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					Lockheed Martin Challenge
 Avionics Systems IRP Presentation, Spring 2009
                Problem Statement
– Problem Statement


  Current UAV technology is not capable of launching vertically
  using a rail launch system into the atmosphere. As such,
  current UAV’s are not suitable for use for urban operations as
  they must be launched away from the urban setting due to
  obstacles. This presents problems for certain missions that
  could be assisted by UAV technology.
                   Need Statement
– Need Statement


  The Iowa State LM Challenge Team has been asked to design
  an unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle to take off from a
  vertical or near-vertical pneumatic launch system within the
  confines of an urban environment. This vehicle will be used
  to fly low altitude reconnaissance missions and will be
  retrieved using a standard belly landing outside the target
  environment.
System Block Diagram
              Operating Environment

– Expected to perform in an urban setting, necessitating special
  considerations for Line of Sight and obstacles.
– Aircraft is designed to use a vertical pneumatic launch system
  to avoid obstacles presented by urban areas. C
– Choice of optics was driven by a need to protect the sensitive
  electronics from damage upon launch, during flight, and upon
  landing.
                      Deliverables
– Avionics package capable of autonomous navigation of
  aircraft using user-defined flightplan

– Camera system capable of 6” target resolution at 100’

– Operational range of 1 mile for video transmission

– Components integrated for a pneumatically-assisted
  vertically-launched aircraft
Schedule
               Work Breakdown

               First Semester Second Semester   Total
Adam Jacobs              124             234            358
Mike Plummer             126             225        351
Ronald Teo               103             218        321
Dan Stone                128             163        291
Rob Gaul                  95             145        240
Totals                   576             985       1561
Autopilot
               Autopilot Requirements
– Be capable of autonomously navigating an aircraft using pre-
  programmed waypoint navigation

– Support communication with a ground station to display
  telemetry and position data
                 Technical Challenges
– Complexity and time constraints promoted purchase of a
  commercial autopilot system

– Immense G-loads during launch saturate sensors ( > 20 G )

– Maintaining vertical orientation throughout launch phase

– Integrating into custom aircraft
                    Key Considerations
–   Ground Station software
–   Sensors to aid in launch
–   Error handling
–   Size and weight
–   Power consumption
–   Available technical support
–   Customization capabilities
–   Ability to handle additional sensors
–   RC override
                       Market Survey
  These three products satisfy the functional requirements of
  our system and were deemed as finalists for selection based
  on their relative merits along with our final selection

– Procerus Kestral
   – High power consumption
– Cloudcap Piccolo
   – Large, heavy, and power hungry
– O Navi Phoenix/AX
   – No ground station or onboard software included
                 Autopilot Selected Model
                        MicroPilot 2128


– Support for additional sensors increases our chances of
  safe and reliable launch and recovery
– MicroPilot has demonstrated excellent service and support
– HORIZON software provides excellent ground station as
  well as easy configuration of autopilot
– RC override provides us with the option for manual launch.
           Onboard Radio Modem
– 9Xtend-PKG OEM
  – Plug-and-play for basic operation with other 9Xtend
    modems
  – Very lightweight
  – Demonstrated compatibility with our autopilot
Video Subsystem
                       Requirements
– Shall provide real-time video to ground station
– Shall operate in an urban environment
– Shall be capable of resolving a 6 inch target from an altitude
  of 100 feet
– Shall be a fixed-position camera
– Shall be designed to enable a modular payload system
                 Camera Alternatives
– CMOS Cameras
   – Small, lightweight
   – Low quality

– Industrial “Box” Cameras
   – High quality image, cheap
   – Heavy, large

– Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras
   – Flexible, high quality image
   – Heavy, large, expensive
       Camera Selection: KT&C model KPC-650
–   Exceeds resolution requirements
–   Demonstrated ability to perform in UAV’s
–   Varifocal auto-iris lens used
–   NTSC video output
–   Relatively low-cost, easy to replace
                   Camera Resolution




Image of a round 6 inch target (highlighted in red) from a distance of 100 feet
                    Video Transmitter
– Must be robust in environments with RF interference

– Must not interfere with other aircraft systems

– Direct line-of-sight (LOS) often not possible in an urban
  environment, reducing transmission range

– FCC regulations limit RF transmissions for civilians (maximum
  of 1 Watt)

– A transmitter of 1 Watt requires a Technician Class radio
  license to operate
Video Transmitter: Compensating for Interference
– Due to obstructions in an urban environment, weather
  conditions, and altitude, it can be difficult to maintain signal
  contact

– Other EM sources present in the area further degrade and
  interfere with the signal

– Interference is offset by increased transmission power

– To complement transmitter power we utilize a directional
  antenna to increase reception range
               Video Transmitter Selection:
                   LawMate TM-241800
– Chosen for maximum allowable power and small size
– Demonstrated ability to work in UAV’s
– Accepts video data in composite NTSC format
   – Readily compatible with our camera
– Utilizes a 12V power source, simplifying onboard power
  requirements
                      Video Receiver
– Receiver is subject to less restrictive size, weight, and power
  limitations
– Must operate in the 2.4GHz band to receive video signal from
  selected video transmitter
– Easy output to the display was also a consideration
    Video Receiver Selection: LawMate RX-2480B
–   Chosen for portability and compatibility with our transmitter
–   Includes rechargeable battery – simplifies testing
–   Supports reception on 8 channels to avoid signal conflicts
–   Provides output in standard composite video format
                       DC-DC Converter
– Major Onboard System Power Requirements


      Component           Current Rating     Voltage Rating
      Video Camera        180 mA             12 Vdc
      Video Transmitter   500 mA             12 Vdc
      Autopilot Core      160 mA @ 6.5 Vdc   4.2 – 27 Vdc
      Radio Modem         730 mA             4.75 – 5 Vdc


      Voltage Level       Total Estimated    Total Estimated
                          Current            Power
      12 Vdc              680 mA             8.16 W
      5 Vdc               817 mA             4.085 W
                DC-DC Converter
– Murata Power Solutions TMP-5/5-12/1-Q12-C
   – Provides +5 and ±12 V outputs
   – Can supply up to 25 Watts
   – Small and lightweight compared to alternatives
            Layout Technical Challenges
– Size and weight
– Relative positions of components
   – Proximity of antennas, RC control, and transmitters
– Extreme stresses of launch phase
– Modularity
Layout
Layout
Layout
      Ground Station Radio Modem
– Xtend-PKG
  – Plug-and-play operation with our ground station
  – Demonstrated compatibility with our ground station
    software
  – Same vendor and model as onboard radio modem
  – Size and weight less of an issue at ground station
       Ground Station and User Interface
– Requirements
   – Ability to communicate with and control autopilot
   – Ability to display real-time video feed
   – Mobile
       Ground Station and User Interface
– Components
   – Driven by onboard component selection
   – Laptop Computer
      – Able to run HORIZON software package
      – Able to interface with Xtend-PKG radio modem
   – Portable Television
      – Able to interface with LawMate RX-2480B video
        receiver
      – Able to accept input from video storage device
       Ground Station and User Interface
– HORIZON Software Package
   – Satisfies communication, control and telemetry display
     requirements

   – Designed by autopilot manufacturer for use with our
     chosen autopilot system, ensuring compatibility and
     reliability
HORIZON Software Package
                   Measured Performance
Project Requirements:             Endurance – 2 hours is a desired max,
                                              1 hour minimum

                                  Range –    Desired to be >= 1 mile

Avionics Endurance:               -1400 mAh battery
                                  -Using NiMH for testing for safety concerns; LiPo
                                    would yield higher power capacity
                                  - Tested endurance = 45 minutes

Radio Modem Transmission Range:   -Range tests have demonstrated reliable
                                  communication to a minimum of 0.44 miles within an
                                  urban environment.
                                  -Further range necessitates more powerful
                                  transmitter

 Video Transmission Range:        -Range tests confirm reliable reception to a minimum
                                  of 0.33 miles
Testing
             Integration and Test Issues
– Integration
   – Autopilot configuration to aircraft, configuration of sensors,
     integrating RC control with autopilot
– Test
   – FCC & FAA regulations
   – Time frame, lack of trained pilot on avionics team
   – Safety and legal issues prevent testing in target environment
                    Autopilot Testing
– Autopilot
   – Successful test of endurance
   – Successful test of communication system
   – Successful test of operation and sensor functionality
   – Configured Yaw and Pitch PID loops
       Autopilot Testing
        Autopilot Sensor Data
150

100

 50
                                Pitch (deg)
  0                             Speed (kts)
                                Altitude (ft)
 -50

-100

-150
                          Autopilot Testing


Continual, increasing downward pitch. Maximum travel of pitch: 83 degrees




Increasing downward pitch with correction. Maximum travel of pitch: 20 degrees




Overcompensation leading to upward pitch. Maximum travel of pitch: 24 degrees
              Video Subsystem Testing
– Video System
   – Successful test of endurance
   – Successful test of range
   – Successful test of quality
   – Successful flight test of video system
            Acceleration Data Logger
– Problem Statement

  The launch team requires an accelerometer capable of
  recording acceleration data to test and analyze operation of
  the launch system. A customized system capable of
  withstanding and measuring high acceleration is needed. The
  system also needs to be able to fit into a confined cylindrical
  tube.
                    System Testing
– Test Done
   – Successfully tested hardware
   – Successfully validated accelerometer readings
– Test Issues
   – SPI communication between BS2 and accelerometer is
     not exact
   Future Accelerometer Development
– Remanufacture PCB to support additional hardware
                   What comes next?
– Further testing and configuration of autopilot
   – Finish calibrating PID loops
– Rework wiring and layout to save weight and space
– Develop flight plans for specific missions and test for reliability
Demonstrations
Questions?
Specifications Appendix
Physical Characteristics                      MicroPilot
Weight                                          28 g
Dimensions (L x W x H)                          100 mm x 40 mm x 15 mm

Power Requirements                              140 mA @ 6.5 Volts
Supply Voltage                                  4.2 – 26 V
Separate supplies for main and servo power      Yes

Functional Capabilities
Includes Ground Station software                Yes
Max # of Waypoints                              1000
In-flight waypoint modification possible        Yes
GPS Update Rate                                 1 Hz
Number of servos                                24
Sensors
Airspeed                                        Yes, up to 500 kph
Altimeter                                       Yes, up to 12000 MSL
3-axis Rate Gyro/Accelerometers (IMU)           Yes
Accelerometer Saturation Point                  2G
GPS                                             Yes
Data Collection
Allows user-defined telemetry                   Yes – max 100
Customization
User-definable error handlers                   Yes – loss of GPS Signal, loss of RC Signal, loss of Datalink, low
                                                       battery
User-definable PID loops                        Yes – max 16
Autopilot can be loaded with custom program     Yes – with XTENDER SDK (separate)
Physical Characteristics                      Procerus Kestral
Weight                                          16.65 g
Dimensions (L x W x H)                          52.65 mm x 34.92 mm x ? mm
Power Requirements                              500 mA
Supply Voltage                                  3.3V and 5V
Separate supplies for main and servo power      Yes
Functional Capabilities
Includes Ground Station software                Yes
Max # of Waypoints                              100
In-flight waypoint modification possible        Yes
GPS Update Rate                                 1 Hz
Number of servos                                12
Sensors
Airspeed                                        Yes, up to 130 m/s
Altimeter                                       Yes, up to 11200 MSL
3-axis Rate Gyro/Accelerometers (IMU)           Yes
Accelerometer Saturation Point                  10 G
GPS                                             Yes
Data Collection
Allows user-defined telemetry                   Unspecified
Customization
User-definable error handlers                   Yes, Loss of Datalink, Loss of GPS, Low Battery, Imminent
                                                       Collision, Loss of RC Signal
User-definable PID loops                        Unspecified
Autopilot can be loaded with custom program     Yes, Developer’s Kit available for $5000 for one year license
Physical Characteristics                      Cloudcap Piccolo
Weight                                         109 grams
Dimensions (L x W x H)                         130.1 mm x 59.4 mm x 19.1 mm
Power Requirements                             5 Watts ( ~ 400 mA @ 12V )
Supply Voltage                                 4.8 – 24 Volts
Separate supplies for main and servo power     No
Functional Capabilities
Includes Ground Station software               Yes, basic
Max # of Waypoints                             100
In-flight waypoint modification possible       Yes
GPS Update Rate                                4 Hz
Number of servos                               6
Sensors
Airspeed                                       Yes
Altimeter                                      Yes
3-axis Rate Gyro/Accelerometers (IMU)          Yes
Accelerometer Saturation Point                 2 G, 10G with external sensor package
GPS                                            Yes
Data Collection
Allows user-defined telemetry                  Unspecified
Customization
User-definable error handlers                  Yes
User-definable PID loops                       Unspecified
Autopilot can be loaded with custom program    Yes
Physical Characteristics                      O Navi Phoenix AX
Weight                                         45 grams
Dimensions (L x W x H)                         88.14 mm x 40.13 mm x 19 mm

Power Requirements                             84 mA @ 12V
Supply Voltage                                 7.2-24 Volts
Separate supplies for main and servo power     No

Functional Capabilities
Includes Ground Station software               No
Max # of Waypoints                             Unspecified
In-flight waypoint modification possible       Unspecified

GPS Update Rate                                1 Hz
Number of servos                               6
Sensors
Airspeed                                       No
Altimeter                                      Yes
3-axis Rate Gyro/Accelerometers (IMU)          Yes
Accelerometer Saturation Point                 10 G
GPS                                            Yes
Data Collection
Allows user-defined telemetry                  Unspecified
Customization
User-definable error handlers                  Unspecified
User-definable PID loops                       Unspecified
Autopilot can be loaded with custom program    Yes, REQUIRED
      Camera Selection: KT&C model KPC-650
• Specifications
  –   Power: 180mA @ 12VDC
  –   Effective pixels (NTSC): 768(H) x 494 (V)
  –   Weight: 137 grams
  –   Size: 31mm(W) x 31mm(H) x 55mm(L)
             Video Transmitter Selection:
                 LawMate TM-241800

• Specifications
  –   Power: 500mA at 12VDC
  –   Output: 1W RF power
  –   Weight: 30 grams
  –   Size: 26 x 50 x 13mm
  Video Receiver Selection: LawMate RX-2480B
• Specifications
  –   Power: 800mA at 5V
  –   Battery life: ~3.5 hrs.
  –   Weight: 135 grams
  –   110 x 70 x 20mm
                  DC-DC Converter
• Selection
  – Murata Power Solutions
  – TMP-5/5-12/1-Q12-C
     • +5Vdc @ 5A
     • +12Vdc @ 1A
     • 3.04 x 2.04 x 0.55 in, 170 grams
              Onboard Radio Modem
• Initial Research
  – Xtend-PKG
     • 900MHz
     • Power Supply 7-28V
     • Max Current 900mA
     • Outdoor LOS Range 14 mi.
     • 2.75 x 5.5 x 1.13 in, 200 grams
  – Physical size too large for our fuselage
  – Can be used for ground station
              Onboard Radio Modem
• Selection
  – 9Xtend-PKG OEM
     • 900 MHz
     • Power Supply 4.75-5.5Vdc
     • Max Current 730 mA
     • Outdoor LOS Range 14 mi.
     • 1.44 x 2.38 x 0.02 in, 18 grams
                                                                      REPORT DISCLAIMER NOTICE
DISCLAIMER: This document was developed as a part of the requirements of a multidisciplinary engineering course at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. This document
 does not constitute a professional engineering design or a professional land surveying document. Although the information is intended to be accurate, the associated
 students, faculty, and Iowa State University make no claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, quality, or adequacy of the information. The
 user of this document shall ensure that any such use does not violate any laws with regard to professional licensing and certification requirements. This use includes
  any work resulting from this student-prepared document that is required to be under the responsible charge of a licensed engineer or surveyor. This document is
copyrighted by the students who produced this document and the associated faculty advisors. No part may be reproduced without the written permission of the course
                                                                              coordinator.




                               Images within this presentation were obtained via the courtesy of their respective owners, listed below:

                                                                     Lockheed Martin Corporation
                                                                              MicroPilot
                                                                           Genwac/Watec
                                                                             RangeVideo
                                                                        Murata Power Systems
                                                                               Digi Intl.

				
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