Attitudes and Persuasion PPT by chenmeixiu


									Attitudes and Attitude Theories
Importance of Attitude Research

   Carl Hovland, founder of the Yale Attitude
    Research Program, initiated the scientific
    study of attitudes in the 1940’s
   “a predisposition to respond favorably or
    unfavorably toward some attitude object”
    (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)
   transformed “social studies” into “social
    sciences” via attitude scales
Ingredients of attitudes

  –   learned, not innate
  –   precursors of behavior (precede, predict
  –   evaluative dimension: direction and degree
      or intesnity
  –   directed toward an “attitude object”
Attitude-behavior correlation

   ABC: how well attitudes predict behavior
   attitude salience or centrality
   specificity of the attitude(s) and behavior(s)
   social desirability bias
   self-monitoring
   activation of relevant attitudes
   multiple-act criteria (versus one-shot
    “equal appearing interval scales”

   Patient’s suffering from terminal illnesses should have a
    constitutional right to assisted suicide.
       _____      _____        _____      _____      _____      _____        _____
        strongly   moderately   slightly   neutral    slightly   moderately   strongly
        agree      agree        agree      disagree   disagree   disagree
Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum’s
“Semantic Differential scales”

   bipolar antonyms (opposite adjectives)

                         Sarah Palin
       qualified ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ unqualified
         poised ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ nervous
         expert ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ inexpert
    trustworthy ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ untrustworthy
          timid ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ bold
Visually oriented scales

   opinion thermometer
   facial expressions
   steering wheel pointer
   advantages of visually
    oriented attitude
Problems with attitude scales

   problem of non-
   social desirability bias
   acquiescence bias
   issue of “mindfulness”
Attitudes as associative networks


      school prayer        sex education             abortion

                family values             family leave

     premarital sex           divorce

                 marital fidelity        child support

                                    dead-beat dads
Creating associations

   “Breakfast of
    champions” (Wheaties)
   “Be all that you can be”
    (U.S. Army)
   “The ultimate driving
    machine” (BMW)
Food advertising and associations

   Foods are often
    advertised as:
     – promoting good
     – substitutes for
       love               Yoplait: Food as a guilty

     – guilty pleasures   "Ooo, this is Day At The
                          Spa Good"
                          "No, this is Foot Massage
     – treatment for      Good"

       stress, anxiety
More ways of creating associations

   Appropriating symbols
    – “extreme” lifestyle
        Taco Bell sponsors
         the X-Games
    – urban, hip hop culture
        Reebok “keeps it real”
         to rake in the “bling”
    – Youth culture
        iPhone
Image-based advertising
 –   "In the factory we make cosmetics; in the drugstore
     we sell hope."
                                           Charles Revson

 –    "An image . . . is not simply a trademark, a design, a
     slogan or an easily remembered picture. It is a
     studiously crafted personality profile of an individual,
     institution, corporation, product or service."
                                              Daniel Boorstin

 –   "You now have to decide what 'image' you want for
     your brand. Image means personality. Products, like
     people, have personalities, and they can make or
     break them in the market place."
                                           David Ogilvy
    Image-based advertising at work

   A consumer admires
    a particular image or
   The product is paired
    with, or associated
    with, the image or                Music downloading
   In time the consumer
    comes to equate the                 +         +
    product with image
    or lifestyle

                            teen consumer    ?            Pepsi
Image-oriented advertising

   The point of image-oriented
    advertising is to link
    products with idealized
    associations, images, and
   Schudson (1984)
    “advertising does not claim       Are California cows really
    to picture reality as it is but   happy?
    reality as it should be--life     What about the cows
    and lives worth imitating (p.     raised in cramped, dreary
    215)."                            If good cheese comes from
                                      happy cows, then does bad
                                      cheese come from bored,
                                      confined cows?
Advertising associations
and women’s bodies

   Victoria’s Secret                Dove’s “Real Beauty”
   Coors Light Twins                 campaign
   Paris Hilton and Carl’s Jr.      Does Dove really care about
                                      women’s body images?
                                     Or is this a clever branding
                                      strategy to sell more
consistency theories

l   People expect, prefer consistency
       Cognitive consistency is a state of balance, harmony,
        among one’s cognitions
       Individuals strive to maintain, preserve harmony among
        their beliefs, attitudes, behaviors
l   Inconsistency causes psychological discomfort,
      “Dissonance” is an uncomfortable mental state.
       May even be accompanied by physiological symptoms
l   Individuals are motivated to restore cognitive
illustration of consistency
in action

   ?   favorable
       attitude    +       -   perceived

    Parenting and consistency theory

   A child admires Popeye
   The child doesn’t like to eat
   Popeye is positively associated
    with Spinach
   This is a cognitively imbalanced
    state, which should motivate
                                       +       +
    the child to change one of the
    associations                           -
consistent versus inconsistent
psychological states

        balanced (consistent) psychological states

   +         +    +        -   -       +     -       -
         +             -           -             +
   imbalanced (inconsistent) psychological states
    -        -     -       +   +       -     +       +
         -             +           +             -
Fostering inconsistency

   Countering brand loyalty
    –   “Think outside the bun” (Taco Bell)
    –   “Think different” (Macintosh)
    –   Carl’s $6.00 burger without the restaurant
   Countering tradition
   “Not your father’s Oldsmobile”
   Buyer’s remorse
    –   Capital One: “What’s in your wallet?”
    –   Hotels. com

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