently competent and enthusiastic about the sport and
move on to the competitive level. In the school situation, however, there will be some students who will
never have a competitive attitude. It is important that they be allowed to enjoy orienteering at their own
pace without competitive pressures. The basic challenge in orienteering is completing the course. This is
a challenge which can offer every student success without having to be a winner.
        Orienteering also has an educational side, the most obvious being teaching the rudiments of map
interpretation. The ability to relate a two-dimensional abstract map to the real three-dimensional terrain
develops naturally in most children at about the age of nine or ten, although some children can be taught
such skills at a younger age. The correct techniques of map reading form an invaluable life skill, for many
purposes, and orienteering is an ideal and enjoyable means of learning such techniques. From an
understanding of maps, one can progress to introducing the compass and the concept of direction with
respect to North and its wider geographical implications.
        Some teachers have devised means of working mathematics into orienteering exercises. The
interpretation of the environment can be introduced through 'nature trail orienteering'. Virtually any school
subject can be worked in through 'quiz orienteering' where answering questions on aspects of the school
curriculum at each control is part of the challenge of completing the course.
        Different teachers have different reasons for introducing orienteering into their schools. Some see it
as a sport which provides an alternative to traditional team sports, and has the potential to attract students
who do not participate in the latter because of poor ball skills or lack of general co-ordination. Others see it
as adding diversity at an essentially non-competitive level to an Aussie Sport or physical education
programme, or to the range of optional extra-curricular activities offered by the school. Others see it as an
aid in bringing to life aspects of the curriculum that they teach.
        Whatever the motive for introducing orienteering, the challenges faced by the teacher are similar:
obtaining or preparing a suitable map, setting courses at the right level of difficulty, and helping the
children to enjoy orienteering.

                                   ORIENTEERING SHOULD BE FUN.

If it is too difficult or boring or if most students are not enjoying it, something is wrong with the
programme and a change in the approach or level of difficulty of the exercises may be required.
2.3      Why orienteering should be part of the school curriculum
        it is a cost effective sport; no expensive equipment is needed, no courts, sports halls or playing
         fields have to be constructed or maintained.
        it is teacher (manpower) effective: one teacher can cope with a large group of children. No
         referees or umpires are needed.
        it is non-elitist from the children’s point of view: they don't have to make "the team" to be able to
         participate. No-one is left on the side-lines because they are not good enough. Everyone can
         participate at their own level. Because of this, orienteering lessons don't end up being boring
         because they are aimed at all students rather than the "average" student.
        it is ideal for those students who do not succeed in a main stream sport, allowing individuals to go
         at their own pace without being concerned about letting the team down
        it is a sport where smart thinking often reaps rewards over physical prowess (the hare and tortoise
         sport)
        a lot of variation is possible. Every orienteering course is different. Repetitive drills and practise
         can be avoided.
        it teaches skills that can also be useful in everyday life. This is a very valid argument to include it
         in the curriculum (educational outcomes of sport in PE)
        it provides positive experiences for most participants
        it is not a spectator sport: some of the undesirable aspects of some high profile sports can be
         avoided.
        it is an excellent educational exercise as it develops:

                 conceptual and perceptual skills: relating real surroundings to the symbolic details of the
                  map
                 observation: the terrain must be observed carefully in order to relate it to the map
                 self confidence: develops as activities are successfully completed
                 decision making: many decisions need to be made on an orienteering course
                 navigational techniques
                 physical fitness in a pleasant way

A few other things that can be said for orienteering to be included in the school curriculum:

        it presents an adventure activity on the school's doorstep
        it's real problem solving
        it's useful
        it's challenging
        it's a good leisure activity
        it develops life skills
        it opens children's horizons to a new, alternative sport
        it's motivating
        it builds self confidence and independence
        it's map and compass
        everyone can do it
        it provides purpose and relevance to learning
        it builds health and fitness in an individual way
        it uses the real world rather than exercises in books
        it links mathematics and geography
        it gets you out of the classroom
        it gets children talking
        it enables children to observe their environment
        it answers PE and Outdoor Education costs effectively
Where would orienteering fit in the school curriculum?
    map reading and route finding : geography
    outdoor adventure or sport: physical education
    map scales, direction and distance measurement: mathematics
    problem solving: personal education, communication and language
    the countryside introduces the environment, new locations mean adventure, the organisation of
       orienteering activities and provision of equipment involve planning, design and technology.


2.4      Understanding Orienteering through Participation
       It is difficult to teach anything if you do not understand it properly yourself.
       Any teacher interested in introducing orienteering into the school who has no prior orienteering
experience is invited to participate in one of the regular in-service workshops and level O coaching courses
OT organises.
       They could also participate in events and activities organised by Orienteering Tasmania's four clubs.
Events are held most weekends in or close to the population centres during the school year and in the
evenings midweek during summer. Most events are open to the general public with no obligation to join
the Association or participate regularly. Courses for beginners are normally available, together with
experienced orienteers to provide basic instruction.
       Further information on how to participate in OT events is given in Section 7.



3 BASIC RESOURCES
3.1      Publications
        Any teacher (even an experienced orienteer) wanting to organise school orienteering is strongly
advised to obtain a copy of the 'Elementary Orienteering Instructor's Handbook' prepared by Debbie Gale
for the Orienteering Federation of Australia.
        This book is recognised throughout Australia as the 'bible' for school orienteering. It contains a
wealth of information on organising school events of different types. This booklet makes numerous
references to the handbook (simply referred to as 'Handbook'), rather than repeating its contents in detail,
on the assumption that teachers will have access to it. The Handbook is available locally from
Orienteering Tasmania's Development Officers (see Section 8).
        There are many other publications available on school orienteering which are also available through
Orienteering Tasmania. These are likely to interest any teacher wanting to develop a high level of
specialist skill in school orienteering, but are not necessary for most teachers.


3.2      Maps
        A map is essential to conduct orienteering. The most basic type of map suitable for school
orienteering is a black-and-white map of the school grounds and adjacent playing fields or parkland.
        Such maps have been prepared for many Tasmanian schools (see Appendix B), and a few schools
even have full-colour orienteering maps. If there is no existing map, the options are as follows:

        for the teacher to prepare the map (not a difficult task for anyone with basic surveying/cartography
         skills);
        to find a parent associated with the school (preferably an orienteer) who is able to do the task; or
        to seek assistance from OT which, with funding from the Department of Tourism, Sport and
         Recreation, is aiming to produce school ground maps for all schools in Tasmania.

       If you want to prepare the map yourself, it is preferable to start with a base map such as the Lands
Department 1:5000 Orthophoto maps (not available for some areas). These can be obtained from Tasmap
Sales Centres. Many local councils also have very good large scale base maps available. The larger the
 scale of the base map the better (1:1000 or 1:2000 is ideal). A minimum requirement is that the base map
 shows the boundaries of the school grounds and preferably the exact position and lay-out of the buildings.
         Sometimes it may be necessary to seek alternative maps at a less convenient scale, for example
 1:10,000 (approx.) aerial photographs. These are also available from the Tasmap outlets. Greater skill and
 time inputs are required to prepare orienteering maps from these base maps.
         If teachers are able to take groups away from the school for orienteering (particularly desirable for
 secondary schools), there are many suitable areas mapped in colour by OT (see Appendix A). These maps
 are available in bulk to schools for between $2 and $4 per map. Such maps can be used on a once-only
 basis with participants keeping the maps after the event. If large numbers of students are to use the area on
 an occasional basis, the maps can be laminated.
         Allowing students to keep their maps is important if orienteering is treated as a competitive sport
 because part of the coaching and training process includes the post-event recording and analysis of specific
 routes followed and mistakes made. Laminated maps, which are drawn on with waterproof pen, are a more
 economic alternative for Aussie Sport programmes etc. when there is unlikely to be any serious follow-up
 of the technical analysis.


 3.3      Control Markers
          An orienteering marker consists of an orange-red and white square, divided diagonally as shown in
 Figure 3.1. A full-sized marker used in the forest situation has three sides, each measuring 30 x 30 cm, but
 in the schoolyard situation, smaller markers are adequate.
          The Handbook (p. 59) describes various ways of making markers. Otherwise small markers of
 plastic, cloth or "cornflute" can be purchased from Orienteering Tasmania. 'Corflute' markers are quite
 adequate for school ground use and are intended for this purpose with some preparation as indicated in
 Figure 3.2.
          If orienteering in the forest situation, full-sized markers are desirable, although again cheaper
 alternatives can be made (e.g. from ice cream buckets) by schools that cannot afford the full equipment.
 Schools using their own forest markers are advised to label them clearly with the name of the school, so
 they can be returned if they are inadvertently left behind in the forest.
          All control markers require a device for checking whether the orienteer has actually visited the
 control. This normally consists of a punch with teeth arranged in a different pattern for each control. For
 schoolyard events, it is sufficient to write a code letter on the control marker (or on a card hanging from it)
 and have the students copy this using a pencil or crayon either tied to the marker or carried around the
 course. (If they carry their own pencils, they should be short enough to avoid risk of injury if they fall
 while running with the pencil).
          Each control should also have a unique identifying code (usually two or three numbers or two
 letters) written on each face of the marker so that orienteers can confirm that they are at the right control
 from the control description list.

3.4       Control Description List
         The control description list (commonly known as 'clue sheet') lists all the controls on an
 orienteering course, together with their identifying codes. It describes the feature where the control is
 located (e.g. fence corner, large tree) and, in some cases, the location with respect to the feature (e.g. north
 side). For school orienteering with photocopied maps, it is usually convenient to copy the list with the
 map, but if separate maps are used, the list should desirably be taped to the map to prevent it from getting
 lost.


3.5       Control Card
 The control card is used by the orienteer to record evidence of visiting each control. In normal orienteering
 this is carried as a separate item, but in school orienteering it can be combined with the map and/or control
 description list. Control cards suitable for school orienteering can be purchased from Orienteering
 Tasmania.
3.6       Compasses
        The use of compasses by beginners on very easy orienteering courses is not only unnecessary, but is
 generally discouraged, particularly in the schoolyard situation, as:

         the compass can detract from learning basic map interpretation and orientation skills;
         young children often find the operation of the compass confusing, and this can put them off
          orienteering; and
         compasses are the most expensive item of orienteering equipment, and for this reason most
          school/beginner orienteering programmes are designed to be done without them.

           If, however, there is an orienteering group in the school which has advanced to the level of
 running courses in unfamiliar terrain with more difficult navigation, then compasses should be used. This
 applies particularly to secondary school orienteering.
           An ideal compass for school use is the Silva 7NL which is small but sturdy and can be bought
 either singly or in boxes of 24. The compasses should be fitted with strings so they can be worn around the
 neck or firmly around the wrist to minimise the risk o
 f them being lost. Compasses can be purchased from Orienteering Tasmania or from State Purchasing &
 Sales.



 4 ORGANISING AND COURSE SETTING
 4.1      Organising a School Event
            For the teacher wanting to organise orienteering in the school, one of the most demanding tasks
 (assuming that a map is available) is setting the courses. It is not so much the course-setting per se that is
 difficult, but the logistics of fitting this into the daily teaching programme.
            Ideally organising an orienteering event is a two (or more) person operation. One person can look
 after the on-course activities (setting the course, providing mid-course instruction, retrieving lost
 participants), while the other can marshall and organise children at the start and finish.
            It is probably easier for two teachers to organise orienteering for 60 students than for one to
 organise it for 30, although an adult-student ratio of 1 to 15 (or less) is preferable.
      What then are the options for a single teacher to organise orienteering events in the schoolyard
 situation?
       Recruit assistance from outside (e.g. a parent).
       Obtain assistance from Orienteering Tasmania.
       In some classes there may be a student (or students) who is sufficiently experienced in
            orienteering to assist with the course-setting, at the same time gaining personal experience from
            doing so.
       Use senior students or Aussie Sport Leaders.
       If the school can afford it (or is prepared to charge the students), there is the option of getting paid
            assistance (e.g. a university student who is an experienced orienteer) to undertake the technical
            aspects of the orienteering, as well as to assist with instruction if required.
       If there is no practicable means of getting assistance it may be necessary to restrict the orienteering
            event to a smaller scale which the teacher is able to manage alone.

4.2       Course Standards
        Establish your courses according to the level of ability of your students. It is possible to have
 multiple courses operating simultaneously to cater for a range of need.
        Orienteering courses can be classified according to the degree of navigational difficulty. The
 features of these courses can be summarised as follows:

        Very easy courses are intended to provide the easiest possible introduction to orienteering and
 cannot be made too easy. They are set to follow linear features (or 'handrails' in orienteering terminology)
 such as paths, fences or distinct vegetation boundaries (see Figure 4.1 (a)). Controls should be set on or
 adjacent to these features with the markers hung so that they are obvious, at least from the approach
 direction. Controls should be set at each major decision-point or change in direction of the course. A very
 easy course should be easy to complete without the use of a compass for taking bearings.
         Easy courses are also based on linear features but may offer route choices, either along linear
 features forming an easy but indirect route, or by a direct route across country (see Figure 4.1 (b)). The
 option of taking direct routes without handrails could justify the use of a compass for taking bearings but
 only in difficult, unfamiliar terrain. Again controls should be set on linear features and should be obvious to
 approaching orienteers.
         Moderate courses take the orienteers away from linear features, and may utilise as control sites
 point features such as boulders or root mounds, or contour features such as gullies, spurs, knolls or saddles.
 There should, however, be a 'collecting' or 'catching' feature behind the control, i.e. a linear feature such as
 a road or fence which provides a check if the orienteer overshoots the control (see Figure 4.1 (c)). Prudent
 use of the compass is recommended on moderate courses, and it is necessary also to develop an
 appreciation of distance estimation. If possible controls should be placed so that orienteers have to
 navigate to the feature before they can see the control.
         Difficult courses are set for experienced competitive orienteers and can be made as difficult as
 possible without being unfair or introducing a strong element of luck. Most of the orienteering areas in
 Tasmania have terrain which is complex enough for setting difficult courses, but such courses are generally
 not applicable to the local school situation.


4.3       School ground Courses
         An example of a school ground course is shown in Figure 4.2. Because of the open and familiar
 nature of the school ground, it may be appropriate to relax the above course standards a little. For example,
 beginner students may be able to cope with courses which do not always follow linear features if the
 controls can be sited on other obvious and familiar features (e.g. goal posts, playground equipment, large
 trees). Linear features are nevertheless useful in helping to orientate the map, and should be use
 d as much as possible.


4.4       Starting and Timing of Courses
         An orienteering competition is a time trial in which participants start in sequence (typically 1 to 3
 minutes apart) and race against the clock with the aim of achieving the fastest time. This practice is
 necessary to reduce the scope for fast runners who are poor navigators from following superior orienteers,
 as well as to prevent congestion at controls.
         A staggered start procedure is generally recommended also for schoolyard orienteering, although
 there are some types of event where a mass start is acceptable (see Section 6). Bearing in mind the time
 constraints of the daily school programme, it is appropriate to start students at one-minute intervals,
 irrespective of whether the courses are being timed or not. Participating in pairs is often a good idea,
 particularly with beginners, but the teacher should try to ensure that one student does not do all the map
 reading while the other just follows along behind. Ideally both students in a pair should be given a map.
         The issue of whether to make the orienteering competitive or not (i.e. to time and display the results)
 depends on the teacher's objectives for the exercise. Most children enjoy the challenge of the competition,
 although some may not. If one objective is physical exercise, then the competitive side should be
 encouraged, although not at the expense of developing map reading skills.
         With large numbers of students and tight time constraints, two or more similar but slightly different
 courses can be set, so that participants on the different courses can be started together, without being able to
 follow each other. Another option is to run half the students around the course in one direction and half in
 the other, although this is not always desirable as sometimes courses are designed to be run in a particular
 direction, and are more difficult if done the other way.
4.5       Permanent Courses
         There are some areas around Launceston, Hobart and Devonport which have permanent orienteering
 courses, with markers left in position for several years. These include the 'Trim courses' at Trevallyn
 (Launceston), Tiagarra (Devonport) and the Domain (Hobart), although these courses are currently being
 reviewed and may be changed or relocated in the near future.
         OT has produced 'Permanent Orienteering Kits' of these areas containing a coloured map
 overprinted with all controls and a list of control descriptions, so that teachers can select controls to set a
 course using the markers that are in position.
         Rather than obtain the full kits for all students, it is preferable (and cheaper) to obtain one kit plus
 the required number of blank maps which can be marked with a selected course, appropriate to the standard
 of the students.
         It is sometimes necessary for OT to relocate markers and occasionally a marker may be stolen, so it
 is advisable to check that the markers are present a few days prior to the event.
         The OT is planning to establish additional fixed courses in areas close to the population centres over
 the next few years, particularly with a view to facilitating school orienteering.
         While fixed courses avoid the need for the teacher to put out controls, it is still desirable to have a
 second adult on hand to assist with any problems that may arise.


4.6       Organised School Events
        OT conducts occasional midweek orienteering events at convenient locations in Launceston, Hobart,
 Devonport and Ulverstone which are covered by existing orienteering maps (e.g. Trevallyn, Punchbowl, the
 Domain, Tiagarra, etc...). These events are organised primarily to assist teachers wanting to provide more
 advanced and challenging courses to classes in an unfamiliar situation. Some instructional assistance can
 be provided if necessary by the orienteers organising the events.
        A fee is charged for participating in these events. Schools are required to arrange their own
 transport to the venue. Each school must have at least one teacher in attendance throughout the event.


4.7       Organising Your Own Event Away From School
        Schools are encouraged to organise their own orienteering competition and training for their
 students in parkland and forest areas away from schools. Advice on setting courses is available in the
 Handbook or through OT.
     There are a few basic requirements which should be observed when organising events in public land:

         Consult the relevant management agency or property owner well in advance to ensure that other
          community groups are not already using the venue and there are no other activities on the day
          which may restrict access. The relevant contacts for each map are given with full addresses in
          Appendix D.
         If you are using plastic tapes to mark control locations in advance, these should be removed when
          the controls are being set. Do not leave unwanted tapes around the bush.
         Ensure that all control markers are retrieved straight after the event. Do not use 'disposable'
          markers which can litter the bush for months afterwards.

 5 TEACHING THE BASICS
 There are many skills to be learnt if one wishes to become a competent orienteer but for beginners in the
 school ground situation these can be simplified to two:

         map interpretation; and
         map orientation.
 5.1       Map Interpretation
           This involves interpreting the symbols used on the map in relation to the features in the terrain.
 The first thing that the students should be told when they are given the map is to look at the legend and
 work out what the symbols mean. Then spend a few minutes with the class getting them to identify the
 nature of features on the map with the help of the legend, or finding different types of features on the map.
        It is sound advice that whenever you are using a new map (whether for orienteering or any other
 purpose), start by studying the legend so you can work out what the map means.

5.2        Map Orientation
         The other skill which applies to orienteering at all levels is to orientate the map so that it matches up
 with the terrain. This means turning the map so that features which are straight ahead of you in the terrain
 will also be straight up the map as you hold it, features which are to your right will be on the right side of
 the map, and features which are behind you will be at the bottom of the map. Depending on which
 direction you are facing, this may mean holding the map on the side or upside-down. If you change
 direction the map needs to be re-orientated.
         The process of orientating the map simplifies navigation significantly as it makes it easy to see the
 correct geographical relationship between different features and the map reader.
         In the bushland situation, map orientation is often done using a compass as an aid (this is the most
 basic function of the compass), but in the school ground, students should be able to do it using recognisable
 features such as buildings, roads etc. This process of map orientation is in fact a means of finding the
 direction of north assuming that it is marked on the map.
         A useful exercise for introducing children to the concept of map orientation is walking the line.
 Chalk or scratch a line on the ground with plenty of bends on it as shown. Give students a map of the line
 and let them walk along it, turning the map with respect to their bodies each time they change direction so
 that the map is always correctly orientated with respect to the line (see diagram on previous page).
         A similar exercise can be done using the line markings of a basketball or netball court (see
 Handbook p. 15).
         To reinforce the understanding of map interpretation and map orientation, take the students in a
 group on a walk around part of the school ground, getting them to:

 (a)       identify features as they pass them; and
 (b)       orientate their maps from the features they see.

 With this level of instruction, they should be ready to attempt school ground courses.


5.3        Other Skills
     If you want to extend the students' orienteering experience by taking them away from the familiar
 school ground situation, and particularly into bushland or forest areas with more difficult courses, there are
 additional skills which should be taught. These include:

          thumbing the map (keeping you thumb on the map just behind your actual position so that it is
           easy to locate where you are on the map);
          distance estimation (by pace-counting and by eye);
          taking compass bearings (the use of the compass for this purpose can be introduced when they
           progress from blue to green standard courses);
          aiming off' using a compass to deliberately hit a linear feature on one side of a given point;
          contour interpretation;
          using catching features (obvious linear features such as tracks or fences before or after a control)
           and attack points (other prominent features such as track junctions) to find a control;
          route choice to controls (e.g. over a hill or around it);
          simplifying the map by using the more obvious features for navigation; and
          relocation when lost using map and compass.
    While these skills are beyond the scope of this publication, some of them are described in the
 Handbook.


5.4       Physical Fitness
          Orienteering is an excellent form of aerobic exercise. As for other types of physical exercise it
 should be preceded by an appropriate level of warming up and stretching to minimise the risk of injury due
 to a sudden burst of activity. A few minutes of warming up before each session (and 'warming down'
 afterwards) should be allowed for in programming the session, particularly as students become more
 confident and competitive.
       If orienteering is being done with physical fitness as an objective, it is desirable to keep the students
 active for as much of the session as possible. The exercises which are recommended in the following
 section have been selected with this in mind.



 6 SCHOOL ORIENTEERING PROGRAMMES
      To get the most out of a school orienteering programme, it is desirable for students to have sufficient
 exposure to the activity so that the basic skills can be taught and reinforced, but not for the programme to
 become repetitive and boring.
      If it is necessary to confine activities to the school ground area, a series of three to six sessions is
 optimum. Some imagination may be needed in the later sessions to maintain interest in what by then will be
 a very familiar environment.
      Ideally, interest can be maintained by building up a progression from familiar school ground maps to
 sessions on coloured maps in parkland or bushland areas, if the logistics of organising sessions away from
 the school is feasible.
      This chapter presents a few ideas for structuring programmes to fit a variety of timetable needs.


 6.1      Four-session Primary School Programme
          This is a basic programme for primary schools which can be conveniently conducted on the one
 school ground map. Each session is of 40 to 60 minutes duration.

 Session 1. Map interpretation and orientation
          Start with the 'Walking the line' exercise (see Handbook p. ). Then supply maps of the school
 ground, explain what the symbols in the legend mean and get the students to find examples on the map.
 Then take the students on a walk around the school ground, getting them to:

 (a)      orientate their maps from the features they see;

 (b)      identify features as they pass them; and

 (c)      thumb the map to keep track of their progress.

 Session 2. Basic school ground course
          Set a course on the school ground maps with small markers (10 x 10 cm), then send the students
 around the course at one-minute intervals. Each marker has a different letter on it which students should
 copy down. Students can go singly or in pairs. Two or three different courses may be set to reduce
 waiting.
          Check that students are orientating the map correctly when they start and, if practicable, during the
 course.

 Session 3. Score course
           Using the school ground map, set a large number of controls using small stickers (approx. 2.5 cm
 square) placed on easily identifiable points (e.g. corner of building, end of seat). Students start in a mass
 start and try to find as many stickers as possible in a set period (say 20 minutes).

 Session 4. Relay course
           As for Session 2, but in teams of three with three different courses which team members do in turn
 in different sequences to reduce the risk of following. The first runners for each team start in a mass start
 and the second and third runners go out when the preceding runner comes in. Try to make the teams of
 comparable overall ability to make the competition interesting and to keep all teams occupied for about the
 same length of time.
         An alternative for Session 4 is to take the students to an area away from the school for a course on a
 coloured orienteering map.


6.2       Six-session Primary School Programme at School
        The programme would start as for the four-session programme but with different types of activities
 for Sessions 5 and 6. Many ideas for such activities are given in the Handbook. Some exercises with an
 additional element of excitement or challenge are:

         Star relay (Handbook p. 12)
         Quiz orienteering (a question has to be answered at each control - may relate to other school work)
         Line course. Follow a line marked on the map with control markers at obvious locations along the
          line. Students record the letters on the markers they pass or mark their locations on the map.
         Memory course, window course, corridor course, etc...

6.3       Six-session Primary School Programme using Other Areas
         Again the programme would start as for the four-session programme, but Sessions 5 and 6 would
 introduce the use of a coloured map. This could be a large parkland area (e.g. Punchbowl, Tiagarra, the
 Domain) or a bushland area (e.g. Trevallyn, Turnerkerwee, Rokeby Hills).
         The visit to the area is likely to require a longer period than the other sessions, particularly to allow
 for travel, but some time can be saved by doing most of the preparation and briefing at a preceding session
 at school. On this basis, Sessions 5 and 6 can be structured as follows:

 Session 5. Coloured map interpretation
          In the classroom, distribute the coloured maps and explain the interpretation of the symbols and
 colours (excluding contours which should not be used at this stage). Then get students to mark their
 courses on their maps using master maps in preparation for Session 6.

 Session 6. Course on coloured map
        This course should be set to very easy standard using tracks, fences and other linear features (i.e. not
 contour features) with controls close together and a control at each decision point (e.g. track junction) (see
 Handbook p. 43). A course length of about 1.5 to 2 km is generally appropriate for this event.


6.4       Longer Primary School Programmes
         If extending the programme beyond six weeks, it is desirable to use areas away from the school to
 maintain interest and provide new challenges. The larger parkland and bushland maps can be used several
 times for primary school courses without having to go over the same area, particularly if different start
 locations are used.
         The challenge can be maintained by setting progressively more difficult courses of easy and
 possibly moderate standard, provided that the students are able to cope with these. Some students will
 learn faster than others and, as the class becomes more experienced, it may be desirable to set courses of
 two or more different standards or lengths so that all can take part at their appropriate levels of skill and
 fitness.
          If transport is available, there are many areas around Launceston, Hobart, Devonport and Ulverstone
 which are ideal for school orienteering with suitable maps readily available. These are listed in Appendix
 A.


6.5       High School Programmes
         While this booklet is directed particularly at primary school teachers, much of the advice is relevant
 also to the introduction of orienteering into high schools.
         The ideal stage for introducing orienteering into the high school curriculum is Year 7, when most
 students have developed the ability to read maps, but are not so advanced as to find introductory sessions in
 the school ground boring. They will, however, pass through the school ground stage faster than primary
 school students (say after 2 sessions), hence a viable high school programme will depend on being able to
 get away from the school and into less familiar and more challenging areas.
         High school students are also more developed in their likes and dislikes. Those who enjoy
 orienteering can become fanatical about it, while those who do not can be negative and disruptive.
         While an introduction to all Year 7 students can be justified to give them an initial exposure to
 orienteering, a longer term high school programme should be offered as an optional sport or extra-
 curricular activity (see Section 6.7).
         Any high school teachers interested in introducing orienteering into their schools are invited to
 contact OT for specific advice relevant to their own situations.


6.6       Wet Weather Options
        Orienteering is less affected by wet weather than most outdoor sports, but it is still not much fun
 orienteering in the rain, and beginners should not be put off the sport by being forced to do so. It is
 therefore desirable for teachers to have some wet weather options which can be used in the event of
 outdoor orienteering activities being cancelled.
      Such options can include:

         screening of a video on orienteering, several of which are available from OT (contact the OT
          Development Officers for details);
         classroom orienteering, using a classroom map and small stickers as control markers;
         coloured map interpretation exercises (OT has stocks of superseded maps which are available to
          schools free of charge for such uses);
         playing an orienteering board game (e.g. 'The O-Game') which simulates real orienteering
          problems; and
         orienteering or map-reading armchair exercises.

6.7       School Orienteering Clubs
        Of the many students who will enjoy orienteering, there will usually be a few who will be keen to
 continue it at school. If a teacher or parent is sufficiently motivated, this can be done by forming an
 informal school orienteering club.
        With regular after-school coaching and participation in OT events, school club members can
 develop a high level of skills and earn personal success as well as prestige for their schools at the OT
 Northern, Southern and Tasmanian School Orienteering Championships and other events. Occasional
 informal interschool competitions can also be organised with other nearby school clubs.
      OT can provide assistance in getting a school club started and offers an associate membership which
 enables school club members to participate at reduced entry fees at OT events. In addition the club
 receives the monthly OT newsletter which provides details of coming events.
 7 OTHER ORIENTEERING OPPORTUNITIES
      A four- to six-week introduction to orienteering at school is enough to teach most children what
 orienteering is all about. Those that enjoy it may want to pursue it further in their own time. Also, some
 schools may wish to extend the students' orienteering experience at school camps. This chapter lists some
 of the opportunities for orienteering outside the school situation.

 7.1      Aussie Sport Expos
        The Aussie Sport expos which are held occasionally for primary school classes at various venues
 around the state usually feature orienteering as one of the activities. The maps and courses are similar to
 those that would be used at school but the environment is not familiar. These courses are suitable both for
 introducing orienteering to classes (preferably Years 5 and 6 rather than Year 4), or for classes with some
 orienteering experience to try a course in a different location.

7.2       School Camps
         OT has prepared an orienteering map of the Lake Barrington Camp near Sheffield and Camp
 Wirksworth in Hobart, which are suitable for setting courses of all standards. The other Life Be In It camps
 (at Port Sorell and Esperance), will be mapped in the near future.
         There are a number of other school or youth camps in Tasmania (eg Camp Clayton, Waddamana,
 Fawlty Towers) which offer orienteering as an activity. If you are interested in conducting orienteering at
 one of these camps you should request a copy of the map (and course if it is preset) beforehand to make
 sure:

 (a)      that the activity is in fact orienteering and not just a compass exercise; and
 (b)      that the standard of map and course is appropriate to the skill level of the students.

 f you are told that compasses are necessary, then it is probable that either it is not genuine orienteering or
 the course is too difficult for beginner orienteers.


7.3       OT School Orienteering Programme
         The best opportunities for children to go orienteering outside school hours are at OT School
 Orienteering Events which are held on Wednesday afternoons during daylight saving time each year. This
 Programme offers events between 3.45 pm and 5.30 p.m. at locations within or on the edge of Launceston,
 Hobart, Devonport and Ulverstone, so that parents can drop off and collect children just as they do for other
 school sporting activities.
         These events have courses ranging from very easy to moderate standard in difficulty and from about
 1.5 to 5 km in length, and are suitable for both primary and secondary school students. Instruction and
 coaching is available and the emphasis is on developing orienteering skills rather than high standard
 competition.
         Some of the students attending are from schools where orienteering is organised as a regular winter
 sport. Others come along on an individual basis. Parents and teachers are also welcome to participate,
 either with their children or on their own. The School Events would provide an excellent opportunity for
 participation by school clubs.
         The Programme culminates in the annual Northern, Southern and Tasmanian School Orienteering
 Championships which encourages wide participation at all levels of ability. It is suitable for children from
 9 or 10 years upwards. These events are designed to introduce students to the competitive side of
 orienteering yet participation remains the overall priority. A and B classes are provided. A classes are for
 those who feel confident about their ability and with some prior orienteering experience in unfamiliar
 terrain and B classes are for those who have not been to many (if any) orienteering events. Students can
 participate in pairs if they are not confident about competing alone.
7.4       Other OT Events
         Other OT events are held on Sunday mornings for most of the year. These events usually include a
 range of courses suitable for children, but differ from the School Events in also having several longer, more
 difficult courses for experienced adult orienteers. Some Sunday events are held close to the population
 centres but others are at more remote locations (e.g. St Helens, the Midlands) up to 2 hours travel from
 Launceston and Hobart.
       Children interested in attending these remote events who have trouble with transport should join a
 local orienteering club, whose members are willing to assist in transporting juniors.



 8 SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE
 8.1      Orienteering Tasmania Inc.
            Increasing numbers of teachers, most of whom have little or no prior orienteering experience, want
 to introduce orienteering into their schools, but might be hesitant to do so because of a lack of knowledge.
            Orienteering Tasmania endeavours to provide as much assistance as possible within the limits of
 its resources to those schools seeking assistance through its School Orienteering Awareness Programme.
            There is a considerable body of expertise within OT and its member clubs to assist school teachers
 in establishing orienteering. In addition to its volunteers OT employs two part time Development Officers
 who's task it is to develop school orienteering in the state. Furthermore, OT offers an extensive programme
 of regular events where schools or individual students or teachers, wishing to pursue orienteering outside
 school hours, are welcome.
            The promotion of orienteering in schools is a high priority of OT. The association, however, is
 essentially a voluntary body and the level of assistance it can give is limited by available human resources.
       In order to use its resources most efficiently, OT wishes to place the highest priority on teaching
 teachers how to organise their own orienteering programmes. This can be done by:

         conducting in-service workshops and Level 0 coaching courses;
         publishing or selling literature about orienteering such as this booklet to assist teachers;
         facilitating interaction between teachers interested in running orienteering programmes and
          orienteers who are willing to assist in these;
         personal advice to teachers wanting to runs school orienteering activities.

 Furthermore OT and its Development Officers will help with:
      preparation of maps which are suitable for school orienteering (eg parks, show grounds, etc...);
      preparation of school ground maps of individual schools or assistance to teachers interested in
         preparing their own maps;
      to a limited degree, conduct of orienteering sessions at schools.

 The last of these is potentially the most demanding, and only a small part of the total demand can be
 satisfied with the available (mainly voluntary) human resources.

 The current policy of OT with respect to providing assistance for school orienteering is as follows:

         The Development Officer will organise the production of a map of the school ground (if required),
          conduct an introductory session for the school group, provide instruction during this session to the
          teacher, and supervise a second session in which the teacher plans and sets the orienteering course.
          A fee of is charged for this basic package.
         The services of the Development Officer for additional sessions may be obtained for a fee which
          covers the Officer's salary and overheads.
         Requests for assistance will normally be handled in order of receipt.
         The responsible teachers must be present throughout all sessions conducted by the Development
          Officer, and are expected to participate in instructing the students following a briefing from the
          Development Officer.
         There are no restrictions on the number of mid-week events away from schools that a school can
          attend, but a fee applies to these events.

      Requests for assistance from OT can be made through the Development Officers. If, however, you are
 aware of a parent who is an experienced orienteer and may be willing to assist, do not hesitate to make a
 direct approach.
      OT and its member clubs can also hire on a limited basis control markers and compasses for more
 advanced orienteering exercises in forest situations. Any equipment lost or damaged beyond repair is
 charged for at replacement cost.


8.2       Orienteering Service of Australia
        Orienteering Service of Australia (OSA) is a commercial operation based in Melbourne which acts
 as an outlet for supplying schools with orienteering publications and equipment. OSA is located at 44
 Alexandra Parade, Clifton Hill 3068, Melbourne, Victoria.
        However, all materials supplied by OSA can be obtained through the OT Development Officers. A
 catalogue is available on request.

				
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