Greater Reston Arts Center - DOC 5

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					                                         Paul Cézanne
                                     Presentation Outline
Poster #2, Self Portraits
 Many historians and artists call Paul Cézanne the father of modern art. But he was never aware of his impact on the
   art world when he was alive. In fact, he had many self-doubts about his talent. He is called the father of modern art
   because his use of shapes and color highly influenced later modern art, particularly Cubism.
 He was known as a Post Impressionist. ?What do you think that means? The Post Impressionists came after (post)
   the Impressionists. They were influenced by the Impressionists but took their art a step further.
? What kind of person do you think he was based on these self-portraits? (shy, sad, discouraged, self-doubt)
 Cézanne was born in 1839 in the south of France in Aix-en-Provence. His father was a banker and he grew up in a
   wealthy household but didn’t have a happy childhood. His father was very strict and Paul was very shy.
 He went to boarding school when he was 13. There he became friends with Emile Zola who would go on to become a
   famous writer and stay a good friend. (Apple story)
 When they finished school, Emile went on to Paris but Cézanne was sent to law school by his father to train to take
   over the bank. After a couple years, it become obvious that Cézanne was not cut out for banking and at age 22, his
   father let him go to Paris to study art with an allowance. His experience in Paris was bad, he didn’t get into the Ecole
   des Beaux Arts, the best art school. He felt uncomfortable and awkward at the art school he attended and felt he
   wasn’t good enough. He went home after 5 months and worked for his father again.
 A year later, Emile convinced him once again to come to Paris. This turned out to be the beginning of his life as a
   painter. Paris at this time was alive with change. The Impressionists movement was going on. These artists met in
   cafes. The artists included Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir and Camille Pissarro, He
   continued to have a hard time fitting in but became friends with Camille Pissarro
 There paintings are a few of the self portraits, from 1875, age 36 (lower right), 1880, age 41 (lower left) and 1900, age
   61 (top)
 Cézanne devoted himself to painting landscapes, still lifes and portraits. He painted over 1650 paintings in his lifetime.

Poster #10, Pissarro worked with Cézanne
 Pissarro took Cézanne under his wing and treated him both as a son and a student. Pissarro himself was not very
   successful as an artist in his lifetime but he influenced many of the Impressionists.
 He took Cézanne with him to paint outdoors in the manner of the Impressionists. They painted together often over the
   years.
 Pissarro encouraged Cézanne to:
   o Lighten his colors
   o Apply paint in heavy dabs of color
   o Look closely at nature
   o See the word as form and color
   o Move his eye around to different viewpoints
 These ideas formed the basis of Cézanne’s view of nature that would drive his art. He wanted to make something
   solid of Impressionism.
 Cézanne looked at nature from the point of view of form and color.
 Cézanne sought to create a new reality, to create a masterpiece that would “embrace reality as a whole”

Poster #6, Cézanne Used Simple Forms
 He reduced objects to simple geometric forms – cylinder, sphere and cone
 He showed the mass and volume of objects but not their texture
 He slowly built up his paintings with blocks of color made using IMPASTO (heavy paint strokes with thick paint). Look
   at paintings coming up to see if you can see the blocks of color

Poster #8, Traditional Landscapes – Compare, Poster #14, Paul Cézanne’s The Brook, Poster #4, Landscape,
Poster #13, LeLac D’Annecy
? How do Cézanne’s landscapes compare? {lack of perspective, very flat, strong colors, shapes}
 Cézanne broke two rules of painting regarding perspective
            o things in background should be smaller than in foreground. Cézanne felt if object was important it
               shouldn’t shrink just because it was in the background. Can you find examples of this?


                                    Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005
            o    Colors are lighter and objects are fuzzier if they’re in the distance. Cézanne felt all parts were important
                 and painted them with equal intensity.
   He showed perspective in his own way
            o He used colors to show perspective – cool colors (blue, purples) to make forms look far away and warm
                 colors to make forms appear close.
            o Another way was to overlap objects
   Point out where nature has been simplified to simple forms?
   He tried to capture on canvas what a scene looked like as the eye moved over it, seeing all viewpoints at one

Poster #16, Paul Cézanne’s Mount Sainte Victoire, Poster #9, Paul Cézanne’s Landscapes
 Mount Sainte Victoire was near his home in southern France. He painted this mountain at least 10 times. It became
   know as Cézanne’s mountain.
 Compare the different paintings of “Cézanne’s mountain”
           o Point out similarities
           o Point out differences
           o Which do you like better, why
           o Do you get a feeling of great distance? Why?
           o Do you get a feeling of great size? Why?

Poster #11, Traditional Portrait, Poster #1, The Card Players, Poster #19, The Card Players, Mrs. Cézanne,
Cézanne’s Son
 Cézanne painted many self-portraits because. His paintings took so long because he worked so slowly and few
   models wanted to sit still that long. He was very difficult to model for, asking models to “be still like an apple.” Later
   when he moved to the countryside, he paid peasants to model for him. He also liked to sketch the statues in art
   museums.
? Look at the Card Players. Do they look like they’re made of clay? Do they look like they’d move or be still like a
   statue? Does he show what their clothes are made of? Or does he make them look sturdy and lasting? Do they
   remind you of statues?
 He later painted his wife and son who must have been very patient to sit for him.
? How do Cézanne’s portraits compare to traditional portraits?

Poster #3, Which Still Life is Not by Cézanne?
? Which still life is not by Cézanne? {top right – by Renoir}
? How can you tell? {unusual perspective, dark outlines, strong colors}

Poster #7, Traditional Still Life – Compare, Poster #5, Still Life with Apples and Oranges, Poster #15, Still Life,
Poster #17, The Blue Vase, Poster #18, Flowers and Pears, Poster #12, Paul Cézanne’s Still Lives
 Cézanne liked still lifes. Why? Because they stood still! However, he took so long to paint them that he sometimes
   had to use artificial fruit because the fruit would rot before he finished.
 He painted over 200 still lifes
 Look at Cézanne’s still lifes compared to traditional. ? How do they differ? (symmetry, viewpoint, color)
 Used strong brushstrokes, simplified forms, outlined with dark color, unbalanced of asymmetrical
 Kitchen Table is one of best examples of multiple viewpoints. Notice the table, ginger pot,
   In 1895, Cézanne began to achieve fame and recognition for his work. He wanted to die painting, which he did in
   1906. One year later 56 of his paintings were exhibited in Paris Autumn Salon where they were highly praised. Some
   of the artists who viewed this exhibit included Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso. Cézanne achieved the acclaim and
   success he so dearly wanted only after his death.




                                     Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005
                                      Paul Cézanne
                                             French Artist
                                               1839 - 1906


                                                Vocabulary

Post-impressionism           Cubism                landscape              still life     self portrait
geometry                     cylinder              cone                   sphere         impasto
composition                  symmetrical           asymmetrical


                                                Background

    Paul Cézanne was the oldest and one of the greatest Post-impressionist painters; he was considered
     the “Father of Modern Art” by many historians and artists. His style of painting influenced the major art
     movements of the 20th century.
    Cézanne painted landscapes, still lifes, and portraits. He was influenced by the Impressionists, but he
     went further with their techniques and emphasized the form, solidity, and structure of the objects he
     painted. He slowing built up his paintings with “blocks of color” by using heavy impasto brushstrokes,
     which he used to create the form of each object.
    Cézanne studied the shapes of objects and thought everything in nature could be broken down to three
     geometric shapes – the sphere, cone, and cylinder. He wanted his paintings to make people aware of
     how these shapes fit together or contrast with one another. He believed that a person learned to paint
     from studying these simple shapes.
    Cézanne’s use of simple geometric shapes and method of covering the canvas with blocks of color led
     to the later development of the art movement known as Cubism.


                                                 Resources

Children’s Books – Paul Cézanne, Mike Venezia; Cézanne, Antony Mason; Impressionism and
Postimpressionism: Artists, Writers, and Composers, Sarah Halliwell, Van Gogh & Friends, Wenda O’Reilly,
Monet and the Impressionists for Kids, Carol Sabbeth

Children’s Books (fiction) – Katie and the Sunflowers, James Mayhew

Other Books – Paul Cézanne, Trewin Copplestone; Cézanne, Silvia Borghesi; Cézanne, Françoise Cachin
(Philadelphia Museum of Art); Cézanne: Father of 20th Century Art, Michel Hoog; Cézanne: Visions of a Great
Painter, Henri Lallemand; Cézanne, Catherine Dean; Paul Cézanne, Richard Schiff; Lost Earth: A Life of
Cézanne, Philip Callow; Cézanne, The Early Years, 1859-1872, Lawrence Gowing; Paul Cézanne, Meyer
Schapiro; Cézanne: A Biography, John Rewald; The Art of Cézanne, Nathaniel Harris; A Man and His
Mountain: The Life of Paul Cézanne, Hugh McLeave

Web Sites – www.artchive.com/artchive/C/cezanne.html, www.expo-cezanne.com/,
www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/cezanne_paul.html, www.cgfa.sunsite.dk/cezanne/,
www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cezanne/, www.wetcanvas.com/Museum/Artists/c/Paul_Cezanne/,
www.artchive.com/theory/schapiro/frame1.html, www.cezanne.com/fr/ (French version),
www.absolutearts.org/masters/names/Cezanne_Paul.html
                                Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005
                                             Viewing Art Locally

The National Gallery of Art (DC) – The Artist’s Father, The Artist’s Son - Paul, Boy in a Red Waistcoat,
Harlequin, Houses in Provence, Mont Sainte-Victoire, Still Life, Still Life with Apples and Peaches, Still Life with
Peppermint Bottle, Vase of Flowers

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (NY) – Mont Sainte-Victoire; Bathers; Apples; Still Life with Apples and a
Pot of Primroses; Seated Peasant; The Card Players; Madame Cézanne in the Conservatory; Madame
Cézanne in a Red Dress; Mont Sainte-Victoire and the Viaduct of the Arc River Valley; Dish of Apples; Still Life
with Apples and Pears; Dominique Aubert, the Artist’s Uncle; Dominique Aubert, the Artist’s Uncle as a Monk

Museum of Modern Art (NY) – The Bather, Foliage, Still Life with Apples

Philadelphia Museum of Art (PA) – Le Mont Sainte-Victoire, Large Bathers




                                  Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005
                                   Paul Cézanne
                                        Projects

Still Lifes with oil pastels (variation of GRACE project #2) - The children will create a
still life in the manner of Cézanne using oil pastels (Craypas). We will collect all artwork
this month to display next month for Youth in Art Month. Make sure their name and teacher name is
on the back.

Materials
      Craypas – oil pastels
      Drawing paper – cut to 6 x 9
      Still life materials
                Fruit
                Baskets
                Tablecloths
                Plates

Prep
 Cut paper if necessary
 Arrange still life arrangement. You may set up multiple ones if you like. Be sure to overlap some
   of the pieces. Don’t make it too full. For the younger ones, you might want to just include the fruit.

Activity
 Group the children by arrangement if you have more than one.
 Have the children walk around it and pick a view that they like and work from there. See notes on
   GRACE write-up for options for older children to “create their own reality”.
 Put name and teacher on back of paper
 Using a pencil, draw a line across the paper to mark the edge of the table
 Draw the simple shapes.
 Using the oil pastels, have them color the still life.
         o Try using blocks of color like Cézanne, don’t blend it all together
         o Don’t color the fruit a solid color, use various colors. When you look at fruit, you notice
              that is actually has several shades of color and may have other colors. Try to reflect
              this.
 Have them try to fill the paper with color, include the table and the background.
 Collect all artwork and put in plastic bag with teachers name on it. Put in box on shelf




                               Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005
                                    Paul Cézanne
                                    Inventory List

Portfolio - 19 posters

Resource Books - 6
      Paul Cézanne, Mike Venezia
      Cézanne, Antony Mason
      Van Gogh & Friends, Wenda O’Reilly
      Impressionism and Postimpressionism: Artists, Writers, and Composers, Sarah Halliwell
      Monet and the Impressionists for Kids, Carol Sabbeth
      Katie and the Sunflowers, James Mayhew

Project Materials
      Craypas – oil pastels
      paper – cut to 9 x 12
      Still life materials
                Fruit
                Baskets
                Tablecloths
                Plates




                              Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005
                                        Paul Cézanne
                                       Inventory Notes
#1   The Card Players, 1892-1895, oil on canvas, 17 ¾ x 22 ½”
     Musée d’Orsay, Paris

#2   Self Portraits
     Detail, Self Portrait with Beret and Beard, 1898-1900, oil on canvas, 65 x 54 cm   top
     Owner

     Self-Portrait, c 1880, oil on canvas, 17 ¾ x 14 ½”                                 lower left
     Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow

     Self-Portrait in a Beret, 1873-1875, oil on canvas, 55 x 38 cm                     lower right
     Hermitage, St. Petersburg

#3   Which Still Life is Not by Cézanne?
     Still Life with Basket of Apples, 1890-1894, oil on canvas, 24 ⅜ x 31”             upper left
     Art Institute of Chicago

     Fruits of the Midi, Pierre Auguste Renoir, date, oil on canvas, size               upper right
     Owner

     Kitchen Table, 1899, oil on canvas, size                                           lower left
     Musée d’Orsay, Paris

     Still Life with Apples and Oranges (Pommes et oranges), 1899, 29 ⅛ x 36 ⅝          lower right
     Musée du Louvre, Galerie du Jeu de Paume, Paris

#4   Houses on a River Bank ?Landscape?, 1900-1906, 73 x 60 cm
     owner

#5   Still Life with Apples and Oranges (Pommes et oranges), 1899, 29 ⅛ x 36 ⅝”
     Musee du Louvre, Galerie du Jeu de Paume, Paris

#6   Cézanne Used Simple Forms
     Le Chateau Noir, 1904-1906, oil on canvas, 29 x 36 3/4”                            top
     Museum of Modern Art, New York

     Still Life, 1900, oil on canvas, 18 x 21 ⅝”                                        bottom
     National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

#7   Traditional Still Life - Compare
     Fruit, James Peale, date, oil on canvas, size
     The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

#8   Traditional Landscapes - Compare
     Weymouth Bay, John Constable, date, oil on canvas, size                            top
     The National Gallery, London

     The Cliff at Etretat After the Storm, Gustave Courbet, date, oil on canvas, size   bottom
     Musée du Louvre, Paris




                                  Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005
#9    Paul Cézanne’s Landscapes
      Name, date, oil on canvas, size                                                               upper left
      Owner

      Name, date, oil on canvas, size                                                               upper right
      Owner

      View of Auvers-sur-Oise, 1873, oil on canvas, size                                            middle
      Art Institute of Chicago

      Pine Tree and Red Soil, 1895, oil on canvas, 28 ¾ x 36 ¼”                                     lower left
      Hermitage, St. Petersburg

      Mount Sainte-Victoire above the Road to Tholonet, 1904, oil on canvas, 28 ⅞ x 36 ¼”           lower right
      Cleveland Museum of Art

#10   Pissarro worked with Cézanne
      View near Sydenham Hill, London, Camille Pissarro, 1871, oil on canvas, 17 x 21”
      Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas

#11   Traditional Portrait
      Fanny Travis Cochran, Cecilia Beaux, 1897, oil on canvas, size
      Owner

#12   Paul Cézanne’s Still Lives
      Plaster Cupid and the “Anatomy”, 1895, oil on canvas, 71 x 57 cm                              upper left
      Home House Trustees, London

      Basket of Apples, 1895, oil on canvas, 65 x 80 cm                                             upper right
      Art Institute of Chicago

      Vase of Tulips and Fruit, 1890-1894, oil on canvas, 60 x 42 cm                                lower left
      Art Institute of Chicago

      Still Life with Compotier, 1879 - 1882, oil on canvas, 18 ⅛ x 21 ⅝”                           lower right
      Private collection, Paris

#13   LeLac D’Annecy, 1896 ?1890?, oil on canvas, 25 ¼ x 31 ⅛”
      Courtland Institute Galleries, London

#14   Paul Cézanne’s The Brook, date, oil on canvas, size
      Owner

#15   Still Life (Plate of Fruit and Wine Jug on a Cover), 1890-1894, oil on canvas, 32.5 x 41 cm
      Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

#16   Paul Cézanne’s Quarry and Mount Sainte Victoire, 1898-1900, oil on canvas, 64,8 x 81.3 cm
      Baltimore Museum of Art

#17   The Blue Vase, 1883-1887, oil on canvas, 24 x 19 ⅝”
      Musée d’Orsay, Paris

#18   Flowers and Pears, 1890-1894 ?1888?, oil on canvas, 46 x 55cm
      Home House Trustees, London




                                  Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005
#19   The Card Players, Mrs. Cézanne, Cézanne’s Son
      detail from The Card Players, 1892-1895, oil on canvas, 17 ¾ x 22 ½”        upper left
      Musée d’Orsay, Paris

      Mrs. Cézanne, date, oil on canvas, size                                     upper middle
      Owner

      The Clockmaker (Man with Crossed Arms), 1899, oil on canvas, 36 ¼ x 28 ⅝”   upper right
      Guggenheim Museum, New York

      The Card Players, 1892-1895, oil on canvas, 17 ¾ x 22 ½”                    lower left
      Musée d’Orsay, Paris

      Name, date, oil on canvas, size                                             lower middle
      Owner

      Portrait of Victor Chocquet, 1877, oil on canvas, 18 x 15”                  lower right
      Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio




                                  Lake Anne Elementary GRACE Art 2004 - 2005

				
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