Chemistry PG Ltr May 08

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					Ongoing and Integrated                                                Chemistry Pacing Guide

    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                           Vocabulary          Real World Content   Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
Cl.1A Generate new questions that can be
investigated in the laboratory or field.

Cl.1B Evaluate the uncertainties or validity
of scientific conclusions using an
understanding of sources of measurement
error, the challenges of controlling
variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of
argument, logic of experimental design,
and/or the dependence on underlying
assumptions.

Cl.1C Conduct scientific investigations
using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g.,
selecting an instrument that measures the
desired quantity—length, volume, weight,
time interval, temperature—with the
appropriate level of
precision).

Cl.1D Identify patterns in data and relate
them to theoretical models.

Cl.1E Describe a reason for a given
conclusion using evidence from an
investigation.

C1.lf Predict what would happen if the
variables, methods, or timing of an
investigation were changed.

C1.lg Based on empirical evidence, explain
and critique the reasoning used to draw a
scientific conclusion or explanation.

Cl.lh Design and conduct a systematic
scientific investigation that tests a
hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data
presented in charts or tables.

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                       1
    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                      Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold

C1.1i Distinguish between scientific
explanations that are regarded as current
scientific consensus and the emerging
questions that active researchers investigate.

C1.2A Critique whether or not specific
questions can be answered through
scientific investigations.
C1.2B Identify and critique arguments
about personal or societal issues based on
scientific evidence.

C1.2C Develop an understanding of a
scientific concept by accessing information
from multiple sources. Evaluate the
scientific accuracy and significance of the
information.

C1.2D Evaluate scientific explanations in a
peer review process or discussion format.

C1.2E Evaluate the future career and
occupational prospects of science fields.

C1.2f Critique solutions to problems, given
criteria and scientific constraints.

C1.2g Identify scientific tradeoffs in design
decisions and choose among alternative
solutions.

Cl.2h Describe the distinctions between
scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and
observations.

C1.2i Explain the progression of ideas and
explanations that lead to science theories
that are part of the current scientific
consensus or core knowledge.


Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                 2
    Coded Content Expectation for              Big Idea/Essential
                                                                    Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                   Questions/Scaffold
C1.2j Apply science principles or scientific
data to anticipate effects of technological
design decisions.

C1.2k Analyze how science and society
interact from a historical, political,
economic, or social perspective.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                               3
Unit 1: Atomic Theory                                                     Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3 weeks

       Coded Content Expectation for              Big Idea/Essential
                                                                               Vocabulary              Real World Content                               Resource
           Discipline & Inquiry                   Questions/Scaffold
C2.5x Nuclear Stability                                                     Atomic mass            Radioactive isotopes are used      http://library.thinkquest.org/17940/texts/fissio
Nuclear stability is related to a decrease in                               Atomic nucleus         in the health fields to monitor    n/fission.html
potential energy when the nucleus forms                                     Atomic number          internal bodily functions or to    http://www.rockwood.k12.mo.us/rvalley/8_Re
from protons and neutrons. If the                                           Atomic theory          kill cancerous tissue.             d/Kubasta/07-RVMS/01-Challenge/02-
neutron/proton ratio is unstable, the element                               Atomic weight                                             Challenge_Science_Units/08-
will undergo radioactive decay. The rate of                                 Charged object         Historical items may be placed     Atomic_Structure_and_the_Periodic_Table/07
decay is characteristic of each isotope; the                                Decay rate             in proper chronology using         -Ions_and_Isotopes/Ions_and_Isotopes.htm
time for half the parent nuclei to decay is                                 Electrically neutral   radioactive decay A process        http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/isotop
called the half-life. Comparison of the                                     Electron               called radioactive dating          es/radioactive_decay3.html
parent/daughter nuclei can be used to                                       Electron cloud         compares quantities of an          http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module
determine the age of a sample. Heavier                                      Elementary particle    isotope present in the item with   _viewer.php?mid=51
elements are formed from the fusion of                                      Ion                    the same isotopes present in a     http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.cfm?
lighter elements in the stars.                                              Isotope                contemporary item.                 DocID=176
                                                                            Nuclear reaction                                          http://www.chemcases.com/nuclear/index.htm
                                                                            Neutron mass to        Half life of drugs in the body     http://reactor.engr.wisc.edu/fission.htm
                                                                            energy conversion      can be used in forensic science.   http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/physics/u8c
                                                                            Proton                 Examples of half-life: caffeine,   3phy.html
                                                                            Radioactive dating     4.9 hours; aspirin, 0.25 hours;    http://www.lon-
                                                                            Radioactive decay      nicotine, 2.0 hours; Bromide       capa.org/%7Emmp/applist/decay/decay.htm
                                                                            Radioactive isotope    ion, 168 hours.
C2.5a Determine the age of materials using       What is an isotope?        Relative mass
the ratio of stable and unstable isotopes of a                              Stable                 The large amount of energy
particular type.                                 What is carbon dating?     Strong force           available from nuclear reactions
                                                                            Transforming matter    (fission in nuclear reactors, or
                                                 Explain how Carbon 14      and/or energy          fusion in stars) comes from the
                                                 undergoes radioactive      Weight of              mass defect in atoms. Mass
                                                 decay?                     subatomic particles    defect is the difference between
                                                                                                   the sums of the mass of
C3.5x Mass Defect                                                                                  individual particles in an atom    http://www.ftexploring.com/energy/energy-
Nuclear reactions involve energy changes                                                           (neglecting the electrons)         1.htm
many times the magnitude of chemical                                                               compared to the actual mass of     http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/
changes. In chemical reactions matter is                                                           the same atom from the             atoms/slides/sld019.htm
conserved, but in nuclear reactions a small                                                        periodic table. The actual mass    http://www.eas.asu.edu/%7Eholbert/eee460/m
loss in mass (mass defect) will account for                                                        is always larger than the          assdefect.html
the tremendous release of energy. The                                                              experimental mass whenever         http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/periodi
energy released in nuclear reactions can be                                                        the nucleus contains more than     c_table/amu.html
calculated from the mass defect using E =                                                          one particle. The difference in
   2
mc .                                                                                               mass (mass defect) is converted

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                            4
    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                           Vocabulary       Real World Content                                  Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
                                                                                        into energy that holds the
C3.5a Explain why matter is not conserved       What is a nuclear                       nucleus together and can be
in nuclear reactions.                           reaction?                               released in nuclear reactions.

                                                Explain why matter is                   The chemical reactivity or
                                                not conserved in a                      stability of real world materials
                                                nuclear reaction?                       is based on the electron stability
C4.7x Solutions                                                                         in atoms. Unstable or highly
The physical properties of a solution are                                               reactive elements are the result
                                                                                        largely of outer electrons being
determined by the concentration of solute.
                                                                                        lost or gained by neutral atoms.
                                                                                        The noble gases for example
C4.7b Compare the density of pure water to      What is a solution?                     are very stable and don’t gain
that of a sugar solution.                                                               or lose electrons to other atoms
                                                What are components                     under normal conditions and
                                                of solutions?                           are used in light bulbs, deep sea
                                                                                        diving, and between window
                                                What is density?                        panes.

                                                What is the standard                    Static electricity is the result of
                                                density of common                       the outer electrons being pulled
                                                substance compare to                    from or pulled to neutral atoms
                                                pure water?                             creating ions (the process that
                                                                                        drives photocopying).
C4.8 Atomic Structure                           What are the subatomic                                                        http://allperiodictables.com/ClientPages/AAE
Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of   particles that make up                  Ions are discussed in                 pages/apt_3_ElementNamesLanguages.htm
the atom and have measurable properties,        an atom?                                advertising about acid balance        http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-
including mass and, in the case of protons                                              in living organisms, swimming         atoms.htm
and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms      Draw the structure of an                pools, shampoos, etc.                 http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/sci_tech/f
are composed of protons and neutrons. A         atom?                                                                         eatures/elementary/dyncon/atoms.shtml
kind of force that is only evident at nuclear                                           Charged particles in a solution       http://www.chemcases.com/nuclear/index.htm
distances holds the particles of the nucleus    Determine the number                    will allow current electricity to     http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/b
together against the electrical repulsion       of                                      be conducted across or through        ohr.html
between the protons.                            protons/neutrons/electro                the solution. Blood and other         http://www.chem4kids.com/files/atom_intro.h
                                                n of an atom?                           body fluids are able to transmit      tml
                                                                                        messages through electrical           http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/genobc/
                                                What keeps an atom                      conductivity.                         http://education.jlab.org/elementhangman/inde
                                                together?                                                                     x.html
                                                                                        Common terminology in                 http://education.jlab.org/elementflashcards/ind
                                                                                        today’s world is to refer to the      ex.html
                                                                                        relative comparison of facts          http://education.jlab.org/atomtour/index.html
                                                                                                                              http://www.fearofphysics.com/Atom/atom1.ht
Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                      5
    Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                         Vocabulary       Real World Content                               Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold
                                                                                      (i.e.: a measure of one object     ml
                                                                                      relative to the same measure in    http://www.fnal.gov/pub/inquiring/matter/inde
                                                                                      another object)                    x.html
                                                                                                                         http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/sci_tech/f
                                                                                      Problems that are encountered      eatures/elementary/dyncon/atoms.shtml
                                                                                      in our daily lives are analyzed    http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/b
                                                                                      through the creation of models     ohr.html
                                                                                      like scientists did with the       http://www.chem4kids.com/files/atom_intro.h
                                                                                      atomic theory.                     tml
                                                                                                                         http://www.particleadventure.org/
                                                                                      Observations of nuclear energy     http://allperiodictables.com/aptpages/apt_1_C
                                                                                      through observations of            C_Lehrer.html
C4.8A Identify the location, relative mass,    Draw the atomic                        changes in systems containing
and charge for electrons, protons, and         structure of a carbon                  radioactive substances, such as:
neutrons.                                      atom including: atomic                     Water used to cool down
                                               number, mass number                         nuclear reactions in
                                               and ions?                                   nuclear power plants:
                                                                                           observable temperature
C4.8B Describe the atom as mostly empty        What are Rutherford’s                       increase in the water
space with an extremely small, dense           experiments?                               Radioactive isotopes of
nucleus consisting of the protons and                                                      elements: emission of
neutrons and an electron cloud surrounding                                                 particles
the nucleus.
                                                                                      Thermonuclear reactions: light
C4.8C Recognize that protons repel each        What is electro static                 emission
other and that a strong force needs to be      force?
present to keep the nucleus intact.

C4.8D Give the number of electrons and         Describe how a fluorine
protons present if the fluoride ion has a -1   atom loses an electron?
charge.

C4.10 Neutral Atoms, Ions, and Isotopes        Describe ions, neutral                                                    http://www.rockwood.k12.mo.us/rvalley/8_Re
A neutral atom of any element will contain     atoms and isotopes?                                                       d/Kubasta/07-RVMS/01-Challenge/02-
the same number of protons and electrons.                                                                                Challenge_Science_Units/08-
Ions are charged particles with an unequal     What happens when a                                                       Atomic_Structure_and_the_Periodic_Table/07
number of protons and electrons. Isotopes      neutral atom loses or                                                     -Ions_and_Isotopes/Ions_and_Isotopes.htm
are atoms of the same element with different   gains electrons?                                                          http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module
numbers of neutrons and essentially the                                                                                  _viewer.php?mid=51
same chemical and physical properties.         Explain why isotopes of
                                               the same atom contain

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                    6
    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                           Vocabulary   Real World Content                    Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
                                                the same chemical and
                                                physical properties?

C4.10A List the number of protons,              Determine the number
neutrons, and electrons for any given ion or    of protons, neutrons
isotope.                                        and electrons of any ion
                                                of isotope?

C4.10B Recognize that an element always         What subatomic
contains the same number of protons.            particle remains the
                                                same?

C4.10x Average Atomic Mass                                                                                   http://algebralab.com/Errors/error.aspx?aspxer
The atomic mass listed on the periodic table                                                                 rorpath=/practice/practice.aspx
is an average mass for all the different                                                                     http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Mole/A
isotopes that exist, taking into account the                                                                 verageAtomicWeight.html
percent and mass of each different isotope.                                                                  http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/r
                                                                                                             utherford/

C4.10e Write the symbol for an isotope, ,       Write    of any
where Z is the atomic number, A is the mass     isotope?
number, and X is the symbol for the
element.

C5.2 Chemical Changes                           Compare and contrast                                         http://www.chem4kids.com/map.html
 Chemical changes can occur when two            chemical and physical                                        http://misterguch.brinkster.net/chemfiestanew.
substances, elements, or compounds interact     change?                                                      html
and produce one or more different                                                                            http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/6-
substances whose physical and chemical          What is the difference                                       react.htm
properties are different from the interacting   between reactants and                                        http://www.chemtutor.com/react.htm
substances. When substances undergo             products?
chemical change, the number of atoms in
the reactants is the same as the number of      Explain how a chemical
atoms in the products. This can be shown        equation describes what
through simple balancing of chemical            happens in a chemical
equations. Mass is conserved when               reaction.
substances undergo chemical change. The
total mass of the interacting substances        Explain how a balanced
(reactants) is the same as the total mass of    chemical equation
the substances produced (products).             illustrates the law of
                                                conservation of matter.
Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                      7
   Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                        Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold

C5.2C Draw pictures to distinguish the        Compare and contrast,
relationships between atoms in physical and   by drawing, two
chemical changes.                             chemical equations in
                                              terms of the properties
                                              of the reactants and
                                              products.
                                              Example:
                                              H2O(g) changed to
                                              H2O(l)
                                              H2 + O2  H2O




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                   8
Unit 2: Periodic Table                                                     Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3 weeks

    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                                Vocabulary               Real World Content                                Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
C4.9 Periodic Table                             State the periodic law.      Actual mass             Ionic bonds form very strong        http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-
In the periodic table, elements are arranged                                 Atomic bonding          bonds. They form salts like         atoms.htm
in order of increasing number of protons        Evaluate the                 principles              table salt, NaCl. They are          http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/pe
(called the atomic number). Vertical groups     contribution of              Avogadro’s              brittle, and while they dissolve    riodic_table.html
in the periodic table (families) have similar   Mendeleev’s periodic         hypothesis              easily in water they have high      http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elem_intro.h
physical and chemical properties due to the     table.                       Binary compound         melting points, they are            tml
same outer electron structures.                                              Chemical bond           nonconductors as solids and         http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/genobc/
                                                Distinguish between          Chemical properties     don’t readily corrode (react        http://education.jlab.org/elementflashcards/ind
                                                groups/families and          of elements             with gases in the air).             ex.html
                                                periods on the periodic      Covalent bond           Among the many covalently           http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/perio
                                                table.                       Earth’s elements        bonded compounds are: plastics      dic/crystal.html
                                                                             Electrical              ceramics/glasses, waxes, and        http://www.chem.uncc.edu/faculty/murphy/12
                                                Explain why elements         conductivity            common room temperature             51/slides/C17/sld001.htm
                                                in the same group have       Electronegativity       liquids and gases.                  http://periodic.lanl.gov/default.htm
                                                similar chemical and         Electron sharing                                            http://allperiodictables.com/aptpages/apt_1_C
                                                physical properties.         Electron transfer       Plastic and glass are used as       C_Active.html
                                                                             Element family          electrical insulators for power     http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/pe
                                                                             Elements of matter      lines.                              riodic_table.html
                                                                             Energy sublevels                                            http://www.webelements.com/
                                                                             Periodic table of the   Glass can be made with special
C4.9A Identify elements with similar            Distinguish between          elements                properties by adding different
chemical and physical properties using the      metals, nonmetals, and       Ionic bond              kinds of atoms to the glass.
periodic table.                                 semimetals on the            Ionization energy       Adding cobalt makes glass
                                                periodic table.              Lewis structures        blue; manganese makes glass
                                                                             Main energy level       purple, etc.
                                                Identify the location of     Main group
                                                the four blocks on the       elements                Corning Glass Company in
                                                periodic table               Metalloids              1912 found that by adding
                                                                             Metallic bond           boron oxide to glass it became
C4.9x Electron Energy Levels                                                 Orbital shape           shock resistant to temperature      http://www.wpbschoolhouse.btinternet.co.uk/
                                                                             Outer electron          changes (Pyrex).                    page04/4_71atom.htm
The rows in the periodic table represent the
                                                                             Thermal                                                     http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/quantu
main electron energy levels of the atom.
Within each main energy level are sublevels                                  conductivity            Photochromic glasses                mzone/bohr2.html
that represent an orbital shape and                                                                  (transition lenses in eyeglasses)   http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_config.ht
                                                                                                     are made by adding silver ions      ml
orientation.
                                                                                                     to the glass. The darkening is      http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_number.h
                                                                                                     the result of the silver ions       tml
                                                                                                     (Ag+) converting to metallic

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                              9
    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                            Vocabulary       Real World Content                             Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
C4.9b Identify metals, non-metals, and          Distinguish between                      silver (Ag) by picking up an
metalloids using the periodic table.            metals, nonmetals, and                   electron. This color is lost
                                                semimetals on the                        again in the dark.
                                                periodic table.
                                                Give five examples of                    Glass that is very stable
                                                each.                                    (doesn’t react with other
C4.9c Predict general trends in atomic          Define the term                          materials) is being developed to
radius, first ionization energy, and electro    periodic trend.                          store nuclear waste material.
negativity of the elements using the periodic
table.                                          Discuss four periodic                    In physiology, the primary ions
                                                trends.                                  or electrolytes are sodium,
                                                Distinguish between                      (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium
                                                ionization energy,                       (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+),
                                                electron affinity, and                   chloride (Cl-), phosphate (PO43-
                                                electronegativity.                       ), and hydrogen carbonate
                                                                                         (HCO3-).
C4.10x Average Atomic Mass                                                               Muscle contraction is
The atomic mass listed on the periodic table                                             dependent upon the presence of
is an average mass for all the different                                                 calcium ion (Ca2+), sodium
isotopes that exist, taking into account the                                             (Na+), and potassium (K+).
percent and mass of each different isotope.                                              Without sufficient levels of
                                                                                         these key electrolytes, muscle
C4.10c Calculate the average atomic mass        How do you calculate                     weakness or severe muscle
of an element given the percent abundance       the average atomic                       contractions may occur.
and mass of the individual isotopes.            mass of an element?
                                                                                         Today’s sport drinks are packed
                                                Explain the relationship                 with electrolytes (ions),
                                                between atomic mass                      potassium (K+), magnesium
                                                and the relative                         (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), and
                                                abundance of isotopes                    sodium (Na+)

C4.10d Predict which isotope will have the      Given an element,
greatest abundance given the possible           predict which isotope
isotopes for an element and the average         will have the greatest
atomic mass in the periodic table.              abundance compared to
                                                the other isotopes of the
                                                element.

C5.2x Balancing Equations                                                                                                   http://www.chemtutor.com/react.htm
A balanced chemical equation will allow                                                                                     http://funbasedlearning.com/chemistry/chemb
one to predict the amount of product                                                                                        alancer/default.htm

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                      10
   Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                         Vocabulary   Real World Content                    Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold
formed.                                                                                                    http://education.jlab.org/elementbalancing/ind
                                                                                                           ex.html
                                                                                                           http://www.wfu.edu/%7Eylwong/balanceeq/b
                                                                                                           alanceq.html

C5.2g Calculate the number of atoms           What is a mole?
present in a given mass of element.
                                              How do moles relate to
                                              Avogadro’s number?

                                              Calculate numbers of
                                              specific atoms in given
                                              chemical formulas.
C5.5 Chemical Bonds                           What are an atom’s
Trends An atom’s electron configuration,      valence electrons?
particularly of the outermost electrons,
determines how the atom can interact with     Describe the
other atoms. The interactions between atoms   characteristics of an
that hold them together in molecules or       ionic bond and a
between oppositely charged ions are called    covalent bond.
chemical bonds.
                                              Draw Lewis diagrams.
                                              State the Octet Rule.

                                              Describe the difference
                                              between polar and
                                              nonpolar covalent
                                              bonds.

C5.5A Predict if the bonding between two      Describe the
atoms of different elements will be           characteristics of ionic
primarily ionic or covalent.                  and covalent bonding.

                                              State the periodic
                                              positions of elements
                                              that ionic or covalently
                                              bond together.

                                              Draw ionic and
                                              covalent between atoms
                                              based on their valence

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                   11
    Coded Content Expectation for              Big Idea/Essential
                                                                         Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                   Questions/Scaffold
                                              electrons.

C5.5B Predict the formula for binary          Distinguish among
compounds of main group elements.             anions, cations, and
                                              polyatomic ions.

                                              Balance chemical
                                              formulas using the
                                              “cross-charges”
                                              method.

C5.5x Chemical Bonds
Chemical bonds can be classified as ionic,
covalent, and metallic. The properties of a
compound depend on the types of bonds
holding the atoms together.

C5.5c Draw Lewis structures for simple        Given a chemical
compounds.                                    formula, draw the
                                              Lewis structure.

                                              Draw Lewis structure to
                                              show the bonding
                                              between the valence
                                              electrons of elements.

C5.5d Compare the relative melting point,     Compare and contrast
electrical and thermal conductivity, and      the properties of ionic,
hardness for ionic, metallic, and covalent    metallic, and covalent
compounds.                                    compounds.

                                              State the properties of
                                              specific bonding types.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                   12
Unit 3: Quantum Mechanics                                                 Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3.5 weeks

    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                               Vocabulary              Real World Content                               Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
C2.4x Electron Movement                                                     Absorbance             Fireworks produce specific         http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/quantu
For each element, the arrangement of                                        spectrum               colors because of the              mzone/fraunhofer.html
electrons surrounding the nucleus is unique.                                Atomic motion          compounds used and the energy      http://chemistry.beloit.edu/bluelight/pages/ele
These electrons are found in different                                      Bright line spectrum   released when they burn.           ments.html
energy levels and can only move from a                                      Chemical bond                                             http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/quantu
lower energy level (closer to nucleus) to a                                 Electromagnetic        Lighting, both commercial          mzone/bohr2.html
higher energy level (farther from nucleus)                                  field                  (neon lights) and highway or       http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_config.ht
by absorbing energy in discrete packets. The                                Electromagnetic        backyard lighting (mercury         ml
energy content of the packets is directly                                   radiation              vapor or sodium) are a result of   http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_number.h
proportional to the frequency of the                                        Electromagnetic        excited state electrons.           tml
radiation. These electron transitions will                                  spectra
produce unique absorption spectra for each                                  Electromagnetic        A rainbow is an example of a
element. When the electron returns from an                                  wave                   continuous spectrum being
excited (high energy state) to a lower energy                               Electron               broken down into its different
state, energy is emitted in only certain                                    Electron               wavelengths as a result of rain
wavelengths of light, producing an emission                                 configuration          droplets in the air.
spectra.                                                                    Emission spectra
                                                                            Energy level           Scientists can learn what stars
                                                                            Excited state          are made of by observing the
C2.4a Describe energy changes in flame          What is the emission        Kernel                 spectrum they emit.
tests of common elements in terms of the        spectrum?                   Ground state
(characteristic) electron transitions.                                      Orbitals               The use of UV blockers in
                                                                            Probability            suntan lotions
C2.4b Contrast the mechanism of energy          Compare and contrast        Quantum energy
changes and the appearance of absorption        the emission spectra of     Quantum numbers        Gas discharge tubes are used in
and emission spectra.                           specific elements.          Release of energy      UPC scanners
                                                                            Sublevel
C2.4c Explain why an atom can absorb only       What is an elements         Valence electrons      Photoelectric panels on solar
certain wavelengths of light.                   quantum?                    Wave amplitude         houses, cars, and calculators
                                                                            Wavelength
                                                Describe the color                                 Aurora borealis (northern
                                                spectra.                                           lights) or aurora australis
                                                                                                   (southern lights)
                                                Describe the
                                                relationship between
                                                amplitude, frequency,
                                                and wavelength of an
                                                atom.

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                                                                             Vocabulary   Real World Content                    Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                      Questions/Scaffold

C2.4d Compare various wavelengths of             Describe the
light (visible and nonvisible) in terms of       relationship between
frequency and relative energy.                   frequency and energy
                                                 of a wavelength.

C4.8x Electron Configuration                                                                                   http://www.fordhamprep.org/gcurran/sho/sho/
Electrons are arranged in main energy levels                                                                   lessons/lesson36.htm
with sublevels that specify particular shapes                                                                  http://www.chem4kids.com/files/atom_intro.h
and geometry. Orbitals represent a region of                                                                   tml
space in which an electron may be found                                                                        http://www.lon-
with a high level of probability. Each                                                                         capa.org/%7Emmp/period/electron.htm
defined orbital can hold two electrons, each                                                                   http://library.thinkquest.org/10429/low/elecon
with a specific spin orientation. The specific                                                                 fig/electron.htm
assignment of an electron to an orbital is
determined by a set of 4 quantum numbers.
Each element and, therefore, each position
in the periodic table are defined by a unique
set of quantum numbers.

C4.8e Write the complete electron                Draw electron
configuration of elements in the first four      configuration for each
rows of the periodic table.                      element in the first four
                                                 rows.

C4.8f Write kernel structures for main           Draw the Kernel
group elements.                                  structure for main
                                                 group elements.

                                                 State the Octet Rule.

C4.8g Predict oxidation states and bonding       State the oxidation
capacity for main group elements using their     number(s) for specific
electron structure.                              elements on the
                                                 periodic table.

                                                 Based on elements
                                                 bonding, predict the
                                                 oxidation numbers of
                                                 the bonding elements.


Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                       14
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                                                                          Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
                                               How is the oxidation
                                               state of an element
                                               determined using the
                                               periodic table?

C4.8h Describe the shape and orientation of    Draw the shapes of the
s and p orbitals.                              s and p orbital’s.

                                               Describe the reasons
                                               that the orbitals take
                                               their shapes.

                                               Identify which periods
                                               occupy s and p
                                               orbital’s.

C4.8i Describe the fact that the electron      State the quantum
location cannot be exactly determined at any   mechanical model of
given time.                                    electron location.
                                               Describe the position
                                               and role of the electron
                                               cloud.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                    15
Unit 7: States of Matter                                                Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 2.5 weeks

    Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                             Vocabulary              Real World Content                              Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold
C2.2 Molecules in Motion                       Explain the different      Conduction             Hot liquids can make the           http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHY
Molecules that compose matter are in           types of motion in an      Kinetic molecular      handle of a metal spoon hot              S/Class/energy/u5l1c.html
constant motion (translational, rotational,    atom.                      model                  through conduction.                http://id.mind.net/%7Ezona/mstm/physics/me
vibrational). Energy may be transferred                                   Kelvin temperature                                              chanics/energy/heatAndTemperature/cha
from one object to another during collisions   Compare and contrast       Order                  Air pressure in automobile tires             ngesOfPhase/changeOfState.html
between molecules.                             elastic and inelastic      Pressure-              increases while driving due to     http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth
                                               collisions.                temperature            friction within the tire and             /geology/change_state.html&edu=high
                                                                          relationship           friction between the road and      http://miksike.com/chemistry/5-2-22-1.htm
                                                                          Pressure-volume        the tire. Recommended tire
C2.2A Describe conduction in terms of          Compare and contrast       relationship           pressure is based on cold
molecules bumping into each other to           the intermolecular         Rotational motion      pressure (before driving).
transfer energy. Explain why there is better   forces in solids and       Temperature-
conduction in solids and liquids than gases.   liquids by using           volume relationship    Weather balloons are never
                                               pictures/                  Translational motion   filled to capacity because they
                                               diagrams/models.           Vibrational motion     continue to inflate as they rise
                                                                                                 due to changes in the air
                                               Explain conduction in                             pressure.
                                               terms of molecular
                                               movement in the                                   Cooking pans get hot because
                                               different phases of                               of conduction of heat.
                                               matter.
                                                                                                 Perfume and smoke spread out
                                               Explain why solids are                            in a room or area because of the
                                               good conductors.                                  motion of the particles.
                                                                                                 Through diffusion from an area
C2.2B Describe the various states of matter    Compare and contrast                              of high concentration to areas
in terms of the motion and arrangement of      the molecular                                     of less concentration smoke or
the molecules (atoms) making up the            movement of solids,                               perfume spreads throughout a
substance.                                     liquids, and gases.                               room.

C2.2x Molecular Entropy                                                                          Pressure relief values are used    http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/hbond.
                                                                                                 on hot water boilers and in              htm
As temperature increases, the average
                                                                                                 pressure cookers as safety         http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/ther
kinetic energy and the entropy of the
                                                                                                 devices.                                 mo/index.html
molecules in a sample increase.
                                                                                                                                    http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/16
                                                                                                 Regulators are used in SCUBA             9/173125/MolecularEntropy.html
                                                                                                 diving to match water pressure


Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                         16
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        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
C2.2c Explain changes in pressure, volume,      Explain the effects of                   with the air pressure going into
and temperature for gases using the kinetic     changing pressure,                       the lungs.
molecular model.                                temperature, and
                                                volume on gases.                         Aerosol cans work because of
                                                                                         the pressure (propellant) in the
                                                Using gas laws, predict                  can.
                                                the affects on gas
                                                molecules with
                                                different changes.


C2.2f Compare the average kinetic energy        Explain kinetic energy
of the molecules in a metal object and a        of solids.
wood object at room temperature.
                                                Explain the average
                                                difference in kinetic
                                                energy between metal
                                                and wood objects.

C3.3 Heating Impacts                            Explain the effects of
Heating increases the kinetic (translational,   heating on atoms,                                                           http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHY
rotational, and vibrational) energy of the      molecules, and ions.                                                              S/Class/energy/u5l1c.html
atoms composing elements and the                                                                                            http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/Biol
molecules or ions composing compounds.          Explain why solids melt                                                           ogyPages/B/BondEnergy.html
As the kinetic (translational) energy of the    in terms of their kinetic
atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the        energy.
temperature of the matter increases. Heating
a sample of a crystalline solid increases the   Predict and compare,
kinetic (vibrational) energy of the atoms,      basic on average kinetic
molecules, or ions. When the kinetic            energy, the melting
(vibrational) energy becomes great enough,      points of different
the crystalline structure breaks down, and      solids.
the solid melts.                                Example: Salt vs. sugar,
                                                why does sugar melt
                                                before salt? Explain
                                                using energy.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                      17
    Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                          Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold
C3.3A Describe how heat is conducted in a      Define conductance.
solid.
                                               Explain the actions of
                                               atoms in a solid when
                                               heat is added to a
                                               system, also when heat
                                               is removed from a
                                               system.

C3.3B Describe melting on a molecular          Diagram the effects of
level.                                         heat on bonds and
                                               molecules in a
                                               compound.

                                               Define melting point.

C4.3 Properties of Substances                  Describe the difference
Differences in the physical and chemical       between a physical and
properties of substances are explained by      chemical property with
the arrangement of the atoms, ions, or         examples to
molecules of the substances and by the         demonstrate each.
strength of the forces of attraction between
the atoms, ions, or molecules.


C4.3A Recognize that substances that are       Define attractive forces
solid at room temperature have stronger        between molecules.
attractive forces than liquids at room
temperature, which have stronger attractive    Explain the differences
forces than gases at room temperature.         in attracted forces
                                               between solids, liquids,
                                               and gases as room
                                               temperature.

C4.3B Recognize that solids have a more        Draw the diagrams of
ordered, regular arrangement of their          solids, liquids, and
particles than liquids and that liquids are    gases in terms of their
more ordered than gases.                       molecular structure.

                                               Compare and contrast
                                               the molecular structure
Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                    18
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                                                                        Vocabulary   Real World Content                     Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                  Questions/Scaffold
                                            of solids, liquids, and
                                            gases.

C4.5x Ideal Gas Law                                                                                       http://www.chemicool.com/idealgas.html
The forces in gases are explained by the                                                                  http://hyperphysics.phy-
ideal gas law.                                                                                                  astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/idegas.html

C4.5a Provide macroscopic examples,         Using gas laws,
atomic and molecular explanations, and      calculate the
mathematical representations (graphs and    relationship between
equations) for the pressure-volume          pressure and volume of
relationship in gases.                      a gas.

                                            Using a pressure-
                                            volume graph, interpret
                                            and predict the trends of
                                            a gas under specific
                                            conditions.

C4.5b Provide macroscopic examples,         Using a pressure-
atomic and molecular explanations, and      temperature
mathematical representations (graphs and    relationship graph of a
equations) for the pressure-temperature     gas, predict the trends
relationship in gases.                      under specific
                                            conditions and interpret
                                            data.

                                            Using gas laws,
                                            calculate the
                                            relationship between
                                            pressure and
                                            temperature of a gas.

C4.5c Provide macroscopic examples,         Using gas laws,
atomic and molecular explanations, and      calculate the
mathematical representations (graphs and    relationship between
equations) for the temperature-volume       temperature and volume
relationship in gases.                      of a gas.

                                            Interpret and predict
                                            outcomes of a gas using
Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                  19
   Coded Content Expectation for             Big Idea/Essential
                                                                        Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                  Questions/Scaffold
                                            a temperature-volume
                                            graph.

                                            Construct a graph using
                                            data in a temp.-volume
                                            relationship and
                                            interpret the outcome to
                                            predict the relationship.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                  20
Unit 4: Introduction to Bonding                                             Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3 weeks

    Coded Content Expectation for                  Big Idea/Essential
                                                                                 Vocabulary              Real World Content                               Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                       Questions/Scaffold
C2.1x Chemical Potential Energy                                               Bond energy            In addition to NaCl, many           http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembo
Potential energy is stored whenever work                                      Carbon atom            minerals exist as ionic solids,        nd/
must be done to change the distance                                           Charged object         such as pyrite (FeS2), cinnabar     http://www.historyoftheuniverse.com/chemen
between two objects. The attraction between                                   Chemical bond          (HgS), hematite (Fe2O3),               er.html
the two objects may be gravitational,                                         Crystalline solid      fluorite (CaF2), beryl              http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/
electrostatic, magnetic, or strong force.                                     Double bond            (Be3Al2Si6O18), and barite             tutorials/chemistry/page2.html
Chemical potential energy is the result of                                    Electric force         (BaSO4).
electrostatic attractions between atoms.                                      Electron
                                                                              Electron sharing       N2 is an extremely stable and
                                                                              Electron transfer      thus nonreactive substance.
C2.1a Explain the changes in potential            What is the law of          Endothermic            Fertilizers generally contain
energy (due to electrostatic interactions) as a   conservation of energy?     process                nitrogen in the form of
chemical bond forms and use this to explain                                   Enthalpy               ammonia or ammonium
why bond breaking always requires energy.         Explain the difference      Exothermic process     compounds because most plants
                                                  between potential and       Hydrocarbon            cannot use the nitrogen out of
                                                  kinetic energy?             Intermolecular force   the air (it exists as a stable N2
                                                                              Ion                    molecule). The legumes and a
                                                  What does the collision     Isomers                few other plants are considered
                                                  theory state?               Monomer                very important because they
                                                                              Moving electric        “fix” the atmospheric nitrogen
C2.1b Describe energy changes associated          Why do almost all           charge                 into a usable form.
with chemical reactions in terms of bonds         chemical reactions          Polarity
broken and formed (including                      involve a change of         Potential energy       N2 is used in the food industry.
intermolecular forces).                           energy?                     Protein                For example, many
                                                                              Release of energy      manufacturers use nitrogen to
                                                  What’s the difference       Single bond            fill the space in the potato chip
                                                  between endo and            Synthetic polymer      bags and to reduce or prevent
                                                  exothermic reactions?                              oxidation from occurring before
                                                                                                     the bag is opened.
C3.2x Enthalpy
Chemical reactions involve breaking bonds                                                            Water drops that form on plant
in reactants (endothermic) and forming new                                                           blossoms from the early
bonds in the products (exothermic). The                                                              morning’s dew is based on
enthalpy change for a chemical reaction will                                                         strong attractive forces between
depend on the relative strengths of the                                                              the highly polar water
bonds in the reactants and products.                                                                 molecules.



Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                             21
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                                                                         Vocabulary       Real World Content                              Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                   Questions/Scaffold
C3.2b Describe the relative strength of       Compare and contrast
single, double, and triple covalent bonds     bond strength of single,                Water striders are able to stay
between nitrogen atoms.                       double, and triple                      on top of the water, rather than
                                              bonds, including                        sink, because of the water
                                              nitrogen compounds.                     tension or attractive forces of
C3.3x Bond Energy                                                                     the molecules for one another.     http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/Biol
Chemical bonds possess potential                                                                                            ogyPages/B/BondEnergy.html
(vibrational and rotational) energy.                                                  Salts dissolved in the oceans      http://www.bcpl.net/%7Ekdrews/bonding/bon
                                                                                      and most of the substances that       ding.html#Bond%20Energy
                                                                                      comprise the earth’s crust are     http://www.matter.org.uk/Schools/Content/Re
                                                                                      held together by ionic bonds.         actions/BondEnergy.html
                                                                                      Most seashells are made of the
C3.3c Explain why it is necessary for a       Why must energy in a                    ionic compound calcium
molecule to absorb energy in order to break   chemical reaction be                    carbonate, but they are
a chemical bond.                              absorbed before it is                   insoluble in sea water.
                                              released?

C4.4x Molecular Polarity                                                                                                 http://cost.georgiasouthern.edu/chemistry/gen
The forces between molecules depend on                                                                                      eral/molecule/polar.htm
the net polarity of the molecule as                                                                                      http://www.elmhurst.edu/%7Echm/vchemboo
determined by shape of the molecule and                                                                                     k/210polarity.html
the polarity of the bonds.                                                                                               http://preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_anim
                                                                                                                            ations.htm

C4.4a Explain why at room temperature         Explain how the
different compounds can exist in different    difference in bonding
phases.                                       causes compounds to be
                                              solids and liquids at
                                              room temperature.
                                              Example: Butter vs.
                                              oils.

C4.4b Identify if a molecule is polar or      Compare and contrast
nonpolar given a structural formula for the   polar vs. nonpolar using
compound.                                     electronegativity.

C5.8 Carbon Chemistry                                                                                                    http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/modules/
The chemistry of carbon is important.                                                                                       carbon/carbon1.html
Carbon atoms can bond to one another in                                                                                  http://www.sciencebyjones.com/carbon_chem
chains, rings, and branching networks to                                                                                    istry.htm
form a variety of structures, including                                                                                  http://www3.fhs.usyd.edu.au/bio/FHorganicch

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                   22
    Coded Content Expectation for            Big Idea/Essential
                                                                    Vocabulary   Real World Content                  Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                 Questions/Scaffold
synthetic polymers, oils, and the large                                                                  em/index.htm
molecules essential to life.                                                                          http://www.creative-
                                                                                                         chemistry.org.uk/molecules/carbon.htm
                                                                                                      http://www.sciencebyjones.com/carbon_chem
                                                                                                         istry.htm

C5.8A Draw structural formulas for up to    Draw the structure of
ten carbon chains of simple hydrocarbons.   hexane.

C5.8B Draw isomers for simple               Draw the structural
hydrocarbons.                               isomers of pentane.

                                            Give two examples of
                                            isomers.

C5.8C Recognize that proteins, starches,    What are polymers?
and other large biological molecules are
polymers.                                   What are some
                                            examples of
                                            natural/biological
                                            polymers?




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                              23
Unit 8: Advanced Bonding Concepts                                           Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3 weeks

    Coded Content Expectation for                 Big Idea/Essential
                                                                                 Vocabulary               Real World Content                               Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                      Questions/Scaffold
C4.3x Solids                                                                  Atomic weight           Wiring in homes is mostly done     http://library.thinkquest.org/3659/states/solids.
Solids can be classified as metallic, ionic,                                  Boiling point           with Cu. However, depending             html
covalent, or network covalent. These                                          Chemical bond           on cost factors, sometimes Al      http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat
different types of solids have different                                      Dipole-dipole bond      has been used. In computers,            2/chemistry/chapter5section2.rhtml
properties that depend on the particles and                                   Dispersion forces       gold is used in some               http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_solid.
forces found in the solid.                                                    Endothermic             connections because of its              html
                                                                              process                 better conductivity.
                                                                              Exothermic process
C4.3c Compare the relative strengths of          Describe the effects of      Hydrogen bonding        The properties of water, which
forces between molecules based on the            melting and boiling          Ion                     we depend on greatly, are the
melting point and boiling point of the           points of a substance        Ionic solid (crystal)   result of its special bonding.
substances.                                      depending on the             Melting point
                                                 strength of their            Metal                   Carbon dioxide, dry ice, is used
                                                 intermolecular forces.       Network solid           to keep food products cold
                                                                              Relative mass           during shipment.
                                                 Explain the different        Release of energy
                                                 possible strengths of        Temporary dipole        Diamond, a covalent network,
                                                 forces and what the                                  is used in manufacturing
                                                 strength(s) are                                      processes (cutting and drilling)
                                                 contingent on.                                       because of its hardness and in
                                                                                                      jewelry because of its lasting
C4.3d Compare the strength of the forces of      Define and explain                                   ability and beauty.
attraction between molecules of different        intermolecular forces of
elements. (For example, at room                  an element.                                          Carbon is covalently bonded
temperature, chlorine is a gas and iodine is a                                                        when used to form polymers.
solid.)                                          Diagram the different                                These polymers may be used in
                                                 attraction strengths                                 various types of plastics, such
                                                 between different                                    as garbage bags, milk cartons,
                                                 elements.                                            shrink wrap, automobile parts
                                                                                                      and toys.
                                                 Explain why different
                                                 elements and                                         Ionic bonded compounds are
                                                 compounds are in                                     used in fertilizers, K2CO3,
                                                 different states of                                  NH4NO3, and Ca(H2PO4)2
                                                 matter at different                                  because of their ability to
                                                 temperatures.                                        dissolve in water.

                                                 State the periodic trend

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                              24
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                                                                           Vocabulary       Real World Content             Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
C4.3e Predict whether the forces of             of different types of                   Some ionic compounds, such as
attraction in a solid are primarily metallic,   bonding depending on                    anhydrous compounds, are used
covalent, network covalent or ionic based       the location on specific                as drying agents and are
upon the elements’ location on the periodic     elements                                packaged with electronic
table.                                                                                  equipment and many other
                                                Compare and contrast                    substances, to remove moisture
                                                the location of elements                after manufacturing and before
                                                in each of the types of                 consumer use.
                                                bonding.
                                                                                        Water drops that form on plant
                                                Predict the type of                     blossoms from the early
                                                bonding a set of                        morning’s dew are based on
                                                elements will have                      strong attractive forces between
                                                based on their location                 the highly polar water
                                                on the periodic table.                  molecules.

C4.3f Identify the elements necessary for       Define hydrogen                         Water striders are able to stay
hydrogen bonding (N, O, F).                     bonding.                                on top of the water, rather than
                                                                                        sink, because of the water
                                                Explain why only                        tension or attractive forces of
                                                certain elements are                    the water molecules for one
                                                able to bond                            another.
                                                successfully with
                                                hydrogen.

C4.3g Given the structural formula of a         Compare and contract
compound, indicate all the intermolecular       the different types of
forces present (dispersion, dipolar, hydrogen   intermolecular forces
bonding).                                       present in certain
                                                formulas.

                                                Diagram the structures
                                                and show the forces of
                                                specific compounds.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                     25
    Coded Content Expectation for                 Big Idea/Essential
                                                                             Vocabulary   Real World Content                     Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                      Questions/Scaffold
C4.3h Explain properties of various solids       Define malleability,
such as malleability, conductivity, and          conductivity, and
melting point in terms of the solid’s            melting point.
structure and bonding.
                                                 Explain bond structure
                                                 and the effects on the
                                                 properties of certain
                                                 solids.

C4.3i Explain why ionic solids have higher       Diagram the melting
melting points than covalent solids. (For        points (given) of certain
example, NaF has a melting point of 995°C        solids that are ionically
while water has a melting point of 0° C.)        bound and those that
                                                 are covalently bound.

                                                 Explain why the
                                                 melting point of solids
                                                 is dependent on the type
                                                 of bonding.

C5.4x Changes of State                                                                                         http://id.mind.net/%7Ezona/mstm/physics/me
All changes of state require energy.                                                                                chanics/energy/heatAndTemperature/chan
Changes in state that require energy involve                                                                        gesOfPhase/changeOfState.html
breaking forces holding the particles                                                                          http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth
together. The amount of energy will depend                                                                          /geology/change_state.html&edu=high
on the type of forces.                                                                                         http://www.chem4kids.com/map.html
                                                                                                               http://www.le.ac.uk/education/centres/sci/selfs
                                                                                                                    tudy/particle02.html
                                                                                                               http://miksike.com/chemistry/5-2-22-1.htm

C5.4c Explain why both the melting point         Describe the difference
and boiling points for water are significantly   in melting points and
higher than other small molecules of             boiling points of water
comparable mass (e.g., ammonia and               and other specific
methane).                                        molecules.

                                                 Give a real-world
                                                 example that shows the
                                                 difference of boiling or
                                                 melting points of pure
                                                 water and other

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                       26
   Coded Content Expectation for             Big Idea/Essential
                                                                       Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                  Questions/Scaffold
                                            molecules (salt-water,
                                            etc.)
C5.4d Explain why freezing is an            Explain the movement
exothermic change of state.                 of heat in an exothermic
                                            change.

                                            Diagram the movement
                                            of heat

C5.4e Compare the melting point of
covalent compounds based on the strength
of IMFs (intermolecular forces).




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                 27
Unit 5: Nomenclature and Formula Stoichiometry                          Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3 weeks

   Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                             Vocabulary           Real World Content                              Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
C4.1x Molecular and Empirical Formulae                                    Avogadro’s number   Wiring in homes is mostly done     http://www.eagan.k12.mn.us/fletcher/acn/flas
Compounds have a fixed percent elemental                                  Binary              with Cu. However, depending             h/empiricalformulas.html
composition. For a compound, the empirical                                Carbon atom         on cost factors, sometimes Al      http://www.fordhamprep.org/gcurran/sho/sho/
formula can be calculated from the percent                                Carbon dioxide      has been used. In computers,            lessons/lesson55.htm
composition or the mass of each element.                                  Empirical formula   gold is used in some               http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0858195.
To determine the molecular formula from                                   Fossil fuel         connections because of its              html
the empirical formula, the molar mass of the                              Hydrocarbons        better conductivity.               http://science.jrank.org/pages/4403/Molecular
substance must also be known.                                             Isomers                                                     -Formula.html
                                                                          Mole                The properties of water, which
C4.1a Calculate the percent by weight of       What is molar mass?        Molecular formula   we depend on greatly, are the
each element in a compound based on the                                   Organic matter      result of its special bonding.
compound formula.                              Calculate molar masses
                                               of compounds.                                  Carbon dioxide, dry ice, is used
                                                                                              to keep food products cold
                                                                                              during shipment.
C4.1b Calculate the empirical formula of a     Define empirical
compound based on the percent by weight        formula.
of each element in the compound.                                                              Diamond, a covalent network,
                                                                                              is used in manufacturing
                                               Calculate empirical
                                                                                              processes (cutting and drilling)
                                               formulas for given
                                                                                              because of its hardness and in
                                               compounds.
                                                                                              jewelry because of its lasting
                                               Calculate % weight of                          ability and beauty.
                                               given formulas based
                                                                                              Carbon is covalently bonded
                                               on empirical formulas.
                                                                                              when used to form polymers.
                                                                                              These polymers may be used in
C4.1c Use the empirical formula and            Calculate the molecular
                                                                                              various types of plastics, such
molecular weight of a compound to              formulas given
                                                                                              as garbage bags, milk cartons,
determine the molecular formula.               molecular weights and
                                                                                              shrink wrap, automobile parts
                                               empirical formulas.
                                                                                              and toys.
C4.2 Nomenclature                                                                                                                http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Nomenc
                                                                                              Ionic bonded compounds are
All compounds have unique names that are                                                                                              lature/Nomenclature.html
                                                                                              used in fertilizers, K2CO3,
determined systematically.                                                                                                       http://www.shodor.org/unchem/basic/nomen/i
                                                                                              NH4NO3, and Ca(H2PO4)2
                                                                                                                                      ndex.html
                                                                                              because of their ability to
                                                                                                                                 http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/notes/N
                                                                                              dissolve in water.
                                                                                                                                      omenclature.html


Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                        28
   Coded Content Expectation for              Big Idea/Essential
                                                                       Vocabulary       Real World Content                             Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                   Questions/Scaffold
C4.2A Name simple binary compounds           Give an example of a                   Some ionic compounds, such as
using their formulae.                        binary compound.                       anhydrous compounds, are used
                                                                                    as drying agents and are
C4.2B Given the name, write the formula of   Give five examples of                  packaged with electronic
simple binary compounds.                     binary compounds and                   equipment and many other
                                             write their chemical                   substances, to remove moisture
                                             formulas.                              after manufacturing and before
                                                                                    consumer use.
C4.2x Nomenclature                                                                                                     http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Nomenc
All molecular and ionic compounds have                                              Water drops that form on plant          lature/Nomenclature.html
unique names that are determined                                                    blossoms from the early            http://www.shodor.org/unchem/basic/nomen/i
systematically.                                                                     morning’s dew are based on              ndex.html
                                                                                    strong attractive forces between   http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/notes/N
                                                                                    the highly polar water                  omenclature.html
                                                                                    molecules.
C4.2c Given a formula, name the              Name the following
compound.                                    compounds: Example,                    Water striders are able to stay
                                             NaCl = sodium                          on top of the water, rather than
                                             chloride.                              sink, because of the water
                                             State suffixes given to                tension or attractive forces of
                                             specific                               the water molecules for one
                                                                                    another.
C4.2d Given the name, write the formula of   State the difference
ionic and molecular compounds.               between ionic and
                                             molecular compounds,
                                             including correct
                                             suffixes.

                                             Name, write, and draw
                                             ionic and molecular
                                             compounds.

C4.2e Given the formula for a simple         Define isomer.
hydrocarbon, draw and name the isomers.
                                             Draw and name specific
                                             hydrocarbons using
                                             correct vocabulary.

                                             Draw and name correct
                                             isomers for simple
                                             hydrocarbons.

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                 29
   Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                        Vocabulary   Real World Content                   Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold

C4.6x Moles The mole is the standard unit                                                                 http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module
for counting atomic and molecular particles                                                                    _viewer.php?mid=53
in terms of common mass units.

C4.6a Calculate the number of moles of any    Define mole.
compound or element given the mass of the
substance.                                    Calculate the number of
                                              moles in a substance:
                                              Convert 60 grams of
                                              NaCl to moles.

C4.6b Calculate the number of particles of    What is Avogadro’s
any compound or element given the mass of     number?
the substance.
                                              Name the three
                                              particles used to
                                              convert moles to
                                              particles.

                                              Find the number of
                                              particles in H2O given
                                              the mass of 18.0g/mol.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                  30
Unit 6: Equations and Stoichiometry                                     Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 2.5 weeks

    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                              Vocabulary             Real World Content                              Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
C3.4 Endothermic and Exothermic                 Describe endo and          Delta (meaning        Chemical reactions in everyday     http://chemistry.about.com/cs/generalchemistr
Reactions Chemical interactions either          exothermic reactions       change)               situations produce or absorb            y/a/aa051903a.htm
release energy to the environment                                          Endothermic           heat. Examples:                    http://www.chem.umn.edu/outreach/EndoExo.
(exothermic) or absorb energy from the          Give some examples of      reaction              Hot and Cold Packs, Toilet              html
environment (endothermic).                      each.                      Exothermic reaction   bowl cleaners, Burning (paper,     http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/structures
                                                                           Limiting reagent      fuel, food), Photosynthesis,            /molecular.html
                                                                           Molar Volume          Respiration, etc.                  http://www.princeton.edu/%7Epccm/outreach/
                                                                           Oxidation-                                                    scsp/chemtests/concepts/properties.htm
                                                                           Reduction reactions   The mass of materials produced
C3.4A Use the terms endothermic and                                        Pressure              or consumed in chemical
exothermic correctly to describe chemical                                  Product               reactions can be used to help
reactions in the laboratory.                                               Properties of         understand natural phenomenon
                                                                           reactants             such as: global warming (CO2
C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy                      Give some examples of      Reactant              produced or consumed),             http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/hbond.
All chemical reactions involve                  chemical equations that    Reagent               oxygen needs of organisms, etc.         htm
rearrangement of the atoms. In an               show reactants and         Release of energy                                        http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/ther
exothermic reaction, the products have less     products using heat as a                         The amount of reagents that are         mo/index.html
energy than the reactants. There are two        catalyst.                                        added to a chemical reaction       http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath184/k
natural driving forces: (1) toward minimum                                                       will determine the amount of            math184.htm
energy (enthalpy) and (2) toward maximum                                                         product produced. Examples
disorder (entropy).                                                                              are: smoky fires (not getting
                                                                                                 enough oxygen), Mentos and
C3.4c Write chemical equations including                                                         diet coke reaction too small
the heat term as a part of equation or using                                                     (add more Mentos), fizzing too
H notation.                                                                                     little in vinegar in baking soda
                                                                                                 (add more vinegar or baking
C5.2 Chemical Changes                           Write a balanced                                 soda).
Chemical changes can occur when two             chemical equation.
substances, elements, or compounds interact                                                      Proper volumes of gases are
and produce one or more different                                                                required in certain situations
substances whose physical and chemical                                                           such as air bag deployment,
properties are different from the interacting                                                    carbon dioxide produced by
substances. When substances undergo                                                              ingredients in rising bread,
chemical change, the number of atoms in                                                          production of ammonia gas for
the reactants is the same as the number of                                                       industry, etc.
atoms in the products. This can be shown
through simple balancing of chemical
equations. Mass is conserved when
Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                         31
    Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                          Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold
substances undergo chemical change. The
total mass of the interacting substances
(reactants) is the same as the total mass of
the substances produced (products).

C5.2A Balance simple chemical equations        Describe chemical and
applying the conservation of matter.           physical changes using
                                               equations

C5.2B Distinguish between chemical and
physical changes in terms of the properties
of the reactants and products.

C5.2x Balancing Equations                      Balance a given
A balanced chemical equation will allow        chemical equation.
one to predict the amount of product
formed.

C5.2d Calculate the mass of a particular       Define moles.
compound formed from the masses of
starting materials.                            Convert moles to
                                               grams, and grams to
                                               moles.

                                               Calculate and identify
                                               limiting reagents.

                                               Define limiting reagent.

C5.2e Identify the limiting reagent when       Calculate the volume of
given the masses of more than one reactant.    a substance using 22.4L
                                               of gas at constant
                                               pressure and
                                               temperature (STP).

C5.2f Predict volumes of product gases
using initial volumes of gases at the same
temperature and pressure.

C5.6x Reduction/Oxidation Reactions            Identify and describe
Chemical reactions are classified according    different types of

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                    32
   Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                        Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
to the fundamental molecular or sub            chemical reactions,
molecular changes that occur. Reactions that   including single-
involve electron transfer are known as         replacement reactions.
oxidation/reduction (or “redox”).

C5.6b Predict single replacement reactions.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                  33
Unit 9: Thermochemistry Solutions                                         Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3.5 weeks

    Coded Content Expectation for                 Big Idea/Essential
                                                                               Vocabulary             Real World Content                              Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                      Questions/Scaffold
C2.1x Chemical Potential Energy                                             Boiling point         Chemical reactions in everyday
Potential energy is stored whenever work                                    elevation             situations produce or absorb
must be done to change the distance                                         Calorie               heat. Examples:
between two objects. The attraction between                                 Change of state       Hot and Cold Packs, Toilet
the two objects may be gravitational,                                       Chemical bond         bowl cleaners, Burning (paper,
electrostatic, magnetic, or strong force.                                   Concentration         fuel, food), Photosynthesis,
Chemical potential energy is the result of                                  Convection current    Respiration, etc.
electrostatic attractions between atoms.                                    Convection heating
                                                                            Crystalline solid     The mass of materials produced
C2.1c Compare qualitatively the energy           Describe metallic bonds    Electrostatic         or consumed in chemical
changes associated with melting various          and intermolecular         attractions           reactions can be used to help
types of solids in terms of the types of         attractive forces.         Enthalpy              understand natural phenomenon
forces between the particles in the solid.                                  Entropy               such as: global warming (CO2
                                                                            Equilibrium           produced or consumed),
C2.2x Molecular Entropy                                                     Exothermic reaction   oxygen needs of organisms, etc.    http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/hbond.
As temperature increases, the average                                       Freezing point                                                htm
kinetic energy and the entropy of the                                       depression            The amount of reagents that are    http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/ther
molecules in a sample increase.                                             Hess’s Law            added to a chemical reaction            mo/index.html
                                                                            Ionic motion          will determine the amount of       http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/16
                                                                            Joules                product produced. Examples              9/173125/MolecularEntropy.html
                                                                            Kinetic energy        are: smoky fires (not getting
C2.2d Explain convection and the                 Show that convection       Mass to energy        enough oxygen), Mentos and
difference in transfer of thermal energy for     and energy transfer        conversion            diet coke reaction too small
solids, liquids, and gases using evidence that   depend on the state of     Potential energy      (add more Mentos), fizzing too
molecules are in constant motion.                the medium.                Release of energy     little in vinegar in baking soda
                                                                            Solute                (add more vinegar or baking
C3.1x Hess’s Law                                                            Specific heat         soda).
For chemical reactions where the state and                                  Transforming matter
amounts of reactants and products are                                       and/or energy         Proper volumes of gases are
known, the amount of energy transferred                                                           required in certain situations
will be the same regardless of the chemical                                                       such as air bag deployment,
pathway. This relationship is called Hess’s                                                       carbon dioxide produced by
law.                                                                                              ingredients in rising bread,
                                                                                                  production of ammonia gas for
C3.1c Calculate the ΔH for a chemical            Use coffee cup                                   industry, etc.
reaction using simple coffee cup                 calorimetry experiment
calorimetry.                                     to obtain ▲H.

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                          34
    Coded Content Expectation for                Big Idea/Essential
                                                                           Vocabulary   Real World Content                    Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                     Questions/Scaffold
                                                Explain how a
                                                calorimeter is used to
                                                determine the quantity
                                                of heat transferred in a
                                                chemical reaction.

C3.1d Calculate the amount of heat              Show how heat can be
produced for a given mass of reactant from      calculated from a mass
a balanced chemical equation.                   of reactants

C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy
All chemical reactions involve
rearrangement of the atoms. In an
exothermic reaction, the products have less
energy than the reactants. There are two
natural driving forces: (1) toward minimum
energy (enthalpy) and (2) toward maximum
disorder (entropy).

C3.4g Explain why gases are less soluble in     Explain why as the
warm water than cold water.                     kinetic energy of gas
                                                molecules increases, the
                                                solubility of gas in
                                                water decreases.

C4.7x Solutions                                                                                              http://www.chemtutor.com/solution.htm
The physical properties of a solution are
determined by the concentration of solute.

C4.7a Investigate the difference in the         Calculate the boiling
boiling point or freezing point of pure water   point elevation of
and a salt solution.                            different solutions.

                                                Find the melting point
                                                of water ice and ice of
                                                different substances.

C5.4 Phase/Change Diagrams                                                                                   http://misterguch.brinkster.net/chemfiestanew.
Changes of state require a transfer of                                                                            html
energy. Water has unusually high-energy                                                                      http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/6-
changes associated with its changes of state.                                                                     react.htm

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                     35
    Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                          Vocabulary   Real World Content                    Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold
                                                                                                            http://www.ftexploring.com/energy/energy-
                                                                                                                 1.htm

C5.4A Compare the energy required to raise     Compare specific heats
the temperature of one gram of aluminum        of water and aluminum
and one gram of water the same number of
degrees.

C5.4B Measure, plot, and interpret the         Draw the phase
graph of the temperature versus time of an     diagram for water-ice
ice-water mixture, under slow heating,         as it changes physical
through melting and boiling.                   states of matter.

                                               Interpret data on a
                                               phase change graph.

C5.5x Chemical Bonds                                                                                        http://hyperphysics.phy-
Chemical bonds can be classified as ionic,                                                                       astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html
covalent, and metallic. The properties of a                                                                 http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module
compound depend on the types of bonds                                                                            _viewer.php?mid=55
holding the atoms together.                                                                                 http://www.bcpl.net/%7Ekdrews/bonding/bon
                                                                                                                 ding.html
                                                                                                            http://www.quia.com/jq/19617.html
                                                                                                            http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembo
                                                                                                                 nd/
                                                                                                            file:///D:/Science/hC5_Changes.htm
                                                                                                            http://www.visionlearning.com/library/cat_vie
                                                                                                                 w.php?c3=&cid=20&l=&let1=
                                                                                                            http://hyperphysics.phy-
                                                                                                                 astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html

C5.5e Relate the melting point, hardness,      Using the melting
and electrical and thermal conductivity of a   point, harness, and
substance to its structure.                    thermal conductivity to
                                               predict the structure of
                                               substances.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                    36
Unit 10: Acids-Bases                                                     Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 2 weeks

    Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                              Vocabulary            Real World Content                              Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold
C5.7 Acids and Bases                                                       Acid rain            Household cleaners are acidic       http://www.chemtutor.com/acid.htm
Acids and bases are important classes of                                   Acid/base reaction   or basic. Examples: soaps,          http://library.thinkquest.org/3659/acidbase/
chemicals that are recognized by easily                                    Acidic               shampoos, window cleaners,          http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module
observed properties in the laboratory. Acids                               Alkaline             toilet bowl cleaners, vinegar            _viewer.php?mid=58
and bases will neutralize each other. Acid                                 Basic                and drain cleaners, etc.            http://www.chem4kids.com/files/react_acidba
formulas usually begin with hydrogen, and                                  Bronsted-Lowry                                                se.html
base formulas are a metal with a hydroxide                                 Carboxyl group       Foods and medicines are acidic      http://www.wfu.edu/%7Eylwong/balanceeq/b
ion. As the pH decreases, a solution                                       Hydrogen ion         or basic. Examples are: soda             alanceq.html
becomes more acidic. A difference of one                                   Hydronium ion        pop, antacids, vinegar, salad
pH unit is a factor of 10 in hydrogen ion                                  Hydroxide            dressing etc.
concentration.                                                             Ion
                                                                           Kw,                  Food processing requires
C5.7A Recognize formulas for common            What are inorganic          Neutral              adherence to strict pH ranges:
inorganic acids, carboxylic acids, and bases   acids?                      Neutralize           canning, meat tenderizer, etc.
formed from families I and II.                                             pH
                                               Give examples.                                   Indicators are used to test pH of
                                               What are carboxylic                              soil and swimming pools.
                                               acids and give
                                               examples?                                        Red cabbage juice and grape
                                                                                                juice are common substances
                                               Write a chemical                                 that can be used as a pH
                                               formula for base                                 indicator.
                                               compounds formed
                                               from families 1 and 2.                           Some plants may change flower
                                                                                                color due to the pH of the soil.
C5.7B Predict products of an acid-based        What is neutralization?                          Some hydrangeas bloom blue
neutralization.                                Complete by predicting                           in acid soil and pink in alkaline
                                               products of given acid-                          soil.
                                               base neutralization
                                               reactions.                                       Acid rain can have economic
                                                                                                and aesthetic effects on lakes
C5.7C Describe tests that can be used to       Identify how acids and                           and structures (limestone,
distinguish an acid from a base.               bases can be tested.                             marble and metals)

C5.7D Classify various solutions as acidic     Calculate the pH of                              Nitrous oxides are produced
or basic, given their pH.                      acids and bases using                            from nitrogen in the air reacting
                                               formulae.                                        at high temperatures with the
                                                                                                oxygen in the air. Examples:

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                          37
    Coded Content Expectation for                 Big Idea/Essential
                                                                           Vocabulary      Real World Content                           Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                      Questions/Scaffold
C5.7E Explain why lakes with limestone or        Explain the effects of                 internal combustion engines
calcium carbonate experience less adverse        calcium carbonate to                   and lightning
effects from acid rain than lakes with granite   acidic solutions.
beds.
                                                 Identify whether
                                                 calcium carbonate is an
                                                 acid or base.

                                                 Identify two substances
                                                 that contain calcium
                                                 carbonate.

C5.7x Bronsted-Lowry                                                                                                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Br%C2%BFnsted
Chemical reactions are classified according                                                                                -Lowry
to the fundamental molecular or sub                                                                                   http://facultyfp.salisbury.edu/dfrieck/htdocs/2
molecular changes that occur. Reactions that                                                                               12/rev/acidbase/Bronst.htm
involve proton transfer are known as                                                                                  http://science.jrank.org/pages/42/Acids-Bases-
acid/base reactions.                                                                                                       Br-nsted-Lowry-definition-acids-
                                                                                                                           bases.html

C5.7f Write balanced chemical equations          Complete and balance
for reactions between acids and bases and        acid-base chemical
perform calculations with balanced               equations.
equations.

C5.7g Calculate the pH from the hydronium        Calculate the pH value
ion or hydroxide ion concentration.              of hydrogen/hydroxide
                                                 in solution.

C5.7h Explain why sulfur oxides and              What is acid rain?
nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rain.
                                                 Identify substances
                                                 involved in acid rain.

                                                 Explain why
                                                 specifically sulfur
                                                 oxides and nitrogen
                                                 oxides contribute to
                                                 acid rain.



Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                     38
Unit 11: Redox-Equilibrium                                               Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3 weeks

   Coded Content Expectation for               Big Idea/Essential
                                                                              Vocabulary             Real World Content                              Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                    Questions/Scaffold
C5.3x Equilibrium                                                          Anode                 Unprotected iron on                http://neon.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/LiveCh
Most chemical reactions reach a state of                                   Cathode               automobiles or other steel             em/transitionmetals_content.html
dynamic equilibrium where the rates of the                                 Electrochemical       structures will rust.              http://chemistry.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.
forward and reverse reactions are equal.                                   Cell                                                         htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iit.edu%
                                                                           Equilibrium           Batteries are electrochemical          2F%7Esmile%2Fcheminde.html%20
                                                                           Keq                   cells.
C5.3a Describe equilibrium shifts in a        State Le Chatelier’s         Le Chatelier
chemical system caused by changing            principle                    Oxidation             Hydrogen fuel cells produce
conditions (Le Chatelier’s Principle).                                     Oxidation-reduction   water and energy using
                                              Explain how physical         reactions             hydrogen and oxygen.
                                              changes, such as             Reduction
                                              concentration, pressure,                           Outdoor grilling uses
                                              and temperature, can                               combustion, a redox reaction.
                                              affect a chemical
                                              reaction at equilibrium                            Commercially available hot and
                                                                                                 cold packs
C5.3b Predict shifts in a chemical system     Predict the shift in a
caused by changing conditions (Le             chemical reaction based                            Electroplating
Chatelier’s Principle).                       on a change of condition
                                                                                                 Sacrificial anodes (made of
C5.3c Predict the extent reactants are        Write equilibrium                                  magnesium or zinc generally)
converted to products using the value of      constant and explain                               are used on ships, in water
the equilibrium constant.                     how it is determined for                           heaters, and on the Alaskan
                                              a given reaction.                                  pipeline to prevent corrosion of
                                                                                                 the primary metal.
                                              Explain how to
                                              determine the progress
                                              of a chemical reaction
                                              using the equilibrium
                                              constant.

C5.6x Reduction/Oxidation Reactions                                                                                                 http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/%7Ecchieh/c
Chemical reactions are classified according                                                                                             act/c123/balance.html
to the fundamental molecular or sub                                                                                                 http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C11/C11Lin
molecular changes that occur. Reactions                                                                                                 ks/www.harcourtcollege.com/chem/bioche
that involve electron transfer are known as                                                                                             m/GarrettGrisham/HardToGrasp/Redox/R
oxidation/reduction (or “redox”).                                                                                                       edox.html
                                                                                                                                    http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Redox/
Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                          39
   Coded Content Expectation for             Big Idea/Essential
                                                                        Vocabulary   Real World Content               Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                  Questions/Scaffold
                                                                                                          Meaning-of-Redox.html
C5.6a Balance half-reactions and describe   Describe the chemical
them as oxidations or reductions.           process of oxidation and
                                            reduction

                                            Define oxidation
                                            numbers and how they
                                            are determined

                                            List some types of
                                            chemical reactions that
                                            are also redox reactions

                                            Describe the steps
                                            involved in balancing a
                                            redox reaction and
                                            describe the role of
                                            oxidation numbers

C5.6c Explain oxidation occurring when      Explain the activity
two different metals are in contact.        series for metals

                                            Determine which metals
                                            will react using the
                                            activity series of metals

C5.6d Calculate the voltage for             Explain the operation of
spontaneous redox reactions from the        a voltaic cell
standard reduction potentials.
                                            Describe and explain the
C5.6e Identify the reactions occurring at   processes that occur in
the anode and cathode in an                 an electrochemical cell
electrochemical cell.
                                            Define cathode and
                                            anode

                                            Describe some
                                            applications of
                                            electrolytic cells



Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                  40
Unit 12: Thermodynamics                                            Chemistry Pacing Guide
Time: 3 weeks

   Coded Content Expectation for            Big Idea/Essential
                                                                        Vocabulary          Real World Content                       Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                 Questions/Scaffold
C2.2x Molecular Entropy                                              Activation energy   Ice packs and hot packs
As temperature increases, the average                                Disorder            chemically react and free
kinetic energy and the entropy of the                                Endothermic         energy is put to work.
molecules in a sample increases.                                     reaction
                                                                     Enthalpy            Fuels involve a tremendous
                                                                     Entropy             output of energy
C2.2e Compare the entropy of solids,        Define entropy?          Exothermic
liquids, and gases.                                                  reaction            Food—digestion is the slow
                                            State the equation       Gibb’s Free         release of chemical energy
                                            and what each            Energy
                                            variable in the ▲S       Hess’s Law          Plants—photosynthesis is
                                            equation means.          Reaction rate       the accumulation of energy
                                                                     Release of energy   from a chemical reaction.
                                            Describe the entropy     Spontaneous
                                            trends in terms of                           The major difference
                                            solids, liquids, and                         between the formation of
                                            gases.                                       diamond versus graphite is
                                                                                         due to the large change of
C2.3x Breaking Chemical Bonds                                                            entropy                      http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/
For molecules to react, they must                                                                                         essentialchemistry/flash/activa2.swf
collide with enough energy (activation                                                                                http://www.matter.org.uk/schools/Content
energy) to break old chemical bonds                                                                                       /Reactions/BondActivation.html
before their atoms can be rearranged to                                                                               http://www.bcpl.net/%7Ekdrews/bonding/
form new substances.                                                                                                      bonding.html#Bond%20Energy
                                                                                                                      http://72.14.205.104/search?q=cache:vu1r
                                                                                                                          DZgCh6YJ:www.pen.k12.va.us/VDO
                                                                                                                          E/Technology/Probeware/endothermi
                                                                                                                          c.pdf%2B%22Endothermic%2Band%
                                                                                                                          2BExothermic%2BReactions%22&hl
                                                                                                                          =en&ct=clnk&cd=29&gl=us&client=
                                                                                                                          safari
                                                                                                                      http://www.visionlearning.com/library/cat
                                                                                                                          _view.php?c3=&cid=20&l=&let1=



Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                   41
   Coded Content Expectation for              Big Idea/Essential
                                                                     Vocabulary   Real World Content                  Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                 Questions/Scaffold
C2.3a Explain how the rate of a given       Define activation
chemical reaction is dependent on the       energy.
temperature and the activation energy.      Show the relationship
                                            between activation
                                            energy, temperature,
                                            and the rate of
                                            reaction using a given
                                            formula.

                                            Calculate the rate of
                                            reaction given a
                                            specific temperature
                                            and/or activation
                                            energy.


C2.3b Draw and analyze a diagram to         Compare and contrast
show the activation energy for an           the activation energy
exothermic reaction that is very slow at    of a reaction taking
room temperature.                           place at room
                                            temperature and a
                                            reaction at higher and
                                            lower temperature.

C3.1x Hess’s Law                                                                                       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hess%27_la
For chemical reactions where the state                                                                     w_of_constant_heat_summation
and amounts of reactants and products
are known, the amount of energy
transferred will be the same regardless
of the chemical pathway. This
relationship is called Hess’s law.

C3.1a Calculate the ΔH for a given          Using the given
reaction using Hess’s Law.                  equation, calculate
                                            the enthalpy for a
                                            reaction with
                                            different
Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                               42
   Coded Content Expectation for              Big Idea/Essential
                                                                   Vocabulary   Real World Content                  Resource
       Discipline & Inquiry                  Questions/Scaffold
                                            temperatures,
                                            entropy, etc.

C3.1b Draw enthalpy diagrams for            Construct and
exothermic and endothermic reactions.       interpret graphs and
                                            tables of data for
                                            enthalpy of endo and
                                            exothermic reactions

C3.2x Enthalpy                                                                                       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enthalpy
Chemical reactions involve breaking                                                                  http://www.ausetute.com.au/enthchan.htm
bonds in reactants (endothermic) and                                                                     l
forming new bonds in the products                                                                    http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/The
(exothermic). The enthalpy change for a                                                                  rmochem/StandardEnthalpyFormation
chemical reaction will depend on the                                                                     .html
relative strengths of the bonds in the
reactants and products.

C3.2a Describe the energy changes in        What is the equation
photosynthesis and in the combustion of     of photosynthesis?
sugar in terms of bond breaking and
bond making.                                What is the sugar
                                            involved in
                                            photosynthesis?

                                            How do bonds break
                                            and re-bond to form
                                            new compounds
                                            through the
                                            photosynthesis
                                            process?

C3.4 Endothermic and Exothermic
Reactions Chemical interactions either
release energy to the environment
(exothermic) or absorb energy from the
environment (endothermic).

Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                             43
    Coded Content Expectation for             Big Idea/Essential
                                                                      Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
          Discipline & Inquiry               Questions/Scaffold
C3.4B Explain why chemical reactions        Explain why
will either release or absorb energy.       chemical reactions
                                            release and/or absorb
                                            energy.

                                            Give real-world
                                            examples of
                                            processed that
                                            release/absorb energy
                                            that affect life daily.

C3.4x Enthalpy and Entropy
All chemical reactions involve
rearrangement of the atoms. In an
exothermic reaction, the products have
less energy than the reactants. There are
two natural driving forces: (1) toward
minimum energy (enthalpy) and (2)
toward maximum disorder (entropy).

C3.4d Draw enthalpy diagrams for            Construct and
reactants and products in endothermic       interpret data and
and exothermic reactions.                   graphs of enthalpy of
                                            reactions with
                                            different
                                            temperatures, energy,
                                            etc.

                                            Compare and contrast
                                            diagrams of reactions
                                            with different
                                            reaction standards.

C3.4e Predict if a chemical reaction is     What makes a
spontaneous given the enthalpy (ΔH)         reaction
and entropy (ΔS) changes for the            spontaneous?
reaction using Gibb’s Free Energy, ΔG
= ΔH - TΔS (Note: mathematical              What is the
Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                                44
   Coded Content Expectation for              Big Idea/Essential
                                                                     Vocabulary   Real World Content   Resource
        Discipline & Inquiry                 Questions/Scaffold
computation of ΔG is not required.)         relationship between
                                            entropy and enthalpy
                                            to make a reaction
                                            spontaneous?

                                            Using Gibb’s Free
                                            Energy, calculate the
                                            free energy and state
                                            whether or not the
                                            reaction is
                                            spontaneous.

C3.4f Explain why some endothermic          Using entropy,
reactions are spontaneous at room           enthalpy, and Gibb’s
temperature.                                free energy, state the
                                            reasons why reactions
                                            are spontaneous or
                                            not


                                            State whether or not
                                            reactions are
                                            spontaneous or not at
                                            room temperature

                                            Using chemical ideas,
                                            give a scientific
                                            reason for
                                            spontaneous reactions
                                            at room temperature.




Chemistry Pacing Guide – May 2008 Revised                               45

				
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