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					Getting Started


 Essential Computing
      Concepts




   Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   1
Objectives
   Describe components of a computer system
   Describe the contribution of IBM, Microsoft, and Intel
    in the evolution of the PC
   Distinguish between system and application software
   Define a local area network; distinguish between a
    server and a workstation
   Define the Internet and the World Wide Web
   Draw parallels between e-commerce and traditional
    commerce
   Describe e-mail



        Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started    2
    What Is a Computer?


   Microprocessor
   Internal Memory
   Auxiliary Storage
   Input Units
   Output Units



          Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   3
   Any Computer System
                               Memory




Input                   Central processing unit
                                (CPU)                            Output



                         Auxiliary Storage
        Disk                                              Disk



               Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started              4
    Inside the Computer

   CD-ROM
   CPU
   Expansion slots
   Floppy drive
   Hard disk
   Memory chip
   Motherboard
   Power supply


         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   5
    Back of the Computer




   Cooling Fan                         Mouse Connector
   Power Supply                        Parallel Printer Port
   Keyboard Connector                  Video Connector



         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started           6
Microprocessor

   Brain of the computer
   Current chips for PC
       Intel (Celeron, Pentium III, and soon-to-be
        announced Pentium IV)
       AMD (K-6 and Athlon)
   Which do I buy?
       Pentium or Athlon for graphic-intensive
        programs
       K-6 or Celeron for business and Internet
        browsing


          Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   7
            Internal Memory (RAM)

   Temporary (erased when power turned off)
   Measured in bytes
       1   Byte = 1 character (8 bits)
       1   Kilobyte = 210 (~1,000 bytes)
       1   Megabyte = 220 (~1,000,000 bytes)
       1   Gigabyte = 230 (~1,000,000,000 bytes)
   Need 128Mb of RAM
       Keep multiple programs & data files in memory
       Graphic-intensive programs demand a lot of
        memory

               Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   8
Auxiliary Storage (Permanent)

   Floppy Disk
       Most common is 1.44Mb
       LS-120 disk is 120Mb
   High Capacity Removable Storage
       Zip disks (100 or 250Mb)
       Jazz Disks (1 or 2Gb)
   Hard (Fixed) Disk
       Most common are 10 –30Gb


         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   9
        Auxiliary Storage (Continued)

   CD-ROM
       650Mb capacity
       Recordable devices also available
   DVD drives
       4.7Gb-17Gb capacity
       ROM and RAM
       Higher capacity than CD
   Tape Units
       Used for large, unattended back-ups

           Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   10
Input and Output Units

   Keyboard                   Ink Jet Printers
                                    B/W or color
    Mouse
                                

                                   Smears
   Trackball                  Laser Printers
   Scanner                        Highest quality
                                    output
   Joystick
                               Speakers
   Pens



       Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   11
    Monitor Size and Resolution
   Monitors come in different
    sizes: 17,” 19,” and 21”
   Resolution is expressed in
    pixels (such as 800 x 600 or
    1024 x 768)
   The higher the resolution, the
    more you can see. Larger
    monitors let you run at higher
    resolutions: e.g., 19” to run
    1024 x 768 comfortably
   A graphics card (video
    display adapter) speeds
    processing


            Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   12
Purchasing Decisions

    Local store versus mail order
        Magazines
        Internet
    Use credit card to double warranty
    30-day price guarantee
    Don’t forget the software
        Windows included (check the version)
        Microsoft Office is optional



         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   13
    The PC Today
   Main Components                        Other Components
       1Gb microprocessor                     Cable modem
       256Mb RAM                              CD-RW drive
       30Gb hard drive                        Camera
       1 floppy drive                         Microphone
       Zip drive                              TV adapter
       DVD or CD-ROM drive                    Sound card/speakers
       21” monitor
       64Mb graphics card



           Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started        14
Purchasing on the Web

   www.dell.com
   www.gateway.com
   www.ibm.com
   www.pcwarehouse.com
   www.microwarehouse.com




      Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   15
Software
   System Software
       Microsoft Windows - Operating System
           Home – Windows 98, Windows Me
           Business – Windows NT, Windows 2000
           Windows XP will replace all previous versions
       Antivirus and file compression is not built into
        Windows and requires additional software
   Application Software
       Microsoft Office consists of Word, Excel, Access,
        PowerPoint, FrontPage, and Publisher
       Different editions contain different applications



            Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   16
Antivirus Software

   A computer virus attaches itself to
    various files and alters the way your
    computer works
   Transmitted via an infected file or floppy
    disk, or more commonly through the
    Internet
   Antivirus software can protect your
    computer, but it must be updated
    continually to detect new viruses


        Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   17
File Compression

   Files are made smaller (compressed) to
    reduce the storage requirements and/or
    time required to download a file
   A file compression program (such as
    WinZip) is required to compress one or
    more files into a “zipped” file or
    archive.
   The zipped file can be converted to a
    self-extracting file that is expanded
    without the file compression program

       Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   18
The Internet

   A network of networks
   Began in 1969 as
    government project
   No central authority
    and thus impossible to
    state the precise size
   Worldwide and near-
    instantaneous access
    to virtually unlimited
    information



        Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   19
The World Wide Web
   A subset of the Internet consisting of all
    computers with hypertext or hypermedia
    documents
   These documents contain references
    (links) to other documents which may be
    on a different computer anywhere in the
    world
   Began in 1991 at the European Particle
    Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland


        Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   20
A Client/Server Model

   A server (Web server or Web site) is
    any computer that stores hypermedia
    documents and furnishes them upon
    request
   A client is any computer that
    requests, then displays hypermedia
    documents
   Every client must be able to display
    every document from every server and
    does so through a browser (e.g.,
    Netscape or Internet Explorer)

      Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   21
Acronyms Abound

   HTTP – HyperText Transfer Protocol
    is used to transmit Web documents
   HTTPS – Secure protocol for
    confidential transactions
   HTML – HyperText Markup
    Language is the language for all
    Web documents
   ISP – Internet service provider

       Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   22
Connecting to the Internet
   At Work or School
       Via a Local Area Network
   At Home
       Traditional Modem (56Kbps/V90)
       Cable Modem
          Uses TV cable
          Requires network card

       DSL Modem
          Voice and data on the same line
          Requires network card


         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   23
   Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

   http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cezanne/bio.html

                                                          Document

                                     Path (Directory or Folder)

          Internet Address (Web site)

Means of access




          Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started           24
URL Format
   You can guess at the URL using the
    general form of: “www.company.com”
   Other domains include “edu,” “gov,” and
    “org,” but “com” is most common
   Examples:
      www.microsoft.com

      www.nba.com

      www.whitehouse.gov

      www.miami.edu


       Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   25
Security and Privacy

   Secure transactions
       Https protocol
       Encryption
   Privacy
       Cookie is a small file written to your
        disk each time you visit a site
       Problem is when one site can read
        many cookies (e.g., DoubleClick.com)


         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   26
E-commerce

   The exchange of goods and services
       Buyer and seller
       Products and suppliers
       A place to “meet”
       Marketing to attract the buyer
       Accept and process the order
   All of these elements are present in
    e-commerce and traditional
    commerce

         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   27
Advantages of E-commerce
   For the Seller                       For the Buyer
       Open 24/7                            Open 24/7
       Shoppers from                        Never leave home
        anywhere                             Easy to view and
       Virtual inventory is                  explore product
        cheaper and                           line
        extensive                            Comparison shop
       Lower transaction                    Web site knows
        costs                                 you
       Target your
        customers



         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started           28
E-Mail (Electronic Mail)
   E-mail is simply a means of sending
    messages via computer
   Business is using more e-mail and fax
   To access, you must have a mail server
    and/or software
   Each person has a username and pass-
    word
   All mail programs allow you to Send,
    Compose, Reply, and Forward

       Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   29
Obtaining an E-mail Account
   You will need an e-mail server (post
    office) to send and receive e-mail
   You can obtain an account at school
   You can pay for an account through an
    ISP such as AOL
   You can get free email accounts:
       www.hotmail.com
       www.yahoo.com




         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   30
Privacy and Terms of Agreement

   E-mail is less private than U.S. mail
       If you need privacy, send a letter
   Every mail server has terms that
    you must agree to
       No   copyright infringements
       No   harassing or stalking
       No   junk mail or spamming
       No   intentional sending of viruses


         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   31
An E-mail Address

   Every e-mail address is unique and
    consists of two parts, a user name
    and a host computer:
       johndoe@anyschool.edu
   The@ sign is required
   The host computer can be omitted if
    you are logged onto the same
    network or host computer

         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   32
The Mail Folders
   Inbox – new messages as well as
    messages that have been read
   Outbox – messages not yet sent
   Sent items – messages that have been
    sent (moved here from outbox)
   Deleted items – messages deleted from
    any folder
   Custom folders – additional folders
    created by the user



       Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   33
  Parts of the E-mail Message
Header

   To:

   Cc:

   Bcc:

   Subject:

   Message



Signature




Attachments




             Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   34
    Additional E-mail Capabilities
   Address Book
       Contains the e-mail addresses of frequent
        contacts
       Enables you to enter an alias (e.g., “Bob”
        instead of the complete address)
   Distribution List
       A set of e-mail addresses stored under
        one name
       Ideal for your professor to e-mail the class


           Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   35
E-mail Protocols
   POP Client – Post Office Protocol
       Lets you work without being connected to
        mail server
       Upload to send mail - Download to read mail
       Allows almost any e-mail program to access
        e-mail from server
   IMAP – Internet Message Access
    Protocol
       Permits a "client" email program to access
        remote message stores as if they were local
       Enables user to access messages from more
        than one computer

         Essential Computing Concepts: Getting Started   36

				
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