Lockheed Martin Challenge Avionics Systems IRP Presentation, Spring 2009 Problem Statement – Problem Statement Current UAV technology is not capable of launching vertically using a rail launch system into the atmosphere. As such, current UAV’s are not suitable for use for urban operations as they must be launched away from the urban setting due to obstacles. This presents problems for certain missions that could be assisted by UAV technology. Need Statement – Need Statement The Iowa State LM Challenge Team has been asked to design an unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle to take off from a vertical or near-vertical pneumatic launch system within the confines of an urban environment. This vehicle will be used to fly low altitude reconnaissance missions and will be retrieved using a standard belly landing outside the target environment. System Block Diagram Operating Environment – Expected to perform in an urban setting, necessitating special considerations for Line of Sight and obstacles. – Aircraft is designed to use a vertical pneumatic launch system to avoid obstacles presented by urban areas. C – Choice of optics was driven by a need to protect the sensitive electronics from damage upon launch, during flight, and upon landing. Deliverables – Avionics package capable of autonomous navigation of aircraft using user-defined flightplan – Camera system capable of 6” target resolution at 100’ – Operational range of 1 mile for video transmission – Components integrated for a pneumatically-assisted vertically-launched aircraft Schedule Work Breakdown First Semester Second Semester Total Adam Jacobs 124 234 358 Mike Plummer 126 225 351 Ronald Teo 103 218 321 Dan Stone 128 163 291 Rob Gaul 95 145 240 Totals 576 985 1561 Autopilot Autopilot Requirements – Be capable of autonomously navigating an aircraft using pre- programmed waypoint navigation – Support communication with a ground station to display telemetry and position data Technical Challenges – Complexity and time constraints promoted purchase of a commercial autopilot system – Immense G-loads during launch saturate sensors ( > 20 G ) – Maintaining vertical orientation throughout launch phase – Integrating into custom aircraft Key Considerations – Ground Station software – Sensors to aid in launch – Error handling – Size and weight – Power consumption – Available technical support – Customization capabilities – Ability to handle additional sensors – RC override Market Survey These three products satisfy the functional requirements of our system and were deemed as finalists for selection based on their relative merits along with our final selection – Procerus Kestral – High power consumption – Cloudcap Piccolo – Large, heavy, and power hungry – O Navi Phoenix/AX – No ground station or onboard software included Autopilot Selected Model MicroPilot 2128 – Support for additional sensors increases our chances of safe and reliable launch and recovery – MicroPilot has demonstrated excellent service and support – HORIZON software provides excellent ground station as well as easy configuration of autopilot – RC override provides us with the option for manual launch. Onboard Radio Modem – 9Xtend-PKG OEM – Plug-and-play for basic operation with other 9Xtend modems – Very lightweight – Demonstrated compatibility with our autopilot Video Subsystem Requirements – Shall provide real-time video to ground station – Shall operate in an urban environment – Shall be capable of resolving a 6 inch target from an altitude of 100 feet – Shall be a fixed-position camera – Shall be designed to enable a modular payload system Camera Alternatives – CMOS Cameras – Small, lightweight – Low quality – Industrial “Box” Cameras – High quality image, cheap – Heavy, large – Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras – Flexible, high quality image – Heavy, large, expensive Camera Selection: KT&C model KPC-650 – Exceeds resolution requirements – Demonstrated ability to perform in UAV’s – Varifocal auto-iris lens used – NTSC video output – Relatively low-cost, easy to replace Camera Resolution Image of a round 6 inch target (highlighted in red) from a distance of 100 feet Video Transmitter – Must be robust in environments with RF interference – Must not interfere with other aircraft systems – Direct line-of-sight (LOS) often not possible in an urban environment, reducing transmission range – FCC regulations limit RF transmissions for civilians (maximum of 1 Watt) – A transmitter of 1 Watt requires a Technician Class radio license to operate Video Transmitter: Compensating for Interference – Due to obstructions in an urban environment, weather conditions, and altitude, it can be difficult to maintain signal contact – Other EM sources present in the area further degrade and interfere with the signal – Interference is offset by increased transmission power – To complement transmitter power we utilize a directional antenna to increase reception range Video Transmitter Selection: LawMate TM-241800 – Chosen for maximum allowable power and small size – Demonstrated ability to work in UAV’s – Accepts video data in composite NTSC format – Readily compatible with our camera – Utilizes a 12V power source, simplifying onboard power requirements Video Receiver – Receiver is subject to less restrictive size, weight, and power limitations – Must operate in the 2.4GHz band to receive video signal from selected video transmitter – Easy output to the display was also a consideration Video Receiver Selection: LawMate RX-2480B – Chosen for portability and compatibility with our transmitter – Includes rechargeable battery – simplifies testing – Supports reception on 8 channels to avoid signal conflicts – Provides output in standard composite video format DC-DC Converter – Major Onboard System Power Requirements Component Current Rating Voltage Rating Video Camera 180 mA 12 Vdc Video Transmitter 500 mA 12 Vdc Autopilot Core 160 mA @ 6.5 Vdc 4.2 – 27 Vdc Radio Modem 730 mA 4.75 – 5 Vdc Voltage Level Total Estimated Total Estimated Current Power 12 Vdc 680 mA 8.16 W 5 Vdc 817 mA 4.085 W DC-DC Converter – Murata Power Solutions TMP-5/5-12/1-Q12-C – Provides +5 and ±12 V outputs – Can supply up to 25 Watts – Small and lightweight compared to alternatives Layout Technical Challenges – Size and weight – Relative positions of components – Proximity of antennas, RC control, and transmitters – Extreme stresses of launch phase – Modularity Layout Layout Layout Ground Station Radio Modem – Xtend-PKG – Plug-and-play operation with our ground station – Demonstrated compatibility with our ground station software – Same vendor and model as onboard radio modem – Size and weight less of an issue at ground station Ground Station and User Interface – Requirements – Ability to communicate with and control autopilot – Ability to display real-time video feed – Mobile Ground Station and User Interface – Components – Driven by onboard component selection – Laptop Computer – Able to run HORIZON software package – Able to interface with Xtend-PKG radio modem – Portable Television – Able to interface with LawMate RX-2480B video receiver – Able to accept input from video storage device Ground Station and User Interface – HORIZON Software Package – Satisfies communication, control and telemetry display requirements – Designed by autopilot manufacturer for use with our chosen autopilot system, ensuring compatibility and reliability HORIZON Software Package Measured Performance Project Requirements: Endurance – 2 hours is a desired max, 1 hour minimum Range – Desired to be >= 1 mile Avionics Endurance: -1400 mAh battery -Using NiMH for testing for safety concerns; LiPo would yield higher power capacity - Tested endurance = 45 minutes Radio Modem Transmission Range: -Range tests have demonstrated reliable communication to a minimum of 0.44 miles within an urban environment. -Further range necessitates more powerful transmitter Video Transmission Range: -Range tests confirm reliable reception to a minimum of 0.33 miles Testing Integration and Test Issues – Integration – Autopilot configuration to aircraft, configuration of sensors, integrating RC control with autopilot – Test – FCC & FAA regulations – Time frame, lack of trained pilot on avionics team – Safety and legal issues prevent testing in target environment Autopilot Testing – Autopilot – Successful test of endurance – Successful test of communication system – Successful test of operation and sensor functionality – Configured Yaw and Pitch PID loops Autopilot Testing Autopilot Sensor Data 150 100 50 Pitch (deg) 0 Speed (kts) Altitude (ft) -50 -100 -150 Autopilot Testing Continual, increasing downward pitch. Maximum travel of pitch: 83 degrees Increasing downward pitch with correction. Maximum travel of pitch: 20 degrees Overcompensation leading to upward pitch. Maximum travel of pitch: 24 degrees Video Subsystem Testing – Video System – Successful test of endurance – Successful test of range – Successful test of quality – Successful flight test of video system Acceleration Data Logger – Problem Statement The launch team requires an accelerometer capable of recording acceleration data to test and analyze operation of the launch system. A customized system capable of withstanding and measuring high acceleration is needed. The system also needs to be able to fit into a confined cylindrical tube. System Testing – Test Done – Successfully tested hardware – Successfully validated accelerometer readings – Test Issues – SPI communication between BS2 and accelerometer is not exact Future Accelerometer Development – Remanufacture PCB to support additional hardware What comes next? – Further testing and configuration of autopilot – Finish calibrating PID loops – Rework wiring and layout to save weight and space – Develop flight plans for specific missions and test for reliability Demonstrations Questions? Specifications Appendix Physical Characteristics MicroPilot Weight 28 g Dimensions (L x W x H) 100 mm x 40 mm x 15 mm Power Requirements 140 mA @ 6.5 Volts Supply Voltage 4.2 – 26 V Separate supplies for main and servo power Yes Functional Capabilities Includes Ground Station software Yes Max # of Waypoints 1000 In-flight waypoint modification possible Yes GPS Update Rate 1 Hz Number of servos 24 Sensors Airspeed Yes, up to 500 kph Altimeter Yes, up to 12000 MSL 3-axis Rate Gyro/Accelerometers (IMU) Yes Accelerometer Saturation Point 2G GPS Yes Data Collection Allows user-defined telemetry Yes – max 100 Customization User-definable error handlers Yes – loss of GPS Signal, loss of RC Signal, loss of Datalink, low battery User-definable PID loops Yes – max 16 Autopilot can be loaded with custom program Yes – with XTENDER SDK (separate) Physical Characteristics Procerus Kestral Weight 16.65 g Dimensions (L x W x H) 52.65 mm x 34.92 mm x ? mm Power Requirements 500 mA Supply Voltage 3.3V and 5V Separate supplies for main and servo power Yes Functional Capabilities Includes Ground Station software Yes Max # of Waypoints 100 In-flight waypoint modification possible Yes GPS Update Rate 1 Hz Number of servos 12 Sensors Airspeed Yes, up to 130 m/s Altimeter Yes, up to 11200 MSL 3-axis Rate Gyro/Accelerometers (IMU) Yes Accelerometer Saturation Point 10 G GPS Yes Data Collection Allows user-defined telemetry Unspecified Customization User-definable error handlers Yes, Loss of Datalink, Loss of GPS, Low Battery, Imminent Collision, Loss of RC Signal User-definable PID loops Unspecified Autopilot can be loaded with custom program Yes, Developer’s Kit available for $5000 for one year license Physical Characteristics Cloudcap Piccolo Weight 109 grams Dimensions (L x W x H) 130.1 mm x 59.4 mm x 19.1 mm Power Requirements 5 Watts ( ~ 400 mA @ 12V ) Supply Voltage 4.8 – 24 Volts Separate supplies for main and servo power No Functional Capabilities Includes Ground Station software Yes, basic Max # of Waypoints 100 In-flight waypoint modification possible Yes GPS Update Rate 4 Hz Number of servos 6 Sensors Airspeed Yes Altimeter Yes 3-axis Rate Gyro/Accelerometers (IMU) Yes Accelerometer Saturation Point 2 G, 10G with external sensor package GPS Yes Data Collection Allows user-defined telemetry Unspecified Customization User-definable error handlers Yes User-definable PID loops Unspecified Autopilot can be loaded with custom program Yes Physical Characteristics O Navi Phoenix AX Weight 45 grams Dimensions (L x W x H) 88.14 mm x 40.13 mm x 19 mm Power Requirements 84 mA @ 12V Supply Voltage 7.2-24 Volts Separate supplies for main and servo power No Functional Capabilities Includes Ground Station software No Max # of Waypoints Unspecified In-flight waypoint modification possible Unspecified GPS Update Rate 1 Hz Number of servos 6 Sensors Airspeed No Altimeter Yes 3-axis Rate Gyro/Accelerometers (IMU) Yes Accelerometer Saturation Point 10 G GPS Yes Data Collection Allows user-defined telemetry Unspecified Customization User-definable error handlers Unspecified User-definable PID loops Unspecified Autopilot can be loaded with custom program Yes, REQUIRED Camera Selection: KT&C model KPC-650 • Specifications – Power: 180mA @ 12VDC – Effective pixels (NTSC): 768(H) x 494 (V) – Weight: 137 grams – Size: 31mm(W) x 31mm(H) x 55mm(L) Video Transmitter Selection: LawMate TM-241800 • Specifications – Power: 500mA at 12VDC – Output: 1W RF power – Weight: 30 grams – Size: 26 x 50 x 13mm Video Receiver Selection: LawMate RX-2480B • Specifications – Power: 800mA at 5V – Battery life: ~3.5 hrs. – Weight: 135 grams – 110 x 70 x 20mm DC-DC Converter • Selection – Murata Power Solutions – TMP-5/5-12/1-Q12-C • +5Vdc @ 5A • +12Vdc @ 1A • 3.04 x 2.04 x 0.55 in, 170 grams Onboard Radio Modem • Initial Research – Xtend-PKG • 900MHz • Power Supply 7-28V • Max Current 900mA • Outdoor LOS Range 14 mi. • 2.75 x 5.5 x 1.13 in, 200 grams – Physical size too large for our fuselage – Can be used for ground station Onboard Radio Modem • Selection – 9Xtend-PKG OEM • 900 MHz • Power Supply 4.75-5.5Vdc • Max Current 730 mA • Outdoor LOS Range 14 mi. • 1.44 x 2.38 x 0.02 in, 18 grams REPORT DISCLAIMER NOTICE DISCLAIMER: This document was developed as a part of the requirements of a multidisciplinary engineering course at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. This document does not constitute a professional engineering design or a professional land surveying document. Although the information is intended to be accurate, the associated students, faculty, and Iowa State University make no claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, quality, or adequacy of the information. The user of this document shall ensure that any such use does not violate any laws with regard to professional licensing and certification requirements. This use includes any work resulting from this student-prepared document that is required to be under the responsible charge of a licensed engineer or surveyor. This document is copyrighted by the students who produced this document and the associated faculty advisors. No part may be reproduced without the written permission of the course coordinator. Images within this presentation were obtained via the courtesy of their respective owners, listed below: Lockheed Martin Corporation MicroPilot Genwac/Watec RangeVideo Murata Power Systems Digi Intl.