WAPE_cours by wanghonghx


									                                 Master of Environmental Mechanics & Physics

      Water, Air, Pollution and Energy at local and regional scales
                                                       WAPE - Year M2
                                                    Academic year 2011-2012

Course’s Catalogue

  energetics............................................... 2	
  precipitations ............................................................................................................ 3	
  scales ........................................................ 4	
  environment ................................................................................ 6	
  environment .............................................................................................. 7	
  resources ......................................................................... 8	
  interactions.................................. 9	
  modelling ............................................................... 11	
  environment....................................................................... 12	
  studies .......................................................... 13	
  remote-­sensing........................ 15	
  échelle..................... 16	
  energy................................................... 18	

An introduction to atmospheric dynamics and energetics
Hervé Le Treut

1 – An overview of radiative processes affective global climate. Links with past climates.
2 – From radiative to radiative-convective equilibrium: the role of stratification in climate energetics.
3 – The different scales of atmospheric dynamics: application to cloud generation.
4 – Climate stability and climate feedbacks: the role of small-scale processes.
5 – Conclusion: a first approach of model validity at different prediction ranges.

Hervé Le Treut is Professor at Université Pierre et Marie Curie and at Ecole Polytechnique, Member
of the French Academy of Sciences. Former Director of the Dynamic Meteorology Lab. (LMD), he is
at present the Director of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), a CNRS organisation gathering six
labs in Paris area whose research topics concern the global environment. The researches of Hervé Le
Treut are about the numeric and physic modelisation of the climatic system and the understanding of
the radiative perturbations of the climate, specifically the role of the greenhouse effect due to human
activities. Hervé Le Treut is a member of the IPCC.


Clouds and precipitations
Hélène Chepfer

Clouds constitute the visible part of the water cycle in the atmosphere.

They regulate precipitations and atmospheric water vapour, they interact with the surface and with
pollution (e.g. by producing smog), they are one of the main modulators of the Earth temperature
through their interaction with solar and telluric radiations.

This course provides key elements of cloud and precipitation physics, from the small scale (the
particles composing clouds) up to the regional scale (a cloud system), with an overview of processes
involved in cloud formation and dissipation in the context of the surrounding atmosphere.

- Water in the atmosphere: thermodynamics of moist air
- Parcel buoyancy and atmospheric stability
- Mixing and convection
- Microphysics of warm clouds: formation and growth of cloud droplets
- Microphysics of cold clouds: formation and growth of ice crystals
- Rain and Snow
- Precipitation processes

Air pollution modelling at urban and regional scales
Laurent Menut & Solène Turquety

Course description:
This course introduces the air pollution modelling in urban and regional scales. The atmospheric
system is first presented with the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, its specificity in urban areas.
Then the atmospheric composition is presented with the gases and particles chemical species to be
considered for pollution, and a history of air quality trends over recent decades. Modelling systems are
described covering the calculation of meteorology, emissions (anthropogenic, biogenic, fires, dust ..)
as well as chemistry and transport of chemical species. The various deterministic modelling
techniques, direct, adjoint and with data assimilation show the current level of understanding of the
system and its limitations. Various current applications are described as extreme case analysis,
scenario studies until operational forecast. To estimate the simulations quality, data comparisons
methods are explained, from surface stations to the new satellite measurements available. These
models are presented in the context of the current air quality policies in Europe and key locks are
presented to understand realistic reduction choices being discussed for air quality improvement.
Finally, recent studies dedicated to quantify the impact of pollution on health (urban particles and
pollen) are discussed.

The course is given over 8 sessions of 2h each and 14h of lab experiments.
Course 1:
Modelling of the regional atmospheric system:
       Generalities about main source and sinks
       The mesoscale
                Surface heterogeneities
                Land/sea, topographic circulations
       The atmospheric boundary layer:
                the diurnal cycle: neutrality and unstabilities
       The urban meteorology
Course 2:
Chemical composition of the troposphere:
       gaseous and particules species to study
       relative amount
       life time
Gaseous tropospheric chemistry
       The radical cycle
       NOx and VOCs chemistry
       chemical regimes
Course 3:
Aerosols modelling:
       Anthropogenic, biogenic and natural
       Organic aerosols
       size distribution
       aerosol optical depth calculation
Course 4:
The main pollution sources modelling:
       Anthropogenic emissions
       Biogenic emissions
       Fires emissions
       Natural sources: volcanos and mineral dust
Course 5:
The main pollution sinks modelling:

        The dry deposition
        The wet deposition and scavenging
Course 6:
The air quality:
Air quality monitoring: networks, policies
Atmospheric concentrations measurements:
        Network mesurements: instruments, data acquisition, detection limits
        Fields campaigns: interest and examples
        Satellites: Main capabilities and limitations
The air quality regulatories:
The need to develop forecasting system.
        Main model types: lagrangian, eulerian, 1D to 3D, from global to urban
        The spatio-temporal resolutions
        The numerical system to solve
        Numerical schemes: chemistry, transport and associated solvers
        Forecast systems: strengths and weaknesses
Course 7:
Chemistry-transport modelling
        On-line and off-line coupling
        Mandatory meteo variables
        Main principle of a parameterization
        Sensitivity of concentrations to input parameters
        Data assimilation: principle, advantages and limitations
        Inverse modelling
Course 8:
Impacts of air pollution
        Impact on environment: feedbacks between vegetation and surface atmospheric concentrations
        Impact on health in urbanized environments
        Modelling of pollen and allergies

Regional meteorology and environment
Philippe Drobinski

Meteorology (from ancient Greek “meteor” designating particles suspended in the atmosphere and
“logos” meaning discourse or knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmospheric
phenomena such as clouds, lows and precipitation in order to understand how they form and evolve.
This discipline is based primarily on fluid mechanics applied to the air but makes also use of various
other branches of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Purely descriptive origin, meteorology has
become a place of application of these disciplines.

Modern meteorology allows weather forecast based on mathematical models for short and long term.
It also allows the prediction of air quality and intervenes in areas of human activity (natural hazards,
construction, aviation, navigation, production of renewable energy ,...).

In this context, the atmospheric boundary layer at the interface between the surface and the free
atmosphere, is a particularly important because it is the seat of transfer of energy, humidity, gaseous
and particulate gaseous compounds, which drive the distribution of horizontal and vertical fields of
water vapor, aerosols, clouds and pollutants.

The course covers the basics of the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer on flat ground, then
the specific case of complex terrain at the base of coastal and mountain meteorology ... The impact of
weather on the environment will be illustrated throughout the course. More specifically the course
outline is as follows:
1. Introduction (history of meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer definition, atmospheric boundary
layer weather phenomena, buoyancy and stability, Boussinesq equations)
2. Weather on flat terrain and homogeneous
a. Turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (theory of Monin-Obukhov, turbulent Ekman layer)
b. Convection and coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer
3. Meteorology on complex terrain
a. Thermal circulations
- Coastal meteorology - Sea breeze (linear and nonlinear dynamics, impact on the dispersion of
pollution in coastal area)
b. Inland breeze (urban breeze, impact of land use on the weather)
4. Orographic flows
a. Flow over mountains (hydraulic analogy, wave approach, wave breaking and turbulence, formation
of storms and heavy rainfall and impact on weather risk management in mountainous environment)
b. Flow in valleys (hydraulic model, inter-valley flow, impact on pollution dispersion in mountainous
5. Conclusion and perspectives (weather and climate, meteorology and weather risk management,
meteorology and energy production)

Water sciences and environment
Jean-Marc Chomaz

This course covers a wide range of physical effects involved in the dynamics of water in the
environment. It identifies the foundations of the models used by engineers or researchers in particular
for managing water in the environment. It aims at developing physical intuition; deep understanding
and critical thinking of students, discussing which effects are rigorously taken into account, modelled
or ignored. Its purpose is two folds:

• To explore practical problems of environmental fluid mechanics to identify basic concepts useful for
the engineer or the researcher in environmental sciences.
• To illustrate the modelling approach in Fluid Mechanics designed to understand and control the
natural environment while developing a detailed understanding of these models.

I. Foundations
1. Fluid physics, the forces, the pressure in the incompressible flow and viscosity.
2. Simple example Poiseuille flow, dimensional analysis and equations Pi theorem, the Reynolds
number, viscous flow.
II. Underground Flow
3. Flow in a fault and asymptotic expansion, Darcy law.
4. Groundwater flow, fluidization limit.
III. River hydraulics
5. Turbulence and friction flow loaded with particles.
6. Open Channel Hydraulics, waves and flooding projections.
IV. Marine Hydrodynamics
7. Surface waves.
8. Refraction of waves and coastal morphodynamics.
9. Plumes and underwater flows.

Continental hydrology and water resources
Agnès Ducharne

Course synopsis:
This course aims at offering an introduction to the physics and modelling of continental hydrology,
with a focus on the regional scale. It is organized in two parts : 2/3 of the time will be devoted to
introductory lectures, and 1/3 to students' presentations on selected research papers. The lectures will
cover :
1. Introduction: hydrology at the crux of climate, water cycles, and water resources; vertical land
surface flux vs. horizontal hydrological fluxes; scale issues; importance of numerical modelling.
2. Land surface fluxes: what do we call the land surface? main processes, with an emphasis on
evaporation and soil-water flow; related scales, measuring methods, modelling approaches.
3. River basin hydrology: river basin structure and limits; main processes, with an emphasis on runoff,
base flow and river flow ; measuring methods, modelling approaches.
4. Water resources - an applied science question integrating hydrology, climate and the land surface:
extreme events (droughts and floods; quantification; implications for human activities), anthropogenic
pressures (e.g. water withdrawals for drinking water or irrigation), climate change impact assessment
(climate downscaling, uncertainties)...
Note: this course will not insist on the role of vegetation on land surface hydrology, which will be
more thoroughly addressed in the course “Continental Biosphere and Atmosphere: Two-ways

Agnès Ducharne is specialized in hydrological modelling, with two main interests: improving the
description of underground hydrological processes in land surface models, and assessing the
hydrological impacts of environmental changes. A former student of the Ecole Normale Supérieure,
she's got a Master's degree in Ecology, and a PhD in Climatology (prepared at the Laboratoire de
Météorologie Dynamique, Paris). After a 2-year post-doc at the NASA/GSFC, she has been a
researcher at the CNRS since 2000, in the laboratory Sisyphe of the University Pierre and Marie Curie
Email address: Agnes.Ducharne@upmc.fr
Web page (in French): http://www.sisyphe.jussieu.fr/~agnes/

Continental Biosphere and Atmosphere: Two-ways interactions
Nathalie de Noblet &Erwan Personne

Context and Objectives
The continental biosphere is a key component in the climate system. It controls the partitioning of
available radiative energy at the surface between sensible and latent heat (i.e. turbulent exchanges of
dry heat and moisture), and it controls the partitioning of rainfall between evaporation and runoff. The
continental biosphere is also an essential component in the global carbon cycle since it has absorbed
large amounts of the fossil fuel CO2 emissions and therefore acted as a carbon sink since the pre-
industrial era.
Moreover, there are increasing evidences that the influence of the land surface is significant on climate
and that changes in its characteristics (e.g. deforestation, grazing, irrigation, urban planning, ...) can
influence regional- to global-scale climate on time scales from days to millennia. Further, there is now
a suggestion that the terrestrial carbon sink may decrease as global temperatures increase (as a
consequence of rising CO2 level), thereby leaving more of the anthropogenically emitted CO2 in the
atmosphere and increasing the magnitude of global warming.
This course introduces the fundamental exchanges that take place at the interface between the
terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. It will show why terrestrial biosphere can influence the
composition and circulation of the overlying air masses. Meteorology and climate therefore not only
impact the functioning of the land-surfaces, but are also impacted by them. There is a real interaction
between them. Our capabilities to properly model those interactions are crucial in projections of future
local-regional and potentially global climate changes, and to design adequate land-use adaptation


The course will be divided in two major parts:
•        a more academic part to start with, that will introduce the fundamental exchanges that take
place at the land-atmosphere interface,
•        a more research-driven part that will make the best use of the science in progress to illustrate
what we know, what the unknowns are, what and where the uncertainties are, and what remains to be

Fundamental Exchanges at the land-atmosphere Interface. Theory and modelling.
1- Radiative energy budget
* classical approach (reminder - fundamentals)
* Radiation within the canopy
2- Energy budget
* Energy balance equation, convective transfer of heat and mass (reminder - fundamentals)
* Evapotranspiration
> Theoretical approach (Potential evaporation and then transpiration)
> Practical approach (ET0 – Penman and Kc)
3- Turbulent transfer at the air-vegetation interface
* Properties of the underlying surface (momentum fluxes, roughness, zero-plane displacement,
aerodynamical resistance) - (reminder - fundamentals)
* Specifics of the near-surface turbulence (profiles in plant canopies, boundary layer in the cover,
4- Resistive scheme for the exchange between soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum
* Stomatal resistance and regulation (fundamentals)
* Compensation points for the gaseous exchanges

5- Water and carbon circulation and storage in plants and ecosystems
* Water circulation in plants
* Plant growth; use and impacts of CO2

* Soil-plant (ecosystem?) feedbacks with the atmosphere

6- Resume of our understanding: Biosphere-Atmosphere interactions, application for the pollutant
       * Greenhouse gas
       * Pollutants implicated in the air quality

Evaluating models of the terrestrial Biosphere
Experimental methods for estimating the fluxes of Energy and Matter
* Profile Method
* Eddy Covariance Method
* Accumulation Methods
* Teledetection

Identification of atmospheric impacts of the terrestrial Biosphere
1.       What evidences do we have that land-uses (change in the distribution of vegetation, wetland
drainage, irrigation, urban expansion, …) do impact on the mean climate, on its spatial and temporal
variability, and on extreme meteorological events (droughts, floods, …)?
2.       Can the terrestrial biosphere be used as a mean to mitigate climate change?

Principles and practice of numerical modelling
Frédéric Hourdin & Thomas Dubos

Numerical models embody the best available knowledge of the mechanics and physics of the
atmosphere and oceans. In turn, since the advent of numerical weather forecasting in the 1950s,
models have become an indispensable source of knowledge both for science and for policy-making, in
the short run of crisis management and in the long run of infrastructure management or the regulation
of the emissions of pollutants. The aim of this course is to familiarize the students with the
fundamentals of numerical modelling of the atmosphere and oceans, and to introduce them to the use
of state-of-the art numerical models to solve practical or scientific problems.
 This module is organized as 3 lectures followed by 6 project-based work sessions. The lectures
present the essentials of the numerical modelling process: quantitative understanding of elementary
processes, discrete formulation of resolved processes, parameterization of subgrid-scale processes,
computerized implementation. Lectures are paired with computer classes where the students write
from scratch small models that expose them to important numerical issues, and to some solutions
adopted in realistic models.

Lecture 1: Fundamentals
        Brief history and applications of numerical modelling of the atmosphere/ocean.
        Fundamental budgets. Temporal and spatial scales. Hydrostatic vs non-hydrostatic.
Computer class 1: Temporal discretization
        Accuracy vs stability. Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy criterion. Implicit schemes.

Lecture 2: Physical parameterizations
        Turbulent mixing. Cloud microphysics. Convection schemes.
Computer class 2: Finite volume / finite difference methods.
        Conservative transport. Positive transport. Numerical dispersion/dissipation.

Lecture 3: Deterministic chaos and predictability
        Initialization of a forecast. Tangent and adjoint models.
        The Lorentz model and its attractor. Predictability of weather.
Computer class 3: Inverse problems
        Direct methods for linear problems. Iterative methods for linear and non-linear problems.

The second part of the course is devoted to projects based on state-of-the art, realistic numerical
models and data obtained from local measurements or international databases. The goal of each
project is to answer a scientific or policy question through numerical modelling of a natural
phenomenon. The aim is to acquire the method allowing exploiting the numerical tool while taking
into account the limitations and uncertainties inherent to the forecasting exercise. Care is given to the
design of the numerical experiment and to the adequate analysis of its output.
 Students are evaluated based on their project work presented at a final oral defense.

Examples of projects:
      forecasting intense rain
      dispersion of a polluting plume in the atmosphere/ocean
      local impact of climate change

Sustainable development and environment
Patricia Crifo & Bernard Sinclair - Desgagné

The course provides a general understanding of economic problems associated with environmental
issues, sustainable development, and analyses their remedies.
Four main dimensions are covered. The first one focuses on environmental assessment, and on the
diagnosis of environmental problems. The second one introduces the economic concepts appropriate
to deal with risk, long term and externalities, and applies them in the context of depletable and
renewable resources. The third dimension examines organisational instruments available to manage
environmental problems. Finally, we study the management of pollution and technological risks.

1. Introduction to environmental economics, natural resources and sustainable development
2. The economics of non-renewable natural resources
3. The economics of renewable natural resources
5. Evaluating the environment
4. Instruments of pollution control: taxes and permits
6. Organisational instruments I: Control -incentives- disclosure
7. Organisational instruments II: corporate environmental and financial performance
8. Regulation, standard and norms
9. Innovation, eco industries, precaution

Wind, solar and hydraulic potential: cases studies
Alexandre Stegner & Philippe Drobinski

The atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environment could be a sustainable source of energy for
human activity. One of the main challenges for the next century is to develop renewable energy
production with a low emission of greenhouse gazes. The goal of this course is to get the basic
knowledge on physics and hydrodynamics at small and intermediate scale in order to quantify the
wind, solar or hydraulic potential of a local or regional area. Independently of the technology and its
efficiency what is the available power of a given environment? What is the availability and the
variability or the energetic resource? How could we match the variability of the natural energetic
resource to the human activity?
This course is divided in 3 to 4 lectures and 6 to 7 working afternoon devoted to a specific project
using laboratory experiments, numerical simulations or data analysis.

Lecture 1: Wind power potential
   • Atmopheric boundary-layer
   • Monin-Obukhov surface law
   • Wind statistics
   • Wind variability in complex environment
   • Wind and wind power potential

Lecture 2: Solar power potential
   • Radiative budget on the earth
   • Surface energy budget
   • Direct or diffuse solar radiation
   • Variability of the solar radiation (clouds, aérosols, diurne cycle)
   • Radiation and solar heating

Lecture 3: River and Marine energy potential
   • State of the art on river and marine power technology: hydroelectricity, tidal power, wave
   • Hydraulic load, fluvial-torrential flow, energy and momentum budget
   • River variability, flood wave
   • Kelvin wave and tidal forçing
   • Ocean wave power

Lecture 4: Energy and/or greenhouse gaz storage.

Example of project:
1 - Impact of a hydro-electric power plant on a river flow, response to flood event (laboratory study).
2 – Study of a solar pond model, heat storage and extracting power capacity (laboratory study).
3 - CO2 storage in a porous media. Dynamics and filling capacity of a porous layer. (laboratory
4 – Wave energy extraction (laboratory study))
5 – Analysis of the DESERTEC project (www.desertec.org according to wind and solar potential of
northern Europe and northern Africa.
6 – Downscaling of the wind field in order to estimate the wind potential from in-situ measurements of
meteorological weather station and IPCC reanalysis. (Data analysis)
7 – Analysis of the solar power potential on the SIRTA platform: intensity and duration of solar
radiation, seasonal cycle, clouds and aerosol impact.

Alexandre Stegner is a CNRS Researcher at the Dynamic Meteorology Lab. (LMD) and Associate

Professor at Ecole Polytechnique. His research domains are: Topographic impact on coastal dynamics
- Small-scale and non-hydrostatic inertial instabilities - Von-Karman street in the atmosphere and the
ocean, cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry - Gravity-wave emission induced by geostrophic adjustment in
the atmosphere and the oceans. Wave mean-flow interactions. - Dynamics of large-scale and long-
lived vortices in the ocean and the Jovian atmosphere.

Observing the Earth by satellite: passive and active remote-sensing
Hélène Chepfer

By observing the Earth at the global scale for the last 50 years, satellites have revolutionized how we
view our planet. Today, satellite observations are used to improve weather prediction, to follow the
melting of ice sheets and the level of oceans, to measure atmospheric pollution, to detect forest fires,
to document land use, desertification and Saharan dust transport… Satellites monitor permanently the
Earth's health, which constitute a necessary step to regulate pollutant emissions and land use in
industrial and developing countries.
If satellite observations are used to address key, currently open questions, the definition of a satellite
mission is a slow process, involving a long maturation period (typically of more than 10 years) during
which we must combine our own scientific questioning with technological progress and advances in
the state-of-the-art knowledge of fundamental physics and geophysics to envision new types of
satellite observations. The possibilities offered by satellite remote sensing are in continual progress
thanks to technological innovations and/or original ideas.
As an example, major innovations of the 50’s (the lasers) are now used in spatial remote sensing:
recent space-borne missions (2006) carry a new generation of instruments (lidar, radar) that, for the
first time, can document the vertical structure of the atmosphere … providing essential information
that was previously inaccessible.
The objective of this class is to provide the necessary physical knowledge used in atmospheric remote
sensing, and to detail the successive steps leading to the definition of a space-borne mission (scientific
questioning, instrument definition, choice of orbit and variables to measure), giving students the
means to imagine future satellite observations.

This course is based on 3-4 lectures and a project (5-6 sessions) which aim at designing an Earth
space-borne mission.

Transport d'espèces chimiques de l'échelle locale à la grande échelle
Gérard Ancellet
Avec la participation de Cyrille Flamant

Pré-requis : Avoir eu une présentation des équations fondamentales de la dynamique et de l’équation
de conservation des constituants chimiques.

Ce cours a pour objectif de fournir aux étudiants une description des mécanismes de transport
importants à prendre en compte dans l'étude de la composition chimique de l'atmosphère (turbulence
et pollution urbaine à l'échelle locale, transport intercontinental des polluants, échanges entre
troposphère et stratosphère, rôle de la convection nuageuse dans les tropiques). Le cours est divisé en
cinq chapitres.
Chapitre 1 Turbulence et Paramétrisation des flux dans la Couche Limite Atmospherique (C.
1) Introduction au concept de base nécessaire pour étudier la turbulence
Outils statistiques – Moyenne de Reynolds – Longueur de Prandlt – Hypothèse de Boussinesq
Equation de l’énergie cinétique turbulente
2) Relation Flux/gradient dans la couche limite superficielle et la couche mélangée
Profil de vitesse en couche limite superficielle – Stabilité thermique et longueur de Monin-Obukhov -
La longueur d'Ekhman dans la couche mélangée - Un modèle à 2 couches pour la paramétrisation des
flux de chaleur et de moment - Exemples de paramétrisations du mélange des polluants
Chapitre 2 Transport des polluants dans la couche limite atmosphérique (G. Ancellet)
Modélisation de l'évolution temporelle de la hauteur de la couche limite et l’implication sur la
composition chimique. Modèle simplifié de couche mélangée et notion de vitesse d'entraînement -
Paramétrisation de la vitesse d'entraînement - Apport des mesures lidar - Quantification des flux
verticaux d'ozone et comparaison avec la production photochimique
Chapitre 3 Rôle des systèmes frontaux dans le transport des espèces chimiques à grande échelle
Rappel sur le développement des systèmes frontaux et diagnostiques des circulations verticales
associées - Apport de l'analyse sur des surfaces isentropes - Fonctions de courant et trajectoires des
masses d’air
Description des principales circulations frontales: "Warm and Cold Conveyor Belt", intrusion sèche -
Exemple d'analyse de cartes des fonctions de Montgomery - Apport des mesures aéroportées de
traceurs chimiques - Etude des corrélations O3/CO
Chapitre 4 Echanges Troposphère Stratosphère (G. Ancellet)
Analyse comparative des différentes définitions de la tropopause - Limite de l'analogie tourbillon
potentiel/traceur stratosphérique
Mécanismes de déformation de la tropopause - Equation de Sawyer-Eliassen et diagnostiques des
circulations agéostropiques
Présentation de 3 approches pour évaluer les échanges troposphère/stratosphère: (i) circulations
stratosphériques dans la plan méridien et rôle des mécanismes radiatifs dans la basse stratosphère (ii)
analyse de corrélations d’espèces chimiques : exemple du système O3/NOy/N2O (iii) analyse à méso-
échelle du transport d'un scalaire à travers la tropopause (tendance du tourbillon potentiel et formule
de Wei).
Chapitre 5 Le rôle de la convection profonde sur la redistribution vertical des gaz et des aérosols
(C. Flamant)
Rappel sur la thermodynamique simplifiée de l’air nuageux
Conditions de développement de la convection profonde : définition de notions telles que la
Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) et la Convective Inhibition (CIN) et influence des
conditions environnementales
Impact de la convection profonde sur la dynamique atmosphérique et sur la redistribution des espèces
chimiques (gaz, aérosols). Exemple de la convection tropicale au travers d’exemples issus de
campagnes de mesures en Afrique de l’Ouest.

Organisation pédagogique
TD: Oui
Volume Horaire: 10 séances de 3 heures
Support de cours: 5 Polycopiés pour chacun des chapitres étudiés
Cours : 3heures hebdomadaires
Début : début novembre
Fin : Fin janvier
Examen : mi-Février

Gérard Ancellet est Directeur de Recherche CNRS au Laboratoire LATMOS/IPSL-site Jussieu,
responsable de l'équipe: Transport Aérosol Chimie dans la Troposphère (20 personnes).
Expertise: Transport des polluants à différentes échelles, rôle des espèces à courte durée de vie sur le
climat, mesures aéroportées, télédétection laser.

Page personnelle:

Cyrille Flamant est Directeur de Recherche CNRS au Laboratoire LATMOS/IPSL-site Jussieu
Page personnelle:

Fluvial and maritime resources for renewable energy
Alexandre Stegner
Ramiro Godoy-Diana

Environmental and natural flows represent a huge source of energy but it is usually highly diluted on
the earth surface. However, some natural processes focus this energy. Fluvial and oceanic flows may
concentrate, in time and space, a fraction of this energy. The aim of this course is to give students
basic knowledge of fluvial flows, tidal and wave dynamics, so that they can estimate the fluvial or
maritime energy potential of a particular site or region. The questions to be covered include how much
energy can be recovered, regardless of the type of technology used or the level of efficiency achieved;
the resource’s availability and variability; whether it can easily be stored; and how supply, which
depends on environmental conditions, can be adapted to meet demand.
The course is divided into seven or eight lectures in addition with two specialized conferences on
innovative research devices, industrial demonstrators or projects on marine renewable energy.
Pre-requisit: basic knowledge in fluid mechanics, Navier-Stokes equations, wave dynamics.

1. Introduction, hydroelectric resource
        - Economical, environmental and political issues
        - Various units of energy, primary and final energy
        - Capacity of some power plants, capacity factor
        - Water cycle, potential temperature, precipitations
        - Gravitational energy: resource and energy
        - Conventional dam: principle, efficiency, power capacity, capacity factor
        - The mean total head H, head loss, maximum flow rate and power
        - Environmental impact and carbon budget of hydroelectric power plants

2. Fluvial hydraulics
        - Flow regimes, Froude number
        - Hydraulic load of a free surface flow
        - Fluvial-torrential transition
        - Hydraulic jump, dissipation
        - Energy and momentum conservation

3. Turbulent dissipation, bottom friction, fluvial potential
       - Reynolds decomposition, turbulent dissipation
       - Prandtl boundary layer
       - Head loss of a free surface flow: fluvial and torrential regime
       - Run of river electricity: principle, efficiency, power capacity, capacity factor
       - Climatic changes and hydroelectric power

4. Tidal wave and tidal power
        - History: first uses of tidal power
        - Astronomical forcing
        - Rotating shallow-water equations
        - Ocean response: Kelvin waves and tidal waves
        - Bay or estuary resonance: energy potential
        - Impact of bottom friction
        - Tidal power plant: principle, efficiency, power capacity
        - Environmental impact of tidal power plants

5. Tidal currents and tidal turbine
        - Coastal amplification of tidal currents
        - Wind forcing and gravity currents
        - Impact of bottom friction
        - Tidal turbine: principle, Betz law, efficiency, power capacity

6. Wave energy
      - Monochromatic surface wave in shallow and deep waters
      - Energy and energy flux
      - Wind forcing, wave spectrum, Pierson-Monkowitz, JONSWAP
      - Coastal impact : shoaling and refraction
      - Capacity factor and seasonal variability
      - Wave energy converter: history, principle, efficiency and power capacity
      - Point source absorber, directional absorber, adaptive systems
      - Advantages and drawbacks

7. Thermal marine energy
       - Solar radiation and water absorption spectrum
       - Sea-air heat flux
       - Oceanic mixed layer, thermocline layer
       - OTEC systems : principles, efficiency, capacity factor
       - Practical consideration, environmental impact, biofouling and biogeochemical cycles

Alexandre Stegner is a CNRS Researcher at the Dynamic Meteorology Lab. (LMD) and Associate
Professor at Ecole Polytechnique. His research domains are: Topographic impact on coastal dynamics
- Small-scale and non-hydrostatic inertial instabilities - Von-Karman street in the atmosphere and the
ocean, cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry - Gravity-wave emission induced by geostrophic adjustment in
the atmosphere and the oceans. Wave mean-flow interactions. - Dynamics of large-scale and long-
lived vortices in the ocean and the Jovian atmosphere.

Ramiro Godoy-Diana is a CNRS Researcher at the Lab. Physique et Mécanique des Milieux
Hétérogènes, ESPCI ParisTech


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