Dictionary of engineering by alina.turca

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        Dictionary of

          Second Edition


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Preface ................................................................................................... v
Staff.......................................................................................................... vi
How to Use the Dictionary ....................................vii
Fields and Their Scope ...................................................................... ix
Pronunciation Key ............................................................................... xi
A-Z Terms .............................................................................................. 1-626
Appendix................................................................................................. 627-643
Equivalents of commonly used units for the U.S.
Customary System and the metric system .......................................... 629
Conversion factors for the U.S. Customary System,
metric system, and International System ............................................ 630
Special constants ................................................................................. 634
Electrical and magnetic units .............................................................. 635
Dimensional formulas of common quantities ..................................... 635
Internal energy and generalized work .................................................. 636
General rules of integration ................................................................. 637
Schematic electronic symbols ............................................................. 639
The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering provides a compendium of more than 18,000 terms that are central to the various
branches of engineering and related fields of science. The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on building construction,
chemical engineering, civil engineering, control systems, design engineering, electricity and electronics, engineering acoustics,
industrial engineering, mechanics and mechanical engineering, systems engineering, and thermodynamics. Many new entries
have been added since the previous edition with others revised as necessary. Many of the terms used in engineering are often
found in specialized dictionaries and glossaries; this Dictionary, however, aims to provide the user with the convenience of a
single, comprehensive reference.
All of the definitions are drawn from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, Sixth Edition (2003). Each definition
is classified according to the field with which it is primarily associated; if it is used in more than one area, it is idenfified by the
general label [ENGINEERING). The pronunciation of each term is provided along with synonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations
where appropriate. A guide to the use of the Dictionary appears on pages vii and viii, explaining the alphabetical organization of
terms, the format of the book, cross referencing, and how synonyms, variant spellings, abbreviations, and similar information
are handled. The Pronunciation Key is given on page xi. The Appendix provides conversion tables for commonly used
scientific units as well as listings of useful mathematical, engineering, and scientific data.
It is the editors' hope that the Second Edition of the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering will serve the needs of scientists,
engineers, students, teachers, librarians, and writers for high-quality information, and that it will contribute to scientific literacy
and communication.
                                                                                                                        Mark D. Licker
Mark D. Licker, Publisher—Science

Elizabeth Geller, Managing Editor Jonathan Weil, Senior Staff Editor David Blumel, Staff
Editor Alyssa Rappaport, Staff Editor Charles Wagner, Digital Content Manager Renee Taylor,
Editorial Assistant

Roger Kasunic, Vice President—Editing, Design, and Production

Joe Faulk, Editing Manager

Frank Kotowski, Jr., Senior Editing Supervisor

Ron Lane, Art Director

Thomas G. Kowalczyk, Production Manager
Pamela A. Pelton, Senior Production Supervisor

Henry F. Beechhold, Pronunciation Editor Professor Emeritus of English Former Chairman,
Linguistics Program The College of New Jersey Trenton, New Jersey
How to Use the Dictionary
ALPHABETIZATION. The terms in the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering, Second Edition, are alphabetized on a letter-by-
letter basis; word spacing, hyphen, comma, solidus, and apostrophe in a term are ignored in the sequencing. For example, an
ordering of terms would be:

abat-vent               ADP
A block                 air band
Abney level             airblastinq

FORMAT. The basic format for a defining entry provides the term in boldface, the field is small capitals, and the single definition
in lightface:
    term SFORTHE definition.
A field may be followed by multiple definitions, each introduced by a boldface number:
    term [FIELD) 1. Definition. 2. Definition. 3. Definition. A term may have definitions in two or more fields:
    term [civ ENG] Definition, [ENG ACOUS] Definition. A simple cross-reference entry appears as:
    term See another term. A cross reference may also appear in combination with definitions:
    term [civ ENG] Definition, [ENG ACOUS] Definition.

CROSS REFERENCING. A cross-reference entry directs the user to the defining entry. For example, the user looking up
"access flooring" finds:
    access flooring See raised flooring.
The user then turns to the "R" terms for the definition. Cross references are also made from variant spellings, acronyms,
abbreviations, and symbols.
    ARL See acceptable reliability level. arriswise See arrisways.
    at See technical atmosphere.

ALSO KNOWN AS . . . , etc. A definition may conclude with a mention of a synonym of the term, a variant spelling, an
abbreviation for the term, or other such information, introduced by "Also known as . . . ," "Also spelled "Abbreviated . . . ,"
"Symbolized . . . ," "Derived from . . . ." When a term has more than one definition, the positioning of any of these phrases
conveys the extent of applicability. For example:
    term |civ ENG] 1. Definition. Also known as synonym. 2. Definition. Symbolized T.
In the above arrangement, "Also known as . . ." applies only to the first definition; "Symbolized . . ." applies only to the second
    term |CIVENG] 1. Definition. 2. Definition. |ENG ACOUS] Definition. Also known as synonym.
In the above arrangement, "Also known as . . ." applies only to the second field.
    term |CIVENG] Also known as synonym. 1. Definition. 2. Definition. |ENG ACOUS] Definition.
In the above arrangement, "Also known as . . ." applies to both definitions in the first field.
    term Also known as synonym. |civ ENG] 1. Definition. 2. Definition. |ENG ACOUS] Definition.
In the above arrangement, "Also known as . . ." applies to all definitions in both fields.
         Fields and Their Scope
building construction—The technology of assembling materials into a structure, especially one designated for occupancy.

chemical engineering—A branch of engineering which involves the design and operation of chemical plants.

civil engineering—The planning, design, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry,
for transportation, for use and control of water, for occupancy, and for harbor facilities.

control systems—The study of those systems in which one or more outputs are forced to change in a desired manner as time

design engineering—The branch of engineering concerned with the design of a product or facility according to generally
accepted uniform standards and procedures, such as the specification of a linear dimension, or a manufacturing practice, such as
the consistent use of a particular size of screw to fasten covers.

electricity—The science of physical phenomena involving electric charges and their effects when at rest and when in motion.

electronics—The technological area involving the manipulation of voltages and electric currents through the use of various
devices for the purpose of performing some useful action with the currents and voltages; this field is generally divided into
analog electronics, in which the signals to be manipulated take the form of continuous currents or voltages, and digital
electronics, in which signals are represented by a finite set of states.

engineering—The science by which the properties of matter and the sources of power in nature are made useful to humans in
structures, machines, and products.

engineering acoustics—The field of acoustics that deals with the production, detection, and control of sound by electrical
devices, including the study, design, and construction of such things as microphones, loudspeakers, sound recorders and
reproducers, and public address sytems.

industrial engineering—A branch of engineering dealing with the design, development, and implementation of integrated
systems of humans, machines, and information resources to provide products and services.

mechanical engineering—The branch of engineering concerned with energy conversion, mechanics, and mechanisms and
devices for diverse applications, ranging from automotive parts through nanomachines.

mechanics—The branch of physics which seeks to formulate general rules for predicting the behavior of a physical system
under the influence of any type of interaction with its environment.

systems engineering—The branch of engineering dealing with the design of a complex interconnection of many elements (a
system) to maximize an agreed-upon measure of system performance.

thermodynamics—The branch of physics which seeks to derive, from a few basic postulates, relations between properties of
substances, especially those which are affected by changes in temperature, and a description of the conversion of energy from
one form to another.
                  Pronunciation Key
Vowels                                 Consonants

a as in bat, that                      b    as in bib, dribble
a as in bait, crate                    cc   as in t h e n , breath
a as in bother, father                 d    as in dog, bad
e as in bet, net                       f    as in fix, safe
e as in beet, treat                    g    as in good, signal
i as in bit, skit                      h    as in hand, behind
T as in bite, light                    i    as in joint, digit
o as in boat, note                     k    as in cast, brick
6 as in bought, taut                   k    as in Bach (used rarely)
u as in book, pull                     1    as in loud, bell
ii as in boot, pool                    m    as in mild, summer
3   as in but, sofa                    n    as in new, dent
ail as in crowd, power                 n    indicates nasalization of preced-
6i as in boil, spoil                        ing vowel
ya as in formula, spectacular          i)   as in ring, single
y as in fuel, mule                     P    as in pier, slip
                                       r    as in red, scar
Semivowels/Semiconsonants              s    as in sign, post
w as in wind, twin                     sh   as in sugar, shoe
y as in yet, onion                     t    as in timid, cat
                                       th   as in thin, breath
Stress (Accent)                        th   as in then, breathe
i                                      V
    precedes syllable with primary          as in veil, weave
    Stress                             z    as in zoo, cruise
                                       zh   as in beige, treasure
    precedes syllable with secondary
    Stress                             Syllabication
    precedes syllable with variable         Indicates syllable boundary
    or indeterminate primary/               when following syllable is
    secondary stress                        unstressed
                                    abattoir [ IND ENG ] A building
Aa See ampere.                      in which cattle or other
A See ampere; angstrom.             animals are slaughtered. {
A See angstrom.
                                    abat-vent [BUILD] A series of
a axis |MECH ENG] The angle         sloping boards or metal strips,
that specifies the rotation of a    or some similar contrivance,
machine tool about the x            to break the force of wind
axis. { 'a 'ak,sis )                without being an obstruction to
abandon [ENG] TO stop               the passage of air or sound,
drilling and remove the drill rig   as in a louver or chimney
from the site of a borehole         cowl. { ^ba'van )
before the intended depth or        ablatograph     [ENG]     An
target is reached. { s'ban-         instrument   that    records
don)                                ablation by measuring the
abate [ ENG ] 1. To remove          distance a snow or ice
material, for example, in           surface falls during the
carving       stone. 2.    In       observation period. { s'bla-
metalwork, to excise or beat        ds.graf)
down the surface in order to        A block [civ ENG] A hollow
create a pattern or figure in       concrete masonry block with
low relief. { s'bat)                one end closed and the other
abatement [ ENG ] 1. The            open and with a web
waste produced in cutting a         between, so that when the
timber, stone, or metal piece       block is laid in a wall two cells
to a desired size and shape.        are produced. { 'a ,blak)
2. A decrease in the amount         Abney level See clinometer. {
of a substance or other             'ab-ne 'lev-sl)
quantity, such as atmospheric
pollution. { s'bat-msnt)            abnormal    reading    See
                                    abnormal time. { ab'nor-msl
abat-jour [BUILD] A device          'red-irj )
that is used to deflect daylight
downward as it streams              abnormal     time [IND ENG]
through a window. { a-ba'zhur)      During a     time study, an
elapsed time for any element       resistance, usually by the
which is excessively longer or     weighing of a material sample
shorter than the median of the     before and after subjecting it
elapsed times. Also known as       to a known abrasive stress
abnormal        reading.     {     throughout a known time
'ab,n6r*m3l 'tTm )                 period, or by reflectance or
                                   surface finish comparisons, or
abort branch [CONT SYS] A
                                   by dimensional comparisons.
branching instruction in the
                                   { s'bra-zhsn test)
program controlling a robot
that causes a test to be           abrasive belt [MECH ENG] A
performed on whether the           cloth, leather, or paper band
tool-center point is properly      impregnated with grit and
positioned, and to reposition it   rotated as an endless loop to
if it drifts out of the            abrade materials through
acceptable range. { s'bort         continuous friction. { s'bras-sv
,branch )                          belt)
Abrams' law [civ ENG] In           abrasive blasting [MECH ENG]
concrete materials, for a          The cleaning or finishing of
mixture       of     workable      surfaces by the use of an
consistency the strength of        abrasive entrained in a blast of
concrete is determined by the      air. { s'bras-sv 'blast-irj )
ratio of water to cement. { 'a-
                                   abrasive cloth [MECH ENG]
bremz '16 )
                                   Tough cloth to whose surface
abrasion     [ENG] 1.     The      an abrasive such as sand or
removal of surface material        emery has been bonded for
from any solid through the         use in grinding or polishing. {
frictional action of another       s'bras-sv 'kloth )
solid, a liquid, or a gas or
                                   abrasive cone [MECH ENG]
combination thereof. 2. A
                                   An abrasive sintered or
surface discontinuity brought
                                   shaped into a solid cone to
about by roughening or
                                   be rotated by an arbor for
scratching. {s'bra-zhsn )
                                   abrasive machining. { s'bras-
abrasion test [MECH ENG] The       sv 'kon )
measurement of abrasion
                                   abrasive disk [MECH ENG] An
abrasive sintered or shaped        the terrain below. Also known
into a disk to be rotated by an    as           terrain-clearance
arbor for abrasive machining.      indicator. { 'ab-s3,lut al'tim-s-
{ s'bras-sv 'disk )                dsr)
abrasive jet cleaning [ENG]        absolute        altitude  [ENG]
The removal of dirt from a         Altitude above the actual
solid by a gas or liquid jet       surface, either land or water,
carrying abrasives to ablate       of a planet or natural satellite.
the surface. { s'bras-sv 'jet      { 'ab-s3,lut 'al-ts-tud )
'klen-ig )
                                   absolute blocking jciv ENG] A
abrasive machining [MECH           control arrangement for rail
ENG]    Grinding,  drilling,       traffic in which a track is
shaping, or polishing by           divided into sections or blocks
abrasion.     {   s'bras-sv        upon which a train may not
mo'shen-irj )                      enter until the preceding
                                   train has left. { 'ab-s3,lut
abreast milling [MECH ENG] A
                                   'blak-ig )
milling method in which parts
are placed in a row parallel to    absolute block system |civ
the axis of the cutting tool and   ENG] A block system in which
are milled simultaneously. {       only a single railroad train is
s'brest 'mil-irj)                  permitted within a block
                                   section during a given period
abreuvoir [ civ ENG ] A space
                                   of time. { 'ab-s3,lut 'blak ,sis-
between stones in masonry to
                                   t3m )
be filled with mortar. { ab-
ru'vwar)                           absolute efficiency |ENG
                                   ACOUS] The ratio of the
ABS See antilock        braking
                                   power       output      of   an
                                   electroacoustic      transducer,
absolute altimeter [ENG] An        under specified conditions, to
instrument which employs           the power output of an ideal
radio, sonic, or capacitive        electroacoustic transducer. {
technology to produce on its       'ab*s3,lut s'fish-sn-se )
indicator the measurement of
                                   absolute         expansion
distance from the aircraft to
                                   |THERMO] The true expansion
of a liquid with temperature,     absolute pressure gage
as calculated when the            [ENG] A device that measures
expansion of the container in     the pressure exerted by a fluid
which the volume of the liquid    relative to a perfect vacuum;
is measured is taken into         used to measure pressures
account; in contrast with         very close to a perfect
apparent expansion. { 'ab-        vacuum. { 'ab-s3,lut 'presh-sr
s3,lut ik'span-shsn )             ,gaj )
absolute instrument [ENG]         absolute             pressure
An      instrument     which      transducer [ENG] A device
measures a quantity (such as      that responds to absolute
pressure or temperature) in       pressure as the input and
absolute units by means of        provides a measurable output
simple               physical     of a nature different than but
measurements on the instru-       proportional to absolute pres-
ment. { 'ab-s3,lut 'in-strs-      sure. { 'ab-s3,lut 'presh-sr
msnt)                             tranz'du-ssr)
absolute       magnetometer       absolute scale See absolute
[ENG] An instrument used to       temperature scale. { 'ab-s3,lut
measure the intensity of a        ,skal )
magnetic      field     without
                                  absolute specific gravity
reference to other magnetic
                                  [MECH] The ratio of the weight
instruments. { 'ab*s3,lut mag-
                                  of a given volume of a
                                  substance in a vacuum at a
absolute manometer [ENG]          given temperature to the
1. A gas manometer whose          weight of an equal volume of
calibration, which is the same    water in a vacuum at a given
for all ideal gases, can be       temperature.      {    'ab-s3,lut
calculated from the measur-       sps'sif-sk 'grav sd-e)
able physical constants of
                                  absolute stop [Civ ENG] A
the     instrument.     2.   A
                                  railway signal which indicates
manometer that measures
                                  that the train must make a
absolute pressure. { 'ab-s3,lut
                                  full stop and not proceed until
                                  there is a change in the
signal. Also known as stop          kilogram. { 'ab-S3,lut 'wa-irj )
and stay. { 'ab-S3,lut 'stap )
                                    absolute zero [THERMO] The
absolute          temperature       temperature of -273.16°C, or -
[THERMO] 1. The temperature         459.69°F, or 0 K, thought to
measurable in theory on the         be the temperature at which
thermody-namic temperature          molecular motion vanishes
scale. 2. The temperature in        and a body would have no
Celsius degrees relative to         heat energy. { 'ab-s3,lut 'zir-6)
the absolute zero at -
                                    absorber        [CHEM       ENG]
273.16°C (the Kelvin scale) or
                                    Equipment in which a gas is
in Fahrenheit degrees relative
                                    absorbed by contact with a
to the absolute zero at -
                                    liquid. [ELECTR] A material or
459.69T (the Rankine scale). {
                                    device that takes up and
'ab-s3,lut 'tem-pre-chur)
                                    dissipates radiated energy;
absolute temperature scale          may be used to shield an
[THERMO] A scale with which         object from the energy,
temperatures are measured           prevent reflection of the
relative to absolute zero. Also     energy, determine the nature
known as absolute scale. {          of the radiation, or selectively
'ab-s3,lut 'tem-pre-chur ,skal)     transmit     one     or     more
                                    components of the radiation,
absolute volume [ ENG ] The
                                    [ENG] The surface on a solar
total volume of the particles in
                                    collector that absorbs the
a granular material, including
                                    solar radiation. [MECH ENG] 1.
both       permeable         and
                                    A device which holds liquid for
impermeable        voids      but
                                    the absorption of refrigerant
excluding spaces between
                                    vapor or other vapors. 2. That
particles. { 'ab-s3,lut 'val-yum
                                    part of the low-pressure side
                                    of an absorption system used
absolute weighing [ENG]             for    absorbing      refrigerant
Determination of the mass of        vapor. { sb'sor-bsr)
a sample and expressing its
                                    absorber capacity [CHEM
value in units, fractions, and
                                    ENG]   During natural gas
multiples of the mass of the
                                    processing, the maximum
prototype of the international
                                    volume of the gas that can be
processed       through     an      ammonia, is evaporated by
absorber without alteration of      heat    from    an    aqueous
specified operating conditions.     solution at elevated pressure
{ sb'sor-bsr ks.pas-sd-e )          and subsequently reabsorbed
                                    at low pressure, displacing
absorber plate [ ENG ] A part
                                    the need for a compressor. {
of a flat-plate solar collector
                                    sb'sdrp-shsn ,sT-k3l)
that provides a surface for
absorbing      incident     solar   absorption       dynamometer
radiation. { sb'sdr-bsr ,plat)      [ENG] A device for measuring
                                    mechanical forces or power in
absorbing boom [civ ENG] A
                                    which the mechanical energy
device that floats on the
                                    input is absorbed by friction or
water and is used to stop the
                                    electrical resistance. {sb'sorp-
spread of an oil spill and aid
                                    shsn dTn-s'mam-sd-sr)
in its removal. { sb'sdrb-ig
,bum )                              absorption-emission
                                    pyrometer [ENG] A ther-
absorbing well [civ ENG] A
                                    mometer for determining gas
shaft that permits water to
                                    temperature                 from
drain through an impermeable
                                    measurement of the radiation
stratum to a permeable
                                    emitted by a calibrated
stratum. { sb'sorb-ig ,wel)
                                    reference source before and
absorption bed [civ ENG] A          after this radiation has passed
sizable pit containing coarse       through and been partially
aggregate about a distribution      absorbed by the gas. {
pipe system; absorbs the            sbsdrp-shsn            s'mish-sn
effluent of a septic tank. {        pT'ram-sd-sr)
sb'sorp-shsn ,bed)
                                    absorption field [civ ENG]
absorption column See               Trenches containing coarse
absorption tower. { sb'sorp-        aggregate about distribution
shsn ,kal-3m )                      pipes permitting septic-tank
                                    effluent to seep into sur-
absorption cycle |MECH ENG]         rounding soil. Also known as
In refrigeration, the process       disposal field. { sb'sorp-shsn
whereby       a     circulating     ,feld )
refrigerant,   for   example,
absorption hygrometer Also             or refinery gas. { sb'sorp-shsn
known       as      chemical           ,plant )
hygrometer,    [ENG]      An
                                       absorption process [CHEM
instrument with which the
                                       ENG] A method in which light
water vapor content of the
                                       oil is introduced into an
atmosphere is measured by
                                       absorption tower so that it
means of the absorption of
                                       absorbs the gasoline in the
vapor by a hygroscopic
                                       rising wet gas; the light oil is
chemical.   {   sb'sorp-shsn
                                       then distilled to separate the
                                       gasoline. { sb'sdrp-shsn ,pras-
absorption loss [ civ ENG ]            3s )
The quantity of water that is
                                       absorption       refrigeration
lost during the initial filling of a
                                       [MECH ENG] Refrigeration in
reservoir      because            of
                                       which cooling is effected by
absorption by soil and
                                       the expansion of liquid
rocks. { sb'sorp-shsn ,16s )
                                       ammonia     into     gas     and
absorption tower [ENG] An              absorption of the gas by
instrument    designed     to          water; the ammonia is reused
measure the amount of light            after the water evaporates. {
transmitted    through      a          sb'sorp-shsn ra,frij • s'ra-shsn
transparent substance, using           )
a photocell or other light
                                       absorption system [MECH
detector.   {   sb'sorp-shsn
                                       ENG] A refrigeration system in
                                       which the refrigerant gas in
absorption number [ ENG ] A            the evaporator is taken up by
dimensionless group used in            an absorber and is then, with
the field of gas absorption in a       the application of heat,
wetted-wall            column;         released in a generator. {
represents the liquid side             sb'sorp-shsn ,sis-t3m )
mass-transfer coefficient.     {
                                       absorption tower [ ENG ] A
sb'sorp-shsn ,n3m-b3r)
                                       vertical tube in which a rising
absorption plant [CHEM ENG]            gas is partially absorbed by a
A facility to recover the              liquid in the form of falling
condensable portion of natural         droplets. Also known as ab-
sorption column. { sb'sorp-       abutting tenons [DES ENG]
shsn ,tau-3r)                     TWO tenons inserted into a
                                  common         mortise      from
absorption trench [ civ ENG ]
                                  opposite sides so that they
A trench containing coarse
                                  contact. { s'bst-ig 'ten-snz )
aggregate about a distribution
tile pipe through which septic-   ac See alternating current.
tank effluent may move
                                  accelerated      aging      [ENG]
beneath earth. { sb'sdrp-shsn
                                  Hastening the deterioration of
,trench )
                                  a product by a laboratory
absorptivity [THERMO] The         procedure     in      order    to
ratio of the radiation absorbed   determine long-range storage
by a surface to the total         and use characteristics. {
radiation incident on the         ak'sel-^rad-sd 'aj-irj )
surface. { sb^orp'tiv-sd-e )
                                  accelerated life test [ENG]
Abt track [civ ENG] One of        Operation of a device, circuit,
the cogged rails used for         or system above maximum
railroad tracking in mountains    ratings to produce premature
and so arranged that the cogs     failure; used to estimate
are not opposite one another      normal      operating       life.
on any pair of rails. { 'apt      {ak'sel-s^a-dsd 'llf ,test)
                                  accelerated weathering [ENG
abutment [civ ENG] A surface      ] A laboratory test used to
or mass provided to withstand     determine, in a short period
thrust; for example, end          of time, the resistance of a
supports of an arch or a          paint film or other exposed
bridge. { s'bst-msnt)             surface to weathering. {
                                  ak'sel-s^a-dsd 'welh* ar-ig)
abutting joint [DES ENG] A
joint which connects two          accelerating incentive See
pieces of wood in such a way      differential piece-rate system.
that the direction of the grain   { ak'sel-or^d-ig in'sen-tiv )
in one piece is angled (usually
                                  accelerating       potential
at 90°) with respect to the
                                  [ELECTR] The energy potential
grain in the other. { a'bat'ig
                                  in electron-beam equipment
that imparts additional speed       |MECH]     The     acceleration
and energy to the electrons. {      imparted to bodies by the
ak'sel-s^ad-ir) ps'ten-shsl)        attractive force of the earth;
                                    has an international standard
acceleration [MECH] The rate
                                    value of 980.665 cm/s2 but
of change of velocity with
                                    varies with latitude and
respect to time. {ak^el-s'ra-
                                    elevation. Also known as
shsn )
                                    acceleration of free fall;
acceleration analysis [MECH         apparent gravity. { ak^sel-
ENG]       A     mathematical       s'ra-shsn sv 'gravs-de )
technique,     often      done
                                    acceleration signature |IND
graphically,     by      which
                                    ENG] A printed record that
accelerations of parts of a
                                    shows      the     pattern    of
mechanism are determined. {
                                    acceleration and deceleration
ak^el-s'ra-shsn 3,nal-3-s3s )
                                    of an anatomical reference
acceleration-error constant [       point in the performance of a
CONT SYS ] The ratio of the         task. { ak^el-s'ra-shsn 'sig-ns-
acceleration of a controlled        chsr)
variable of a servomechanism
                                    acceleration          tolerance
to the actuating error when the
                                    [ENG] The degree to which
actuating error is constant. {
                                    personnel     or      equipment
ak^el-s'ra-shsn 'er-sr 'kan-
                                    withstands acceleration. {
                                    ak,sel'3'ra*sh3n 'tal-sr-sns )
acceleration measurement
                                    acceleration            voltage
[MECH] The technique of
                                    |ELECTR] The voltage between
determining the magnitude
                                    a cathode and accelerating
and direction of acceleration,
                                    electrode of an electron tube.
including translational and
                                    { ak^el-s'ra-shsn 'vol-toj )
angular acceleration. { ak^el-
s'ra-shsn 'mezh-sr-msnt)            accelerator |MECH ENG] A
                                    device for varying the speed
acceleration of free fall See
                                    of an automotive vehicle by
acceleration of gravity. { ak^el-
                                    varying the supply of fuel. {
s'ra-shsn sv 'fre ,fol)
acceleration      of     gravity
                                    accelerator jet |MECH ENG]
The jet through which the fuel      for recording any other type of
is injected into the incoming       acceleration. { ak 'sel-3-
air in the carburetor of an         r3,graf)
automotive vehicle with rapid
                                    accelerometer ( ENG ] An
demand for increased power
                                    instrument which measures
output. { ak 'sel*3,rad*3r jet)
                                    acceleration or gravitational
accelerator linkage |MECH           force capable of imparting
ENG] The linkage connecting         acceleration. { ak^el-s'ram-sd-
the accelerator pedal of an         sr)
automotive vehicle to the
                                    accelerometry (IND ENG] The
carburetor throttle valve or
                                    quantitative determination of
fuel injection control. { ak'sel-
                                    acceleration and deceleration
^rad-sr Jirj-kij )
                                    in the entire human body or a
accelerator pedal |MECH ENG]        part of the body in the
A pedal that operates the           performance of a task. {
carburetor throttle valve or fuel   ak^el-s'ram-s-dre)
injection   control     of    an
                                    accent lighting (civ ENG]
automotive vehicle. { ak'sel*
                                    Directional lighting which
3,rad-3r ,ped*al)
                                    highlights an object or attracts
accelerator pump | MECH ENG         attention to a particular area. {
] A small cylinder and piston       'ak-sent ,lTd-ir) )
controlled by the throttle of an
                                    acceptability (ENG] State or
automotive vehicle so as to
                                    condition of meeting minimum
provide an enriched air-fuel
                                    standards for use, as applied
mixture during acceleration. {
                                    to methods, equipment, or
ak'sel-^rad-or ,p3mp)
                                    consumable        products. {
accelerogram (ENG] A record         ak,sep't3'bil*3*de )
made by an ac-celerograph. {
                                    acceptable quality level (IND
ak'sel-s-r^gram )
                                    ENG]       The       maximum
accelerograph      (ENG]    An      percentage of defects that has
accelerometer           having      been determined tolerable as
provisions for recording the        a process average for a sam-
acceleration of a point on the      pling plan during inspection or
earth during an earthquake or       test of a product with respect
to economic and functional         design specifications, as a
requirements of the item.          basis for its acceptance. {
Abbreviated AQL. {ak [sep-to-      ak'sep-tons ,test)
bol 'kwal-s-de ,lev-3l)
                                   acceptor (CHEM ENG] A
acceptable reliability level       calcined carbonate used to
(IND ENG] The required level of    absorb the carbon dioxide
reliability for a part, system,    evolved     during    a    coal
device, and so forth; may be       gasification process. { ak'sep-
expressed in a variety of          tsr)
terms, for example, number of
                                   access (civ ENG] Freedom,
failures allowable in 1000
                                   ability, or the legal right to
hours of operating life. Ab-
                                   pass without obstruction from
breviated ARL. {akjsep-to-bol
                                   a given point on earth to some
rejT-s'bil-s-de , lev-si)
                                   other objective, such as the
acceptance criteria (IND           sea or a public highway. {
ENG] Standards of judging the      'ak,ses )
acceptability of manufactured
                                   access door (BUILD] A
items. { ak'sep-tsns kri'ter-e-3
                                   provision for access to
                                   concealed plumbing or other
acceptance number (IND             equipment without disturbing
ENG] The maximum allowable         the wall or fixtures. { 'ak,ses
number of defective pieces in      ,dor)
a sample of specified size. {
                                   access eye (civ ENG] A
ak'sep-tsns ,n3m*b3r)
                                   threaded plug fitted into
acceptance sampling (IND           bends and junctions of drain,
ENG] Taking a sample from a        waste, or soil pipes to provide
batch of material to inspect for   access when a blockage
determining whether the entire     occurs. See cleanout. { 'ak,ses
lot will be accepted or            ,T )
rejected.    {      ak'sep-tsns
                                   access flooring See raised
                                   flooring. { 'ak,ses ,flor-ir) )
acceptance test ( IND ENG ] A
                                   access hole See manhole. {
test used to determine
                                   'ak,ses ,hol)
conformance of a product to
accessory ( MECH ENG ] A             disabling injuries per thousand
part,      subassembly,       or     worker-hours of exposure. {
assembly that contributes to         'ak-so,dent ss'ver-sd-e ,rat)
the effectiveness of a piece of
                                     accommodation | CONT SYS ]
equipment without changing
                                     Any alteration in a robot's
its basic function; may be
                                     motion in response to the
used for testing, ad-j usting,
                                     robot's environment; it may be
calibrating, recording, or other
                                     active or passive. { 3,kam-
purposes. { ak'ses-3-re )
                                     s'da-shsn )
access road (civ ENG] A
                                     accordion door (BUILD) A
route, usually paved, that
                                     door that folds and unfolds
enables vehicles to reach a
                                     like an accordion when it is
designated                facility
                                     opened and closed. { s'kord-
expeditiously. { 'ak-ses ,rod )
                                     e-sn ,dor)
access tunnel (civ ENG] A
                                     accordion partition (BUILD) A
tunnel provided for an access
                                     movable, fabric-faced partition
road. { 'ak-ses ,t3n-3l )
                                     which is fitted into an
accident-cause code (IND             overhead track and folds like
ENG]     Sponsored by the            an accordion. { s'kord-e-sn
American            Standards        psr'tish-sn )
Association, the code that
                                     accordion roller conveyor
classifies accidents under
                                     (MECH ENG) A conveyor with a
eight     defective   working
                                     flexible latticed frame which
conditions and nine improper
                                     permits variation in length. {
working practices. { 'ak-
                                     s'kdrd-e-sn 'rol-sr ksn 'va-sr)
s3,dent ]koz ,kod )
                                     accretion (civ ENG) Artificial
accident frequency rate ( IND
                                     buildup of land due to the
ENG ] The number of all
                                     construction of a groin,
disabling injuries per million
                                     breakwater, dam, or beach fill.
worker-hours of exposure. {
                                     { s'kre-shsn )
'ak-s3,dent 'fre-kwsn-se ,rat)
                                     accumulated discrepancy
accident severity rate ( IND
                                     (ENG) The sum of the
ENG] The number of worker-
                                     separate discrepancies which
days lost as a result of
occur in the various steps of       process of learning the
making a survey. { s'kyu-mys        techniques of living with a
,lad-3d ds'skrep-sn-se )            minimum of discomfort in an
                                    extreme or new environment.
accumulative timing (IND
                                    { ^kss-ts-ms'za-shsn )
ENG) A time-study method
that allows direct reading of       acetate process (CHEM ENG)
the time for each element of        Acetylation of cellulose (wood
an operation by the use of          pulp or cotton linters) with
two     stopwatches     which       acetic acid or acetic anhydride
operate alternately. { s'kyu-       and sulfuric acid catalyst to
mysjad-iv 'tTm-irj )                make cellulose acetate resin
                                    or fiber. { 'as-3,tat 'pras-ss )
accumulator (CHEM ENG) An
auxiliary    ram     ex-truderon    acetone-benzol        process
blow-molding          equipment     (CHEM ENG) A dewax-ing
usedtostore melted material         process in petroleum refining,
between deliveries, (ENG)           with acetone and benzol used
See air vessel, (MECH ENG) 1.       as solvents. { 'as-3,ton 'ben-
A device, such as a bag             zol ,pras-3s )
containing pressurized gas,
                                    acetylene     cutting      See
which acts upon hydraulic
                                    oxyacetylene cutting.
fluid in a vessel, discharging it
rapidly to give high hydraulic      acetylene generator (ENG) A
power, after which the fluid is     steel cylinder or tank that
returned to the vessel with         provides for controlled mixing
the use of low hydraulic            of calcium carbide and water
power. 2. A device connected        to generate acetylene. {
to a steam boiler to enable a       3'sed-3l,en 'jen-3,rad-3r)
uniform boiler output to meet
an irregular steam demand.          acetylene      torch    See
3. A chamber for storing low-       oxyacetylene torch. { s'sed-
side liquid refrigerant in a        3l,en ,torch )
refrigeration system. Also          acfm See actual cubic feet
known as surge drum; surge          per minute.
header. { s'kyu-mysjad-sr)
                                    acid      blowcase         See
accustomization (ENG) The           blowcase. { 'as-sd 'blo-kas )
acid cleaning (ENG) The use         indicating the acid or base
of circulating acid to remove       composition of lubricating oils;
dirt, scale, or other foreign       it in no way indicates the
matter from the interior of a       corrosive attack of the used
pipe. { 'as-sd 'klen-irj)           oil in service. Also known as
                                    corrosion number. { 'as-sd
acid conductor (CHEM ENG)
A     vessel    designed   for
refortification of hydrolyzed       acid polishing (ENG) The
acid      by    heating   and       use of acids to polish a glass
evaporation of water, or            surface. { 'as-sd 'pal-ish-irj )
sometimes by distillation of
                                    acid process (CHEM ENG) In
water under partial vacuum. {
                                    paper manufacture, a pulp
'as-od ksn'dsk-tsr)
                                    digestion process that uses an
acid egg See blowcase. { 'as-       acidic reagent, for example, a
sd ,eg )                            bisulfite solution containing
                                    free sulfur dioxide. { 'as-sd
acid gases (CHEM ENG) The
                                    ,pra-s3s )
hydrogen sulfide and carbon
dioxide found in natural and        acid recovery plant (CHEM
refinery gases which, when          ENG) In some refineries, a
combined with moisture, form        facility for separating sludge
corrosive acids; known as           acid into acid oil, tar, and
sour gases when hydrogen            weak sulfuric acid, with provi-
sulfide and mercaptans are          sion for later reconcentration.
present. { 'as-sd 'gas-sz )         { 'as-sd rs'ksv 3-re ,plant)
adding (ENG) A light etching        acid sludge (CHEM ENG) The
of a building surface of cast       residue left after treating
stone. { 'as-od-irj )               petroleum oil with sulfuric acid
                                    for the removal of impurities. {
acid lining (ENG) In steel
                                    'as-sd ,sl3J )
production, a silica-brick lining
used in furnaces. { 'as-sd 'lTn-    acid soot ( ENG ) Carbon
irj )                               particles that have absorbed
                                    acid fumes as a by-product of
acid number (ENG) A number
                                    combustion; hydrochloric acid
derived from a standard test
                                    absorbed on carbon par-
ticulates is frequently the         screw thread. { 'ak-me ,thred )
cause of metal corrosion in
                                    acoubuoy [ENG] An acoustic
incineration. { 'as-sd ,sut)
                                    listening device similar to a
acid treatment (CHEM ENG) A         sonobuoy, used on land to
refining process in which           form an electronic fence that
unfinished            petroleum     will pick up sounds of enemy
products, such as gasoline,         movements        and    transmit
kerosine, and diesel oil, are       them to orbiting aircraft or
contacted with sulfuric acid to     land stations. { 3'ku,b6i )
improve their color, odor, and
                                    acoustical ceiling |BUILD] A
other properties. { 'as-sd 'tret-
                                    ceiling covered with or built of
                                    material         with   special
acid-water pollution (ENG)          acoustical properties. { s'kiis-
Industrial wastewa-ters that        ts-ksl 'sel-irj)
are acidic; usually appears in
                                    acoustical ceiling system
effluent from the manufacture
                                    (BUILD) A system for the
of      chemicals,    batteries,
                                    structural support of an
artificial and natural fiber,
                                    acoustical ceiling; lighting and
fermentation         processes
                                    air diffusers may be included
(beer), and mining. { 'as-sd
                                    as part of the system. { s'kus-
'wod-sr ps'lu-shsn )
                                    ts-ksl 'sel-irj 'sis-torn )
Ackerman           linkage See
                                    acoustical door (BUILD) A
Ackerman steering gear. { 'ak-
                                    solid door with gas-keting
sr-msn ,lir)-kij )
                                    along the top and sides, and
acme screw thread (DES              usually an automatic door
ENG )  A standard thread            bottom, designed to reduce
having a profile angle of 29°       noise transmission. { s'kus-ts-
and a flat crest; used on           ksl 'dor)
power screws in such devices
                                    acoustical model (civ ENG) A
as automobile jacks, presses,
                                    model used to investigate
and lead screws on lathes.
                                    certain acoustical properties
Also known as acme thread. {
                                    of an auditorium or room such
'ak-me 'skru ,thred )
                                    as sound pressure dis-
acme     thread    See    acme      tribution, sound-ray paths,
and focusing effects. { s'kus-       standard telephone line to
ts-ksl 'mad-sl)                      permit transmission of digital
                                     data in either direction without
acoustical treatment (civ
                                     making direct connections. {
ENG) That part of building
                                     s'kiis-tik 'ksp-tar)
planning that is designed to
provide a proper acoustical          acoustic delay (ENG ACOUS)
environment; includes the use        A delay which is deliberately
of    acoustical      material.      introduced          in      sound
{s'kus-ts-ksl 'tret-msnt)            reproduction by having the
                                     sound       travel      a  certain
acoustic array ( ENG ACOUS)
                                     distance along a pipe before
A    sound-transmitting         or
                                     conversion into electric sig-
sound-receiving           system
                                     nals. { s'kiis-tik di'la )
whose elements are arranged
to give desired directional          acoustic detection ( ENG )
characteristics. { s'kiis-tik s'ra   Determination of the profile of
)                                    a geologic formation, an
                                     ocean layer, or some object in
acoustic center ( ENG ACOUS
                                     the ocean by measuring the
) The center of the spherical
                                     reflection of sound waves
sound     waves          radiating
                                     off the object. { s'kus-tik
outward from an acoustic
                                     di'tek-shsn )
transducer. { s'kiis-tik 'sen-tor)
                                     acoustic fatigue ( MECH ) The
acoustic      clarifier     (ENG
                                     tendency of a material, such
ACOUS) System of cones
                                     as a metal, to lose strength
loosely attached to the baffle
                                     after acoustic stress. { s'kiis-
of     a   loudspeaker       and
                                     tik fs'teg )
designed to vibrate and
absorb energy during sudden          acoustic            feedback
loud sounds to suppress              (ENGACOUS) The reverbera-
these sounds. { s'kiis-tik 'klar-    tion of sound waves from a
^fl-sr)                              loudspeaker to a preceding
                                     part of an audio system, such
acoustic   coupler  (ENG
                                     as to the microphone, in such
ACOUS)   A   device used
                                     a manner as to reinforce, and
between the modem of a
                                     distort, the original input.
computer terminal and a
Also known        as    acoustic     signals which the enemy is
regeneration.          {s'kiis-tik   attempting to receive and of
'fed,bak)                            deterring enemy weapons
                                     systems. { s'kus-tik 'jam-irj )
acoustic generator (ENG
ACOUS) A transducer which            acoustic    labyrinth       (ENG
converts            electrical,      ACOUS)      Special        baffle
mechanical, or other forms of        arrangement used with a
energy into sound. { s'kus-tik       loudspeaker to prevent cavity
'jen-3,rad-3r)                       resonance and to reinforce
                                     bass response. { s'kiis-tik 'lab-
acoustic heat engine ( ENG )
                                     3,rinth )
A device that transforms heat
energy first into sound energy       acoustic line (ENG ACOUS)
and then into electrical power,      The acoustic equivalent of an
without the use of moving            electrical transmission line,
mechanical parts. { s'kus-tik        involving baffles, labyrinths, or
[het ,en-jsn)                        resonators placed at the rear
                                     of a loudspeaker and arranged
acoustic hologram (ENG)
                                     to help reproduce the very low
The      phase       interference
                                     audio frequencies. { o'kus-tik
pattern, formed by acoustic
                                     'lm )
beams, that is used in
acoustical holography; when          acoustic        ocean-current
light is made to interact with       meter ( ENG ) An instrument
this pattern, it forms an image      that measures current flow in
of an object placed in one of        rivers    and    oceans      by
the beams. { s'kus-tik 'hal-         transmitting acoustic pulses in
3,gram )                             opposite directions parallel to
                                     the flow and measuring the
acoustic horn See horn. {
                                     difference in pulse travel
o'kus-tik 'horn )
                                     times between transmitter-
acoustic     jamming      (ENG       receiver pairs. { o'kiis-tik 'o-
ACOUS)       The    deliberate       shsn ,k3r-3nt 'med-sr)
radiation or reradiation of
                                     acoustic position reference
mechanical or electro-acoustic
                                     system (ENG) An acoustic
signals with the objectives of
                                     system used in offshore oil
obliterating   or   obscuring
drilling to provide continuous       The ratio of the intensity of
information on ship position         sound radiated directly from a
with respect to an ocean-floor       source to the intensity of
acoustic beacon transmitting         sound reverberating from the
an ultrasonic signal to three        walls of an enclosure, at a
hydrophones on the bottom            given point in the enclosure. {
of the drilling ship. { s'kiis-tik   s'kiis-tik 'ra-sho )
ps'zish-sn [ref-rens ,sis-t3m )
                                     acoustic reflex enclosure |
acoustic radar (ENG) Use of          ENG ACOUS ] A loudspeaker
sound waves with radar               cabinet designed with a port
techniques for remote probing        to allow a low-frequency
of the lower atmosphere, up          contribution from the rear of
to heights of about 5000 feet        the speaker cone to be
(1500 meters), for measuring         radiated forward. { s'kus-tik
wind speed and direction,            're,fleks in.klo-zhsr)
humidity,           temperature
                                     acoustic regeneration See
inversions, and turbulence. {
                                     acoustic feedback. { s'kus-tik
s'kiis-tik 'ra,dar)
                                     rejen-s'ra-shsn )
acoustic       radiator   (ENG
                                     acousticseal |ENG ACOUS] A
ACOUS) A vibrating surface
                                     joint between two parts to
that produces sound waves,
                                     provide acoustical coupling
such as a loudspeaker cone
                                     with low losses of energy,
or a headphone diaphragm.
                                     such as between an earphone
{ o'kus-tik 'rad-e,ad-3r)
                                     and the human ear. { s'kiis-tik
acoustic radiometer (ENG)            'sel)
An instrument for measuring
                                     acoustic signature [ENG] In
sound        intensity       by
                                     acoustic detection, the profile
determining the unidirectional
                                     characteristic of a particular
steady-state pressure caused
                                     object or class of objects,
by the reflection or absorption
                                     such as a school of fish or a
of a sound wave at a
                                     specific         ocean-bottom
boundary. { s'kus-tik ^ad-s'a-
                                     formation. { s'kus-tik 'sig-ns-
acoustic ratio (ENG ACOUS)
                                     acoustic        spectrograph
[ENG] A spectrograph used               ACOUS ] A device that
with sound waves of various             converts acoustic energy to
frequencies to study the                electrical    or  mechanical
transmission and reflection             energy, such as a microphone
properties of ocean thermal             or phonograph pickup. { s'kus-
layers and marine life. {               tik tranz'du-ssr)
s'kus-tik 'spek-tre,graf)
                                        acoustic transformer [ENG
acoustic spectrometer [ENG              ACOUS] A device, such as a
ACOUS] An instrument that               horn or megaphone, for
measures the intensities of the         increasing the efficiency of
various frequency components            sound radiation. { o'kus-tik
of a complex sound wave.                tranz 'for-msr)
Also     known     as    audio
                                        acoustic treatment [BUILD]
spectrometer.    {    s'kus-tik
                                        The use of sound-absorbing
                                        materials to give a room a
acoustic strain gage [ ENG ]            desired degree of freedom
An instrument used for                  from echo and reverberation. {
measuring structural strains;           o'kus-tik 'tret-msnt)
consists of a length of fine
wire mounted so its tension
                                        sensor [ENG] A device that
varies with strain; the wire is
                                        employs a surface acoustic
plucked with an electro-
                                        wave, a thickness-shear-
magnetic device, and the
                                        mode resonance (a resonant
resulting        frequency         of
                                        oscillation of a thin plate of
vibration is measured to
                                        material), or other type of
determine the amount of
                                        acoustic wave to measure the
strain. { s'kiis-tik ,stran ,gaj )
                                        physical properties of a thin
acoustic theodolite [ENG] An            film or liquid layer or, in
instrument that uses sound              combination with chemically
waves to provide a continuous           sensitive thin films, to detect
vertical profile of ocean               the        presence         and
currents at a specific location.        concentration of chemical
{ s'kiis-tikthe'ad-sljt)                ana-lytes. { o]ku-stik 'wav,bast
acoustic transducer [ ENG
acoustic well logging [ENG]        or to 4046.8564224 square
A ground exploration method        meters. { 'a-ksr )
that uses a high-energy
                                   aerometer [ ENG ] An
sound       source        and a
                                   instrument to measure the
receiver, both underground.
                                   density of oils. { s'kram-sd-sr)
{ o'kus-tik 'wel ,lag-irj )
                                   actinogram [ENG] The record
acoustoelectronics [ ENG
                                   of heat from a source, such
ACOUS ] The branch of
                                   as the sun, as detected by a
electronics that involves use of
                                   recording     actinometer. {
acoustic waves at microwave
                                   ^k'tin-^gram )
frequencies      (above     500
megahertz), traveling on or in     actinograph [ ENG ]           A
piezoelectric or other solid       recording     actinometer.    {
substrates. Also known as          ^k'tin-^graf)
pretersonics.      {   3!kus-to-
3,lek!tran-iks )                   actinometer        [ENG]    Any
                                   instrument used to measure
acquisition      [ENG]     The     the intensity of radiant energy,
process     of   pointing   an     particularly that of the sun. {
antenna or a telescope so          ^k-ts'nam-sd-sr)
that it is properly oriented to
allow gathering of tracking or     action [MECH] An integral
telemetry data from a satellite    associated with the trajectory
or space probe. { ,ak-ws'zish-     of a system in configuration
sn )                               space, equal to the sum of the
                                   integrals of the generalized
acquisition and tracking           momenta of the system over
radar [ENG] A radar set            their canoni-cally conjugate
capable of locking onto a          coordinates. Also known as
received signal and tracking       phase integral. { 'ak-shsn )
the object emitting the signal;
the radar may be airborne or       activate [ELEC] TO make a cell
on the ground. { ,ak-ws'zish-      or battery operative by
sn on 'trak-irj ,ra,dar)           addition of a liquid, [ELECTR]
                                   TO treat the filament, cathode,
acre [MECH] A unit of area,        or target of a vacuum tube to
equal to 43,560 square feet,       increase electron emission,
[ENG] TO set up conditions so       [CONT SYS] The alteration of
that the object will function as    preprogrammed           robotic
designed or required. { 'ak-        motions by the integrated
t3,vat)                             effects of sensors, controllers,
                                    and the robotic motion itself.
activated sludge [civ ENG] A
                                    { 'ak-tiv ^kam-s'da-shsn )
semiliquid mass removed
from the liquid flow of sewage      active area |ELECTR] The area
and subjected to aeration and       of a metallic rectifier that acts
aerobic microbial action; the       as the rectifying junction and
end product is dark to golden       conducts current in the
brown, partially decomposed,        forward direction. { 'ak-tiv 'er-
granular, and flocculent, and       e-s)
has an earthy odor when
                                    active-cord         mechanism
fresh. { 'ak-t^vad-sd 'sl3j )
                                    |MECH      ENG]    A   slender,
activated-sludge        effluent    chainlike grouping of joints
[civ ENG] The liquid from the       and links that makes active
activated-sludge      treatment     and flexible winding motions
that is further processed by        under the control of actuators
chlorination or by oxidation. {     attached along its body. { 'ak-
'ak-t^vad-sd ,sl3J 'efju-snt)       tiv [kord 'mek-3,niz-3m )
activated-sludge       process      active detection system
[civ ENG] A sewage treatment        [ENG] A guidance system
process in which the sludge in      which emits energy as a
the secondary stage is put          means of detection; for
into aeration tanks to facilitate   example, sonar and radar. {
aerobic decomposition by            'ak-tiv di'tek-shsn ,sis-t3m )
microorganisms; the sludge
                                    active earth pressure [civ
and supernatant liquor are
                                    ENG] The horizontal pressure
separated in a settling tank;
                                    that an earth mass exerts on
the supernatant liquor or
                                    a wall. { 'ak-tiv 'srth 'presh-sr)
effluent is further treated by
chlorination or oxidation. { 'ak-   active illumination [ENG]
t^vad-sd ,sl3J 'pra,s3s )           Lighting   whose   direction,
                                    intensity, and pattern are
active        accommodation
                                    controlled by commands or
signals. { 'ak-tiv sjum-s'na-        tiv ms'tir-e-sl)
shsn )
                                     active sludge [civ ENG] A
active infrared detection            sludge rich in destructive
system [ENG] An infrared             bacteria used to break down
detection system in which a          raw sewage. { 'ak-tiv 'slsj )
beam of infrared rays is
                                     active solar system [MECH
transmitted toward possible
                                     ENG] A solar heating or
targets, and rays reflected
                                     cooling system that operates
from a target are detected. {
                                     by mechanical means, such
'ak-tiv 'in-fra,red di'tek-shsn
                                     as motors, pumps, or valves.
,sis-t3m )
                                     { 'ak-tiv 'so-lsr ,sis-t3m )
active leaf [BUILD] In a door
                                     active sonar [ENG] A system
with two leaves, the leaf
                                     consisting of one or more
which carries the latching or
                                     transducers to send and
locking   mechanism.      Also
                                     receive sound, equipment for
known as active door. { 'ak-tiv
                                     the generation and detection
                                     of the electrical impulses to
active material [ELEC] 1. A          and from the transducer, and
fluorescent material used in         a display or recorder system
screens       for    cathode-ray     for the observation of the
tubes. 2. An energy-storing          received signals. { 'ak-tiv
material, such as lead oxide,        'so,nar)
used in the plates of a storage
                                     active system [ENG] In radio
battery. 3. A material, such as
                                     and radar, a system that
the iron of a core or the
                                     requires         transmitting
copper of a winding, that is
                                     equipment, such as a beacon
involved in energy conversion
                                     or transponder. { 'ak-tiv 'sis-
in a circuit. 4. In a battery, the
                                     torn )
chemically reactive material in
either of the electrodes that        active vibration suppression
participates in the charge and       [MECH ENG] The prevention of
discharge reactions. [ELECTR]        undesirable vibration by tech-
The material of the cathode of       niques involving feedback
an electron tube that emits          control of the vibratory motion,
electrons when heated. { 'ak-        whereby the forces designed
to reduce the vibration            volume of gas at operating
depend on the system dis-          temperature and pressure, as
placements and velocities. {       distinct from volume of gas at
'ak-tiv vT'bra-shsn                standard temperature and
                                   pressure. Abbreviated acfm. {
activity     [SYS ENG] The
                                   'ak-chs-wsl 'kyii-bik ,fet psr
representation in a PERT or
critical-path-method network
of a task that takes up both       actual    horsepower   See
time and resources and             actual power. { 'ak-chs-wsl
whose         performance is       'h6rs,pau-3r)
necessary for the system to
                                   actual power [MECH ENG] The
move from one event to the
                                   power delivered at the output
next. { ,ak'tiv-3d-e )
                                   shaft of a source of power.
activity chart [IND ENG] A         Also     known   as    actual
tabular presentation of a          horsepower. { 'ak-chs-wsl
series of operations of a          'pau-sr)
process plotted against a time
                                   actual time [IND ENG] Time
scale. { ,ak'tiv-3d-e ,chart )
                                   taken by a worker to perform
activity duration [ SYS ENG ]      a given task. { 'ak-chs-wsl tTm
In         critical-path-method    )
terminology, the estimated
                                   actuate [MECH ENG] TO put
amount of time required to
                                   into motion or mechanical
complete an activity. { ,ak'tiv-
                                   action, as by an actuator. {
sd-e ds'ra-shsn )
                                   'ak-chs-wat )
activity sampling See work
                                   actuated roller switch [MECH
sampling. { ,ak'tiv-3d-e ,sam-
                                   ENG] A centrifugal sequence-
                                   control switch that is placed in
actual cost [IND ENG] Cost         contact with a belt conveyor,
determined by an allocation of     immediately preceding the
cost factors recorded during       conveyor which it controls. {
production. { 'ak-chs-wsl 'kost)   'ak-ch^wad-sd 'ro-lsr 'swich )
actual cubic feet per minute       actuating system [CONT SYS]
[CHEM ENG] A measure of the        An electric, hydraulic, or other
system that supplies and          with NaNO3. { 'a-dsmz 'kad-sl-
transmits energy for the          sst )
operation of other mecha-
                                  ada mud [ENG] A conditioning
nisms or systems. { 'ak-
                                  material added to drilling mud
ch^wad-ig ,sis-t3m )
                                  to obtain satisfactory cores
actuator     [CONT SYS] A         and samples of formations. {
mechanism       to     activate   'a-ds ,m3d )
process control equipment by
                                  adapter | ENG ] A device used
use of pneumatic, hydraulic,
                                  to    make     electrical  or
or electronic signals; for
                                  mechanical        connections
example, a valve actuator for
                                  between items not originally
opening or closing a valve to
                                  intended for use together. {
control the rate of fluid flow,
[ENG ACOUs] An auxiliary
external electrode used to        adaptive branch |CONT SYS]
apply a known electrostatic       A branch instruction in the
force to the diaphragm of a       computer program controlling
microphone for calibration        a robot that may lead the
purposes. Also known as           robot to execute a series of
electrostatic actuator, [MECH     instructions, depending on
ENG] A device that produces       external conditions. { s'dap-tiv
mechanical force by means of      'branch )
pressurized fluid. { 'ak-
ch^wad-sr)                        adaptive control |CONT SYS]
                                  A control method in which
adamantine drill [MECH ENG]       one or more parameters are
A core drill with hardened        sensed and used to vary the
steel shot pellets that revolve   feedback control signals in
under the rim of the rotating     order      to  satisfy     the
tube; employed in rotary          performance criteria. { s'dap-
drilling in very hard ground. {   tiv ksn'trol)
^d-s'man^en 'dril)
                                  adaptive-control    function
Adam's catalyst [CHEM ENG]        |CONT SYS] That level in the
Finely divided plantinum(IV)      functional decomposition of a
oxide,   made      by   fusing    large-scale control system
hexachloro-platinic(IV)   acid    which updates parameters of
the optimizing control function    extended area that can
to achieve a best fit to current   barely be detected by the
plant behavior, and updates        eye. { ^dap'ta-msd-sr)
parameters of the direct
                                   addendum (DES ENG] The
control function to achieve
                                   radial distance between two
good dynamic response of the
                                   concentric circles on a gear,
closed-loop system. { s'dap-
                                   one being that whose radius
tiv ksn'trol ^sgk-shsn )
                                   extends to the top of a gear
adaptive robot |CONT SYS] A        tooth (addendum circle) and
robot that can alter its           the other being that which will
responses       according to       roll without slipping on a circle
changes in the environment. {      on a mating gear (pitch line). {
s'dap-tiv 'ro,bat)                 s'den-dsm )
adaptive structure [ENG] A         addendum circle ( DES ENG ]
structure whose geometric          The circle on a gear passing
and      inherent     structural   through the tops of the teeth.
characteristics     can      be    { s'den-dsm ,s3r-k3l)
changed       beneficially    in
                                   adder (ELECTR] A circuit in
response        to      external
                                   which two or more signals are
stimulation by either remote
                                   combined to give an output-
commands        or    automatic
                                   signal amplitude that is
means. { 3,dap-tiv 'strek-chsr)
                                   proportional to the sum of the
adaptive system |SYS ENG] A        input-signal amplitudes. Also
system that can change itself      known as adder circuit. { 'ad-
in response to changes in its      sr)
environment in such a way
                                   adding     tape     (ENG]      A
that its performance improves
                                   surveyor's tape that is cali-
through       a     continuing
                                   brated from Oto 100 by full feet
interaction      with       its
                                   (or meters) in one direction,
surroundings. { s'dap-tiv 'sis-
                                   and has 1 additional foot (or
torn )
                                   meter) beyond the zero end
adaptometer      (ENG]    An       which is subdivided in tenths
instrument that measures the       or hundredths. { 'ad-ig ,tap )
lowest brightness of an
                                   additive    synthesis      (ENG
ACOUS]       A   method       of   bond, usually measured as a
synthesizing complex tones         force required to separate
by     adding   together     an    two objects of standard
appropriate number of simple       bonded area, by either shear
sine waves at harmonically         or tensile stress. { ad'hez-iv
related frequencies. { [ad-s-div   'strerjkth )
'sin-ths-sss )
                                   adiabatic (THERMO] Referring
adhesion       (ENG] Intimate      to any change in which there
sticking together of metal         is no gain or loss of heat. {]ad-
surfaces under compressive         e-s|bad-ik)
stresses by formation of
                                   adiabatic        compression
metallic bonds, (MECH] The
                                   (THERMO] A reduction in
force of static friction between
                                   volume of a substance
two bodies, or the effects of
                                   without heat flow, in or out.
this force. { ad'he-zhsn )
                                   {]ad-e-3]bad-ik ksm'presh-sn )
adhesional work (THERMO]
                                   adiabatic cooling (THERMO] A
The work required to separate
                                   process     in     which  the
a unit area of a surface at
                                   temperature of a system is
which two substances are in
                                   reduced without any heat
contact. Also known as work
                                   being exchanged between the
of adhesion. { ad'he-zhsn-sl
                                   system and its surroundings. {
                                   [ad-e-3]bad-ik 'kul-irj )
adhesive bond (MECH] The
                                   adiabatic curing (ENG] The
forces such as di-pole bonds
                                   curing of concrete or mortar
which attract adhesives and
                                   under conditions in which
base materials to each other.
                                   there is no loss or gain of
{ ad'hez-iv 'band )
                                   heat. { ]ad-e-3]bad-ik 'kyur-irj )
adhesive bonding (ENG]
                                   adiabatic engine (MECH ENG]
The fastening together of two
                                   A      heat      engine       or
or more solids by the use of
                                   thermodynamic system in
glue,  cement,      or    other
                                   which there is no gain or loss
adhesive. { ad'hez-iv 'band-Hi}
                                   of heat. {]ad-e-3]bad-ik 'en-jsn
adhesive strength ( ENG ]          )
The strength of an adhesive
adiabatic             envelope    tunnel used for excavation of
(THERMO] A surface enclosing      the main tunnel. { 'ad-st)
a thermodynamic system in
                                  adjustable      base    anchor
an equilibrium which can be
                                  (BUILD] An item which holds a
disturbed only by long-range
                                  doorframe above a finished
forces or by motion of part of
                                  floor. { s'jss-ts-bsl [bas 'arj-
the envelope; intuitively, this
means that no heat can flow
through the surface. { ]ad-e-     adjustable parallels [ENG]
3]bad-ik 'en-v3,lop )             Wedge-shaped         iron  bars
                                  placed with the thin end of one
adiabatic           expansion
                                  on the thick end of the other,
(THERMO] Increase in volume
                                  so that the top face of the
without heat flow, in or out. {
                                  upper and the bottom face of
]ad-e-3]bad-ik ik'span-chsn )
                                  the lower remain parallel, but
adiabatic extrusion (ENG]         the distance between the two
Forming plastic objects by        faces is adjustable; the bars
energy produced by driving        can be locked in position by a
the plastic mass through an       screw to prevent shifting. {
extruder without heat flow. {     s'jss-ts-bsl 'par-a.lelz )
[ad-e-3]bad-ik ik'stru-zhsn )
                                  adjustable square [ENG] A
adiabatic process (THERMO]        try square with an arm that is
Any           thermodynamic       at right angles to the ruler; the
procedure which takes place       position of the arm can be
in a system without the           changed to form an L or a T.
exchange of heat with the         Also known as double
surroundings. { [ad-e-3]bad-ik    square. { s'jss-ts-bsl 'skwer)
pra-sss )
                                  adjustable wrench [ENG] A
adiabatic        vaporization     wrench with one jaw which is
(THERMO] Vaporization of a        fixed and another which is
liquid with virtually no heat     adjustable;       the   size is
exchange between it and its       adjusted by a knurled screw.
surroundings. { [ad-e-3]bad-ik    { s'jss-ts-bsl 'rench )
,va-p3r-3'za-sh3n )
                                  adjusting         [ENG]      In
adit (civ ENG ] An access         measurement         technology,
setting or compensating a             synchronism; it is equipped
measuring instrument or a             with facilities for recreating the
weight in such a way that the         acoustical       liveness     and
indicated value deviates as           background sound of the envi-
little as possible from the           ronment of the original dialog.
actual value. { s'jsst-ir))           Derived from automatic dialog
                                      replacement studio. Also
adjutage [ENG] A tube
                                      known as postsynchronizing
attached to a container of
                                      studio. { ]a]de'ar ,stud-e-o)
liquid at an orifice to facilitate
or regulate outflow. { 'aj-3,tazh     adsorption system [MECH
)                                     ENG]     A     device      that
                                      dehumidifies air by bringing it
admittance [ELEC] A measure
                                      into contact with a solid
of how readily alternating
                                      adsorbing     substance.      {
current will flow in a circuit; the
                                      ad'sdrp-shsn ,sis-t3m )
reciprocal of impedance, it is
expressed in Siemens. {               advance [civ ENG] In railway
sd'mit-sns )                          engineering, a length of track
                                      that extends beyond the
adobe construction [BUILD]
                                      signal that controls it. [ MECH
Wall construction with sun-
                                      ENG ] To effect the earlier
dried blocks of adobe soil. {
                                      occurrence of an event, for
s'do-be ksn'strsk-shsn )
                                      example, spark advance or
ADP See automatic            data     injection advance. { sd'vans )
                                      advanced        programmatic
ADR studio [ENG ACOUS] A              risk analysis [IND ENG] A
sound-recording studio used           method       for    managing
in      motion-picture     and        engineering programs with
television production to allow        multiple projects and strict
an actor who did not intelli-         resource constraints which
gibly record his or her speech        balances both technical and
during the original filming or        management risks. { sd[vanst
video recording to do so by           ,pro-gre]mad-ik         'risk
watching himself or herself on        3,nal*3S3s )
the screen and repeating the
                                      advanced sewage treatment
original speech with lip
See       tertiary  sewage       aerated flow [ENG] Flowing
treatment. { sd[vanst 'sii-ij    liquid in which gas is
,tret#m3nt)                      dispersed as fine bubbles
                                 throughout the liquid. { 'e,rad-
advance signal [civ ENG] A
                                 3d 'flo )
signal in a block system up to
which a train may proceed        aeration [ ENG ] 1. Exposing
within a block that is not       to the action of air. 2. Causing
completely cleared. { sd'vans    air to bubble through. 3.
'sig-nsl)                        Introducing air into a solution
                                 by spraying, stirring, or similar
advance slope grouting [
                                 method. 4. Supplying or
ENG ] A grouting technique in
                                 infusing with air, as in sand or
which the front of the mass of
                                 soil. { e'ra-shsn )
grout is forced to move
horizontally through preplaced   aeration tank [ENG] A fluid-
aggregate. { sd'vans 'slop       holding tank with provisions to
'graud-ig )                      aerate     its    contents    by
                                 bubbling air or another gas
advance slope method [ ENG
                                 through the liquid or by
] A method of concrete
                                 spraying the liquid into the air.
placement in which the face of
                                 { e'ra-shsn ,tar)k )
the fresh concrete, which is
not vertical, moves forward as   aerator [DES ENG] A tool
the concrete is placed.          having a roller equipped with
{sd'vans 'slop ,meth-3d)         hollow fins; used to remove
                                 cores of soil from turf, [ENG]
adz [DES ENG] A cutting tool
                                 1. One who aerates. 2.
with a thin arched blade,
                                 Equipment used for aeration.
sharpened on the concave
                                 3. Any device for supplying air
side, at right angles on the
                                 or gas under pressure, as for
handle; used for rough
                                 fumigating,     welding,    or
dressing of timber. { adz )
                                 ventilating,    [MECH     ENG]
adz block [MECH ENG] The         Equipment used to inject
part of a machine for wood       compressed air into sewage
planing that carries the         in the treatment process. {
cutters. { 'adz ,blak)           'e,rad-3r)
aerial cableway See aerial           aerial ropeway See aerial
tramway. { 'e-re-sl 'ka-b3l,wa )     tramway. { 'e-re-sl 'rop,wa )
aerial photogrammetry [ENG]          aerial spud | MECH ENG ] A
Use of aerial photographs to         cable    for  moving      and
make accurate measurements           anchoring a dredge. { 'e-re-sl
in surveying and mapmaking.          'spsd )
{ 'e-re-sl ,fot-s'gram-s-tre )
                                     aerial survey [ENG] A survey
aerial             photographic      utilizing        photographic,
reconnaissance See aerial            electronic, or other data
photoreconnaissance. { 'e-re-        obtained from an airborne
sl ,fod-3]graf-ik ri'kan-s-ssns )    station. Also known as
                                     aerosurvey; air survey. { 'e-re-
aerial photography [ ENG ]
                                     sl 'ssr-va )
The making of photographs of
the ground surface from an           aerial tramway |MECH ENG] A
aircraft, spacecraft, or rocket.     system for transporting bulk
Also known as aeropho-               materials that consists of one
tography. { 'e-re-sl fs'tag-rs-fe    or more cables supported by
)                                    steel towers and is capable of
                                     carrying a traveling carriage
aerial photoreconnaissance
                                     from which loaded buckets
[ ENG ] The obtaining of
                                     can be lowered or raised. Also
information       by      air
                                     known as aerial cableway;
photography; the three types
                                     aerial ropeway. { 'e-re-sl
are strategic, tactical, and
                                     'tram,wa )
photoreconnaissance.     Also        aeroballistics |MECH ] The
known as aerial photographic         study of the interaction of
reconnaissance. { 'e-re-sl           projectiles      or   high-speed
^od-o^i'kan-s-ssns )                 vehicles with the atmosphere.
                                     { ,e-ro-b3'lis-tiks )
aerial reconnaissance [ENG]
The collection of information        aerobic-anaerobic interface
by visual, electronic, or            | civ ENG ] That point in
photographic means while             bacterial action in the body of
aloft. { 'e-re-sl ,ri'kan-3-sons )   a sewage sludge or compost
                                     heap where both aerobic and
anaerobic        microorganisms    substances. { ^-ro^lor-s'na-
participate,        and      the   shsn )
decomposition of the material
                                   aerodrome See airport. { 'e-
goes no further. { e'rob-ik 'an-
                                   ro,drom )
3,rob-ik 'in-t3r,fas )
                                   aerodynamic balance [ENG]
aerobic-anaerobic        lagoon
                                   A balance used for the
|civ ENG] A pond in which the
                                   measurement of the forces
solids from a sewage plant are
                                   exerted on the surfaces of
placed in the lower layer; the
                                   instruments      exposed     to
solids are partially decom-
                                   flowing air; frequently used in
posed by anaerobic bacteria,
                                   tests made on models in wind
while air or oxygen is bubbled
                                   tunnels. { ,e-ro-dT'nam-ik 'bal-
through the upper layer to
                                   sns )
create an aerobic condition.
{e'rob-ik 'an-3,rob-ik ls'giin )   aerodynamic            trajectory
                                   |MECH] A trajectory or part of a
aerobic digestion |CHEM
                                   trajectory in which the missile
ENG] Digestion of matter
                                   or      vehicle       encounters
suspended or dissolved in
                                   sufficient air resistance to
waste by microorganisms
                                   stabilize its flight or to modify
under favorable conditions of
                                   its course significantly. { ,e-
oxygenation. { e'rob-ik ds'jes-
                                   ro-dT'nam-ik trs'jek-tre )
chsn )
                                   aeroelasticity |MECH ] The
aerobic lagoon |civ ENG] An
                                   deformation of structurally
aerated pond in which
                                   elastic bodies in response to
sewage solids are placed, and
                                   aerodynamic loads. { ^-ro-
are decomposed by aerobic
                                   ijas'tis-sd-e )
bacteria. Also known as aero-
bic pond. { e'ro-bik ls'giin )     aerofall mill |MECH ENG] A
                                   grinding mill of large diameter
aerobic pond See aerobic
                                   with either lumps of ore,
lagoon. {e]ro-bik 'pand )
                                   pebbles, or steel balls as
aerochlorination |civ ENG]         crushing bodies; the dry load
Treatment of sewage with           is airswept to remove mesh
compressed air and chlorine        material. { 'e-ro,f6l ,mil)
gas    to    remove    fatty
aerof ilter [civ ENG ] A filter    [ENG] Engineering pertaining
bed for sewage treatment           to the design and construction
consisting of coarse material      of aircraft and space vehicles
and operated at high speed,        and of power units, and to the
often with recirculation. { 'e-    special problems of flight in
ro.fil-tsr)                        both the earth's atmosphere
                                   and space, as in the flight of
aerograph | ENG ] Any self-
                                   air vehicles and in the
recording instrument carried
                                   launching, guidance, and
aloft by any means to obtain
                                   control of missiles, earth
meteorological data. { 'e-
                                   satellites, and space vehicles
                                   and probes. {]e-ro]spas ,en-
aerometeorograph [ENG] A           J3'nir-ir) )
self-recording instrument used
                                   aerospace industry [ENG]
on      aircraft     for     the
                                   Industry concerned with the
simultaneous recording of
                                   use of vehicles in both the
atmospheric            pressure,
                                   earth's   atmosphere       and
temperature, and humidity. {
                                   space. { ]e-ro]spas 'in-dss-tre
aerometer        [ENG]      An
                                   aerostatic balance [ENG] An
instrument to ascertain the
                                   instrument for weighing air. {
weight or density of air or
                                   ]e-ro]stad-ik 'bal-sns )
other gases. { e'ra-msd-sr)
                                   aerosurvey See aerial survey.
aerophotography See aerial
                                   {]e-ro!s3r,va )
photography. { ,e-ro-fs'tag-
rs'fe )                            aerotrain [ENG] A train that is
                                   propelled by a fan jet engine
aerosol generator [MECH
                                   and floats on a cushion of low-
ENG] A mechanical means of
                                   pressure air, traveling at
producing   a   system     of
                                   speeds up to 267 miles (430
dispersed     phase      and
                                   kilometers) per hour. { 'e-
dispersing medium, that is,
                                   ro,tran )
an aerosol. { 'e-re,s6l 'jen-
3,rad-3r)                          aesthesiometer            See
                                   esthesiometer. {es,the-ze'am-
aerospace         engineering
affreightment [IND ENG] The        used      on      turbocharged
lease of a vessel for the          engines. { 'af-ts^kul-sr)
transportation of goods. {
                                   aftercooling [MECH ENG] The
                                   cooling of a gas after its
A frame [ BU ILD ] A dwelling      compression. { 'af-t3r,kul-ir) )
whose main frames are in the
                                   afterfilter [MECH ENG] In an
shape of the letter A. [ENG]
                                   air-conditioning system, a
TWO poles supported in an
                                   high-efficiency filter located
upright position by braces or
                                   near a terminal unit. Also
guys and used for lifting
                                   known as final filter. { 'af-
equipment. Also known as
double mast. { 'a ,fram )
                                   afterrunning |MECH ENG] In
afterboil [MECH ENG] In an
                                   an      automotive       engine,
automotive engine, coolant
                                   continued operation of the
boiling after the engine has
                                   engine after the ignition switch
stopped because of the
                                   is turned off. Also known as
inability of the engine at rest
                                   dieseling; run-on. { 'af-tor^on-
to dissipate excess heat. { 'af-
                                   irj )
                                   after top dead center | MECH
afterburning       [MECH ENG]
                                   ENG ] The position of the
Combustion in an internal
                                   piston after reaching the top
combustion engine following
                                   of its stroke in an automotive
the maximum pressure of
                                   engine. { 'af-tsr 'tap 'ded
explosion. { 'af-ts^bsrn-ir) )
aftercondenser [MECH ENG]
                                   agger |civ ENG] A material
A condenser in the second
                                   used for road fill over low
stage of a two-stage ejector;
                                   ground. { 'a-jsr)
used in steam power plants,
refrigeration systems, and air     aggregate bin (ENG] A
conditioning systems. { 'af-       structure designed for storing
tsr-ksn'denser )                   and dispensing dry granular
                                   construction materials such
aftercooler [MECH ENG] A
                                   as sand, crushed stone, and
heat exchanger which cools
                                   gravel;    usually   has     a
air that has been compressed;
hopperlike bottom that funnels     dT'ak,sTd )
the material to a gate under
                                   agile manufacturing (IND
the structure. { 'ag-re-gst ,bin
                                   ENG] Operations that can be
                                   rapidly reconfigured to satisfy
aggregate interlock ( ENG ]        changing market demands. {
The projection of aggregate        [a-jsl ^an-yu'fak-chs-rir) )
particles or portions thereof
                                   aging ( ELEC ] Allowing a
from one side of a joint or
                                   permanent magnet, capacitor,
crack     in     concrete into
                                   meter, or other device to
recesses in the other side so
                                   remain in storage for a period
as to effect load transfer in
                                   of time, sometimes with a
compression and shear, and
                                   voltage applied, until the
to maintain mutual alignment.
                                   characteristics of the device
{ 'ag-re-gst 'in-t3r,lak)
                                   become essentially constant.
aggregate            production    ( ENG ] 1. The changing of the
scheduling (IND ENG] A type        characteristics of a device due
of planning at a broad level       to its use. 2. Operation of a
without      consideration    of   product before shipment to
individual      products     and   stabilize characteristics or
activities in order to develop a   detect early failures. { 'aj-irj )
program of output that will
                                   agitating speed (MECH ENG]
meet future demand under
                                   The rate of rotation of the
given constraints. {]ag-ri-g3t
                                   drum or blades of a truck
prajdok-shon ,skej-3-lir))
                                   mixer or other device used for
aggressive carbon dioxide          agitation of mixed concrete. {
(CHEM ENG] The carbon              'aj-^tad-ig ,sped )
dioxide dissolved in water in
                                   agitating truck (MECH ENG] A
excess     of   the   amount
                                   vehicle carrying a drum or
required to precipitate a
                                   agitator body, in which freshly
specified concentration of
                                   mixed concrete can be
calcium ions as calcium
                                   conveyed from the point of
carbonate;    used    as    a
                                   mixing to that of placing, the
measure of the corrosivity
                                   drum        being      rotated
and scaling properties of
                                   continuously to agitate the
water. { s'gres-iv 'kar-bsn
contents. { 'aj • 3,tad-ir) ,trak)   motion     of    the    tracking
                                     equipment       is     machine-
agitator (MECH ENG] A device
                                     controlled in collaboration with
for keeping liquids and solids
                                     an operator so as to minimize
in liquids in motion by mixing,
                                     tracking error. { 'ad-sd 'trak-ig
stirring, or shaking. { 'aj-^tad-
                                     aided-tracking mechanism (
agitator body (MECH ENG] A
                                     ENG ] A device consisting of a
truck-mounted      drum       for
                                     motor and variable-speed
transporting freshly mixed
                                     drive which provides a means
concrete; rotation of internal
                                     of setting a desired tracking
paddles or of the drum pre-
                                     rate into a director or other
vents the setting of the
                                     fire-control instrument, so that
mixture prior to delivery. { 'aj-
                                     the process of tracking is
^tad-sr 'bad-e )
                                     carried out automatically at
agricultural pipe drain (civ         the set rate until it is changed
ENG] A system of porous or           manually. { 'ad-sd 'trak-irj
perforated pipes laid in a           ,mek-3,niz-3m )
trench filled with gravel or the
                                     aided-tracking ratio (ENG]
like; used for draining subsoil.
                                     The     ratio      between   the
{[ag-relksl-chs-rsl ,pTp ,dran )
                                     constant velocity of the aided-
agricultural robot (CONT SYS]        tracking mechanism and the
A robot used to pick and             velocity of the moving target.
harvest farm products and            { 'ad-sd 'trak-irj ,ra-sho )
fruits.  {    ]ag-relksl-chs-rel
                                     aiguille (ENG] A slender form
                                     of drill used for boring or
AGV See automated guided             drilling a blasthole in rock. {
vehicle.                             ,a'gwel)
aided tracking (ENG ] A              aiming circle (ENG] An
system of radar-tracking a           instrument for measuring
target signal in bearing,            angles     in   azimuth and
elevation, or range, or any          elevation in connection with
combination       of     these       artillery firing and general
variables, in which the rate of      topographic work; equipped
with fine and coarse azimuth        air-assist forming (ENG] A
micrometers and a magnetic          plastics         thermo-forming
needle. { 'am-irj .ssr-ksl)         method in which air pressure
                                    is used to partially preform a
aiming screws (MECH ENG]
                                    sheet before it enters the
On an automotive vehicle,
                                    mold. { 'er s'sist 'form-irj )
spring-loaded           screws
designed to secure headlights       air-atomizing        oil   burner
to a support frame and permit       (ENG] An oil burner in which a
aiming of the headlights in         stream of fuel oil is broken into
horizontal and vertical planes.     very fine droplets through the
{ 'aim-irj ,skruz )                 action of compressed air. { 'er
                                    'at-s'mTz-ir) ,6il 'bsrn-sr)
AIR See air-injection reactor. {
er)                                 air bag (MECH ENG] An
                                    automotive vehicle passenger
air-actuated (ENG] Powered
                                    safety device consisting of a
by compressed air. { 'er 'ak-
                                    passive restraint in the form of
                                    a bag which is automatically
air-arc furnace (ENG] An arc        inflated with gas to provide
furnace designed to power           cushioned protection against
wind tunnels, the air being         the impact of a collision. { 'er
superheated to 20,000 K and         ,bag)
expanded to emerge at super-
                                    air belt |MECH ENG] The
sonic speeds. { 'er ,ark 'fsr-
                                    chamber which equalizes the
nss )
                                    pressure that is blasted into
air aspirator valve (MECH           the cupola at the tuyeres. { 'er
ENG] On certain automotive          ,belt)
engines, a one-way valve
                                    air bind [ENG] The presence
installed on the exhaust
                                    of air in a conduit or pump
manifold to allow air to enter
                                    which impedes passage of
the exhaust system; provides
                                    the liquid. { 'er ,bmd )
extra oxygen to convert
carbon monoxide to carbon           airblasting | ENG ] A blasting
dioxide. Also known as gulp         technique in which air at very
valve. { 'er 'as-p^rad-sr ,valv )   high pressure is piped to a
                                    steel shell in a shot hole and
discharged. Also known as air        airborne      magnetometer
breaking. { 'er,blast-ir))           (ENG] An airborne instrument
                                     used to measure the magnetic
air bleeder |MECH ENG] A
                                     field of the earth. { 'er,born
device, such as a needle
valve, for removing air from a
hydraulic system. { 'er 'bled-       airborne profile recorder
sr)                                  (ENG] An electronic instrument
                                     that emits a pulsed-type radar
airborne collision warning
                                     signal from an aircraft to
system (ENG] A system such
                                     measure vertical distances
as a radar set or radio
                                     between the aircraft and the
receiver carried by an aircraft
                                     earth's surface. Abbreviated
to warn of the danger of
                                     APR. Also known as terrain
possible collision. { 'er,b6rn
                                     profile recorder (TPR). {
ks'lizh-sn 'worn-irj ,sis* torn)
                                     'er,b6rn 'pro,frl ri,k6rd-3r)
airborne detector (ENG] A
                                     airborne radar (ENG] Radar
device, transported by an
                                     equipment carried by aircraft
aircraft, whose function is to
                                     to assist in navigation by
locate or identify an air or
                                     pilotage, to determine drift,
surface object. { 'er,b6rn di
                                     and to locate weather distur-
                                     bances; a very important use
airborne electronic survey           is locating other aircraft either
control (ENG] The airborne           for avoidance or attack. { 'er
portion of very accurate             ,born 'ra,dar)
positioning systems used in
                                     airborne waste (ENG] Vapors,
controlling     surveys      from
                                     gases,           orparticu-lates
aircraft. { 'er,bdrn i,lek'tran-ik
                                     introduced        into       the
'ssr-va ksn'trol)
                                     atmosphere by evaporation,
airborne intercept radar             chemical,     or    combustion
(ENG] Airborne radar used to         processes; a frequent cause
track and "lock on" to another       of smog and an irritant to eyes
aircraft to be intercepted or        and breathing passages. {
followed. { 'er,b6rn 'in-tor,sept    'er,b6rn 'wast)
                                     air-bound (ENG] Of a pipe or
apparatus,       containing  a      air. (MECH ENG] A small
pocket of air that prevents or      auxiliary combustion chamber
reduces the desired liquid          used to promote turbulence
flow. { 'er ,baund )                and improve combustion in
                                    certain types of diesel en-
air brake (MECH ENG] An
                                    gines. { 'er ,sel)
mechanism activated by air          air chamber (MECH ENG] A
pressure and used to retard,        pressure vessel, partially filled
stop, or hold a vehicle or,         with    air,   for   converting
generally,      any    moving       pulsating flow to steady flow of
element. { 'er ,brak )              water in a pipeline, as with a
                                    reciprocating pump. { 'er
air breaking See airblasting. {
'er ,brak-irj )
                                    air change (ENG] A measure
air-breathing ( MECH ENG ] Of
                                    of the movement of a given
an engine or aerodynamic
                                    volume of air in or out of a
vehicle, required to take in air
                                    building or room in a specified
for     the     purpose        of
                                    time period; usually expressed
combustion. { 'er 'brelh-irj )
                                    in cubic feet per minute. { 'er
air cap (MECH ENG] A device         ,chanj )
used in thermal spraying
                                    air check (ENG ACOUS] A
which directs the air pattern
                                    recording made of a live radio
for purposes of atomization. {
                                    broadcast for filing purposes
'er ,kap )
                                    at the broadcasting facility. {
air casing (ENG] A metal            'er ,chek )
casing surrounding a pipe or
                                    air classifier (MECH ENG] A
reservoir and having a space
                                    device to separate particles
between to prevent heat
                                    by size through the action of a
transmission. { 'er ,kas-irj )
                                    stream of air. Also known as
air cell (ELECTR] A cell in         air elutriator. { 'er 'klas-a.fr-ar)
which depolarization at the
                                    air cleaner (ENG] Any of
positive      electrode      is
                                    various devices designed to
accomplished chemically by
                                    remove particles and aerosols
reduction of the oxygen in the
                                    of specific sizes from air;
examples are screens, settling       ^sm'pres-sr ,valv )
chambers,         filters,     wet
                                     air condenser (MECH ENG] 1.
collectors, and electrostatic
                                     A steam condenser in which
precipitators. { 'er ,klen-3r)
                                     the heat exchange occurs
Airco-Hoover       sweetening        through       metal     walls
(CHEM ENG] Removal of                separating the steam from
mercaptans from gasoline by          cooling air. Also known as
caustic and water washes,            air-cooled condenser. 2. A
then     heating    the      dried   device that removes vapors,
gasoline and passing it with         such as of oil or water, from
some oxygen through a reac-          the airstream in a com-
tor containing a slurry of           pressed-air    line.  {     'er
diatomaceous                earth    ,k3n'dens-3r)
impregnated      with      copper
                                     air conditioner (MECH ENG] A
chloride;      the        oxygen
regenerates the catalyst. {
'er,ko 'huvor 'swet-nirj )
air compressor (MECH ENG] A
machine that increases the
pressure of air by increasing
its density and delivering the
fluid against the connected
system resistance on the
discharge     side.    {    'er
air-compressor        unloader
(MECH ENG] A device for
control of air volume flowing
through an air compressor. {
'er ^sm'pres-sr sn'lod-sr)
air-compressor valve (MECH
ENG] A device for controlling
the flow into or out of the
cylinder of a compressor. { 'er
approaches a workpiece. {          granular or lumpy material and
s'proch ,vek-t3r)                  consisting of two strands of
                                   roller chain separated by
apron [BUILD] 1. A board on
                                   overlapping plates, forming
an interior wall beneath a
                                   the carrying surface, with
windowsill. 2. The vertical rear
                                   sides 2-6 inches (5-15
panel of a sink attached to a
                                   centimeters) high. { 'a-prsn
wall. 3. A section of a
concrete      slab    extending
beyond the face of a building      apron feeder | MECH ENG ] A
on adjacent ground. Also           limited-length version of apron
known as skirt; skirting. 4. A     conveyor used for control led-
vertical panel installed behind    rate feeding of pulverized
a sink or lavatory, [civ ENG] 1.   materials to a process or
A hard-surfaced area, usually      packaging unit. Also known
paved, adjacent to a ship or       as plate-belt feeder; plate
the like, used to park, load,      feeder. { 'a-pren ,fed-3r)
unload, or service vehicles. 2.
                                   apron flashing [BUILD] 1. The
A covering of a material such
                                   flashing that covers the joint
as concrete or timber over
                                   between a vertical surface
soil to prevent erosion by
                                   and a sloping roof, as at the
flowing water, as at the
                                   lower edge of a chimney. 2.
bottom of a dam. 3. A
                                   The flashing that diverts water
concrete or wooden shield
                                   from a vertical surface into a
that is situated along the bank
                                   gutter. { 'a-pren , flash *irj )
of a river, along a sea wall, or
below a dam. 4. In a railroad      apron lining [BUILD] The
system, a bridge structure that    piece of boarding which
carries tracks and is hinged to    covers the rough apron piece
land for connecting the deck       of a staircase. { 'a-pren jTn-irj )
of a railroad-car ferry to the
shore. |MECH ENG] A plate          apron piece [BUILD] A beam
serving to protect or cover a      that supports a landing or a
machine. { 'a-prsn )               series of winders in a
                                   staircase. { 'a-prsn ,pes )
apron conveyor |MECH ENG]
A conveyor used for carrying       apron rail [BUILD] A lock rail
                                   having a raised ornamental
molding. { 'a-prsn ,ral)          revolving cutting tool or the
                                  work to be cut. { 'ar-bsr)
apron wall [BUILD] In an
exterior wall, a panel which      arbor      collar    [ENG]   A
extends downward from a           cylindrical      spacer    that
windowsill to the top of a        positions and secures a
window below. { 'a-pren ,wol)     revolving cutter on an arbor. {
                                  'ar-bsr ,kal*3r)
AQL See acceptable quality
level.                            arbor hole [DES ENG] A hole
                                  in a revolving cutter or
aqualung [ENG] A self-
                                  grinding wheel for mounting it
contained          underwater
                                  on an arbor. { 'ar-bsr ,hol )
breathing apparatus (scuba)
of the demand or open-circuit     arbor press [MECH ENG] A
type developed by ].Y.            machine used for forcing an
Cousteau. { 'ak-wajarj )          arbor or a mandrel into drilled
                                  or bored parts preparatory to
aqueduct [civ ENG] An
                                  turning or grinding. Also
artificial tube or channel for
                                  known as mandrel press. { 'ar-
conveying water. { 'ak-w^dskt)
                                  bsr ,pres )
arbitration [IND ENG] A
                                  arbor support [ENG] A device
semijudicial means of settling
                                  to support the outer end or
labor-management disputes
                                  intermediate point of an
in which both sides agree to
                                  arbor. { 'ar-bsr s3,port)
be bound by the decision of
one or more neutral persons       arc See electric arc.The
selected by some method           graduated scale of an instru-
mutually agreed upon. {           ment for measuring angles, as
,ar*b3'tra* shsn )                a marine sextant; readings
                                  obtained on that part of the
arbor [MECH ENG] 1. A
                                  arc beginning at zero and
cylindrical device positioned
                                  extending in the direction usu-
between the spindle and
                                  ally considered positive are
outer bearing of a milling
                                  popularly said to be on the
machine and designed to hold
                                  arc, and those beginning at
a milling cutter. 2. A shaft or
                                  zero and extending in the
spindle used to hold a
                                  opposite direction are said to
be off the arc. { ark )            arch brace [BUILD ] A curved
                                   brace, usually used in pairs to
arc force [MECH] The force of
                                   support a roof frame and give
a plasma arc through a
                                   the effect of an arch. { 'arch
nozzle or opening. { 'ark ,fors
                                   ,bras )
                                   arch bridge [civ ENG] A
arch     dam[CIV      ENG]    A
                                   bridge having arches as the
structure curved fac so e
                                   main supports. { 'arch ,brij )
signed that when it is
subjected to vertical loads, its   arch center [ civ ENG ] A
two end supports exert             temporary      structure      for
reaction forces with inwardly      support of the parts of a
directed             horizontal    masonry or concrete arch
components; common uses            during its construction. { 'arch
for the arch are as a bridge,      [sen-tor)
support for a roadway or
                                   arch corner bead [BUILD] A
railroad track, or part of a
                                   corner bead which is cut on
building. { arch }
                                   the job; used to form and
arch band [civ ENG] Any            reinforce the curved portion of
narrow elongated surface           arch openings. { 'arch [kor-nor
forming part of or connected       ,bed)
with an arch. { 'arch ,band)
                                   arch dam [ civ ENG ] A dam
arch bar [BUILD] 1. A curved       having a curved face on the
chimney bar. 2. A curved bar       downstream side, the curve
in a window sash. { 'arch ,bar)    being roughly a portion of a
                                   cylinder whose axis is
arch beam [civ ENG] A curved
                                   vertical. { 'arch ,dam )
beam, used in construction,
with a longitudinal section        arched construction [BUILD]
bounded by two arcs having         A method of construction
different radii and centers of     relying on arches and vaults to
curvature so that the beam         support walls and floors. {
cross section is larger at         [archt kon'strok-shon )
either end than at the center.
                                   arch girder [civ ENG] A normal
{ 'arch ,bem )
                                   H-section steel girder bent to a
circular shape. { 'arch ,g3r-d3r)   for buildings, in contrast to
                                    heavy construction such as
arch-gravity dam [civ ENG]
                                    bridges. { jar* ksltek-chsr-sl
An arch dam stabilized by
                                    ,en*j3'nir*ig )
gravity due to great mass and
breadth of the base. { 'arch        architectural millwork |civ
jgravad-e ,dam )                    ENG] Ready-made millwork
                                    especially fabricated to meet
Archimedes' screw [MECH
                                    the specifications for a
ENG] A device for raising
                                    particular        job,          as
water by means of a rotating
                                    distinguished from standard
broad-threaded    screw      or
                                    or stock items or sizes. Also
spirally bent tube within an
                                    known as custom millwork.
inclined hollow cylinder. {]ar-
                                    {[ar-ksltek-chsr-sl 'mil, work)
k3]med,ez 'skru )
                                    architectural volume |civ
arching [civ ENG] 1. The
                                    ENG] The cubic content of a
transfer of stress from a
                                    building     calculated      by
yielding part of a soil mass to
                                    multiplying the floor area by
adjoining    less-yielding   or
                                    the height. { [ar-ksltek-chsr-sl
restrained parts of the mass.
                                    'val-ysm )
2. A system of arches. 3. The
arched part of a structure. {       architecture (ENG] 1. The art
'arch-irj )                         and science of designing
                                    buildings. 2. The product of
architectural acoustics [civ
                                    this art and science. { 'ar-
ENG] The science of planning
and building a structure to
ensure           the     most       arch press (MECH ENG] A
advantageous flow of sound          punch press having an arch-
to all listeners. {]ar-k3]tek-      shaped frame to permit
cri3r-3l o'ku-stiks )               operations on wide work. {
                                    'arch ,pres )
architectural engineering [
civ ENG ] The branch of             arch rib (civ ENG] One of a
engineering dealing primarily       set of projecting molded
with building materials and         members subdividing the
components and with the             undersurface of an arch. {
design of structural systems        'arch ,rib )
arch ring (civ ENG] A curved      apparent weight loss of a solid
member that provides the          of known mass and volume
main support of an arched         when it is immersed in the
structure. { 'arch ,rig )         liquid. { ar'kam-sd-sr)
arch truss (civ ENG ] A truss     arc process (CHEM ENG] A
having the form of an arch or     former process that used
arches. { 'arch ,tras )           electric arcs for fixation
                                  (oxidation) of atmospheric
arc of action See arc of
                                  nitrogen to manufacture nitric
contact. {[arksv'ak-shsn )
                                  acid. { [ark [pras-ss )
arc of approach (DES ENG] In
                                  arcticization    (ENG]  The
toothed gearing, the part of
                                  preparation of equipment for
the arc of contact along which
                                  operation in an environment
the flank of the driving wheel
                                  of        extremely     low
contacts the face of the driven
                                  temperatures. { [ard-ikj'za-
wheel. {[ark sv s'proch )
                                  shsn )
arc of contact (MECH ENG] 1.
                                  arc triangulation (ENG] A
The angular distance over
                                  system of triangula-tion in
which a gear tooth travels
                                  which an arc of a great circle
while it is in contact with its
                                  on the surface of the earth is
mating tooth. Also known as
                                  followed in order to tie in two
arc of action. 2. The angular
                                  distant points. { 'ark ^r^ag-
distance a pulley travels
                                  gys'la-shsn )
while in contact with a belt or
rope. { [ark sv 'kan,takt)        are (MECH] A unit of area,
                                  used mainly in agriculture,
arc of recess (DES ENG] In
                                  equal to 100 square meters. {
toothed gearing, the part of
the arc of contact wherein the
face of the driving wheel         area         coverage       (ENG]
touches the flank of the driven   Complete coverage of an area
wheel. { [ark sv 're,ses )        by aerial photography having
                                  parallel overlapping flight lines
areometer (ENG] A device for
                                  and stereoscopic overlap be-
determining the density of a
                                  tween exposures in the line of
liquid by measuring the
                                  flight. { 'er-e-s 'ksvrij )
area drain (civ ENG] A              area survey (ENG] A survey
receptacle designed to collect      of areas large enough to
surface or rain water from an       require loops of control. { 'er-
open area. { 'er-e-3 [dran )        e-s [s3r,va )
area landfill (civ ENG] A           arc triangulation [ENG] A
sanitary landfill operation that    system       of    triangulation
takes care of the solid waste       designed to progress in every
of more than one municipality       direction from a control point.
in a region. { 'er-e-3 'land.fil)   { 'er-e-3 ^r^ag-gys'la-shsn )
area light (civ ENG] 1. A           area wall (civ ENG] A retaining
source of light with significant    wall around an areaway. { 'er-
dimensions in two directions,       e-3 ,wol)
such as a window or luminous
                                    areaway (civ ENG] An open
ceiling. 2. A light used to
                                    space at subsurface level
illuminate large areas. { 'er-e-
                                    adjacent      to   a  building,
3 ,lTt)
                                    providing access to and
area     meter     (ENG]     A      utilities for a basement. { 'er-
mechanism to measure fluid          e-^wa )
flow rate through a fixed-area
                                    Argand lamp (ENG] A gas
conduit by the movement of a
                                    lamp having a tube-shaped
weighted piston or float sup-
                                    wick, allowing a current of air
ported by the flowing fluid;
                                    inside as well as outside the
includes     rotameters    and
                                    flame. { 'ar,gan 'lamp )
piston-type meters. { 'er-e-s
,med-3r)                            argentometer          (ENG]    A
                                    hydrometer used to find the
area of use (ENG] For a
                                    amount of silver salt in a
balance      depending       on
                                    solution. { ,ar-jsn'tam-sd-sr)
gravitational acceleration, an
area that includes a sufficient     Arkansas stone (ENG] A
number of locations providing       whetstone made of Arkansas
a mean value for the                stone, for sharpening edged
gravitational acceleration of       tools. { 'ar-k3n,s6 ,ston )
the given balance. { 'er-e-3 sv
'yus )                              ARL See acceptable reliability
arm (CONT SYS] A robot           part of a door from kicks and
component consiting of an        scratches, covering the door
interconnected set of links      to a height usually 39 inches
and powered joints that move     (1 meter) or more. { 'ar-msr
and support the wrist socket     [plat)
and end effector, (ELEC] See
                                 arm solution (CONTSYS) The
branch, (ENG ACOUs] See
                                 computation performed by a
tone arm. { arm )
                                 robot controller to calculate
arm conveyor (MECH ENG] A        the joint positions required to
conveyor in the form of an       achieve desired tool positions.
endless belt or chain to which   { 'arm ssju-shsn )
are attached projecting arms
                                 arm-tool aggregate ( IND ENG
or shelves which carry the
                                 )    A  biomechanical       unit
materials. { [arm ksn'va-sr)
                                 comprising the arm and the
arm elevator (MECH ENG] A        tool that it holds and
chain elevator with protruding   manipulates. { [arm [tul 'ag-re-
arms to cradle fixed-shape       gst)
objects, such as drums or
                                 aromatization (CHEM ENG)
barrels, as they are moved
                                 Conversion       of        any
upward. { [arm ^l-s'vad-sr)
                                 nonaromatic      hydrocarbon
armored faceplate (DES ENG]      structure    to      aromatic
A tamper-proof faceplate or      hydrocarbon,       particularly
lock front, mortised in the      petroleum.    {3,ro-msd-s'za-
edge of a door to cover the      shsn )
lock mechanism. { 'ar-msrd
                                 arostat process (CHEM ENG)
                                 A process in which aromatic
armored front (DES ENG] A        molecules are saturated by
lock front used on mortise       catalytic hydrogenation to
locks that consists of two       produce high-quality jet fuels,
plates, the underplate and       low-aromatic-content
the finish plate. { 'ar-msrd     solvents,      and    high-purity
'front)                          cyclohexane from benzene. {
                                 'ar-3,stat ,pras-3s )
armor plate (BUILD) A metal
plate which protects the lower   array (ELECTR) A group of
components           such     as   of a wall. { 'ar-e^e^vii'sur)
antennas,        reflectors,  or
                                   arris fillet (BUILD) A triangular
directors arranged to provide
                                   wooden piece that raises the
a desired variation of radiation
                                   slates of a roof against a
transmission or reception with
                                   chimney or wall so that rain
direction. { s'ra )
                                   runs off. { 'ar-ss [fil-st )
array radar ( ENG ) A radar
                                   arris gutter (BUILD) A V-
incorporating a multiplicity of
                                   shaped       wooden     gutter
phased antenna elements.
                                   fixedtothe eaves of a building.
{s'ra 'ra,dar)
                                   { 'ar-osjgod-or)
array sonar (ENG) A sonar
                                   arris hip tile (BUILD) A
system      incorporating   a
                                   special roof tile having an L-
phased array of radiating and
                                   shaped cross section, made
receiving transducers. { s'ra
                                   to fit over the hip of a roof.
                                   Also known as hip tile. { 'ar-ss
arrester (ELEC) See lightning      'hip ,tll)
arrester, (ENG) A wire screen
                                   arris rail (civ ENG) A rail of
at the top of an incinerator or
                                   triangular section, usually
chimney     which     prevents
                                   formed by slitting diagonally a
sparks or burning material
                                   strip of square section. { 'ar-ss
from leaving the stack. { s'res-
                                   arrissing tool (ENG) A tool
arrestment device (ENG) A
                                   similar to a float, but having a
locking mechanism installed
                                   form suitable for rounding an
on a balance for holding one
                                   edge     of    freshly      placed
of several levers in place;
                                   concrete. { 'ar-os-irj ,tul)
serves     to    protect    the
balance. { s'rest-msnt di,vTs )    arris   tile  (BUILD)      Any
                                   angularly shaped tile. { 'ar-ss
arriere-voussure (BUILD) 1.
                                   ,tTl )
An arch or vault in a thick wall
carrying the thickness of the      arrisways       (civ      ENG)
wall, especially one over a        Diagonally, in respect to the
door or window frame. 2. A         manner of laying tiles, slates,
relieving arch behind the face     bricks, or timber. Also known
as arriswise. { 'ar-3s,waz )         permanently               or
                                     semipermanently connected.
arriswise See arrisways. { 'ar-
                                     { ar'tik-ysjad-sd 'tran )
3s,wTz )
                                     articulation (CONT SYS) The
arrival rate (IND ENG) The
                                     manner and actions of joining
mean number of new calling
                                     components of a robot with
units arriving at a service
                                     connecting parts or links that
facility per unit time. { s'rT-vsl
                                     allow motion. { ar
                                     articulation point See cut
articulated drop chute (ENG)
                                     point.    {  ar^ik-ys'la-shsn
A drop chute, for a falling
stream of concrete, which
consists      of  a    vertical      artificial atmosphere (CHEM
succession of tapered metal          ENG) A mixture of gases used
cylinders, so designed that          in industrial operations in
the lower end of each cylinder       place of air; classified as an
fits into the upper end of the       active, or process, atmos-
one below. { ar 'tik-ysjad-sd        phere, or an inactive, or
'drap ,shut )                        protective, atmosphere. { [ard-
                                     ojfish-ol 'at-m^sfir)
articulated leader (MECH
ENG)     A     wheel-mounted         artificial ear ( ENG ACOUS) A
transport unit with a pivotal        device designed to duplicate
loading element used in earth        the     frequency      response,
moving. { ar'tik-ysjad-3d 'led-      acoustic             impedance,
sr)                                  threshold      sensitivity, and
                                     relative      perception      of
articulated structure (civ
                                     loudness, consisting of a
ENG) A structure in which
                                     special-microphone enclosed
relative motion is allowed to
                                     in a box with properties similar
occur between parts, usually
                                     to those of the human ear. {
by means of a hinged or
                                     [ard-ojfish-si 'ir)
sliding joint or joints. { ar'tik-
ysjad-sd 'strak-chsr)                artificial ground (ELEC) A
                                     common correction for a
articulated train (ENG) A
                                     radio-frequency electrical or
railroad train whose cars are
                                     electronic circuit that is not
directly connected to the           equality constraints and for
earth. { [ard-ojfish-ol 'graund )   greater-than        or      equal
                                    inequality      constraints.    {
artificial harbor (civ ENG) 1.
                                    |ard*3|fish*3l 'ver-e-s-bsl)
A     harbor     protected  by
breakwaters. 2. A harbor            artificial voice |ENG ACOUS]
formed by dredging. { [ard-         1.      Small      loudspeaker
3[fish-3l 'har-bsr)                 mounted in a shaped baffle
                                    which is proportioned to
artificial monument (ENG) A
                                    simulate the acoustical con-
relatively permanent object
                                    stants of the human head;
made by humans, such as an
                                    used for calibrating and
abutment or stone marker,
                                    testing            close-talking
used to identify the location of
                                    microphones. 2. Synthetic
a survey station or corner.
                                    speech produced by a multiple
{[ard-ojfish-si 'man-ys-msnt)
                                    tone generator; used to
artificial nourishment (civ         produce a voice reply in some
ENG)       The   process      of    realtime              computer
replenishing a beach by             applications. { ]ard-3]fish-3l
artificial means, such as the       'vois )
deposition     of      dredged
                                    artificial weathering [ENG]
material. { [ard-3[fish-3l 'nsr-
                                    The controlled production of
                                    changes in materials under
artificial recharge (civ ENG)       laboratory    conditions      to
The recharge of an aquifier         simulate    actual     outdoor
depleted by abnormally large        exposure. {[ard-3[fish-3l 'welh-
withdrawals, by the use of          a-rirj )
injection wells and other tech-
                                    asbestos-cement cladding
niques. {[ard-ojfish-ol 're,charj
                                    (BUILD) Asbestos board and
                                    component     wall   systems,
artificial variable (IND ENG)       directly supported by wall
One       type     of   variable    framing, forming a wall or wall
introduced in a linear program      facing. { as'bes-tss si]ment
model in order to find an initial   'klad-irj )
basic feasible solution; an
                                    as-built drawing See as-fitted
artificial variable is used for
drawing. {]az [bilt 'dro-iq )      ash collector See dust
                                   chamber. { 'ash ks'lek-tsr)
as-built schedule (IND ENG)
The final schedule for a           ash conveyor (MECH ENG) A
project, reflecting the actual     device that transports refuse
scope, actual completion           from a furnace by fluid or
dates, actual duration of the      mechanical means. { 'ash
specified activities, and start    ksn'va-sr)
dates. {]az [bilt ]skej-3l)
                                   ash dump (ENG) An opening
ascending branch (MECH)            in the floor of a fireplace or
The portion of the trajectory      firebox through which ashes
between the origin and the         are swept to an ash pit below.
summit on which a projectile       { 'ash ,d3mp )
climbs and its altitude con-
                                   ash furnace (ENG) A furnace
stantly increases. { o'send-iq
                                   in which materials are fritted
'branch )
                                   for glassmaking. { 'ash 'fsr-nss
ascending vertical angle           )
See angle of elevation. {
                                   ashlar (civ ENG) Masonry with
s'send-ir) [vsrd-i-ksl 'ag-gsl)
                                   an exposed side of square or
as-fitted drawing (ENG) A          rectangular stones. { 'ash-lsr)
drawing as amended after
                                   ashlar line (BUILD) The outer
completion of an industrial
                                   line of a wall above any
facility in order to provide an
                                   projecting base. { 'ash-lsr ,lTn
accurate record of the details
of the entire installation in
their final form. Also known as    ash pan (ENG) A metal
as-built drawing; as-made          receptacle       beneath       a
drawing. { ]az jfid-ad 'dro-iq )   fireplace or furnace grating for
                                   collection and removal of
ash (ENG) An undesirable
                                   ashes. { 'ash ,pan )
constituent of diesel fuel
whose              quantitative    ash pit (BUILD) The ash-
measurement           indicates    collecting area beneath a
degree of fuel cleanliness and     fireplace hearth. { 'ash ,pit)
freedom       from     abrasive
material. { ash )                  ash pit door (ENG) A cast-
iron door providing access to         4:3 in the United States and
an ash pit for ash removal. {         Britain. 2. In any rectangular
'ash ,pit ,dor)                       configuration (such as the
                                      cross section of a rectangular
A size ( ENG ) 1. One of a
                                      duct), the ratio of the longer
series of sizes to which
                                      dimension to the shorter,
trimmed paper and board are
                                      (MECH ENG) In an automotive
manufactured; for size AN,
                                      vehicle, the ratio of the
with N equal to any integer
                                      height of a tire to its width.
from 0 to 10, the length of the
                                      Also known as tire profile. {
longer side is 2"|2N " l|/4 meters,
                                      'a,spekt ,ra-sho)
while the length of the shorter
side is 2~(2N + i|/4 met;ers^ with    asphalt cutter (MECH ENG) A
both lengths rounded off to the       powered machine having a
nearest millimeter. 2. Of a           rotating abrasive blade; used
sheet     of       paper,       the   to saw through bituminous
dimensions 8.5 inches by 11           surfacing material. { 'a ,sfolt
inches (216 millimeters by 279        .ksd-sr)
millimeters). { 'a ,sTz )
                                      asphalt heater (ENG) A piece
as-made drawing See as-               of equipment for raising the
fitted drawing. {]az [mad 'dro-irj    temperature of bitumen used
)                                     in paving. { 'a,sfdlt 'hed-sr)
aspect (civ ENG) Of railway           asphalt leveling course (civ
signals, what the engineer            ENG ) A layer of an asphalt-
sees when viewing the blades          aggregate mixture of variable
or lights in their relative           thickness, used to eliminate
positions or colors. { 'a,spekt)      irregularities in contour of an
                                      existing surface, prior to the
aspect angle (ENG) The
                                      placement of a superimposed
angle formed between the
                                      layer. { 'a,sfolt 'lev-ol-iq ,kors )
longitudinal axis of a projectile
in flight and the axis of a radar     asphalt overlay (civ ENG)
beam. { 'a,spekt ,ar)-g3l )           One or more layers of asphalt
                                      construction on an existing
aspect ratio (DES ENG) 1.
                                      pavement. { 'a,sfolt 'ovsr.la )
The ratio of frame width to
frame height in television; it is     asphalt pavement (civ ENG)
A pavement consisting of a          aspiration      psychrometer
surface layer of mineral            [ENG] A psychrome-ter in
aggregate,        coated      and   which the ventilation is
cemented        together     with   provided by a suction fan. {
asphalt cement on supporting        ,as-p3'ra-sh3n ,si'kram-3d-3r)
layers. { 'a,sfolt 'payment )
                                    aspiration      thermograph
asphalt soil stabilization          [ENG] A thermograph in which
(civ ENG) The treatment of          ventilation is provided by a
naturally occurring nonplastic      suction fan. { ,as-p3'ra-sh3n
or moderately plastic soil with     'thsrm-^graf)
liquid asphalt at normal
                                    aspirator      (ENG]     Any
temperatures to improve the
                                    instrument or apparatus that
load-bearing qualities of the
                                    utilizes a vacuum to draw up
soil.    {      'a,sfolt   [soil
                                    gases or granular materials. {
,stab*3*l3'za* shsn )
aspirating burner ( ENG ) A
                                    assay balance (ENG] A
burner in which combustion air
                                    sensitive balance used in the
at high velocity is drawn over
                                    assaying of gold, silver, and
an orifice, creating a negative
                                    other precious metals. { 'a,sa
static pressure and thereby
                                    ,bal-3ns )
sucking fuel into the stream of
air; the mixture of air and fuel    assembling bolt (civ ENG] A
is conducted into a com-            threaded bolt for holding
bustion chamber, where the          together    temporarily  the
fuel is burned in suspension. {     several parts of a structure
'as-p^rad-ig 'bsr-nsr)              during riveting. { s'sem-blig
aspiration      meteorograph
(ENG) An instrument for the         assembly (MECH ENG] A unit
continuous recording of two or      containing the component
more             meteorological     parts   of  a    mechanism,
parameters,        with     the     machine, or similar device. {
ventilation being provided by a     s'sem-ble )
suction fan. { ^s-ps'ra-shsn
^ed-e'or-^graf)                     assembly line ( IND ENG ] A
                                    mass-production arrangement
whereby the work in process       subassembly operation.         {
is progressively transferred      s'sem-ble ,tTm)
from one operation to the next
                                  assets (IND ENG] All the
until   the     product     is
                                  resources,     rights,      and
assembled. { s'sem-ble ,1m )
                                  property owned by a person
assembly-line        balancing    or a company; the book value
(IND ENG] Assigning numbers       of these items as shown on
of operators or machines to       the balance sheet. { 'a,sets )
each    operation      of    an
                                  assignable cause (IND ENG]
assembly line so as to meet
                                  Any identifiable factor which
the required production rate
                                  causes variation in a process
with a minimum of idle time. {
                                  outside the predicted limits,
s'sem-ble ,lTn 'bal-ons-ig )
                                  thereby altering quality. {
assembly machine (MECH            s'sTn-s-bsl 'koz )
ENG]    A machine in a
                                  assize (civ ENG] 1. A
manufacturing facility that
                                  cylindrical block of stone
produces a configuration of
                                  forming one unit in a column.
some practical value from
                                  2. A layer of stonework. { s'sTz
discrete components. {s'sem-
ble m^shen )
                                  Assmann        psychrometer
assembly method (IND ENG]
                                  (ENG] A special form of the
The technique used to
                                  aspiration psychrometer in
assemble a manufactured
                                  which     the   ther-mometric
product, such as hand
                                  elements are well shielded
assembly, progressive line
                                  from radiation. { 'as,man
assembly, and automatic
assembly. { s'sem-ble ,meth-
3d)                               assumed plane coordinates
                                  (ENG] A local plane-coordinate
assembly time ( ENG ] 1. The
                                  system set up at the conve-
elapsed     time    after  the
                                  nience of the surveyor.
application of an adhesive
                                  {s'sumd [plan ,ko'6rd-n3ts )
until its strength becomes
effective. 2. The time elapsed    astatic galvanometer (ENG] A
in performing an assembly or      sensitive      galvanometer
designed to be independent         astern (ENG] TO the rear of
of the earth's magnetic field. {   an aircraft, vehicle, or vessel;
a'stad-ik ,gal-v3'nam-sd-sr)       behind; from the back. {
                                   s'stsrn )
astatic     governor       See
isochronous governor.      { a     astragal (BUILD] 1. A small
'stad-ik gsvs-nsr)                 convex molding decorated
                                   with a string of beads or
astatic gravimeter ( ENG ] A
                                   bead-and-reel shapes. 2. A
sensitive gravimeter designed
                                   plain bead molding. 3. A
to measure small changes in
                                   member, or combination of
gravity. { a'stad-ik gra'vim-sd-
                                   members, fixed to one of a
                                   pair of doors or casement
astatic magnetometer (ENG]         windows to cover the joint
A       magnetometer         for   between the meeting stiles
determining the gradient of a      and to close the clearance
magnetic field by measuring        gap. { 'as-tre-gsl)
the difference in reading from
                                   astragal front (DES ENG] A
two magnetometers placed at
                                   lock front which is shaped to
different positions. { a'stad-ik
                                   fit the edge of a door with an
                                   astragal molding. { 'as-tre-gsl
astatic wattmeter (ENG] An         [front)
electrodynamic         wattmeter
                                   astral lamp (ENG] An Argand
designed to be insensitive to
                                   lamp designed so that its light
uniform      xternal    magnetic
                                   is    not    prevented        from
fields. { a'stad-ik 'wat,med-wat
                                   reaching a table beneath it by
                                   the flattened annular reservoir
astatized gravimeter (ENG] A       holding the oil. { 'as-tral ,lamp
gravimeter,          sometimes     )
referred to as unstable, where
                                   astroballistics (MECH] The
the force of gravity is
                                   study of phenomena arising
maintained in an unstable
                                   out of the motion of a solid
equilibrium with the restoring
                                   through a gas at speeds high
force. { 'as-t3,tTzd gra'vim-sd-
                                   enough to cause ablation; for
                                   example, the interaction of a
meteoroid       with        the     the element.    {]a-s3[me-trik
atmosphere. {[as-tro-bs'lis-tiks    'rod-or)
                                    asymmetric top (MECH] A
astrolabe ( ENG ] An                system in which all three
instrument designed to ob-          principal moments of inertia
serve the positions and             are different. { ]a-so]me-trik
measure the altitudes of            'tap )
celestial bodies. { 'as-tra,lab )
                                    asynchronous          control
astronomical instruments            (CONT SYS ] A method of
(ENG] Specific kinds of             control in which the time
telescopes     and     ancillary    allotted for performing an
equipment        used         by    operation depends on the
astronomers to study the            time actually required for the
positions,    motions,      and     operation, rather than on a
composition of stars and            predetermined fraction of a
members      of    the    solar     fixed machine cycle. { a'sig-
system. { ^s-trs'nam-s-ksl          kre-nss ksn'trol)
'in-stra-msns )
                                    asynchronous device |CONT
astronomical theodolite See         SYS] A device in which the
altazimuth. { ,as-tre'nam-s-ksl     speed of operation is not
the'ad-sljt)                        related to any frequency in the
                                    system to which it is
astronomical traverse (ENG]
                                    connected. { a'sig-kre-nss
A survey traverse in which the
                                    di'vTs )
geographic positions of the
stations are obtained from          asynchronous          operation
astronomical    observations,       |ELECTR] An operation that is
and lengths and azimuths of         started by a completion signal
lines     are  obtained     by      from a previous operation,
computation. { ,as-tra'nam-3-       proceeds at the maximum
k3l tre'vsrs )                      speed of the circuits until
                                    finished, and then generates
asymmetric rotor (MECH
                                    its own completion signal. {
ENG] A rotating element for
                                    a'sirj* kre-nss ,ap-3'ra-sh3n )
which the axis (center of
rotation) is not centered in        asynchronous      timing   |IND
ENG]  A simulation method for       sea level. Abbreviated atm.
queues in which the system          Also known as standard
model is updated at each            atmosphere. { 'at-m3,sfir)
arrival or departure, resulting
                                    atmospheric cooler | MECH
in the master clock being
                                    ENG ] A fluids cooler that
increased by a variable
                                    utilizes the cooling effect of
amount. { a'sig-krs-nss 'tlm-irj
                                    ambient air surrounding the
                                    hot, fluids-filled tubes. {[at*
at See technical atmosphere.        mojsfir-ik 'kiil-sr)
ata |MECH] A unit of absolute       atmospheric          distillation
pressure    in  the     metric      |CHEM       ENG]       Distillation
technical system equal to 1         operation      conducted         at
technical atmosphere. { 'a-ts )     atmospheric       pressure,       in
                                    contrast to vacuum distillation
athermalize [ENG] TO make
                                    or pressure distillation. { [at-
independent of temperature
                                    mojsfir-ik ,dis-t3'la-shsn )
or of thermal effects. { ja'thar*
msjlz )                             atmospheric impurity | ENG ]
                                    An extraneous substance that
atm See atmosphere.
                                    is mixed as a contaminant
atmidometer           See           with the air of the atmosphere.
atmometer. { ^t-ms'dam-sd-          {[at-mojsfir-ik im 'pyur-sd-e )
                                    atmospheric noise |ELECTR]
atmometer [ENG] The general         Noise heard during radio
name for an instrument which        reception due to atmospheric
measures the evaporation            interference. { [at-mojsfir-ik
rate of water into the              'ndiz )
atmosphere. Also known as
                                    atmospheric steam curing
atmidometer;      evaporation
                                    [ENG] The steam curing of
gage;     evaporimeter.     {
                                    concrete or cement products
                                    at   atmospheric        pressure,
atmosphere | MECH ] A unit of       usually at a maximum ambient
pressure equal to 101.325           temperature between 100 and
kilopascals, which is the air       200°F (40 and 95°C). {
pressure measured at mean           jat#m3Jsfir*ik 'stem 'kyur-ig)
atomic force microscope            by    spraying,    sprinkling,
[ENG] A device for mapping         misting, or nebulizing. { 'ad-
surface atomic structure by        3,mTz-3r)
measuring the force acting on
                                   atomizer burner [MECH ENG]
the tip of a sharply pointed
                                   A liquid-fuel burner that
wire or other object that is
                                   atomizes the unignited fuel
moved over the surface. {
                                   into a fine spray as it enters
ajtanvik jfors 'mTjkr^skop )
                                   the combustion zone. { 'ad-
atomic moisture meter [ENG]        ^mlz-sr [bsr-nsr)
An instrument that measures
                                   atomizer mill [MECH ENG] A
the moisture content of coal
                                   solids grinder, the product
instantaneously          and
                                   from which is a fine powder. {
continuously by bombarding it
                                   'ad-3,mTz-3r ,mil)
with neutrons and measuring
the neutrons which bounce          atomizing humidifier [MECH
back to a detector tube after      ENG] A humidifier in which tiny
striking hydrogen atoms of         particles   of    water    are
water. { s'tam-ik 'mdis-chsr       introduced into a stream of
,med-3r)                           air. { 'ad-^mTz-ir) ,hyu'mid-
atomic power plant See
nuclear power plant. { s'tam-      atom probe [ ENG ] An
ik 'pau-sr ,plant)                 instrument for identifying a
                                   single atom or molecule on a
atomization [MECH ENG] The
                                   metal surface; it consists of a
mechanical subdivision of a
                                   field ion microscope with a
bulk liquid or meltable solid,
                                   probe hole in its screen
such as certain metals, to
                                   opening     into    a     mass
produce drops, which vary in
                                   spectrometer; atoms that are
diameter depending on the
                                   removed from the specimen
process from under 10 to over
                                   by pulsed field evaporation fly
1000 micrometers. { ,ad-3-
                                   through the probe hole and
ms'za-shsn )
                                   are detected in the mass
atomizer [MECH ENG] A device       spectrometer. { 'ad-sm ,prob )
that produces a mechanical
                                   attached thermometer [ENG]
subdivision of a bulk liquid, as
                                   A thermometer which is
attached to an instrument to        building immediately below
determine    its    operating       the roof and entirely or partly
temperature.     {    s'tacht       within the roof framing. { 'ad-ik
thsr'mam-sd-sr)                     )
attemperation [ENG] The             attic tank [BUILD] An open
regulation of thetem-perature       tank which is installed above
of a substance. { ^tem-ps'ra-       the highest plumbing fixture in
shsn )                              a building and which supplies
                                    water to the fixtures by gravity.
attemperation     of    steam
                                    { 'ad-ik ,tarjk )
[MECH ENG] The controlled
cooling, in a steam boiler, of      attic urge [BUILD] Of a
steam at the superheater            doorway, having jambs which
outlet or between the primary       are inclined slightly inward, so
and secondary stages of the         that the opening is wider at
superheater to regulate the         the threshold than at the top.
final steam temperature. {          { 'ad-s.ksrj )
3,tem-p3'ra-shsn sv 'stem )
                                    attic ventilator [BUILD] A
attenuate [ENG ACOUS] TO            mechanical fan located in the
weaken a signal by reducing         attic space of a residence;
its level. { s'ten-y^wat)           usually moves large quantities
                                    of air at a relatively low
attenuation [ ELEC ] The
                                    velocity. { 'ad-ik 'vent-3l,ad-3r)
exponential decrease with
distance in the amplitude of        attraction gripper [CONT SYS]
an electrical signal traveling      A robot component that uses
along a very long uniform           adhesion,      suction,     or
transmission line, due to           magnetic forces to grasp a
conductor      and     dielectric   workpiece. {s'trak-shsn ,grip-
losses, [ENG] A process by          sr)
which a material is fabricated
                                    attribute sampling |IND ENG]
into     a     thin,     slender
                                    A quality-control inspection
configuration,      such      as
                                    method in which the sampled
forming a fiber from molten
                                    articles are classified only as
glass. { ^ten-ys'wa-shsn )
                                    defective or nondefective. { 'a-
attic [BUILD] The part of a         tre,byut ,sam-plirj )
attributes testing [ENG] A           attenuator and used to
reliability test procedure in        measure hearing acuity for
which the items under test are       pure tones, speech, and bone
classified     according        to   conduction. { ^d-e'am-sd-sr)
qualitative characteristics. { 'a-
tre,byuts ,test-ir))
                                     radiosonde [ ENG ] A radio-
attrition mill |MECH ENG] A          sonde with a carrier wave
machine in which materials           modulated by audiofrequency
are pulverized between two           signals whose frequency is
toothed metal disks rotating         controlled by the sensing
in opposite directions. {            elements of the instrument. {
s'trish-sn ,mil)                     ]6d-e-o]maj-3-lad-3d  ]rad-e-
                                     o,sand )
Atwood machine |MECH ENG]
A device comprising a pulley         audio patch bay [ENG
over which is passed a               ACOUS] Specific patch panels
stretch-free cord with a             provided to terminate all
weight hanging on each end.          audio circuits and equipment
{ 'at,wud ms'shen )                  used in a channel and
                                     technical control facility; this
audible leak detector [ENG]
                                     equipment can also be found
A device used as an auxiliary
                                     in transmitting and receiving
to the main leak detector for
                                     stations. { '6d-e-o ]pach ,ba )
conversion of the output
signal into audible sound. {         audio spectrometer See
iod-s-bsl 'lek di,tek-tsr)           acoustic spectrometer. { 'dd-
                                     e-6 spek'tram-sd-sr)
audio-frequency meter [ENG]
One of a number of types of          audio system See sound-
frequency meters usable in           reproducing system. { 'od-e-o
the audio range; for example,        ,sis-t3m )
a resonant-reed frequency
                                     audio taper [ENG ACOUS] A
meter. { '6d-e-o [fre-kwsn-se
                                     special type of potentiometer
                                     used in a volume-control
audiometer     [ENG]    An           apparatus to compensate for
instrument composed of an            the nonlinearity of human
oscillator, amplifier, and           hearing    and    give    the
impression of a linear in-            penetration is accomplished
crease in audibility as volume        by the cutting or gouging
is raised. Also known as              action of chisel-type cutting
linear taper. { '6d-e-o ,ta-psr)      edges     forced    into       the
                                      substance by rotation of the
audiphone [ENG ACOUS] A
                                      auger bit. Also known as
device that enables persons
                                      auger boring. { '6-gsr ,dril-ir) )
with certain types of deafness
to hear, consisting of a plate        auger packer [MECH ENG] A
or diaphragm that is placed           feed mechanism that uses a
against     the     teeth    and      continuous auger or screw
transmits sound vibrations to         inside a cylindrical sleeve to
the inner ear. { '6d-3,fon )          feed hard-to-flow granulated
                                      solids       into      shipping
auger [DES ENG] 1. A wood-
                                      containers, such as bags or
boring tool that consists of a
                                      drums. { '6-gsr 'pak-sr)
shank with spiral channels
ending in two spurs, a central        auget [ENG] A priming tube,
tapered feed screw, and a             used in blasting. Also spelled
pair of cutting lips. 2. A large      augette. { 6'zhet)
augerlike tool for boring into
                                      augette See auget. { 6'zhet)
soil. { '6-gsr)
                                      auralization      See     virtual
auger bit [DES ENG] a A bit
                                      acoustics. { ,6r-3l-3'za-shsn )
shaped like an auger but
without a handle; used for            autoadaptivity [CONT SYS]
wood boring and for earth             The ability of an advanced
drilling. { '6-gsr ,bit)              robot     to    sense    the
                                      environment,          accept
auger boring [ENG] 1. The
                                      commands, and analyze and
hole drilled by the use of
                                      execute operations. { [od-o-
auger equipment. 2. See
                                      ^dap'tiv-sd-e )
auger drilling. { '6-gsr ,bor-ir) )
                                      autoclave [ENG] An airtight
auger conveyor See screw
                                      vessel for heating and
conveyor. { '6-gsr ksn'va-sr)
                                      sometimes     agitating   its
auger drilling [ENG] A                contents under high steam
method of drilling in which           pressure; used for industrial
processing, sterilizing, and       ENG]   The secondary grinding
cooking with moist or dry heat     of material by tumbling the
at high temperatures. { '6d-       material     in   a    revolving
o,klav )                           cylinder, without balls or bars
                                   taking part in the operation. {
autoclave       curing    [ENG]
                                   o'taj-s-nss 'grind-Hi}
Steam curing of concrete
products, sand-lime brick,         autogenous healing [ENG] A
asbestos cement products,          natural process of closing and
hydrous      calcium    silicate   filling cracks in concrete or
insulation products, or cement     mortar while it is kept damp. {
in an autoclave at maximum         o'taj-s-nss 'hel-irj )
ambient           temperatures
                                   autogenous        mill See
generally between 340 and
                                   autogenous tumbling mill. {
420°F (170 and 2l5°C). { '6d-
                                   d'taj-s-nss 'mil)
o,klav 'kyur Hi}
                                   autogenous tumbling mill
autoclave molding [ENG] A
                                   |MECH ENG] A type of ball-mill
method of curing reinforced
                                   grinder utilizing as the grinding
plastics    that   uses    an
                                   medium the coarse feed
autoclave with 50-100 pounds
                                   (incoming)      material.     Also
per square inch (345-690 kilo-
                                   known as autogenous mill. {
pascals) steam pressure to
                                   o'taj-s-nss 'torn-blirj ,mil)
set the resin. { '6d-o,klav
[mold-irj )                        autoignition |MECH ENG]
                                   Spontaneous ignition of some
autocorrelation [ELECTR] A
                                   or all of the fuel-air mixture in
technique used to detect
                                   the combustion chamber of an
cyclic activity in a complex
                                   internal combustion engine.
signal. { ]6d-o,kar-3'la-sh3n )
                                   Also known as spontaneous
autofrettage [ ENG ] A process     combustion. {[od-o-ig'nish-sn )
for manufacturing gun barrels;
                                   automanual system |civ ENG]
prestressing       the     metal
                                   A railroad signal system in
increases the load at which its
                                   which signals are set manually
permanent            deformation
                                   but       are         activated
occurs. { '6d-o,fred-ij )
                                   automatically to return to the
autogenous grinding [MECH          danger position by a passing
train. { ]6d-o]man- ys-wsl 'sis-   balance capable of performing
torn )                             weighing procedures without
                                   the    intervention  of    an
automated guided vehicle
                                   operator. {]6d-3]mad-ik 'ba-
|IND ENG] In a flexible
                                   tons }
manufacturing    system,      a
driverless computer-controlled     automatic batcher (MECH
vehicle     equipped       with    ENG] A batcher for concrete
guidance     and     collision-    which is actuated by a single
avoidance systems and used         starter    switch,      opens
to transport workpieces and        automatically at the start of
tools between work stations.       the weighing operations of
Abbreviated AGV. { ,6d-            each material, and closes
3]mad-3d [gTd-sd 've-3-ksl)        automatically    when     the
                                   designated weight of each
automated guided vehicle
                                   material has been reached.
system (CONT SYS] A
                                   {]6d-o]mad-ik 'bach-sr)
computer-controlled system
that uses pallets and other        automatic calibration (ENG]
interface equipment to trans-      A process in which an
port workpieces to numerically     electronic device automatically
controlled machine tools and       performs the recalibration of a
other equipment in a flexible      measuring      range    of    a
manufacturing            system,   weighing     instrument,    for
moving in a predetermined          example       an     electronic
pattern to ensure automatic,       balance. { ]6d-o]mad-ik ,kal-
accurate, and rapid work-          3'bra-sh3n )
machine contact. { '6d-3,mad-
                                   automatic check-out system
od [gld-sd 've-s-ksl ,sis-t3m )
                                   (CONT SYS] A system utilizing
automatic [ENG] Having a           test equipment capable of
self-acting mechanism that         automatically             and
performs a required act at a       simultaneously       providing
predetermined time or in           actions and information which
response         to      certain   will ultimately result in the
conditions. { ]6d-3]mad-ik)        efficient operation of tested
                                   equipment while keeping time
automatic balance (ENG] A
                                   to a minimum. {]6d-o]mad-ik
'chek,aut ,sis*t3m )               system,     in    which     the
                                   components of the control
automatic choke (MECH ENG]
                                   system are represented as
A system for enriching the air-
                                   functional blocks in series and
fuel mixture in a cold
                                   parallel         arrangements
automotive engine when the
                                   according to their position in
accelerator is first depressed;
                                   the actual control system. {
the   choke      plate    opens
                                   ]6d-o]mad-ik ksn'trol 'blak ^T-
automatically      when     the
                                   ^gram )
engine     achieves      normal
operating temperature. { [6d-      automatic-control            error
3[mad-ik 'chok)                    coefficient (CONT SYS] Three
                                   numerical quantities that are
automatic control (CONT SYS]
                                   used as a measure of the
Control in which regulating
                                   steady-state errors of an
and switching operations are
                                   automatic control system
performed automatically in
                                   when the system is subjected
response to predetermined
                                   to    constant,       ramp,     or
conditions. Also known as
                                   parabolic inputs. {]6d-o]mad-ik
automatic regulation. { ]6d-
                                   ksn'trol 'er-sr ,ko-3'fish-3nt)
o]mad-ik k3n,trol)
automatic control balance
                                   frequency response (CONT
(ENG] An automatic balance
                                   SYS] The steady-state output
fitted with an accessory which
                                   of an automatic control
determines       whether       a
                                   system for sinusoidal inputs
package has been filled within
                                   of varying frequency. { [6d-
preselected      limits.    Also
                                   3[mad-ik    'fre-kwsn-se   ri
known as check-weigher. {
                                   ,spans )
]6d-o]mad-ik ksn]trol ,bal*3ns )
                                   automatic           controller
automatic-control        block
                                   (CONTSYS] An instrument that
diagram ( CONT SYS ] A
                                   continuously measures the
diagrammatic representation
                                   value of a variable quantity or
of       the      mathematical
                                   condition and then automati-
relationships defining the flow
                                   cally acts on the controlled
of information and energy
                                   equipment to correct any
through the automatic control
                                   deviation from a desired
preset value. Also known as        the system changes from one
automatic regulator; controller.   steady-state      condition   to
{ ]6d-o]mad-ik konjtrol-or)        another in terms of such
                                   quantities      as    maximum
automatic-control         servo
                                   overshoot, rise time, and
valve      (CONT      SYS]     A
                                   response time. { ]6d-o]mad-ik
mechanically or electrically
                                   ksn'trol 'tran-zhsnt 3,nal-3-s3s
actuated        servo      valve
controlling the direction and
volume of fluid flow in a          automatic coupling (MECH
hydraulic automatic control        ENG] A device which couples
system. { ]6d-o]mad-ik ksn'trol    rail cars when they are
'ssr-vo ,valv )                    bumped together. {]6d-a]mad-
                                   ik 'kap-lig )
automatic-control stability
(CONT SYS] The property of an      automatic data processing
automatic control system           [ENG]        The         machine
whose performance is such          performance, with little or no
that the amplitude of transient    human assistance, of any of a
oscillations decreases with        variety of tasks involving
time and the system reaches        informational data; examples
a steady state. {]6d-o]mad-ik      include automatic and re-
ksn'trol st3,bil-3-de )            sponsive                  reading,
                                   computation, writing, speak-
automatic control system
                                   ing, directing artillery, and the
(CONT SYS] A control system
                                   running of an entire factory.
having one or more automatic
                                   Abbreviated       ADP.       {]6d-
controllers    connected     in
                                   a]mad-ik ]dad-a 'pras,as*ir) )
closed loops with one or more
processes. Also known as           automatic                dialog
regulating system. { ]6d-          replacement studio See ADR
o]mad-ik ksn'trol ,sis-t3m )       studio. { ]6d-a]mad-ik ,di*a,lag
                                   ri'plas-mant ,stQd*e,O}
automatic-control transient
analysis (CONT SYS] The            automatic door bottom
analysis of the behavior of the    [ENG] A movable plunger, in
output    variable    of     an    the form of a horizontal bar at
automatic control system as        the bottom of a door, which
drops automatically when the        device that lights the fuel in a
door is closed, sealing the         gas burner when the gas-
threshold and reducing noise        control valve is turned on. {
transmission. Also known as         ]6d-a]mad-ik ig'nish-an )
automatic threshold closer. {
                                    automatic indexing |CONT
]6d-a]mad-ik 'dor ,bad-am )
                                    SYS]     The procedure for
automatic drill |DES ENG] A         determining the orientation
straight brace for bits whose       and position of a workpiece
shank comprises a coarse-           with      respect      to     an
pitch screw sliding in a            automatically         controlled
threaded tube with a handle         machine, such as a robot
at the end; the device is           manipulator, that is to perform
operated by pushing the han-        an operation on it. {]6d-a]mad-
dle. { ]6d-a]mad-ik 'dril )         ik 'in,deks*ir) )
automatic fire pump |MECH           automatic      level    control
ENG ] A pump which provides         |ELECTR] A circuit that keeps
the required water pressure in      the output of a radio
a fire standpipe or sprinkler       transmitter, tape recorder, or
system; when the water              other    device      essentially
pressure in the system drops        constant,     even     in     the
below a preselected value, a        presence of large changes in
sensor causes the pump to           the      input       amplitude.
start. { ]6d-a]mad-ik ,flr ,pamp    Abbreviated ALC. | MECH
)                                   ENG]    In    an    automotive
                                    vehicle, a system in which
automatic flushing system
                                    two     air-chamber        shock
|civ ENG] A water tank system
                                    absorbers in the rear are fed
which provides automatically
                                    compressed air by an electric
for the periodic flushing of
                                    compressor; pressure in the
urinals or other plumbing
                                    air chambers is determined
fixtures, or of pipes having too
                                    automatically by sensors to
small a slope to drain
                                    maintain the vehicle at a
effectively. {]6d-a]mad-ik 'flash
                                    predetermined              height
*irj ,sis* tarn)
                                    regardless of load. {]6d-
automatic ignition [ENG] A          a]mad-ik 'lev-al kan,trol)
automatic microfiller [ENG]      automatic regulation See
A device used to place           automatic control. { ]6d-
microfilm    in    jackets at    a]mad-ik ,reg'ya'la*shan )
relatively high speeds. {]6d-
                                 automatic regulator See
a]mad-ik 'mi-kro^il-ar)
                                 automatic controller. { ]6d-
automatic mold [ENG] Arnold      a]mad-ik 'reg-yajad-ar)
used     in    injection   or
                                 automatic times WITCH[ ENG]
compression      molding   of
                                 A mechanical device to
plastic   objects    so  that
                                 sample      process    streams
repeated molding cycles are
                                 (gas, liquid, or solid) either
possible, including ejection,
                                 continuously or at preset time
without manual assistance. {
                                 intervals. { ]6d-a]mad-ik 'sam-
]6d-a]mad-ik 'mold)
automatic press [MECH ENG]
                                 automatic screw machine
A press in which mechanical
                                 [MECH ENG] A machine
feeding of the work is
                                 designed to automatically
synchronized with the press
                                 produce finished parts from
action. {]6d-a]mad-ik 'pres )
                                 bar stock at high production
automatic pumping station        rates; the term is not an exact,
[CHEM ENG] An installation on    specific           machine-tool
a pipeline that automatically    classification. { ]6d-a]mad-ik
provides the proper pressure     'skru ma ,shen )
when a fluid is being
                                 automatic shut-off [ENG
transported.     {]6d-a]mad-ik
                                 ACOUS] A switch in some
'pamp-ir) ,sta* shan )
                                 tape      recorders    which
automatic    ranging   See       automatically    stops   the
autoranging. { ]6d-a]mad-ik      machine when the tape ends
'ranj-irj )                      or breaks. { ]6d-a]mad-ik
automatic record changer
[ENG ACOUS] An electric          automatic slips [ ENG ] A
phonograph that automatically    pneumatic or hydraulic device
plays a number of records        for setting and removing slips
one after another. {jod*         automatically. Also known as
a]mad-ik 'rek-ard ,chanj-ar)     power slips. {]6d-a]mad-ik
'slips )                           automatic tuning system [
                                   CONT SYS ] An electrical,
automatic stoker [MECH ENG]
                                   mechanical,                   or
A device that supplies fuel to
                                   electromechanical        system
a    boiler      furnace     by
                                   that tunes a radio receiver or
mechanical means.          Also
                                   transmitter automatically to a
known       as      mechanical
                                   predetermined         frequency
stoker. { ]6d-a]mad-ik 'stok-ar)
                                   when a button or lever is
automatic test equipment           pressed, a knob turned, or a
[ENG] Test equipment that          telephone-type dial operated.
makes two or more tests in         {[6d-3[mad-ik 'tun-ig ,sis-t3m )
sequence without manual
                                   automatic-type           belt-
intervention; it usually stops
                                   tensioning device (MECH
when the first out-of-tolerance
                                   ENG]    Any device which
value is detected. { ]6d-a]mad-
                                   maintains a predetermined
ik 'test i,kwip-mant)
                                   tension in a conveyor belt.
automatic threshold closer         {]6d-3[mad-ik ,tTp 'belt [ten-
See automatic door bottom.         shon-ig di,vTs )
{]6d-a]mad-ik   'thresh,hold
                                   automatic             volume
                                   compressor See volume
automatic time switch [ENG]        compressor. { [6d-3[mad-ik
Combination of a switch with       'val-ysm ksn^pres-sr)
an electric or spring-wound
                                   automatic volume expander
clock, arranged to turn an
                                   See volume expander. { [6d-
apparatus on and off at pre-
                                   3[mad-ik 'val-ysm ik,spand-3r)
determined times. {]6d-a]mad-
ik ,tTm ,swich )                   automatic wet-pipe sprinkler
                                   system |ENG| A sprinkler
automatic track shift [ENG
                                   system, all of whose parts are
ACOUS] A system used with
                                   filled with water at sufficient
multiple-track magnetic tape
                                   pressure to provide an
recorders to index the tape
                                   immediate               continuous
head, after one track is
                                   discharge if the system is
played, to the correct position
                                   activated. { [6d-3[mad-ik [wet
for the start of the next track.
                                   ]pTp 'sprirjk-lor ,sis-t3m )
{]6d-a]mad-ik 'trak ,shift)
automatic zero setting |ENG]        and steering system. { ,6d-3-
A system for automatic              ms'bel 'chas-e )
correction of zero-point drifts
                                    automotive air conditioning
or for compensation of soiling
                                    |MECH ENG] A system for
of load receivers on a balance
                                    maintaining       comfort  of
by means of a special
                                    occupants of automobiles,
accessory component. {]6d-
                                    buses, and trucks, limited to
3[mad-ik 'zir-o ,sed-ir) )
                                    air cooling, air heating,
automation |ENG] 1. The use         ventilation, and occasionally
of technology to ease human         dehumidification. {[6d-3[mod-
labor or extend the mental or       iv 'er ksn ,dish-3n-ir) )
physical     capabilities     of
                                    automotive body |ENG] An
humans. 2. The mechanisms,
                                    enclosure mounted on and
machines, and systems that
                                    attached to the frame of an
save or eliminate labor, or
                                    automotive vehicle, to contain
imitate    actions      typically
                                    passengers and luggage, or
associated     with      human
                                    in the case of commercial
beings. { ^d-s'ma-shsn )
                                    vehicles   the commodities
automechanism |CONT SYS ]           being carried. {[6d-3[mod-iv
A machine or other device           'bad-e )
that operates automatically or
                                    automotive brake |MECH ENG]
under      control   of      a
                                    A friction mechanism that
servomechanism. {[dd-o'mek-
                                    slows or stops the rotation of
3,niz-3m )
                                    the wheels of an automotive
automobile |MECH ENG] A             vehicle, so that tire traction
four-wheeled, trackless, self-      slows or stops the vehicle. {
propelled vehicle for land          ]6d-s'mod-iv 'brak)
transportation of as many as
                                    automotive engine |MECH
eight people. Also known as
                                    ENG]    The      fuel-consuming
car. { ^d-s-ms'bel)
                                    machine that provides the
automobile chassis |MECH            motive power for automobiles,
ENG] The automobile frame,          airplanes, tractors, buses, and
together with the wheels,           motorcycles and is carried in
power train, brakes, engine,        the vehicle. { ]6d-3[mod-iv 'en-
jsn )                                 |MECH ENG] The springs and
                                      related parts intermediate
automotive engineering |
                                      between the wheels and
MECH ENG ] The branch of
                                      frame of an automotive
mechanical          engineering
                                      vehicle that support the frame
concerned primarily with the
                                      on the wheels and absorb
special problems of land
                                      road     shock   caused     by
transportation by a four-
                                      passage of the wheels over
wheeled, trackless, automo-
                                      irregularities.  {[6d-3[mod-iv
tive vehicle. {]6d-3[mod-iv ^n-
                                      sss'pen-chsn )
                                      automotive       transmission
automotive frame [ENG] The
                                      |MECH ENG] A device for
basic     structure  of   all
                                      providing different gear or
automotive vehicles, except
                                      drive ratios between the
tractors, which is supported
                                      engine and drive wheels of an
by the suspension and upon
                                      automotive vehicle, a principal
which or attached to which
                                      function being to enable the
are the power plant, trans-
                                      vehicle to accelerate from rest
mission, clutch, and body or
                                      through a wide speed range
seat for the driver. { [6d-
                                      while the engine operates
3[mod-iv 'fram )
                                      within its most effective
automotive ignition system            range. {]6d-3[mod-iv tranz
|MECH ENG] A device in an             'mish-sn )
automotive      vehicle  which
                                      automotive vehicle | MECH
initiates the chemical reaction
                                      ENG ] A self-propelled vehicle
between fuel and air in the
                                      or     machine      for    land
cylinder charge. {]6d-3[mod-iv
                                      transportation of people or
ig'nish-sn ,sis* torn)
                                      commodities or for moving
automotive steering |MECH             materials,    such      as    a
ENG] Mechanical means by              passenger car, bus, truck,
which a driver controls the           motorcycle, tractor, airplane,
course       of    a      moving      motorboat, or earthmover.
automobile, bus, truck, or            {[6d-3[mod-iv 've-s-ksl)
tractor. { ]6d-3[mod-iv 'stir-irj )
                                      autonomous robot (ENG] A
automotive          suspension        robot that not only can
maintain its own stability as it   meter from its lowest to the
moves, but also can plan its       next higher range, with the
movements. { 6]tan-3-m3s           switching process repeated
'ro,bat)                           until a range is reached for
                                   which the full-scale value is
autonomous vehicle (ENG]
                                   not exceeded. Also known as
A vehicle that is able to plan
                                   automatic ranging. { 'od-o^anj-
its path and to execute its
                                   ir) )
plan        without    human
intervention. { 6]tan-3-m3s        autoreducing       tachymeter
've* 3-kal)                        [ENG] A class of ta-chymeter
                                   by which horizontal and height
autopatrol (MECH ENG] A self-
                                   distances        are      read
powered blade grader. Also
                                   simultaneously. {]6d-o-ri]dus-
known as motor grader. {
                                   ig ts'kim-sd-sr)
'6d*o* p3,trol)
                                   autorotation | MECH ] 1.
autoradar plot See chart
                                   Rotation about any axis of a
comparison unit. { ]6d-o]ra,dar
                                   body that is symmetrical and
                                   exposed      to    a    uniform
autoradiography (ENG] A            airstream and maintained only
technique       for   detecting    by aerodynamic moments. 2.
radioactivity in a specimen by     Rotation     of     a    stalled
producing an image on a            symmetrical airfoil parallel to
photographic film or plate.        the direction of the wind. { lod-
Also          known          as    o^o'ta-shsn )
radioautography. { jod'O^rad-
                                   autosled |MECH ENG] A
e'ag* ra-fe )
                                   propeller-driven     machine
autorail (MECH ENG] A self-        equipped with runners and
propelled vehicle having both      wheels and adaptable to use
flange wheels and pneumatic        on snow, ice, or bare roads. {
tires to permit operation on       'od-o'sledj
both rails and roadways. { '6d-
                                   autostability |CONT SYS] The
6,ral )
                                   ability of a device (such as a
autoranging (ENG] Automatic        servomechanism) to hold a
switching of a multirange          steady position, either by
virtue of its shape and propor-     structural    member,     any
tions, or by control by a           reinforcement in addition to
servomechanism. { iod-o-            that whose function is pre-
sts'bil-sd-e )                      stressing. { og'zil-ys-re ^e-
auxanometer       [ENG]    An
instrument used to detect and       auxiliary rim lock [DES ENG] A
measure plant growth rate. {        secondary or extra lock that is
,6g-zs'nam-sd-sr)                   surface-mounted on a door to
                                    provide additional security. {
auxiliary dead latch |DES
                                    og'zil-ys-re 'rim ,lak)
ENG] A supplementary latch in
a lock which automatically          auxiliary         rope-fastening
deadlocks the main latch bolt       device [MECH ENG] A device
when the door is closed. Also       attached to an elevator car, to
known as auxiliary latch bolt;      a counterweight, or to the
deadlocking latch bolt; trigger     overhead dead-end rope-hitch
bolt. { dg'zil-ys-re 'ded ,lach )   support, that automatically
                                    supports        the     car     or
auxiliary latch bolt See
                                    counterweight in case the
auxiliary dead latch. { 6g 'zil-
                                    fastening for the wire rope
ys-re 'lach ,bolt)
                                    (cable) fails. { og'zil-ys-re 'rop
auxiliary power plant |MECH         ,fas-3n-ir) di,vTs )
ENG] Ancillary equipment, such
                                    auxiliary thermometer [ENG]
as pumps, fans, and soot
                                    A              mercury-in-glass
blowers, used with the main
                                    thermometer attached to the
boiler,     turbine,     engine,
                                    stem      of     a   reversing
waterwheel, or generator of a
                                    thermometer and read at the
power-generating station. {
                                    same time as the reversing
og'zil-ys-re 'pau-sr ,plant)
                                    thermometer so that the
auxiliary rafter [BUILD] A          correction to the reading of
member strengthening the            the latter, resulting from
principal rafter in a truss. {      change in temperature since
og'zil-ys-re 'raf-tsr)              reversal, can be computed. {
                                    og'zil-ys-re thsr'mam-sd-sr)
auxiliary reinforcement [civ
ENG]    In   a   pre-stressed       auxograph          [ENG]      An
automatic device that records     The heat per unit mass of a
changes in the volume of a        working substance that could
body. { 'ok-ss,graf)              be transformed into work in an
                                  engine under ideal conditions
auxometer        [ENG]    An
                                  for a given amount of heat per
instrument that measures the
                                  unit mass furnished to the
magnification of a lens
                                  working substance. { s'val-s-
system. { ,6k'sam-sd-sr)
                                  bsl 'het)
availability [SYS ENG] The
                                  available motions inventory
probability that a system is
                                  [IND ENG] A list of all motions
operating satisfactorily at any
                                  available to a human for
point in time, excluding times
                                  performing a specific task. {
when the system is under
                                  ojval-o-bol ,mo-sh3nz 'in-ven
repair. { 3,val-3'bil-3-de )
                                  ,tor-e )
availability ratio [IND ENG]
                                  avalanche [ELECTR] 1. The
The ratio of the amount of
                                  cumulative process in which
time a system is actually
                                  an electron or other charged
available for use to the
                                  particle accelerated by a
amount of time it is supposed
                                  strong electric field collides
to be available. { 3,val-3'bil-
                                  with     and    ionizes     gas
3d-e 'ra-sho )
                                  molecules, thereby releasing
available draft [MECH ENG]        new electrons which in turn
The      usable   differential    have more collisions, so that
pressure in the combustion        the discharge is thus self-
air in a furnace, used to         maintained. Also known as
sustain combustion of fuel or     avalanche effect; cascade;
to transport products of          cumulative ionization; electron
combustion.     { s'val-s-bsl     avalanche; Townsend ava-
'draft )                          lanche; Townsend ionization.
                                  2. Cumulative multiplication of
available energy [ MECH ENG ]     carriers in a semiconductor as
Energy which can in principle     a     result   of    avalanche
be converted to mechanical        breakdown. Also known as
work. { s'val-s-bsl 'en-sr-je )   avalanche effect. { 'av-3,lanch
available heat [MECH ENG]         )
avalanche breakdown [              nique         of        forming
ELECTR]         Nondestructive     interconnections in a field-pro-
breakdown          in         a    grammable logic array by
semiconductor diode when           applying appropriate voltages
the electric field across the      for shorting selected base-
barrier region is strong           emitter junctions. { 'av3,lanch
enough so that current             in]diisd ,mT'gra-sh3n )
carriers collide with valence
                                   avalanche noise [ELECTR] 1.
electrons to produce ionization
                                   A junction phenomenon in a
and cumulative multiplication
                                   semiconductor      in    which
of carriers. { 'av 3,lanch
                                   carriers in a high-voltage
'brak,daun )
                                   gradient develop sufficient en-
avalanche diode [ELECTR] A         ergy to dislodge additional
semiconductor        breakdown     carriers   through     physical
diode, usually made of silicon,    impact; this agitation creates
in       which        avalanche    ragged current flows which
breakdown occurs across the        are indicated by noise. 2.
entire pn j unction and voltage    The noise produced when a
drop is then essentially           junction diode is operated at
constant and independent of        the onset of avalanche
current;     the    two    most    breakdown. { 'av3,lanch ,noiz
important types are IMPATT         )
and TRA-PATT diodes. { 'av-
                                   avalanche           oscillator
3,lanch 'dT,6d )
                                   |ELECTR] An oscillator that
avalanche       effect      See    uses an avalanche diode as a
avalanche. { 'av-3,lanch i,fekt)   negative resistance to achieve
                                   one-step conversion from
avalanche           impedance
                                   direct-current to microwave
[ELECTR] The complex ratio of
                                   outputs in the gigahertz
the reverse voltage of a device
                                   range. { 'av3,lanch [as-sjad-
that undergoes avalanche
breakdown to the reverse cur-
rent. { 'avojanch im'ped-sns )     avalanche       photodiode
                                   |ELECTR]   A     photodiode
                                   operated in the avalanche
migration [ELECTR] A tech-
                                   breakdown region to achieve
internal           photocurrent      of total output noise power to
multiplication,         thereby      the portion thereof attributable
providing rapid light-controlled     to thermal noise in the input
switching       operation.     {     termination, the total noise
'avsjanch ^od-o'dl^od )              being        summed            over
                                     frequencies from zero to
avalanche protector |MECH
                                     infinity,   and      the      noise
ENG] Guard plates installed on
                                     temperature of the input
an excavator to prevent loose
                                     termination being standard
material from sliding into the
                                     (290 K). { 'avrij 'noiz ,fig-yor)
wheels or tracks. { 'av 3,lanch
pra,tek-t3r)                         average outgoing quality
                                     limit (IND ENG| The average
avalanche       transistor    |
                                     quality of all lots that pass
ELECTR] A      transistor that
                                     quality inspection, expressed
utilizes avalanche breakdown
                                     in terms of percent defective.
to produce chain generation
                                     Abbreviated AOQL. { 'avrij
of     charge-carrying    hole-
                                     'au^go-ir) 'kwal-sd-e ,lim-3t)
electron pairs. { 'av3,lanch
tran'zis-tsr)                        average        power      output
                                     |ELECTR]         Radio-frequency
avalanche voltage |ELECTR]
                                     power, in an audio-modulation
The reverse voltage required
                                     transmitter, delivered to the
to      cause         avalanche
                                     transmitter output terminals,
breakdown        in     a    pn
                                     averaged over a modulation
semiconductor junction. {
                                     cycle. { 'avrij 'pau-sr 'aut,put )
'av3,lanch ,vol-tij )
                                     average sample number |IND
average acoustic output
                                     ENG] An anticipated number of
|ENG ACOUS] Vibratory energy
                                     pieces that must be inspected
output       of     a   transducer
                                     to determine the acceptability
measured by a radiation
                                     of a particular lot. { 'avrij
pressure balance; expressed
                                     [sam-psl ^sm-bsr)
in terms of watts per unit
area of the transducer face. {       averaging |CONT SYS] The
'avrij s'kii-stik 'aut,put)          reduction of noise received by
                                     a robot sensor by screening it
average      noise      figure
                                     over a period of time. { 'av rij-
|ELECTR] Ratio in a transducer
irj)                               interruption under the control
                                   of the operator during the
averaging device |ENG] A
                                   normal operating time. {
device for obtaining the
                                   s'void-s-bsl di'la )
arithmetic mean of a number
of readings, as on a bubble        avoirdupois    pound      See
sextant. { 'avrij-irj di'vTs )     pound. { ,av3rd*3'p6iz 'paund
averaging pitot tube [ENG] A
flowmeter that consists of a       avoirdupois weight | MECH ]
rod extending across a pipe        The system of units which has
with several interconnected        been commonly used in
upstream      holes,    which      English-speaking countries for
simulate an array of pitot         measurement of the mass of
tubes across the pipe, and a       any      substance      except
downstream hole for the static     precious stones, precious
pressure reference. { 'avrij-irj   metals, and drugs; it is based
,pe,to ,tub )                      on the pound (approximately
                                   453.6 grams) and includes the
aviation method | ENG ]
                                   short ton (2000 pounds), long
Determination of knock-limiting
                                   ton (2240 pounds), ounce
power, under lean-mixture
                                   (one-sixteenth pound), and
conditions, of fuels used in
                                   dram (one-sixteenth ounce). {
spark-ignition aircraft engines.
                                   ,av3rd-3'p6iz 'wat)
{ ^-ve'a-shsn 'meth-sd )
                                   awl | DES ENG ] A point tool
avionics [ENG] The design
                                   with a short wooden handle
and production of airborne
                                   used to mark surfaces and to
electrical   and    electronic
                                   make small holes, as in
devices; term is derived from
                                   leather or wood. { 61)
aviation electronics. { ,a-
ve'an-iks )                        awning window (BUILD ] A
                                   window consisting of a series
avogram |MECH] A unit of
                                   of vertically arranged, top-
mass, equal to 1 gram
                                   hinged rectangular sections;
divided by the Avogadro
                                   designed to admit air while
number. { 'a-V3,gram )
                                   excluding rain. { 'on-irj ,win-do
avoidable delay |IND ENG] An       )
ax |DES ENG] An implement            propeller pump. { 'ak-se-sl 'flo
consisting of a heavy metal          ,p3mp)
wedge-shaped head with one
                                     axial force diagram [civ
or two cutting edges and a
                                     ENG] In statics, a graphical
relatively long wooden handle;
                                     representation of the axial
used for chopping wood and
                                     load acting at each section of
felling trees, jaks)
                                     a structural member, plotted
axed brick [ENG] A brick,            to scale and with proper sign
shaped with an ax, that has          as an ordinate at each point of
not been trimmed. Also               the member and along a
known as rough-axed brick. {         reference line representing
[akst ]brik )                        the length of the member. {
                                     'ak-se-sl ]fors ,di*3,gram )
axhammer [DES ENG] An ax
having one cutting edge and          axial hydraulic thrust |MECH
one hammer face. { 'aks,ham-         ENG] In single-stage      and
3r)                                  multistage       pumps,   the
                                     summation of unbalanced
axial fan [ MECH ENG ] A fan
                                     impeller forces acting in the
whose housing confines the
                                     axial direction. { 'ak-se-sl
gas flow to the direction along
                                     hT'drd-lik 'threst)
the rotating shaft at both the
inlet and outlet. { 'ak-se-al 'fan   axial lead |ELEC] A wire lead
)                                    extending from the end along
                                     the axis of a resistor,
axial-flow        compressor
                                     capacitor,      or        other
[MECH ENG] A fluid compressor
                                     component. { 'ak-se-sl 'led )
that accelerates the fluid in a
direction generally parallel to      axial load |MECH] A force
the rotating shaft. { 'ak-se-sl      with its resultant passing
'flo ksm'pres-sr)                    through the centroid of a
                                     particular section and being
axial-flow pump [MECH ENG ]
                                     perpendicular to the plane of
A pump having an axial-flow
                                     the section. { 'ak-se-sl 'lod )
or propeller-type impeller;
used when maximum capacity           axial modulus | MECH ] The
and minimum head are de-             ratio of a simple tension stress
sired.    Also  known    as          applied to a material to the
resulting strain parallel to the    of rotation, by which the
tension when the sides of the       rotation of a cutting tool
sample are restricted so that       deviates from a plane. { 'ak-
there      is     no      lateral   se-sl 'ran,aut)
deformation. Also known as
                                    axial-type mass flowmeter
modulus of simple longitudinal
                                    [ENG] An instrument in which
extension. {[ak-se-sl 'maj-3-bs
                                    fluid in a pipe is made to
                                    rotate at a constant speed by
axial moment of inertia             a motor-driven impeller, and
|MECH] For any object rotating      the torque required by a
about an axis, the sum of its       second, stationary impeller to
component masses times the          straighten the flow again is a
square of the distance to the       direct measurement of mass
axis. { 'ak-se-sl 'mo-msnt sv       flow. { 'ak-se-sl ]tTp 'mas
in'sr-shs )                         'flo,med-3r)
axial nozzle |MECH ENG] An          axis |MECH ] A line about
inlet or outlet connection          which a body rotates. { 'ak-
installed in the head of a          sss )
shell-and-tube exchanger and
                                    axis of freedom |DES ENG]
aligned normal to the plane in
                                    An axis in a gyro about which
which the tube lies. { [ak-se-sl
                                    a gimbal provides a degree of
                                    freedom. { 'ak-sss sv fred-sm )
axial rake |MECH ENG] The
                                    axis of rotation |MECH] A
angle between the face of a
                                    straight line passing through
blade of a milling cutter or
                                    the points of a rotating rigid
reamer and a line parallel to
                                    body that remain stationary,
its axis of rotation. { 'ak-se-3l
                                    while the other points of the
                                    body move in circles about
axial relief |MECH ENG] The         the axis. { 'ak-sss sv ro'ta-
relief behind the end cutting       shsn )
edge of a milling cutter. { 'ak-
                                    axis of sighting [ENG] A line
se-al ri'lef)
                                    taken through the sights of a
axial runout |MECH ENG] The         gun, or through the optical
total amount, along the axis        center    and   centers     of
curvature of lenses in any          of the speed in revolutions
telescopic instrument. { 'ak-       per minute of the drive shaft
sss sv 'sTd-irj )                   to that of the drive wheels. {
                                    'ak-ssl 'ra-sho )
axis of symmetry |MECH] An
imaginary line about which a        axometer        [ENG]       An
geometrical     figure     is       instrument that locates the
symmetric. Also known as            optical axis of a lens,
symmetry axis. { 'ak-sss sv         particularly a lens used in
'sim-3-tre )                        eyeglasses. { ak'sam-sd-sr)
axis of torsion |MECH] An axis      azel mounting See altazimuth
parallel to the generators of a     mounting. { 'az-sl ,maunt-ir))
cylinder undergoing torsion,
                                    azeotropic         distillation
located      so     that    the
                                    [CHEM ENG] A process by
displacement of any point on
                                    which a liquid mixture is
the axis lies along the axis.
                                    separated       into       pure
Also known as axis of twist. {
                                    components with the help of
]ak-sss sv 'tor-shsn )
                                    an additional substance or
axis         of          twist.     solvent. {]az-e-a,tro-pik ,dis-
Seeaxisoftorsion.      {   ]ak-     t3'la-shsn )
                                    azimuth [ENG] In directional
axle |MECH ENG] A supporting        drilling, the direction of the
member that carries a wheel         face of the deviation tool with
and either rotates with the         respect to magnetic north. {
wheel to transmit mechanical        'az-s-msth )
power to or from it, or allows
                                    azimuth-adjustment         slide
the wheel to rotate freely on it.
                                    rule [ENG] A circular slide rule
{ 'ak-ssl)
                                    by which a known angular
axle box [ENG] A bushing            correction for fire at one
through which an axle               elevation can be changed to
passes in the hub of a wheel.       the proper correction for any
{ 'ak-ssl ,baks )                   other elevation. { 'az-3-msth
                                    sljss-msnt 'slid ,rul)
axle ratio [MECH ENG] In an
automotive vehicle, the ratio       azimuth    alignment    [   ENG
ACOUS ] The condition              displays              azimuth
whereby the center lines of        information. { 'az-s-msth ,in-
the playback- and recording-       d3,kad-3r)
head      gaps   are     exactly
                                   azimuth instrument [ENG] An
perpendicular to the magnetic
                                   instrument    for    measuring
tape and parallel to each
                                   azimuths, particularly a device
other. { 'az-o-moth a'lTn-mont)
                                   which fits over a central pivot
azimuth angle [ENG] An             in the glass cover of a
angle in triangulation or in       magnetic     compass.      Also
traverse through which the         known as azimuth bar;
computation of azimuth is          bearing bar. { 'az-s-msth ^n-
carried. { 'az-s-msth 'arj-gol )   stre-msnt)
azimuth bar See azimuth            azimuth line [ ENG ] A radial
instrument. { 'az-s-moth ,bar)     line from the principal point,
                                   isocenter, or nadir point of a
azimuth circle [ DES ENG ] A
                                   photograph, representing the
ring calibrated from 0 to 360°
                                   direction to a similar point of
over a compass, compass
                                   an adjacent photograph in
repeater, radar plan position
                                   the same flight line; used
indicator, direction finder, and
                                   extensively in radial triangula-
so on, which provides means
                                   tion. { 'az-s-msth ,lTn )
for    observing        compass
bearings and azimuths. { 'az-      azimuth marker [ENG] 1. A
s-msth ,s3r-k3l )                  scale encircling the plan
                                   position indicator scope of a
azimuth dial [ENG] Any
                                   radar on which the azimuth of
horizontal circle dial that
                                   a target from the radar may be
reads azimuth. { 'az-s-msth
                                   measured. 2. Any of the
,dTl )
                                   reference     limits   inserted
azimuth error [ENG] An error       electronically at 10 or 15°
in the indicated azimuth of a      intervals which extend radially
target detected by radar. { 'az-   from the relative position of
s-moth ,er-or)                     the radar on an off-center plan
                                   position indicator scope. { 'az-
azimuth indicator [ ENG ] An       s-msth ,mar-k3r)
approach-radar scope which
azimuth scale [ENG] A              C-band and giving two direc-
graduated angle-measuring          tion cosines and slant range
device on instruments, gun         which can be used to
carriages, and so forth that       determine space position and
indicates azimuth. { 'az-s-        velocity of a vehicle (usually
msth ,skal )                       a rocket or a missile). {
                                   s'zus-s )
azimuth-stabilized        plan
position indicator [ENG] A         backacter See backhoe. {
north-upward plan position         'bak,ak-t3r) backband (BUILD)
indicator (PPI), a radarscope,     A piece of millwork used
which is stabilized by a gyro-     around a rectangular window
compass so that either true        or door casing as a cover for
or magnetic north is always at     the gap between the casing
the top of the scope               and the wall or as a
regardless       of    vehicle     decorative     feature.   Also
orientation. { 'az-s-msth [sta-    known      as    backbend.   {
bsjTzd 'plan ps'zish-sn 'in-       'bak,band)
                                   backbend (BUILD) 1. At the
azimuth      transfer     [ENG]    outer edge of a metal door or
Connecting, with a straight        window frame, the face which
line, the nadir points of two      returns to the wall surface.
vertical photographs selected      2. See backband. { 'bak,bend
from overlapping flights. { 'az-   )
s-msth 'tranz,f3r)
                                   back bias ( ELECTR) 1.
azimuth traverse [ENG] A           Degenerative or regenerative
survey traverse in which the       voltage which is fed back to
direction of the measured          circuits before its originating
course is determined by            point; usually applied to a
azimuth and verified by back       control anode of a tube or
azimuth. { 'az-s-msth tre'vsrs )   other device. 2. Voltage ap-
                                   plied to a grid of a tube (or
Azusa [ENG] A continuous-
                                   tubes) or electrode of another
wave, high-accuracy, phase-
                                   device to reduce a condition
comparison,    single-station
                                   which has been upset by
tracking system operating at
                                   some external cause. { 'bak
,bT-3s )                          back fillet (BUILD) The return
                                  of the margin of a groin,
back boxing See backlining. {
                                  doorjamb, or window jamb
'bak [bak-sir) )
                                  when it projects beyond a wall.
backbreak See overbreak. {        { 'bak ,fil*3t )
                                  backfire (civ ENG ) A fire that
back check ( DES ENG ) In a       is started in order to burn
hydraulic door closer, a          against and cut off a
mechanism that slows the          spreading fire. (ELECTR) See
speed with which a door may       arcback. (ENG) Momentary
be opened. { 'bak ,chek )         backward burning of flame into
                                  the tip of a torch. Also known
backdigger See backhoe. {         as flashback, (MECH ENG) In
'bak]dig-3r)                      an     internal     combustion
back-draft damper (MECH           engine, an improperly timed
ENG) A damper with blades         explosion of the fuel mixture in
actuated by gravity, permitting   a cylinder, especially one
air to pass through them in       occurring during the period
one direction only. { 'bak ,      that the exhaust or intake
draft 'dam-psr)                   valve is open and resulting in
                                  a loud detonation. { 'bak,fTr)
back edging (ENG) Cutting
through a glazed ceramic          backflap hinge (DES ENG) A
pipe by first chipping through    hinge having a flat plate or
the glaze around the outside      strap which is screwed to the
and then chipping the pipe        face of a shutter or door.
itself. { 'bak ,ej-ir))           Also known as flap hinge. {
                                  'bak,flap ,hinj )
back end See thrust yoke. {
'bak ,end )                       backflow (civ ENG) The flow
                                  of water or other liquids,
backfill (civ ENG) Earth          mixtures, or substances into
refilling a trench or an          the distributing pipes of a
excavation around a building,     potable supply of water from
bridge abutment, and the like.    any other than its intended
{ 'bak,fil)                       source. { 'bak,flo )
backflow connection (civ           electronic or other system,
ENG) Any arrangement of            independent of whether or not
pipes,    plumbing     fixtures,   the desired signal is present. {
drains, and so forth, in which     'bak,graund ,noiz )
backflow can occur. { 'bak,fl6
                                   background returns (ENG) 1.
ks'nek-shsn )
                                   Signals on a radar screen
backflow preventer See             from objects which are of no
vacuum breaker. { 'bak ,flo        interest. 2. See clutter. {
pri'ven-tsr)                       'bak,graund ri'tsrnz )
backflow     valve    See          background signal (ENG) The
backwater valve. { 'bak,flo        output of a leak detector
,valv )                            caused by residual gas to
                                   which the detector element
backfurrow (civ ENG) In an
                                   reacts. { 'bak,graund ,sig-nsl)
excavation procedure, the
first cut made on undisturbed      back gutter (BUILD) A gutter
land. { 'bak.fsr-o)                installed on the uphill side of
                                   a chimney on a sloping roof to
back gearing (MECH ENG)
                                   divert water around the
The technique of using gears
                                   chimney. { 'bak ,g3d-9i)
on machine tools to obtain an
increase in the number of          back hearth (BUILD) That
speed changes that can be          part of the hearth (or floor)
gotten with cone belt drives. {    which is contained within the
'bak ,gir-ir))                     fireplace itself. Also known as
                                   inner hearth. { 'bak ,harth )
background discrimination (
ENG ) The ability of a             backhoe (MECH ENG) An
measuring instrument, circuit,     excavator fitted with a hinged
or other device to distinguish     arm to which is rigidly attached
signal    from    background       a bucket that is drawn toward
noise. { 'bak,graund dis^rim-      the machine in operation. Also
s'na-shsn )                        known        as       backacter;
                                   backdigger;          dragshovel;
background noise ( ENG )
                                   pullshovel. { 'bak ,ho )
The undesired signals that are
always   present     in     an     backing | civ ENG ] 1. The
unexposed, rough masonry           intermediate value, usually
surface of a wall that is faced    between     100      and O.I
with finer work. 2. The earth      pascals. Also known as fore
backfill of a retaining wall.      pump. { 'bak-irj ,p3mp )
|ELECTR] Flexible material,
                                   backing ring [ENG] A strip of
usually cellulose acetate or
                                   metal attached at a pipe joint
polyester, used on magnetic
                                   at the root of a weld to
tape as the carrier for the
                                   prevent spatter and to ensure
oxide coating. { 'bak-irj )
                                   the integrity of the weld. {
backing board [BUILD] In a         'bak-irj ,rir) )
suspended acoustical ceiling,
                                   backing space [ENG] Space
a flat sheet of gypsum board
                                   between a fore pump and a
to which acoustical tile is
                                   diffusion pump in a leak-
attached by adhesive or me-
                                   testing system. { 'bak-irj ,spas
chanical means. { 'bak-irj
,bord )
                                   backing-space technique [
backing brick |CIVENG] A
                                   ENG ] Testing for leaks by
relatively low-quality brick
                                   connecting a leak detector to
used behind face brick or
                                   the backing space. { 'bak-irj
other masonry. { 'bak-ig ,brik)
                                   ,spas ,tek'nek)
backing off | ENG ] Removing
                                   backing up [civ ENG] In
excessive body metal from
                                   masonry, the laying of backing
badly worn bits. { 'bak-irj [of)
                                   brick. { 'bak-irj [op )
backing plate [ENG] A plate
                                   back jamb See backlining. {
used to support the hardware
                                   'bak ,jam )
for the cavity used in plastics
injection molding. { 'bak-irj      backjoint       [civ ENG]   In
,plat)                             masonry, a rabbet such as
                                   that made on the inner side of
backing pump |MECHENG] A
                                   a chimneypiece to receive a
vacuum pump, in a vacuum
                                   slip. { 'bakjoint)
system using two pumps in
tandem, which works directly       backlash [DES ENG] The
to the atmosphere and re-          amount by which the tooth
duces the pressure to an           space of a gear exceeds the
tooth thickness of the mating       backlog [IND ENG] 1. An
gear along the pitch circles.       accumulation      of     orders
[ELECTR] A small reverse            promising future work and
current in a rectifier tube         profit. 2. An accumulation of
caused by the motion of             unprocessed materials or un-
positive ions produced in the       performed tasks. { 'bak,lag )
gas by the impact of
                                    back mixing [CHEM ENG] The
thermoelec-trons. [ENG] 1.
                                    tendency         of    reacted
Relative motion of mechanical
                                    chemicals to intermingle with
parts caused by looseness. 2.
                                    unreacted feed in reactors,
The difference between the
                                    such as stirred tanks, packed
actual values of a quantity
                                    towers, and baffled tanks. {
when a dial controlling this
                                    'bak ,mik-sir) )
quantity is brought to a given
position by a clockwise             back nailing [BUILD] Nailing
rotation and when it is brought     the plies of a built-up roof to
to the same position by a           the substrate to prevent
counterclockwise rotation. {        slippage. { 'bak ,nal*irj )
'bak,lash )
                                    back nut [DES ENG] 1. A
backlining [BUILD] 1. A thin        threaded nut, one side of
strip which lines a window          which is dished to retain a
casing, next to the wall and        grommet; used in forming a
opposite the pulley stile, and      watertight pipe joint. 2. A
provides a smooth surface for       locking nut on the shank of a
the working of the weighted         pipe fitting, tap, or valve. {
sash. Also known as back            'bak ,nat)
boxing; back jamb. 2. That
piece of framing forming the        back off [ENG] 1. To unscrew
back recess for boxing              or disconnect.
shutters. { 'bakjTn-ig )            2.To withdraw the drill bit
back lintel [BUILD] A lintel        from a borehole.
which supports the backing of       3.To withdraw a cutting tool or
a masonry wall, as opposed          grinding wheel
to the lintel supporting the
facing material. { 'bak Jin-tsl I   4.from contact with        the
                                    workpiece. { 'bak ,6f)
back order [ IND ENG ] 1. An        die, an opening for the
order     held      for    future   release of excess material. {
completion. 2. A new order          'bak ,presh-3r ri'lef ,port)
placed        for     previously
                                    back rake [DES ENG] An angle
unavailable materials of an
                                    on a single-point turning tool
old order. { 'bak ,6rd-3r)
                                    measured between the plane
backplastering [BUILD] A            of the tool face and the
coat of plaster applied to the      reference plane. { 'bak ,rak )
back side of lath, opposite the
                                    back-run process [CHEM ENG]
finished surface. { 'bak,plas-
                                    A process for manufacturing
trir) )
                                    water gas in which part of the
backplate [BUILD] A plate,          run is made down, by passing
usually metal or wood, which        steam         through       the
serves as a backing for a           superheater,      thence     up
structural member. { 'bak,plat)     through the carburetor, down
                                    through the generator, and
backplate lamp holder [DES
                                    direct to the scrubbers. { 'bak
ENG] A lamp holder, integrally
                                    ,ran 'pras-ss )
mounted on a plate, which is
designed for screwing to a flat     backsaw [DES ENG] A fine-
surface. { 'bak ,plat 'lamp         tooth saw with its upper edge
,hol*d3r}                           stiffened by a metal rib to
                                    ensure straight cuts. { 'bak,so
back        pressure     [MECH]
Pressure due to a force that
is operating in a direction         backscatter gage [ENG] A
opposite      to   that    being    radar instrument used to
considered, such as that of a       measure        the     radiation
fluid    flow.   [MECH      ENG]    scattered at 180° to the
Resistance transferred from         direction of the incident wave.
rock into the drill stem when       { 'bak ]skad-sr ,gaj )
the bit is being fed at a faster
                                    backscattering      thickness
rate than the bit can cut. {
                                    gage [ENG] A device that uses
'bak ,presh-3r)
                                    a radioactive source for
back-pressure-relief port [         measuring the thickness of
ENG ] In a plastics extrusion       materials, such as coatings, in
which the source and the             back siphonage (civ ENG)
instrument measuring the             The flowing back of used,
radiation are mounted on the         contaminated, or polluted
same side of the material, the       water from a plumbing fixture
backscattered radiation thus         or vessel into the pipe which
being measured. { 'bak]skad-         feeds it; caused by reduced
3-rir) 'thik-nss ,gaj )              pressure in the pipe. { 'bak
                                     [sT-fsn-ij )
backset        (BUILD)     The
horizontal distance from the         back solution (CONT SYS )
face of a lock or latch to the       The calculation of the tool-
center of the keyhole, knob, or      coordinated positions that
lock cylinder. { 'bak,set)           correspond      to    specified
                                     robotic joint positions. { 'bak
backsight (ENG) 1. A sight on
                                     s3,lu-shsn )
a     previously      established
survey point or line. 2.             backspace (MECH ENG) TO
Reading a leveling rod in its        move a typewriter carriage
unchanged        position    after   back     one    space     by
moving         the        leveling   depressing a backspace key. {
instrument to a different            'bak,spas )
location. { 'bak,sTt)
                                     backstay      (ENG)    1.    A
backsight method (ENG) 1. A          supporting cable that prevents
plane-table traversing method        a more or less vertical object
in which the table orientation       from falling forward. 2. A
produces the alignment of the        spring used to keep together
alidade on an established            the cutting edges of purchase
map line, the table being            shears. 3. A rod that runs
rotated until the line of sight is   from either end of a carriage's
coincident with the cor-             rear axle to the reach. 4. A
responding ground line. 2.           leather strip that covers and
Sighting     two     pieces     of   strengthens a shoe's back
equipment directly at each           seam. { 'bak,sta )
other in order to orient and
                                     back sweetening (CHEM ENG)
synchronize one with the
                                     The controlled addition of
other    in     azimuth      and
elevation. { 'bak,sTt 'meth-sd)
mercaptans to a petroleum           'bak,3p ,tang )
stock having excess free
                                    back vent (civ ENG) An
sulfur in order to reduce free
                                    individual vent for a plumbing
sulfur by forming a disulfide. {
                                    fixture    located     on    the
'bak ,swet*3n*ir) )
                                    downstream (sewer) side of a
backup (BUILD) That part of a       trap to protect the trap against
masonry wall behind the             siphonage. { 'bak ,vent)
exterior facing, (civ ENG)
Overflow in a drain or piping
                                    aerodynamic fan (MECH ENG)
system, due to stoppage.
                                    A fan that consists of several
(ENG) 1. An item under
                                    streamlined blades mounted
development      intended     to
                                    in a revolving casing. { 'bak-
perform the same general
                                    word ,blad-3d ^r-o-dT'nam-ik
functions that another item
                                    ,fan )
also    under     development
performs. 2. A compressible         backward pass (IND ENG)
material used behind a sealant      The calculation of late finish
to reduce its depth and to          times      (dates)     for     all
support the sealant against         uncompleted              network
sag or indentation. { 'bak,3p )     activities for a specific project
                                    by subtracting durations of
backup strip (BUILD ) A wood
                                    uncompleted activities from
strip which is fixed at the
                                    the scheduled finish time of
corner of a partition or wall to
                                    the final activity. { 'bak-wsrd
provide a nailing surface for
                                    'pas )
ends of lath. Also known as
lathing board. { 'bak,3p ,strip )   backwash (CHEM ENG) 1. In
                                    an     ion-exchange      resin
backup system (SYS ENG) A
                                    system, an upward flow of
system, normally redundant
                                    water through a resin bed that
but kept available to replace a
                                    cleans and reclassifies the
system which may fail in
                                    resin      particles     after
operation. { 'bak,3p ,sis-t3m )
                                    exhaustion.        2.     See
backup tong (ENG) A heavy           blowback. { 'bak,wash )
device used on a drill pipe to
                                    backwater valve (ENG) A
loosen the tool joints. {
                                    type of check valve in a
drainage pipe; reversal of flow      bag (ENG) 1. A flexible cover
causes the valve to close,           used in bag molding. 2. A
thereby cutting off flow. Also       container made of paper,
known as backflow valve. {           plastic, or cloth without rigid
'bak,w6d-3r ,valv )                  walls to transport or store
                                     material. { bag )
badger ( DES ENG ) See
badger plane, ( ENG ) A tool         bag filter (ENG) Filtering
used inside a pipe or culvert        apparatus with porous cloth or
to remove any excess mortar          felt bags through which dust-
or deposits. { 'baj-sr)              laden gases are sent, leaving
                                     the dust on the inner surfaces
badger plane (DES ENG) A
                                     of the bags. { 'bag ,fil*t3r)
hand plane whose mouth is
cut obliquely from side to side,     bag house ( ENG ) The large
so that the plane can work           chamber or room for holding
close up to a corner. Also           bag filters used to filter gas
known as badger. { 'baj-sr           streams from a furnace. {
,plan )                              'bag,haus )
baffle ( ELEC ) Device for           bag molding (ENG) A method
deflecting oil or gas in a circuit   of molding plastic or plywood-
breaker, (ELECTR) An auxiliary       plastic     combinations    into
member in a gas tube used,           curved shapes, in which fluid
for example, to control the          pressure acting through a
flow of mercury particles or         flexible cover, or bag, presses
deionize the mercury following       the material to be molded
conduction, (ENG) A plate that       against a rigid die. { 'bag
regulates the flow of a fluid,       ,m6ld-ir) )
as in a steam-boiler flue or a
                                     Bagnold number (ENG) A
gasoline      muffler.   (    ENG
                                     dimensionless number used
ACOUS) A cabinet or partition
                                     in saltation studies. { 'bag-
used with a loudspeaker to re-
                                     nsld ,n3m-b3r)
duce      interaction   between
sound        waves     produced      bag plug ( ENG ) An inflatable
simultaneously by the two            drain stopper, located at the
surfaces of the diaphragm. {         lowest point of a piping
'baf-sl )                            system, that acts to seal a
pipe when inflated. { 'bag            which operates a counter to
                                      record the total weight of
                                      granular     material    flowing
bag trap (ENG) An S-shaped            through vertical or near-
trap in which the vertical inlet      vertical ducts, spouts, or
and outlet pipes are in               pipes. { 'bal-e ,med-3r)
alignment. { 'bag .trap)
                                      bailing (ENG] Removal of the
baguette See bead molding. {          cuttings from a well during
ba'get)                               cable-tool drilling, or of the
                                      liquid from a well, by means of
bail [ENG] A loop of heavy            a bailer. { 'bal-irj )
wire snap-fitted around two or
more parts of a connector or          bailing bucket See bailer. {
other device to hold the parts        'bal-ig ,bak*3t)
together. { bal)
                                      bailing drum (ENG] A reel for
bailer     [ENG]      A     long,     winding bailing line. { 'bal-irj
cylindrical vessel fitted with a      ,dram )
bail at the upper end and a
                                      bailing line ( ENG ] A cable
flap or tongue valve at the
                                      attached to the bailer of a
lower extremity; used to
                                      derrick; it is passed over a
remove water, sand, and
                                      sheave at the top of the
mud- or cuttings-laden fluids
                                      derrick and spooled on a
from a borehole. Also known
                                      reel. { 'bal-ig ,lTn )
as bailing bucket. { 'bal-or)
                                      baked finish (ENG] A paint or
Bailey bridge | civ ENG ] A
                                      varnish finish obtained by
lattice    bridge      built     of
                                      baking,       usually           at
interchangeable            panels
                                      temperatures above 150°F
connected at the corners with
                                      (65°C), thereby developing a
steel pins, permitting rapid
                                      tough, durable film. { 'bakt 'fin-
construction; developed in
                                      ish )
Britain about 1942 as a
military bridge. { 'bal-e ,brij)      bakeout (ENG] The degassing
                                      of surfaces of a vacuum
Bailey   meter     (ENG]    A
                                      system by heating during the
flowmeter consisting of a
                                      pumping process. { 'bak,aut )
helical  quarter-turn    vane
baker bell dolphin (civ ENG]      long beam, attached to a gate
A dolphin consisting of a         (or drawbridge, and such) so
heavy      bell-shaped     cap    as to counterbalance the
pivoted on a group of piles; a    weight of the gate during
blow from a ship will tilt the    opening or closing. Also
bell, thus absorbing energy. {    known as balance bar. { 'bal-
'bak-sr [bel ,dal*fen )           sns ,bem )
baking (ENG] The use of           balanced armature unit (ENG
heat on fresh paint films to      ACOUS] Driving unit used in
speed the evaporation of          magnetic          loudspeakers,
thinners and to promote the       consisting of an iron armature
reaction      of         binder   pivoted between the poles of
components so as to form a        a permanent magnet and
hard polymeric film. Also         surrounded by coils carrying
known as stoving. { 'bak-irj )    the audio-frequency current;
                                  variations in audio-frequency
balance (ELEC] The state of
                                  current cause corresponding
an electrical network when it
                                  changes        in      armature
is adjusted so that voltage in
                                  magnetism        and     corres-
one branch induces or causes
                                  ponding movements of the
no current in another branch,
                                  armature with respect to the
(ENG] An instrument for
                                  poles of the permanent
measuring mass or weight. {
                                  magnet. { 'bal-snst 'arm-s-
'bal-sns )
                                  chsr ,yu-n3t )
balance arm (BUILD] On a
                                  balanced          construction
projected window, a side
                                  (BUILD]    A     plywood     or
supporting arm which is
                                  sandwich-panel construction
constructed so that the center
                                  which has an odd number of
of gravity of the sash is not
                                  plies laminated together so
changed appreciably when the
                                  that the construction is
window is opened. { 'bal-sns
                                  identical on both sides of a
,arm )
                                  plane through the center of
balance bar See balance           the     panel.    {   'bal-snst
beam. { 'bal-sns ,bar)            ksn'strek-shsn )
balance beam (civ ENG] A          balanced      design      (ENG]
Awinding pattern used in           time cycles of the operators
fabricating    filament-wound      are made approximately equal
reinforced    plastics     that    so that the work flows at a
renders the stresses in all the    desired steady rate from one
filaments equal. { 'bal-snst       operator to the next. { 'bal-
di'zTn )                           snst ,1m )
balanced door (BUILD] A door       balanced      method      (ENG]
equipped with double-pivoted       Method of measurement in
hardware which is partially        which the reading is taken at
counterbalanced to provide         zero; it may be a visual or
easier operation. { 'bal-snst      audible reading, and in the
'dor)                              latter case the null is the no-
                                   sound setting. { 'bal-snst
balanced draft (ENG] The
maintenance of a constant
draft in a furnace by              balanced reinforcement (civ
monitoring both the incoming       ENG]      An    amount      and
air   and      products       of   distribution      of      steel
combustion. { 'bal-snst 'draft )   reinforcement in a flex-ural
                                   reinforced concrete member
balanced earthwork (civ
                                   such that the allowable tensile
ENG] Cut-and-fill work in
                                   stress in the steel and the al-
which the amount of fill
                                   lowable compressive stress in
equals      the   amount of
                                   the concrete are attained
material excavated. { 'bal-
                                   simultaneously. { 'bal-snst ,re-
snst ' srth,work)
                                   3n 'for-smsnt)
balanced line (ELEC] A
                                   balanced sash (BUILD] In a
transmission line consisting of
                                   double-hung window, a sash
two conductors capable of
                                   which opens by being raised
being operated so that the
                                   or lowered and which is
voltages     of    the     two
                                   balanced with counterweights
conductors at any transverse
                                   or pretensioned springs so
plane are equal in magnitude
                                   that little force is required to
and opposite in polarity with
                                   move the sash. { 'bal-snst
respect to ground. (IND ENG] A
                                   ,sash )
production line for which the
balanced step (BUILD] One of       mechanism. 2. See flywheel. {
a series of winders arranged       'bal-sns ,wel)
so that the width of each
                                   balancing a survey [ENG]
winder tread (at the narrow
                                   Distributing        corrections
end) is almost equal to the
                                   through any traverse to
tread width in the straight
                                   eliminate the error of closure
portion of the adjacent stair
                                   and to obtain an adj usted
flight. Also known as dancing
                                   position for each traverse
step; dancing winder. { 'bal-
                                   station. Also known as
snst ,step )
                                   traverse adjustment. { 'bal-
balanced valve (ENG] A valve       ons-irj 3 's3r,va )
having equal fluid pressure in
                                   balancing delay |IND ENG] In
both the opening and closing
                                   motion study, idleness of one
directions. { 'bal-snst ,valv )
                                   hand while the other is active
balance method See null            to catch up. { 'bal-ons-ig di,la )
method. { 'bal-sns ,meth-3d )
                                   balancing plug cock See
balance pipe [ENG] A pipe in       balancing valve. { 'bal-sns-ir)
a     compressed-air      piping   'plsg ,kak)
system that is used to
                                   balancing valve |ENG] A
displace trapped air so that
                                   valve used in a pipe for
the condensate can flow
                                   controlling fluid flow; not
freely into the trap. { 'bal-sns
                                   usually used to shut off the
,pTpe )
                                   flow. Also known as balancing
balance tool |MECH ENG] A          plug cock. { 'bal-ons-ig ,valv )
tool designed for taking the
                                   balconet       [BUILD]       A
first cuts when the external
                                   pseudobalcony; a low orna-
surface of a piece in a lathe is
                                   mental railing at a window,
being machined; it is sup-
                                   projecting    only     slightly
ported in the tool holder at an
                                   beyond the threshold or sill. {
unvarying angle. { 'bal-sns
                                   balcony [BUILD] A deck which
balance wheel |MECH ENG] 1.
                                   projects from a building wall
A wheel which governs or
                                   above ground level. { 'bal-ks-
stabilizes the movement of a
ne )                                [civ ENG] A low ridge of earth
                                    that marks a boundary line. {
balcony outlet [BUILD] In a
vertical rainwater pipe that
passes through an exterior          balking [IND ENG] The refusal
balcony, a fitting which            of a customer to enter a
provides an inlet for the           queue for some reason, such
drainage of rainwater from          as insufficient waiting room. {
the balcony. { 'bal-ks-ne           'bok-irj )
                                    ball [MECH ENG] In fine
bale [IND ENG] 1. A large           grinding, one of the crushing
package of material, pressed        bodies used in a ball mill. {
tightly together, tied with rope,   bol)
wire, or hoops and usually
covered with wrapping. 2.
                                    pulverizer [MECH ENG] A
The amount of material in a
                                    grinding machine in which
bale; sometimes used as a
                                    balls rotate under an applied
unit of measure, as 500
                                    force between two races to
pounds (227 kilograms) of
                                    crush materials, such as coal,
cotton in the United States,
                                    to fine consistency. Also
                                    known       as     ball-bearing
baler [MECH ENG] A machine          pulverizer. {[bol on [ras ,tTp
which takes large quantities of     'psl-v^rTz-sr)
raw or finished materials and
                                    ball-and-ring method See
binds them with rope or metal
                                    ring-and-ball test. { [bol on 'rig
straps or wires into a large
                                    ,meth-3d )
package. { 'bal-or)
                                    ball-and-socket joint [MECH
baling [civ ENG] A technique
                                    ENG] A joint in which a
used to convert loose refuse
                                    member ending in a ball is
into    heavy        blocks    by
                                    joined to a member ending in
compaction; the blocks are
                                    a socket so that relative
then burned and are buried in
                                    movement is permitted within
sanitary landfill. { 'bal-ig )
                                    a certain angle in all planes
balk [BUILD] A squared timber       passing through a line. Also
used in building construction,      known as ball joint. { [bol on
'sak-st joint )                      ball bonding [ENG] The
                                     making        of        electrical
ball-and-trunnion joint [MECH
                                     connections in which a flame
ENG] A joint in which a
                                     is used to cut a wire, the
universal joint and a slip joint
                                     molten end of which solidifies
are combined in a single
                                     as a ball, which is pressed
assembly. { [bol on 'tren-yon
                                     against the bonding pad on an
                                     integrated circuit. { 'bol ,band-
ballast [civ ENG] Crushed            ir))
stone used in a railroad bed
                                     ball breaker [ENG] 1. A steel
to support the ties, hold the
                                     or iron ball that is hoisted by
track in line, and help
                                     a derrick and allowed to fall
drainage, [ELEC] A circuit ele-
                                     on blocks of waste stone to
ment that serves to limit an
                                     break them or to swing
electric current or to provide a
                                     against old buildings to
starting voltage, as in certain
                                     demolish them. Also known
types of lamps, such as in
                                     as skull cracker; wrecking ball.
fluorescent ceiling fixtures. {
                                     2. A coring and sampling
                                     device consisting of a hollow
ball bearing [MECH ENG] An           glass ball, 3 to 5 inches (7.5 to
antifriction bearing permitting      12.5 centimeters) in diameter,
free motion between moving           held in a frame attached to the
and fixed parts by means of          trigger    line     above     the
balls confined between outer         triggering weight of the corer;
and inner rings. { ,bol 'ber-irj )   used to indicate contact
                                     between corer and bottom. {
ball-bearing hinge [MECH             'bol [brak-sr)
ENG] A        hinge which is
equipped with ball bearings          ball bushing [ MECH ENG ] A
between the hinge knuckles in        type of ball bearing that allows
order to reduce friction. { ,bol     motion of the shaft in its axial
'ber-ig ,hinj )                      direction. { 'bol ,bush-ir) )
ball-bearing pulverizer See          ball catch [DES ENG] A door
ball-and-race-type pulverizer. {     fastener having a contained
,bol 'ber-ig 'psl-v^rTz-sr)          metal ball which is under
                                     pressure from a spring; the
ball engages a striking plate        type of saccharom-eter used
and keeps the door from              to determine the density of
opening until force is applied.      sugar solutions. { 'bol-irj
{ 'bol ,kach )                       hl'dram-sd-sr)
ball check valve [ENG] A             ballistic body [ENG] A body
valve having a ball held by a        free to move, behave, and be
spring against a seat; used to       modified       in     appearance,
permit flow in one direction         contour, or texture by ambient
only. { 'bol 'chek ,valv )           conditions, substances, or
                                     forces, such as by the
ball float [MECH ENG] A
                                     pressure of gases in a gun, by
floating      device,   usually
                                     rifling in a barrel, by gravity, by
approximately         spherical,
                                     temperature,        or    by     air
which is used to operate a ball
                                     particles. { bs'lis-tik ,bad-e )
valve. { 'bol ,flot )
                                     ballistic coefficient [ MECH ]
ball-float liquid-level meter [
                                     The numerical measure of the
ENG ] A float which rises and
                                     ability of a missile to
falls     with    liquid    level,
                                     overcome        air    resistance;
actuating a pointer adjacent
                                     dependent upon the mass,
to a calibrated scale in order
                                     diameter, and form factor. {
to measure the level of a liquid
                                     bs'lis-tik ^o-s'fish-snt)
in a tank or other container. {
'bol ,flot ]lik-wsd [lev-sl ,med-    ballistic conditions [MECH]
3r)                                  Conditions which affect the
                                     motion of a projectile in the
ball grinder See ball mill. {
                                     bore      and      through    the
'bol ,grind-3r)
                                     atmosphere, including muzzle
ballhead |MECH ENG] That             velocity, weight of projectile,
part of the governor which           size and shape of projectile,
contains flyweights whose            rotation of the earth, density of
force is balanced, at least in       the air, temperature or
part, by the force of compres-       elasticity of the air, and the
sion of a speeder spring. {          wind. { bs'lis-tik ksn'dish-sns )
'b6l,hed )
                                     ballistic curve [MECH] The
Balling hydrometer [ENG] A           curve described by the path
of a bullet, a bomb, or other       Any instrument, such as a
projectile as determined by         ballistic galvanometer or a
the ballistic conditions, by the    ballistic      pendulum,  that
propulsive force, and by            measures an impact or
gravity. {bs'lis-tik 'ksrv )        sudden pulse of energy. {
                                    bs'lis-tik 'in-stre-msnt)
ballistic deflection [MECH]
The deflection of a missile         ballistic limit [MECH] The
due       to   its  ballistic       minimum velocity at which a
characteristics. { bs'lis-tik       particular     armor-piercing
di'flek-shsn )                      projectile is expected to
                                    consistently and completely
ballistic density [MECH] A
                                    penetrate armor plate of given
representation      of     the
                                    thickness    and      physical
atmospheric            density
                                    properties at a specified
encountered by a projectile in
                                    angle of obliquity. { bs'lis-tik
flight,   expressed    as     a
percentage of the density
according to the standard           ballistic magnetometer [ENG]
artillery atmosphere. { bs'lis-     A magnetometer designed to
tik 'den-ssd-e )                    employ the transient voltage
                                    induced in a coil when either
ballistic efficiency [MECH] 1.
                                    the magnetized sample or coil
The ability of a projectile to
                                    are moved relative to each
overcome the resistance of
                                    other. { bs'lis-tik ^ag-ns'tam-
the air; depends chiefly on the
weight, diameter, and shape
of the projectile. 2. The           ballistic      measurement
external efficiency of a rocket     [MECH] Any measurement in
or other jet engine of a missile.   which an impulse is applied to
{ bs'lis-tik i'fish-sn-se )         a device such as the bob of a
                                    ballistic pendulum, or the
ballistic    entry    [MECH]
                                    moving part of a ballistic
Movement of a ballistic body
                                    galvanometer,     and      the
from without to within a
                                    subsequent motion of the
planetary atmosphere. {bs'lis-
                                    device is used to determine
tik 'en-tre)
                                    the magnitude of the impulse,
ballistic instrument [ ENG ]        and, from this magnitude, the
quantity to be measured. {         forces its way into targets of
bs'lis-tik 'mezh-sr-msnt)          solid or semisolid substances,
                                   such as earth, concrete, or
ballistic pendulum [ENG] A
                                   steel. {bs'lis-tiks sv pen-s'tra-
device       which    uses the
                                   shsn )
deflection of a suspended
weight to determine the            ballistic    table       [MECH]
momentum of a projectile. {        Compilation of ballistic data
bs'lis-tik 'pen-js-lsm)            from      which       trajectory
                                   elements such as angle of fall,
ballistics [MECH] Branch of
                                   range to summit, time of flight,
applied mechanics which
                                   and ordinate at any time, can
deals with the motion and
                                   be obtained. { bs'lis-tik 'ta-bsl
behavior characteristics of
missiles, that is, projectiles,
bombs,         rockets, guided     ballistic temperature [MECH ]
missiles, and so forth, and of     That temperature (in °F)
accompanying phenomena.            which, when regarded as a
{bs'lis-tiks }                     surface temperature and used
                                   in conjunction with the lapse
ballistic separator [civ ENG ]
                                   rate of the standard artillery
A device that takes out
                                   atmosphere, would produce
noncompostable material like
                                   the same effect on a projectile
stones, glass, metal, and
                                   as the actual temperature
rubber, from solid waste by
                                   distribution encountered by
passing the waste over a rotor
                                   the projectile in flight. { bs'lis-
that has impellers to fling the
                                   tik 'tern-pro-chsr)
material in the air; the lighter
organic           (com-postable)   ballistic trajectory [MECH]
material travels a shorter         The trajectory followed by a
distance than the heavier          body being acted upon only by
(noncompostable) material. {       gravitational       forces and
bs'lis-tik 'sep-3,rad-3r)          resistance of the medium
                                   through which it passes. {
ballistics of penetration
                                   bs'lis-tik tre'jek-ts-re)
[MECH] That part of terminal
ballistics which treats of the     ballistic uniformity [MECH]
motion of a projectile as it       The capability of a propellant,
when fired under identical             balloting |MECH] A tossing or
conditions from round to               bounding movement of a
round, to impart uniform               projectile, within the limits of
muzzle velocity and produce            the bore diameter, while
similar interior ballistic results.    moving through the bore
{ bs'lis-tik ju-ns'fdr-msd-e )         under the influence of the
                                       propellant gases. { 'bal-sd-ir))
ballistic vehicle [ENG] A
nonlifting vehicle; a vehicle          ball-peen hammer |ENG] A
that follows a ballistic               hammer with a ball at one
trajectory. { bs'lis-tik 've-s-ksl)    end of the head; used in
                                       riveting and forming metal. {
ballistic wave [MECH] An
                                       'bol,pen 'ham-sr)
audible disturbance caused
by compression of air ahead            ball pendulum test |ENG] A
of a missile in flight. { bs'lis-tik   test     for   measuring      the
,wav )                                 strength       of     explosives;
                                       consists of measuring the
ballistic wind [ MECH ] That
                                       swing       of    a    pendulum
constant wind which would
                                       produced by the explosion of
produce the same effect upon
                                       a weighed charge of material.
the trajectory of a projectile as
                                       { 'bol 'pen-js-lsm ,test)
the actual wind encountered
in flight. { bs'lis-tik 'wind )        ball race |DES ENG] A track,
                                       channel, or groove in which
ball mill |MECH ENG] A
                                       ball bearings turn. { 'bol ,ras )
pulverizer that consists of a
horizontal rotating cylinder, up       ball screw |MECH ENG] An
to three diameters in length,          element used to convert
containing a charge of tum-            rotation to longitudinal motion,
bling or cascading steel balls,        consisting of a threaded rod
pebbles, or rods. Also known           linked to a threaded nut by
as ball grinder. { 'bdl ,mil)          ball bearings constrained to
                                       roll in the space formed by the
balloon framing |civ ENG]
                                       threads, in order to reduce
Framing for a building in
                                       friction. { 'bol ,skru )
which each stud is one piece
from roof to foundation. {             ball test |civ ENG] In a drain, a
bs'lun ,fram*ir) )                     test    for    freedom      from
obstruction and for circularity     slightly from a wall plane and
in which a ball (less than the      usually marking a division in
diameter of the drain by a          the wall. Also known as band
specified amount) is rolled         course; band molding. |DES
through the drain. { 'bol ,test)    ENG] A strip or cord crossing
                                    the back of a book to which
ball-up |ENG] 1. During a
                                    the sections are sewn. { band
drilling operation, collection by
a portion of the drilling
equipment of a mass of              bandage |BUILD] A strap,
viscous            consolidated     band, ring, or chain placed
material. 2. Failure of an          around a structure to secure
anchor to hold on a soft            and hold its parts together, as
bottom, by pulling out with a       around the springing of a
large ball of mud attached. {       dome. |ELEC] Rubber ribbon
'bol ,3p )                          about      4    inches      (10
                                    centimeters)      wide       for
ball valve |MECH ENG] A valve
                                    temporarily    protecting      a
in which the fluid flow is
                                    telephone or coaxial splice
regulated by a ball moving
                                    from moisture. { 'ban-dij )
relative to a spherical socket
as a result of fluid pressure       band brake |MECH ENG] A
and the weight of the ball. {       brake in which the frictional
'bol ,valv )                        force is applied by increasing
                                    the tension in a flexible band
baluster |BUILD] A post which
                                    to tighten it around the drum. {
supports a handrail and
                                    'band ,brak )
encloses the open sections of
a stairway. { 'bal-s-stsr)          band chain | ENG ] A steel or
                                    Invar tape, graduated in feet
balustrade |BUILD] The railing
                                    and at least 100 feet (30.5
assembly of a stairway
                                    meters) long, used for
consisting of the handrail,
                                    accurate surveying. { 'band
balusters, and usually a
                                    ,chan )
bottom rail. { 'bal-3,strad )
                                    band clamp |DES ENG] A
band |BUILD] Any horizontal
                                    two-piece    metal      clamp,
flat member or molding or
                                    secured by bolts at both ends;
group of moldings projecting
used to hold riser pipes. {          more or less uniformly in a
'band ,klamp )                       certain band, outside of which
                                     the frequency components
band clutch |MECH ENG] A
                                     are attenuated. { 'band ,pas
friction clutch in which a steel
band, lined with fabric,
contracts onto the clutch rim. {     band-pass             response
'band ,kl3ch )                       |ELECTR] Response char-
                                     acteristics in which a definite
band course See band. {
                                     band      of   frequencies   is
'band ,kors )
                                     transmitted uniformly. Also
banding |DES ENG] A strip of         known as flat top response. {
fabric which is used for             'band ,pas ri'spans )
bands, hydln a glacier, a
                                     band-pass system | ENG
structure of alternate ice
                                     ACOUS ] A loudspeaker
layers of different textures and
                                     system,     often   used      for
appearance. { 'band-irj )
                                     subwoofers, in which the
band molding See band. {             speaker is mounted inside an
'band ,mold-ir) )                    enclosure on a shelf that
                                     divides the enclosure into two
band-pass |ELECTR] A range,          parts, and one or both parts
in    hertz      or   kilo-hertz,    are coupled to the outside by
expressing      the   difference     a     vent;    the    frequency
between         the       limiting   response of the system is that
frequencies at which a               of a fourth-order band-pass
desired fraction (usually half       filter (one vent) or an
power) of the maximum output         asymmetrical         sixth-order
is obtained. { 'band ,pas )          band-pass filter (two vents). {
band-pass amplifier |ELECTR]         'band,pas ,sis-t3m )
An amplifier designed to pass        band-rejection filter See
a definite band of frequencies       band-stop filter. { 'band ri'jek-
with      essentially  uniform       shsn ,fil*t3r}
response. { 'band ,pas [am-
pl^fT-sr)                            band saw |MECH ENG] A
                                     power-operated woodworking
band-pass filter |ELECTR] An         saw consisting basically of a
electric filter which transmits
flexible band of steel having    {[bag [bag 'ro,bat )
teeth on one edge, running
                                 bang-zero-bang         control
over two vertical pulleys, and
                                 |CONT SYS] A type of control in
operated under tension. {
                                 which the control values are
'band ,so )
                                 at their maximum, zero, or
band selector |ELECTR] A         minimum. Also known as
switch that selects any of the   bang-bang-off control. { [bag
bands in which a receiver,       ,zir-o 'bag ksn.trol)
signal      generator,      or
                                 banister |BUILD ] A handrail
transmitter is designed to
                                 for a staircase. { 'ban-s-stsr)
operate and usually has two
or more sections to make the     bank       |civ     ENG ]  See
required changes in all tuning   embankment. | ELEC ] 1. A
circuits simultaneously. Also    number of similar electrical
known as band switch. { 'band    devices, such as resistors,
ss'lek-tsr)                      connected together for use as
                                 a single device. 2. An
band wheel |MECH ENG] In a
                                 assemblage of fixed contacts
drilling operation, a large
                                 over which one or more
wheel that transmits power
                                 wipers or brushes move in
from the engine to the walking
                                 order to establish electrical
beam. { 'band ,wel)
                                 connections      in   automatic
bang-bang control |CONT          switching. |ENG] A pipework
SYS] A type of automatic         installation in which the pipes
control system in which the      are set parallel to each other
applied     control   signals    in proximity. |IND ENG] The
assume either their maximum      amount of material allowed to
or minimum values. {[bag         accumulate at a point on a
[bag ksn'trol)                   production line where it is not
                                 employed or worked upon, to
bang-bang-off control See
                                 permit reasonable fluctuations
bang-zero-bang control. { [bag
                                 in line speed before and after
[bag 'of ksn.trol )
                                 the point. Also known as float.
bang-bang robot |CONT SYS]       { bagk )
A simple robot that can make
                                 banker |ENG] The bench or
only two types of motions.
table upon which bricklayers       dig )
and stonemasons prepare
                                   bar chair See bar support. {
and shape their material. {
                                   'bar ,cher)
                                   bar clamp |DES ENG] A
bank material |civ ENG] Soil
                                   clamping device consisting of
or rock in place before
                                   a long bar with adjustable
excavation or blasting. { 'bagk
                                   clamping jaws; used in
ma'tir* e-sl)
                                   carpentry. { 'bar ,klamp )
bank measure |civ ENG] The
                                   bare board |ELECTR] A
volume of a given portion of
                                   printed circuit board with
soil or rock as measured in its
                                   conductors but no electronic
original     position   before
                                   components. {[ber 'bord)
excavation. { 'bagk ,mezh-3r)
                                   bareboat charter |IND ENG]
bar |MECH] A unit of pressure
                                   An agreement to charter a
equal to 105 pascals, or 105
                                   ship without its crew or stores;
newtons per square meter, or
                                   the fee for its use for a
106   dynes      per   square
                                   predetermined period of time
centimeter. { bar)
                                   is based on the price per ton
Barany chair [ENG] A chair in      of cargo handled. { 'ber,bot
which a person is revolved to      ,chard-3r)
test his susceptibility to
                                   barefaced tenon | ENG ] A
vertigo. { bs'ran-e ,cher)
                                   tenon having a shoulder cut
barb bolt | DES ENG ] A bolt       on one side only. { 'ber,fast
having jagged edges to             [ten-sn )
prevent its being withdrawn
                                   bare tube [ENG] In a heat
from the object into which it is
                                   exchanger, a tube whose
driven. Also known as rag
                                   inner and outer surfaces are
bolt. { 'barb ,bolt)
                                   both smooth. {[ber 'tub )
bar bending |civ ENG] In
                                   bargeboard See vergeboard.
reinforced           concrete
                                   { 'barj,bord )
construction, the process of
bending reinforcing bars to        barge couple (BUILD] 1. One
various shapes. { 'bar ,ben-       of two rafters that support that
part of a gable roof which          liquid     hydrocarbons   by
projects beyond the gable           extraction of the wax with a
wall. 2. One of the rafters         mixed ethylene dichloride-
(under the barge course)            benzene solvent, followed by
which serve as grounds for          separation        from   the
the vergeboards and carry the       hydrocarbon in a centrifuge.
plastering or boarding of the       {[bar-e [sal ,pras-3s )
soffits. Also known as barge
                                    bar joist [BUILD] A small steel
rafter. { barj ,k3p-3l)
                                    truss with wire or rod web
barge course [BUILD] 1. The         lacing used for roof and floor
coping of a wall, formed by a       supports. { 'bar joist )
course of bricks set on edge.
                                    barker [DES ENG] See bark
2. In a tiled roof, the part of
                                    spud, [ENG] A machine, used
the tiling which projects
                                    mainly in pulp mills, which re-
beyond the principal rafters
                                    moves the bark from logs. {
where there is a gable. { 'barj
,kdrs )
                                    barkometer [CHEM ENG] A
barge rafter See            barge
                                    hydrometer calibrated to test
couple. { 'barj ,raf*tar)
                                    the strength of tanning liquors
barge spike See boat spike. {       used in tanning leather. {
'barj ,spTk)                        bar'kam-sd-sr)
barge stone [BUILD] One of          bark spud [DES ENG] A tool
the      stones,      generally     which peels off bark. Also
projecting, which form the          known as barker. { 'bark ,spod
sloping top of a gable built of     )
masonry. { 'barj ,ston )
                                    bar linkage [MECH ENG] A set
bar hole [ENG] A small-             of bars joined together at
diameter hole made in the           pivots by means of pins or
ground along the route of a         equivalent devices; used to
gas pipe in a bar test survey.      transmit        power          and
{ 'bar ,hol)                        information. { 'bar ,lig-kij )
Bari-Sol process [CHEM              Barlow's equation [MECH] A
ENG ] Removal of waxes from         formula, t = DP/2S, used in
computing the strength of         bs'ram-sd-sr)
cylinders subject to internal
                                  barometric [ENG] Pertaining
pressures, where t is the
                                  to a barometer or to the
thickness of the cylinder in
                                  results obtained by using a
inches, D the outside diameter
                                  barometer. { bar-s'me-trik)
in inches, Pthe pressure in
pounds per square inch, and       barometric altimeter See
S the allowable tensile           pressure altimeter. { bar-
strength in pounds per            s'met-rik al'tim-sd-sr)
square inch. { 'bar,loz i'kwa-
zhsn )                            barometric condenser [MECH
                                  ENG] A contact condenser that
barnacle [ENG] A nodelike         uses a long, vertical pipe into
deposit that occurs on the        which the condensate and
surface of a heat exchanger       cooling     liquid   flow    to
tube or an evaporating device     accomplish their removal by
and has a semigranular outer      the pressure created at the
shell bonded to the fouled        lower end of the pipe. { bar-
surface, enclosing a slurry of    s'met-rik ksn'den-ssr)
putrefying organisms. { 'bar-
ns-ksl)                           barometric draft regulator
                                  [MECH ENG] A damper usually
barodynamics [MECH] The           installed in the breeching be-
mechanics of heavy structures     tween a boiler and chimney;
which may collapse under          permits air to enter the
their own weight. { ^ar-s-        breeching automatically as
dT'nam-iks )                      required, to maintain a
                                  constant overfire draft in the
barogram [ENG] The record of
                                  combustion chamber. {bar-
an aneroid barograph. { 'bar-
                                  s'met-rik 'draft reg-ys 'lad-sr)
3,gram )
                                  barometric elevation [ENG]
barograph      See      aneroid
                                  An elevation above mean sea
barograph. { 'bar-3,graf)
                                  level estimated from the
barometer [ENG] An absolute       difference in atmospheric
pressure gage specifically        pressure between the point in
designed    to     measure        question and an elevation of
atmospheric   pressure.   {       known value. { bar-s'met-rik
el-s'va-shsn )                        length used in graduating a
                                      mercury barometer in the
barometric fuse [ENG] A fuse
that functions as a result of
                                      system. { 'bar-3,mil)
change in the pressure
exerted by the surrounding air.       baroscope          [ENG]    An
{ bar-s'met-rik 'fyuz )               apparatus       which    demon-
                                      strates the equality of the
barometric        hypsometry
                                      weight of air displaced by an
[ENG] The determination of
                                      object and its loss of weight
elevations by means of either
                                      in air. { 'bar-3,sk6p)
mercurial      or     aneroid
barometers.     {   bar-s'met-        barostat [ENG] A mechanism
rikhip'sam-s-tre)                     which maintains constant
                                      pressure inside a chamber. {
barometric leveling [ENG]
                                      'bar-3,stat )
The       measurement            of
approximate              elevation    baroswitch [ENG] 1. A
differences in surveying with         pressure-operated switching
the aid of a barometer; used          device used in a radiosonde
especially for large areas. {         which determines whether
bar-s'met-rik 'lev-sl-ir) )           temperature, humidity, or ref-
                                      erence     signals    will be
barometric        switch   See
                                      transmitted. 2. Any switch
baroswitch.      { bar-s'met-rik
                                      operated by a change in
'swich )
                                      barometric pressure. Also
barometrograph See aneroid            known       as      barometric
barograph. { bar-3'me-tre,graf)       switch. { 'bar-s.swich )
barometry [ENG] The study             barothermogram [ENG] The
of the measurement of                 record    made      by      a
atmospheric pressure, with            barothermograph. {[bar-o'thsr-
particular   reference     to         m^gram )
ascertaining and correcting
                                      barothermograph [ENG] An
the errors of the different
                                      instrument            which
types of barometer. { bs'ram-
                                      automatically       records
s-tre )
                                      pressure and temperature. {
baromil [ MECH ] The unit of          [bar-o'thsr-m^graf)
barothermohygrogram [ENG]           ENG]  A gate with a diagonal
The record made by a                brace     to   reinforce   the
barothermohygrograph. { |bar-       horizontal timbers. { [bard on
o|th3r-mo'hT-grs, gram )            [brast 'gat)
barothermohygrograph          [     barred gate [civ ENG] A gate
ENG ] An instrument that            with one or more horizontal
produces       graphs        of     timber rails. { [bard 'gat)
atmospheric           pressure,
                                    barrel [DES ENG] 1. A
temperature, and humidity on
                                    container having a circular
a single sheet of paper. {[bar-
                                    lateral cross section that is
                                    largest in the middle, and
barotropic       phenomenon         ends that are flat; often made
[THERMO] The sinking of a           of staves held together by
vapor beneath the surface of a      hoops. 2. A piece of small
liquid when the vapor phase         pipe inserted in the end of a
has the greater density. { ,bar-    cartridge to carry the squib to
s'trap-ik fs'nam-^nan )             the powder. 3. That portion of
                                    a pipe having a constant bore
bar post [civ ENG] One of the
                                    and wall thickness. [MECH]
posts driven into the ground
                                    Abbreviated bbl. 1. The unit of
to form the sides of a field
                                    liquid volume equal to 31.5
gate. { 'bar ,post)
                                    gallons (approximately 119
barrage [civ ENG] An artificial     liters). 2. The unit of liquid
dam which increases the             volume for petroleum equal to
depth of water of a river or        42 gallons (approximately 158
watercourse, or diverts it into a   liters). 3. The unit of dry
channel for navigation or           volume equal to 105 quarts
irrigation. { bs'razh )             (approximately 116 liters). 4. A
                                    unit of weight that varies in
barrage-type spillway [civ          size according to the com-
ENG] A passage for surplus
                                    modity being weighed. { 'bar-
water with sluice gates across      sl)
the width of the entrance. {
bs'razh ,tTp 'spil,wa )             barrel bolt [DES ENG] A door
                                    bolt which moves in a
barred-and-braced gate [civ         cylindrical casing; not driven
by a key. Also known as tower      processing in a petroleum
bolt. { 'bar-sl ,bolt)             refinery, with allowances for
                                   downtime over a period of
barrel compressor [MECH
                                   time. Abbreviated BCD. { 'bar-
ENG] A centrifugal compressor
                                   slz psr [kal-sn-dsr ,da )
having     a     barrel-shaped
housing. { 'bar-sl k3m,pres-3r)    barrels per day |CHEM ENG] A
                                   unit measuring the rate at
barrel drain [civ ENG] Any
                                   which petroleum is produced
drain which is cylindrical. {
                                   at the refinery. Abbreviated
'bar-sl ,dran )
                                   BD; bpd. { 'bar-slz psr 'da )
barrel-etch reactor [ENG] A
                                   barrels per month |CHEM
type of plasma reactor in
                                   ENG] A unit measuring the
which the specimens to be
                                   rate at which petroleum is
etched are placed in a quartz
                                   produced at the refinery.
support stand and a plasma
                                   Abbreviated BM; bpm. { 'bar-
is generated that diffuses
                                   slz psr 'month )
and contacts them. { [bar-sl
[ech re'ak-tsr)                    barrels per stream day
                                   |CHEMENG] A measurement
barrel fitting [DES ENG] A
                                   used to denote rate of oil or
short length of threaded
                                   oil-product flow while a fluid-
connecting pipe. { 'bar-sl ,fid-
                                   processing unit is in continu-
                                   ous operation. Abbreviated
barrelhead [DES ENG] The           BSD. { 'bar-slz psr [strem ,da
flat end of a barrel. { 'bar-      )
                                   barren liquor |CHEM ENG]
barrel roof [BUILD] 1. A roof of   Liquid (liquor) from filter-cake
semi       cylindrical  section;   washing in which there is little
capable of spanning long           or no recovery value; for
distances parallel to the axis     example,     barren      cyanide
of the cylinder. 2. See barrel     liquor from washing of gold
vault. { 'bar-sl ,riif)            cake slimes. { 'baron [lik-sr)
barrels per calendar day           barricade | ENG ] Structure
|CHEM ENG] A unit measuring        composed    essentially  of
the average rate of oil            concrete, earth, metal, or
wood, or any combination           metal       or    nonporous
thereof, and so constructed        polymeric). { 'bar-e-sr sep-
as to reduce or confine the        s'ra-shsn )
blast effect and fragmentation
                                   barrier shield (ENG] A wall or
of an explosion. { 'bar-3,kad )
                                   enclosure made of a material
barricade shield [ENG] A           designed to absorb ionizing
type of movable shield made        radiation,    shielding   the
of a material designed to          operator from an area where
absorb ionizing radiation, for     radioactive material is being
protection from radiation. {       used     or   processed    by
'bar-3,kad ,sheld )                remote-control equipment. {
                                   'bar-e-sr ,sheld)
barrier capacitance |ELECTR]
The capacitance that exists        barrow See handbarrow;
between the p-type and n-          wheelbarrow. { 'ba-ro )
type semiconductor materials
                                   barrow run (civ ENG] A
in a semiconductor pn junction
                                   temporary pathway of wood
that is reverse-biased so that
                                   planks or sheets to provide a
it does not conduct. Also
                                   smooth access for wheeled
known      as   depletion-layer
                                   materials-handling carriers on
capacitance;            junction
                                   a building site. { 'ba-ro ,ren )
capacitance.     {     'bar-e-sr
k3,pas-sd-sns )                    bar sash lift (BUILD] A type of
                                   handle, attached to the bottom
barrier curb |civ ENG ] A curb
                                   rail of a sash, for raising or
with vertical sides high
                                   lowering it. { 'bar 'sash ,lift )
enough to keep vehicles from
crossing it. { 'bar-e-sr ,ksrb )   bar screen (MECH ENG] A
                                   sieve with parallel steel bars
barrier layer See depletion
                                   for separating small from large
layer. { 'bar-e-sr ,1a-or}
                                   pieces of crushed rock. { 'bar
barrier separation |CHEM           ,skren )
ENG] The separation of a two-
                                   bar strainer (DES ENG] A
component gaseous mixture
                                   screening device consisting of
by selective diffusion of one
                                   a bar or a number or parallel
component through a sepa-
                                   bars; used to prevent objects
rative barrier (microporous
from entering a drain. { 'bar         bar-type grating (civ ENG] An
,stran-3r)                            open grid assembly of metal
                                      bars in which the bearing bars
bar support (civ ENG] A
                                      (running in one direction) are
device used to support or hold
                                      spaced by rigid attachment to
steel reinforcing bars in proper
                                      crossbars. { 'bar ,tTp 'grad-irj )
position before or during the
placement of concrete. Also           barycentric energy ( MECH ]
known as bar chair. { 'bar            The energy of a system in its
ss'port)                              center-of-mass frame. { ,bar-
                                      3'sen-trik 'en-sr-je)
bar test survey (ENG] A
leakage survey in which bar           barye (MECH] The pressure
holes are driven or bored at          unit of the centimeter-gram-
regular intervals along the           second system of physical
way of an underground gas             units; equal to 1 dyne per
pipe and the atmosphere in            square     centimeter (0.001
the holes is tested with a            millibar). Also known as
combustible gas detector or           microbar. { 'ba-re )
such. { 'bar ,test 's3r,va )
                                      basal tunnel (ENG] A water
Barth plan (IND ENG] A wage           supply tunnel constructed
incentive plan intended for a         along the basal water table. {
low task and for all efficiency       'ba-ssl 'tsn-sl)
points and defined as: earning
                                      bascule (ENG] A structure that
= rate per hour X square root
                                      rotates about an axis, as a
of    the      product   (hours
                                      seesaw,           with       a
standard X hours actual). {
                                      counterbalance (for the weight
'barth ,plan )
                                      of the structure) at one end. {
bar turret lathe (MECH ENG] A         'ba,skul)
turret lathe in which the bar
                                      bascule bridge (civ ENG] A
stock is slid through the
                                      movable bridge consisting
headstock and collet on line
                                      primarily of a cantilever span
with the turning axis of the
                                      extending across a channel; it
lathe and held firmly by the
                                      rotates about a horizontal
closed collet. { 'bar 'tsr-st ,lath
                                      axis    parallel   with      the
                                      waterway. { 'ba,skul ,brij )
bascule leaf (civ ENG] The         ,ap-3'rad-3s )
span of a bascule bridge. {
                                   base bias |ELECTR] The direct
'ba,skul ,lef)
                                   voltage that is applied to the
base (CHEM ENG] The primary        majority-carrier contact (base)
substance in solution in crude     of a transistor. { 'bas ,bT-3s )
oil, and remaining after
                                   base block [BUILD] 1. A block
distillation, (ELECTR] 1. The
                                   of any material, generally with
region that lies between an
                                   little or no ornament, forming
emitter and a collector of a
                                   the lowest member of a base,
transistor and into which
                                   or itself fulfilling the functions
minority carriers are injected.
                                   of a base, as a member
2. The part of an electron tube
                                   applied to the foot of a door or
that has the pins, leads, or
                                   to window trim. 2. A rectangu-
other terminals to which
                                   lar block at the base of a
external      connections   are
                                   casing or column which the
made either directly or
                                   baseboard abuts. 3. See
through a socket. 3. The
                                   skirting block. { 'bas ,blak)
plastic, ceramic, or other
insulating board that supports     baseboard [BUILD] A finish
a printed wiring pattern, (ENG]    board covering the interior
Foundation or part upon which      wall at the junction of the wall
an object or instrument rests. {   and the floor. Also known as
bas )                              skirt; skirting. { 'bas,bord )
base anchor [BUILD] The            baseboard heater [BUILD]
metal piece attached to the        Heating elements installed in
base of a doorframe for the        panels along the baseboard of
purpose of securing the frame      a wall. { 'bas,bord 'hed-sr)
to the floor. { 'bas ,ar)-k3r)
                                   baseboard radiator [civ ENG]
base apparatus [ENG] Any           A heating unit which is
apparatus designed for use in      located at the lower portion of
measuring with accuracy and        a wall and to which heat is
precision the length of a base     supplied by hot water, warm
line in triangulation, or the      air, steam, or electricity. {
length of a line in first- or      'bas,bdrd 'rad-e ,ad-sr)
second-order traverse. { 'bas
base cap See base molding. {       at the joint between a roofing
'bas ,kap )                        surface and a vertical surface,
                                   such as a wall or parapet. {
base circle [DES ENG] The
                                   'bas ,flash*ir) )
circle on a gear such that
each tooth-profile curve is an     base isolators [civ ENG]
involute of it. { 'bas .ssr-ksl)   Components placed within a
                                   building (not always at the
base correction [ENG] The
                                   base) which are relatively
adjustment made to reduce
                                   flexible in the lateral direction,
measurements taken in field
                                   yet can sustain the vertical
exploration to express them
                                   load. When an earthquake
with reference to the base
                                   causes ground motions, base
station values. { 'bas ks'rek-
                                   isolators allow the structure to
shsn )
                                   respond much more slowly
base course [BUILD] The            than it would without them,
lowest course or first course      resulting in lower seismic
of a wall, [civ ENG] The first     demand on the structure.
layer of material laid down in     Isolators may be laminated
construction of a pavement. {      steel with high-quality rubber
'bas ,kors )                       pads,                sometimes
                                   incorporating lead or other
base elbow [DES ENG] A cast-       energy-absorbing materials. {
iron pipe elbow having a           'bas ,1-sajlad* srz)
baseplate or flange which is
cast on it and by which it is      base line Abbreviated BL.
supported. { 'bas ]el,bo )         [ELECTR] The line traced on
base electrode [ELECTR] An         indicators which corresponds
ohmic or majority carrier          to the power level of the
contact to the base region of a    weakest echo detected by the
transistor. { 'bas i'lek,trod )    radar; it is retraced with every
base flashing [BUILD] 1. The       pulse transmitted by the radar
flashing provided by upturned      but appears as a nearly
edges     of    a   watertight     continuous display on the
membrane on a roof. 2. Any         scope, [ENG] 1. A surveyed
metal or composition flashing      line, established with more
than usual care, to which          base pin See pin. { 'bas ,pin )
surveys are referred for
                                   base plate [DES ENG] The
coordination and correlation.
                                   part of a theodolite which
2. A cardinal line extending
                                   carries the lower ends of the
east and west along the
                                   three    foot   screws      and
astronomic parallel passing
                                   attaches the theodolite to the
through the initial point, along
                                   tripod for surveying, [ENG] A
which standard township,
                                   metal plate that provides
section, and quarter-section
                                   support or a foundation. { 'bas
corners are established. {
'bas ,lm )
                                   base pressure [ MECH ] A
base-line check See ground
                                   pressure used as a reference
check. { 'bas ,lm ,chek)
                                   base,      for     example,
basement [BUILD] A building        atmospheric pressure. {'bas
story which is wholly or less      [presh-sr)
than half below ground; it is
                                   base screed [ENG] A metal
generally used for living
                                   screed with expanded or
space. { 'bas-msnt)
                                   short perforated flanges that
basement wall [BUILD] A            serves as a dividing strip
foundation    wall     which       between plaster and cement
encloses a usable area             and acts as a guide to
undera building. { 'bas-msnt       indicate proper thickness of
,wol)                              cement or plaster. { 'bas
                                   ,skred )
base molding [BUILD] Molding
used to trim the upper edge of     base sheet [BUILD] Saturated
interior    baseboard.    Also     or coated felt sheeting which
known as base cap. { 'bas          is laid as the first ply in a built-
,mold-ir) )                        up roofing membrane. { 'bas
base net [ENG] A system, in
surveying, of quadrilaterals       base shoe [BUILD] A molding
and triangles that include and     at the base of a baseboard. {
are quite close to a base line     'bas ,shu )
in a triangulation system. {
                                   base shoe corner [BUILD] A
'bas jnet)
molding piece or block applied       a body member; determined
in the corner of a room to           by motion studies. { 'ba-sik
eliminate the need for mitering      'mo-shsn )
the base shoe. { 'bas ]shii
                                     basic motion-time study |IND
                                     ENG]      A     system       of
base station [ENG] The point         predetermined      motion-time
from which a survey begins. {        standards for basic motions.
'bas ,sta-sh3n )                     Abbreviated BMT study. { 'ba-
                                     sik 'mo-shsn 'tTm ,st3d-e )
base tee [DES ENG ] A pipe
tee     with  a   connected          basic solution |IND ENG] A
baseplate for supporting it. {       solution to a linear program
'bas ,te )                           model, consisting of m
                                     equations in n variables,
base tile [BUILD] The lowest
                                     obtained by solving for m
course of tiles in a tiled wall. {
                                     variables in terms of the
'bas ,tTl )
                                     remaining (n — m) variables
base time See normal                 and setting the (n — m)
element time; normal time. {         variables equal to zero. { 'ba-
'bas ,tTm )                          sik ss'lu-shsn )
basic element See elemental          basic     truss     |MECH]     A
motion. { 'ba-sik 'el-3-msnt)        framework of bars arranged
                                     so that for any given loading
basic       feasible    solution     of the bars the forces on the
|INDENG] A basic solution to a       bars are uniquely determined
linear program model in which        by the laws of statics. { [bas-ik
all     the     variables    are     'tras )
nonnegative. { 'ba-sik [fez-s-
bsl ss'lii-shsn )                    basin |civ ENG ] 1. A dock
                                     employing floodgates to keep
basic grasp |IND ENG] Any            water level constant during
one of the fundamental               tidal variations. 2. A harbor
means of taking hold of an           for small craft. |DES ENG] An
object. { 'ba-sik |grasp )           open-top vessel with relatively
basic motion | IND ENG ] A           low sloping sides for holding
single, complete movement of         liquids. { 'bas-sn )
basket |DES ENG] A lightweight      size that bass frequencies
container with perforations.        from     the   rear    of     the
|MECH ENG] A type of single-        loudspeaker       emerge       to
tube core barrel made from          reinforce    those     radiated
thin-wall tubing with the lower     directly forward. {[bas 're,fleks
end notched into points, which      ,baf-3l)
is intended to pick up a
                                    bass trap |ENG ACOUS] Any
sample of granular or plastic
                                    device used in a sound-
rock material by bending in on
                                    recording studio to absorb
striking the bottom of the
                                    sound at frequencies less
borehole or solid layer; may
                                    than about 100 hertz. { 'bas
be used to recover an article
                                    ,trap )
dropped into a borehole. Also
known as basket barrel;             bassy      |ENG       ACOUS]
basket tube; sawtooth barrel. {     Pertaining to sound repro-
'bas-kst )                          duction that overemphasizes
                                    low-frequency notes. { 'bas-e )
basket strainer |CHEM ENG] A
porous-sided      or     screen-    bastard-cut file |DES ENG] A
covered vessel used to screen       file that has coarser teeth
solid particles out of liquid or    than a rough-cut file. { 'bas-
gas streams. { 'bas-kst ,stran-     tsrd |kat ,frl)
                                    bastard        pointing   See
basket sub | ENG ] A fishing        bastard tuck pointing. { 'bas-
tool run above a bit or a mill to   tsrd ,point-ir) )
recover small nondrillable
pieces of metal or debris in        bastard thread |DES ENG] A
the well. { 'bas-kst ,ssb )         screw thread that does not
                                    match any standard threads.
basket-weave        |BUILD]   A     { 'bas-tsrd ,thred )
checkerboard       pattern    of
bricks, flat or on edge. { 'bas-    bastard tuck pointing |BUILD]
kst ,wev )                          An imitation tuck pointing in
                                    which the external face is
bass reflex baffle |ENG             parallel to the wall, but
ACOUS] A loudspeaker baffle         projects slightly and casts a
having an opening of such           shadow. Also known as
bastard pointing. { 'bas-tsrd       stages of mixing. { 'bacht
[tsk ,point-ir) )                   ,wdd-3r)
bat bolt |DES ENG] A bolt           batcher     |MECH     ENG]   A
whose butt or tang is bashed        machine      in    which   the
or jagged. { 'bat ,bolt)            ingredients of concrete are
                                    measured and combined into
batch |ENG] 1. The quantity
                                    batches       before     being
of material required for or
                                    discharged to the concrete
produced by one operation.
                                    mixer. { 'bach-sr)
2. An amount of material
subjected to some unit              batching (ENG] Weighing or
chemical process or physical        measuring the volume of the
mixing process to make the          ingredients of a batch of
final product substantially         concrete or mortar, and then
uniform. { bach )                   introducing these ingredients
                                    into a mixer. { 'bach-irj )
batch box |ENG] A container
of known volume used to             batch manufacturing (IND
measure      and     mix    the     ENG] The manufacture of
constituents of a batch of          parts in discrete runs or lots,
concrete, plaster, or mortar, to    generally interspersed with
ensure proper proportions. {        other production procedures.
'bach ,baks )                       { 'bach ,man-3'fak-ch3r-ir) )
batch distillation | CHEM           batch mixer (MECH ENG] A
ENG ] Distillation where the        machine       which      mixes
entire batch of liquid feed is      concrete or mortar in batches,
placed into the still at the        as opposed to a continuous
beginning of the operation, in      mixer. { 'bach ,mik-s3r)
contrast       to     continuous
                                    batch     plant     (ENG]  An
distillation, where liquid is fed
                                    operating     installation  of
continuously into the still. {
                                    equipment including batchers
'bach dis-ts'la-shsn )
                                    and mixers as required for
batched water [ENG] The             batching or for batching and
mixing water added to a             mixing concrete materials. {
concrete or mortar mixture          'bach ,plant)
before or during the initial
batch process (ENG] A              ENG  ] A furnace used for heat
process that is not in             treatment of materials, with or
continuous       or    mass        without direct firing; loading
production; operations are         and unloading operations are
carried out with discrete          carried out through a single
quantities of material or a        door or slot. { 'bach ,tTp 'for-
limited number of items. {         nos )
'bach ,pras-3s )
                                   bathometer         (ENG]    A
batch production See series        mechanism which measures
production. { 'bach prs'dsk-       depths in water. { bo'tham-od-
shsn )                             or)
batch reactor (CHEM ENG] A         bathtub curve (INDENG] An
chemical reactor in which the      equipment failure-rate curve
reactants and catalyst are         with an initial sharply declining
introduced in the desired          failure rate, followed by a
quantities and the vessel is       prolonged constant-average
then closed to the delivery of     failure rate, after which the
additional material. { 'bach       failure rate again increases
re,ak-t3r)                         sharply. { 'bath,tob ,korv)
batch rectification (CHEM          bathyclinograph (ENG] A
ENG] Batch      distillation in    mechanism which measures
which the boiled-off vapor is      vertical currents in the deep
re-condensed into liquid form      sea. { ibath-oiklTn-o,graf)
and refluxed back into the still
                                   bathyconductograph (ENG]
to make contact with the
                                   A device to measure the
rising vapors. { 'bach ^ek-ts-
                                   electrical conductivity of sea
fe'ka-shsn )
                                   water at various depths from a
batch treatment |CHEM ENG]         moving ship. { ]bath-o-
A corrosion control procedure      kon'dok-to,graf)
in which chemical corrosion
                                   ba thy gram (ENG] A graph
inhibitors are injected into the
                                   recording the measurements
lines of a production system. {
                                   of      sonic        sounding
'bach ,tret-mont)
                                   instruments. { 'bath-o,gram )
batch-type furnace | MECH
bathymetry      (ENG]    The       dimension-usually 7 inches
science of measuring ocean         (18 centimeters) broad, less
depths in order to determine       than 4 inches (10 centimeters)
the sea floor topography. {        thick, and more than 6 feet
bo'thim-o-tre )                    (1.8 meters) long-used for
                                   outside walls of houses,
bathythermogram (ENG] The
                                   flooring, and such. 2. A strip
record that is made by a
                                   of wood nailed across a door
bathythermograph. { ]bath-
                                   or other structure made of
o'thor-mo,gram )
                                   parallel boards to strengthen it
bathythermograph ( ENG ] A         and prevent warping. 3. See
device for obtaining a record      furring. { 'bat-on)
of temperature against depth
                                   batten door ( BU ILD ] A wood
(actually, pressure) in the
                                   door without stiles which is
ocean from a ship underway.
                                   constructed of vertical boards
Abbreviated BT. Also known
                                   held together by horizontal
as    bathythermosphere.    {
                                   battens on the back side. Also
                                   known as ledged door. { 'bat-
bathythermosphere     See          on ,dor)
bathythermograph. { ibath-
                                   battened column (civ ENG]
                                   A column consisting of two
bating (CHEM ENG] Cleaning         longitudinal shafts, rigidly con-
of depilated leather hides by      nected to each other by
the action of tryptic enzymes.     batten plates. { 'bat-ond 'kal-
{ 'bad-ig )                        om )
batted work (ENG] A hand-          battened wall (BUILD] A wall
dressed stone surface scored       to which battens have been
from top to bottom in narrow       affixed. Also known as
parallel strokes (usually 8-10     strapped wall. { 'bat-ond 'wol )
per inch or 20-25 per centi-
                                   batten plate (civ ENG ] A
meter) by use of a batting tool.
                                   rectangular plate used to
{ 'bad-od ,work )
                                   connect two parallel structural
batten (BUILD] 1. A sawed          steel members by riveting or
timber  strip  of  specific        welding. { 'bat-on ,plat)
batten roll (BUILD] In metal        vertical to provide resistance
roofing, a roll joint formed over   to horizontal forces. Also
a triangular-shaped wood            known as brace pile; spur
piece. Also known as conical        pile. { 'bad-or ,pTl)
roll. { 'bat-on ,rol )
                                    batter post (civ ENG] 1. A post
batten seam (BUILD] A seam          at one side of a gateway or at
in metal roofing which is           a corner of a building for
formed around a wood strip. {       protection against vehicles. 2.
'baton ,sem )                       See batter brace. { 'bad-or
batter (civ ENG] A uniformly
steep slope in a retaining wall     batter stick (civ ENG] A
or     pier;     inclination   is   tapered board which is hung
expressed        as     1    foot   vertically and used to test the
horizontally per vertical unit      batter of a wall surface. { 'bad-
(in feet). { 'bad-or)               or ,stik)
batter board (civ ENG]              battery (CHEM ENG] A series of
Horizontal boards nailed to         distillation columns or other
corner posts located just           processing            equipment
outside the corners of a            operated as a single unit,
proposed building to assist in      (ELEC] A direct-current volt-
the     accurate     layout of      age source made up of one or
foundation and excavation           more units that convert
lines. { 'bad-or ,bdrd )            chemical, thermal, nuclear, or
                                    solar energy into electrical
batter brace (civ ENG] A
                                    energy. { 'bad-o-re )
diagonal       brace    which
reinforces one end of a truss.      battery limits (CHEM ENG] An
Also known as batter post. {        area in a refinery or chemical
'bad-or ,bras )                     plant       encompassing        a
                                    processing unit or battery of
batter level (ENG] A device for
                                    units along with their related
measuring the inclination of a
                                    utilities and services. { 'bad-o-
slope. { 'bad-or ,lev-ol)
                                    re ,lim-ots )
batter pile (civ ENG] A pile
                                    batting tool (ENG] A mason's
driven at an inclination to the
                                    chisel usually 3-4V2 inches
(7.6-11.4 centimeters) wide,         bayonet-tube         exchanger
used to dress stone to a             |MECH ENG] A dual-tube
striated surface. { 'bad-irj ,tul)   apparatus with heating (or
                                     cooling) fluid flowing into the
bauxite treating (CHEM ENG]
                                     inner tube and out of the
A catalytic petroleum process
                                     annular space between the
in     which    a     vaporized
                                     inner and outer tubes; can be
petroleum fraction is passed
                                     inserted into tanks or other
through beds of bauxite; con-
                                     process vessels to heat or
version of many different
                                     cool the liquid contents. { [ba-
sulfur compounds, particularly
                                     o'net ,tub iks'chanj-or)
mercaptans into hydrogen
sulfide, takes place. { 'bok,sTt     B-B fraction |CHEM ENG] A
,tred-irj)                           mixture of butanes and
                                     butenes distilled from a
b axis (MECH ENG] The angle
                                     solution  of    light  liquid
that specifies the rotation of a
                                     hydrocarbons. { |be|be [frak-
machine tool about the y
                                     shon )
axis. { 'be ,ak-sos )
                                     bbl See barrel.
bay (ENG ] A housing used
for equipment, {ba)                  BCD See barrels per calendar
bayonet coupling (DES ENG]
A coupling in which two or           BD See barrels per day.
more pins extend out from a
                                     BDC See bottom dead center.
plug and engage in grooves
in the side of a socket. { ]ba-      bdft See board-foot.
o'net |kop-lir) )
                                     beacon tracking |ENG ] The
bayonet socket (DES ENG] A           tracking of a moving object by
socket, having ]-shaped slots        means of signals emitted from
on opposite sides, into which        a transmitter or transponder
a bayonet base or coupling is        within or attached to the
inserted against a spring and        object. { 'be-kon ,trak-irj)
rotated until its pins are
seated firmly in the slots. {        bead |DES ENG] A projecting
[ba-o'net [sak-ot)                   rim or band, {bed)
bead and butt [BUILD]             cast plaster string of beads. {
Framed work in which the          'bed-od [mol'dirj)
panel is flush with the framing
                                  beaded tube end [MECH
and has a bead run on two
                                  ENG] The exposed portion of
edges in the direction of the
                                  a rolled tube which is rounded
grain; the ends are left plain.
                                  back against the sheet in
Also known as bead butt;
                                  which the tube is rolled. {
bead butt work. {[bed on 'bot)
                                  'bed-od 'tub ,end )
bead -an d-f lush panel See
                                  beadflush panel [BUILD] A
beadflush panel. {[bed on
                                  panel which is flush with the
'flash ,pan-ol)
                                  surrounding      framing      and
bead and quirk See quirk          finished with a flush bead on
bead. { [bed on 'kwork)           all edges of the panel. Also
                                  known as bead-and-flush
bead and reel [BUILD] A
                                  panel. { 'bed,flosh ,pan-ol )
semiround convex molding
decorated with a pattern of       beading [BUILD] Collectively,
disks alternating with round or   the bead moldings used in
elongated beads. Also known       ornamenting         a given
as reel and bead. {[bed on        surface. { 'bed-iq )
                                  beading plane [DES ENG] A
bead butt See bead and butt.      plane having a curved cutting
{ 'bed ,bot)                      edge for shaping beads in
                                  wood. Also known as bead
bead, butt, and square
                                  plane. { 'bed-iq ,plan )
[BUILD] Framed work similar to
bead and butt but having the      bead-jointed [ENG] Of a
panels flush on the beaded        carpentry joint, having a bead
face only, and showing            along the edge of one piece to
square reveals on the other.      make      the     joint    less
{[bed ,bot on 'skwar)             conspicuous. { 'bed join-tod)
bead butt work See bead           bead molding [BUILD] A
and butt. { 'bed ,bot ,work)      small, convex molding of
                                  semicircular or greater profile.
beaded molding [BUILD] A
                                  Also known as baguette. {
molding or cornice bearing a
'bed ,m6l*dir))                     consisting of a stadia arc on
                                    the outer edge of the visual
bead plane See          beading
                                    vertical arc; enables the ob-
plane. { 'bed ,plan )
                                    server to determine the
beaking joint [BUILD] A joint       difference in elevation of the
formed by several heading           instrument and stadia rod
joints   occurring     in    one    without employing vertical
continuous line; especially         angles. { 'be-mon 'stad-e-o
used in connection with the         ,ark)
laying of floor planks. { 'bek-iq
                                    beam bearing plate [civ
                                    ENG]     A foundation plate
beam [civ ENG] A body, with         (usually of metal) placed
one       dimension       large     beneath the end of a beam, at
compared with the other             its point of support, to
dimensions, whose function is       distribute the end load at the
to carry lateral loads (perpen-     point. { 'bem ,ber-irj ,plat)
dicular     to     the    large
                                    beam blocking [BUILD] 1.
dimension)      and     bending
                                    Boxing-in or covering a joist,
movements. { bem)
                                    beam, or girder to give the
beam-and-girder                     appearance of a larger beam.
construction [BUILD] A system       2. Strips of wood used to
of floor construction in which      create a false beam. { 'bem
the load is distributed by slabs    ,blak-ir))
to spaced beams and girders.
                                    beam bolster [civ ENG] A rod
{ [bem on 'gor-dor kon'strok-
                                    which provides support for
shon )
                                    steel    reinforcement     in
beam-and-slab floor [BUILD]         formwork for a reinforced
A floor system in which a           concrete beam. { 'bem ,bol-
concrete     floor  slab    is      stor)
supported      by  reinforced
                                    beam box See wall box. {
concrete beams. {[bem on
                                    'bem ,baks )
[slab ,flor)
                                    beam brick [BUILD] A face
Beaman stadia arc [ENG] An
                                    brick which is used to bond to
attachment to an alidade
                                    a poured-in-place concrete
lintel. { 'bem ,brik)                usually between joists or
                                     horizontal beams at their
beam bridge [civ ENG] A fixed
                                     supports; provides increased
structure consisting of a
                                     fire resistance. { 'bem ,fil)
series of steel or concrete
beams placed parallel to traffic     beam form |civ ENG] A form
and supporting the roadway           which gives the necessary
directly on their top flanges. {     shape, suppport, and finish to
'bem ,brij )                         a concrete beam. { 'bem ,form
beam clip [ENG] A device for
attaching a pipe hanger to its       beamhouse |CHEM ENG] A
associated structural beam           place where the initial wet
when it is undesirable to weld       operations      of      tanning,
the pipe hanger to supporting        involving soaking in water and
structural steelwork. Also           solutions of alkali, are carried
known as girder clamp; girder        out. { 'bem,haus )
clip. { 'bem ,klip )
                                     beam pattern See directivity
beam column [civ ENG] A              pattern. { 'bem ,pad-3rn )
structural member subjected
                                     beam pocket | civ ENG ] 1. In
simultaneously to axial load
                                     a vertical structural member,
and       bending      moments
                                     an opening to receive a beam.
produced by lateral forces or
                                     2. An opening in the form for a
eccentricity of the longitudinal
                                     column or girder where the
load. { 'bem ,kal-om )
                                     form for an intersecting beam
beam-deflection         amplifier    is framed. { 'bem ,pak-3t)
[MECH ENG] A jet-interaction
                                     beam splice |civ ENG] A
fluidic device in which the
                                     connection     between     two
direction of a supply jet is
                                     lengths of a beam or girder;
varied by flow from one or
                                     may be shear or moment
more control jets which are
                                     connections. { 'bem ,splTs )
oriented at approximately 90°
to the supply jet. { 'bem di'flek-   beam spread (ENG] The
shon 'am-plo,fT-or)                  angle of divergence from the
                                     central    axis    of     an
beam fill [ BUILD ] Masonry,
                                     electromagnetic or acoustic
brickwork, or cement fill,
beam as it travels through a       slides, or oscillates in or on it.
material. { 'bem ,spred)           { 'ber-ig )
Beams servoed rotational           bearing        bar (BUILD]   A
method (ENG] A method of           wrought-iron bar placed on
measuring the gravitational        masonry to provide a level
constant by determining the        support for floor joists, (civ
inertial reaction of a torsional   ENG] A load-carrying bar
pendulum to the angular            which supports a grating and
acceleration of a rotating table   which extends in the direction
that is required to cancel the     of the grating span. ( ENG ]
attraction of the pendulum to      See azimuth instrument. {
two large masses. { 'bemz          'ber-irj ,bar)
's3r,vod ro'ta-shsn-sl ,meth-
                                   bearing cap (DES ENG] A
3d )
                                   device designed to fit around
beam test (civ ENG] A test of      a bearing to support or
the flexural strength (modulus     immobilize it. { 'ber-iq ,kap )
of rupture) of concrete from
                                   bearing capacity (MECH]
measurements on a standard
                                   Load per unit area which can
reinforced concrete beam. {
                                   be safely supported by the
'bem ,test)
                                   ground. { 'ber-iq ks'pas-sd-e )
bean (ENG] A restriction,
                                   bearing circle (ENG] A ring
such as a nipple, which is
                                   designed to fit snugly over a
placed in a pipe to reduce the
                                   compass        or       compass
rate of fluid flow. { ben )
                                   repeater, and provided with
bearer      (civ ENG]  Any         vanes for observing compass
horizontal beam, joist, or         bearings. { 'ber-iq ,s3r-k3l)
member which supports a
                                   bearing cursor (ENG] Of a
load. { 'ber-sr)
                                   radar set, the radial line
bearing (civ ENG] That portion     inscribed on a transparent
of a beam, truss, or other         disk which can be rotated
structural member which rests      manually about an axis
on the supports, (MECH ENG]        coincident with the center of
A machine part that supports       the plan position indicator;
another part which rotates,        used        for       bearing
determination. Also known as         maximum load that a column,
mechanical bearing cursor. {         wall, footing, or joint will
'ber-iq ,k3r-s3r)                    sustain at failure, divided by
                                     the effective bearing area. {
bearing distance (civ ENG]
                                     'ber-irj ,strenkth )
The length of a beam
between its bearing supports.        bearing stress See bearing
{ 'ber-iq ,dis-t3ns )                pressure. { 'ber-ig ,stres )
bearing partition (BUILD] A          bearing test ( ENG ] A test of
partition which supports a           the bearing capacities of pile
vertical load. { 'ber-ig psr'tish-   foundations, such as a field
sn )                                 loading test of an individual
                                     pile; a laboratory test of soil
bearing pile (ENG] A vertical
                                     samples         for        bearing
post or pile which carries the
                                     capacities. { 'ber-irj ,test)
weight of a foundation,
transmitting the load of a           bearing wall (civ ENG] A wall
structure to the bedrock or          capable of supporting an
subsoil without detrimental          imposed load. Also known as
settlement. { 'ber-irj ,pTl)         structural wall. { 'ber-irj ,wol)
bearing plate (civ ENG] A flat       bear trap gate (civ ENG] A
steel plate used under the end       type of crest gate with an
of a wall-bearing beam to            upstream      leaf    and    a
distribute the load over a           downstream leaf which rest in
broader area. { 'ber-irj ,plat)      a horizontal position, one leaf
                                     overlapping the other, when
bearing pressure (MECH]
                                     the gate is lowered. { 'ber
Load on a bearing surface
                                     ,trap ,gat)
divided by its area. Also
known as bearing stress. {           beater (ENG] 1. A tool for
'ber-irj ,presh-3r)                  packing in material to fill a
                                     blasthole containing a charge
bearing strain ( MECH ] The
                                     of powder. 2. A laborer who
deformation of bearing parts
                                     shovels or dumps asbestos
subjected to a load. { 'ber-irj
                                     fibers and sprays them with
,stran )
                                     water in order to prepare them
bearing strength (MECH] The          for the beating, (MECH ENG] A
machine that cuts or beats       bed (civ ENG] 1. In masonry
paper stock. { 'bed-or)          and bricklaying, the side of a
                                 masonry unit on which the unit
beater mill See hammer mill.
                                 lies in the course of the wall;
{ 'bed-sr ,mil)
                                 the underside when the unit is
beating (ENG] A process that     placed horizontally. 2. The
reduces asbestos fibers to       layer of mortar on which a
pulp for making asbestos         masonry unit is set. |MECH
paper. { 'bed-iq )               ENG] The part of a machine
                                 having precisely machined
Beattie      and     Bridgman    ways or bearing surfaces
equation       (THERMO]    An    which support or align other
equation that relates the        machine parts. { bed )
pressure,      volume,    and
temperature of a real gas to     Bedaux plan |IND ENG] A
the gas constant. { [bed-e on    wage incentive plan in which
[brij-msn i'kwa-zhsn )           work is standardized into
                                 man-minute     units    called
beat tone (ENG ACOUS]            bedaux (B); 60 B per hour is
Musical tone due to beats,       100%      productivity,   and
produced by the heterodyning     earnings are based on work
of two high-frequency wave       units per length of time. {
trains. { 'bet ,ton )            bs'do ,plan )
beche      (MECH     ENG]    A   bedding |civ ENG] 1. Mortar,
pneumatic forge hammer           putty, or other substance
having an air-operated ram       used to secure a firm and
and     an     air-compressing   even bearing, such as putty
cylinder integral with the       laid in the rabbet of a window
frame. { besh )                  frame, or mortar used to lay
Beckmann         thermometer     bricks. 2. A base which is
(ENG] A sensitive thermometer    prepared in soil or concrete for
with an adjustable range so      laying masonry or concrete. {
that small differences in        'bed-irj )
temperature can be meas-         bedding course | civ ENG ]
ured. { 'bek-man ther'mam-sd-    The first layer of mortar at the
sr)                              bottom of masonry. { 'bed-ig
,kors )                              conditioned by their working
                                     environments.      2.     The
bedding dot |BUILD] A small
                                     interactions          between
spot of plaster built out to the
                                     individuals or groups in the
face of a finished wall or
                                     workplace.    {   bi'ha-vys-rel
ceiling; serves as a screed for
                                     dl'nam-iks )
leveling and plumbing in the
application of plaster. { 'bed-irj   Belfast truss |civ ENG] A
,dat)                                bowstring beam for large
                                     spans, having the upper
bed joint |civ ENG] 1. A
                                     member bent and the lower
horizontal layer of mortar on
                                     member              horizontal;
which masonry units are laid.
                                     constructed entirely of timber
2. One of the radial joints in
                                     components. { 'bel,fast 'trss )
an arch. { 'bed joint)
                                     bell [ENG] 1. A hollow metallic
bed molding |BUILD] 1. The
                                     cylinder closed at one end
lowest member of a band of
                                     and flared at the other; it is
moldings. 2. Any molding
                                     used as a fixed-pitch musical
under a projection, such as
                                     instrument or signaling device
between eaves and sidewalls.
                                     and is set vibrating by a
{ 'bed ,mol-dir))
                                     clapper or tongue which
beehive oven [ENG] An                strikes the lip. 2. See bell tap.
arched oven that carbonizes          { bel)
coal into coke by using the
                                     bell-and-spigot joint [ENG]
heat of combustion of gases
                                     A pipe joint in which a pipe
that are formed, and of a small
                                     ending in a bell-like shape is
part of the coke that is formed,
                                     joined to a pipe ending in a
with no recovery of by-
                                     spigotlike shape. { ]bel on
products. { 'be,hTv ,3v*3n )
                                     'spik-st joint)
beetle See rammer. { 'bed-sl)
                                     bell cap [CHEM ENG] A
behavioral dynamics |IND             hemispherical or triangular
ENG]    1. The behavioral            metal casting used on dist
operating characteristics of         illation-column trays to force
individuals and groups in            upflowing vapors to bubble
terms of how these people are        through         layers      of
downcoming      liquid.   {   'bel   decisions are, the remaining
,kap)                                decisions must constitute an
                                     optimal policy with regard to
belled caisson [civ ENG] A
                                     the state resulting from the
type of drilled caisson with a
                                     first decisions. { 'bel-msnz
flared bottom. { 'beld 'ka,san )
                                     'prin-ss-psl sv ,ap*t3'mal*3d*e
bell glass See bell jar. { 'bel      )
,glas )
                                     bell mouth [DES ENG] A flared
bell jar [ENG] A bell-shaped         mouth on a pipe opening or
vessel, usually made of              other orifice. [ ENG ] A defect
glass, which is used for             which occurs during metal
enclosing a vacuum, holding          drilling in which a twist drill
gases, or covering objects.          produces a hole that is not a
Also known as bell glass. {          perfect circle. { 'bel ,mauth )
'bel jar)
                                     bellows       [ENG]     1.     A
bell-jar testing [ENG] A leak        mechanism that expands and
testing method in which a            contracts, or has a rising and
vessel is filled with tracer gas     falling top, to suck in air
and placed in a vacuum               through a valve and blow it
chamber;         leaks       are     out through a tube. 2. Any of
evidenced by gas drawn into          several types of enclosures
the vacuum chamber. { 'bel jar       which     have     accordionlike
.tes-tig )                           walls, allowing one to vary the
                                     volume. 3. See aneroid
bell-joint clamp [ENG] A             capsule. { 'bel-oz )
clamp applied to a bell-and-
spigot    joint    to     prevent    bellows expansion joint
leakage. { 'bel joint ,klamp)        [DES ENG] In a run of piping, a
                                     joint formed with a flexible
Bellman's     principle     of       metal      bellows       which
optimality   [INDENG]      The       compress or stretch to
principle that an optimal            compensate        for    linear
sequence of decisions in a           expansion or contraction of
multistage decision process          the run of piping. { 'bel-oz
problem has the property that        ik'span-shsn joint)
whatever the initial state and
bellows gage [ENG] A device        bricks, or an inserted row
for measuring pressure in          made of a different kind of
which the pressure on a            brick, [MECH ENG] A flexible
bellows, with the end plate        band used to connect pulleys
attached to a spring, causes       or to convey materials by
a measurable movement of           transmitting   motion   and
the plate. { 'bel-oz,gaj}          power. { belt)
bellows gas meter [ENG] A          belt conveyor [MECH ENG] A
device for measuring the total     heavy-duty              conveyor
volume of a continuous gas         consisting essentially of a
flow stream in which the           head or drive pulley, a take-up
motion of two bellows, alter-      pulley, a level or inclined end-
nately     filled    with    and   less belt made of canvas,
exhausted of the gas, actuates     rubber, or metal, and carrying
a register. { 'bel-oz [gas ,med-   and return idlers. { 'belt
3r)                                ksn'va-sr)
bellows seal [MECH ENG] A          belt course See             string
boiler seal in the form of a       course. { 'belt ,kors )
bellows    which      prevents
                                   belt drive |MECH ENG] The
leakage of air or gas. { 'bel-oz
                                   transmission         of power
                                   between shafts by means of a
bell-type manometer [ENG] A        belt connecting pulleys on the
differential pressure gage in      shafts. { 'belt .dfiv )
which one pressure input is
                                   belted-bias tire See bias-
fed into an inverted cuplike
                                   belted tire. { [bel-tad .bias 'trr)
container floating in liquid,
and the other pressure input       belt feeder |MECH ENG] A
presses down upon the top of       short belt conveyor used to
the container so that its level    transfer      granulated      or
in the liquid is the measure of    powdered solids from a
differential      pressure.   {    storage or supply point to an
'bel,tTp ms'nam-sd-sr)             end-use point; for example,
                                   from a bin hopper to a chemi-
belt [civ ENG] In brickwork, a
                                   cal reactor. { 'belt .fed-sr)
projecting row (or rows) of
belt guard |MECH ENG] A            bench assembly [ENG] A
cover designed to protect a        technique of fitting and joining
belt as well as the pulleys it     parts using a bench as a work
connects. { 'belt ,gard )          surface. { 'bench s'sem-ble)
belt highway See beltway. {        bench check | IND ENG ] A
jbelt 'hT.wa )                     workshop or servicing bay
                                   check which includes the
belt sander |MECH ENG] A
                                   typical    check    or    actual
portable sanding tool having
                                   functional test of an item to
a    power-driven  abrasive-
                                   ascertain what is to be done
coated continuous belt. { 'belt
                                   to return the item to a service-
                                   able condition or ascertain the
belt shifter | MECH ENG ] A        item's       temporary        or
device      with     fingerlike    permanent       disposition.   {
projections used to shift a belt   'bench ,chek )
from one pulley to another or
                                   bench dog [ENG] A wood or
to replace a belt which has
                                   metal peg, placed in a slot or
slipped off a pulley. { 'belt
                                   hole at the end of a bench;
                                   used to keep a workpiece from
belt slip |MECH ENG] The           slipping. { 'bench .dog )
difference in speed between
                                   bench hook [ENG] Any device
the driving drum and belt
                                   used on a carpenter's bench
conveyor. { 'belt .slip)
                                   to keep work from moving
belt tightener |MECH ENG] In       toward the rear of the bench.
a belt drive, a device that        Also known as side hook. {
takes up the slack in a belt       'bench ,huk)
that has become stretched
                                   benching [ civ ENG ] 1.
and permanently lengthened.
                                   Concrete laid on the side
{ 'belt .trt-nsr)
                                   slopes of drainage channels
beltway |civ ENG] A highway        where     the    slopes   are
that encircles an urban area       interrupted by manholes,
along its perimeter. Also          and so forth. 2. Concrete laid
known as belt highway; ring        on sloping sites as a
road. { 'belt.wa )                 safeguard against sliding. 3.
Concrete laid along the sides       benchmark job [ IND ENG ] A
of a pipeline to provide            job that can be related or
additional support. { 'bench-irj    compared to other jobs in
)                                   terms        of     common
                                    characteristics          and
bench lathe [MECH ENG] A
                                    considered an acceptable
small engine or toolroom
                                    gauge for other jobs without
lathe suitable for attachment
                                    the    need     of    direct
to a workbench; bed length
                                    measurements. { 'benchmark
usually does not exceed 6
feet    (1.8    meters)      and
workpieces     are      generally   bench photometer [ENG] A
small. { 'bench .lath )             device which uses an optical
                                    bench with the two light
benchmark [ENG] A relatively
                                    sources to be compared
permanent natural or artificial
                                    mounted one at each end; the
object bearing a marked point
                                    comparison between the two
whose elevation above or
                                    illuminations is made by a
below an adopted datum—for
                                    device moved along the bench
example, sea level—is known.
                                    until matching brightnesses
Abbreviated BM. [IND ENG] A
                                    appear. { 'bench fe'tam* sd-
standard of measurement
possessing            sufficient
identifiable     characteristics    bench plane [DES ENG] A
common to the individual units      plane used primarily in
of a population to facilitate       benchwork on flat surfaces,
economical     and     efficient    such as a block plane or jack
comparison of attributes for        plane. { 'bench .plan }
units selected from a sample.
                                    bench sander [MECH ENG] A
{ 'benchmark )
                                    stationary     power     sander,
benchmark index [IND ENG]           usually mounted on a table or
In manufacturing and mining,        stand, which is equipped with
an index designed to reflect        a rotating abrasive disk or
changes in output occurring         belt. { 'bench .san-dor}
between census years. {
                                    bench-scale testing [ENG]
'benchmark 'in.deks )
                                    Testing of materials, methods,
or chemical processes on a           any material. { 'bend s'lau-sns
small scale, such as on a            }
laboratory worktable. { 'bench
                                     bender See bending machine.
,skal 'tes-tig }
                                     { 'ben-dor}
bench stop [ENG] A bench
                                     bending [ENG] 1. The forming
hook which is used to fasten
                                     of a metal part, by pressure,
work in place, often by means
                                     into a curved or angular
of a screw. { 'bench .stap }
                                     shape, or the stretching or
bench      table     [BUILD]    A    flanging of it along a curved
projecting course of masonry         path. 2. The forming of a
at the foot of an interior wall or   wooden member to a desired
around a column; generally           shape by pressure after it has
wide enough to form a seat. {        been softened or plasticized
'bench .ta-bsl }                     by heat and moisture. { 'ben-
                                     dig }
bench vise [ENG] An ordinary
vise fixed to a workbench. {         bending brake [MECH ENG] A
'bench .vis }                        press brake for making
                                     sharply angular linear bends
benchwork [ENG] Any work
                                     in sheet metal. { 'ben-dig
performed at a workbench
rather than on machines or in
the field. { 'bench.workj            bending iron [ENG] A tool
                                     used to straighten or to
bend [DES ENG] 1. The
                                     expand       flexible   pipe,
characteristic of an object,
                                     especially lead pipe. { 'ben-
such as a machine part, that
                                     dig j-srn )
is curved. 2. A section of pipe
that is curved. 3. A knot            bending machine |MECH
formed by a rope fastened to         ENG] A machine for bending a
an object or another rope.           metal or wooden part by
{bend}                               pressure. Also known as
                                     bender. { 'ben-dig m^shen )
bend allowance [DES ENG]
Length of the arc of the             bending moment |MECH]
neutral axis between the             Algebraic sum of all moments
tangent points of a bend in          located between a cross
section and one end of a          shaft by transmitting the
structural member; a bending      torque through a set of four
moment that bends the beam        balls lying in the plane that
convex downward is positive,      contains the bisector of, and
and one that bends it convex      is perpendicular to, the plane
upward is negative. { 'ben-dig    of the angle between the
,mo*m3nt)                         shafts. {]ben,diks [wTs ^u-
                                  ns'vsr-ssl joint)
bending-moment       diagram
(MECH] A diagram showing the      bend radius |DES ENG] The
bending moment at every           radius corresponding to the
point along the length of a       curvature of a bent specimen
beam plotted as an ordi-nate.     or part, as measured at the
{ 'ben-dig [mo-msnt ^T-^gram      inside surface of the bend. {
)                                 'bend ,rad-e-3s )
bending schedule |civ ENG]        bend wheel | MECH ENG ] A
A chart showing the shapes        wheel used to interrupt and
and dimensions of every           change the normal path of
reinforcing bar and the           travel of the conveying or
number of bars required on a      driving     medium;       most
particular   job    for    the    generally used to effect a
construction of a reinforced      change     in   direction   of
concrete structure. { 'ben-dig    conveyor travel from inclined
,skej-3l)                         to horizontal or a similar
                                  change. { 'bend ,wel)
bending stress |MECH] An
internal      tensile        or   Benioff extensometer | ENG ]
compressive        longitudinal   A linear strain-meter for
stress developed in a beam in     measuring the change in
response to curvature induced     distance      between      two
by an external load. { 'ben-dig   reference points separated by
,stres )                          60-90 feet (20-30 meters) or
                                  more; used to observe earth
Bendix-Weiss universal joint
                                  tides. { 'ben-e-6f ^k^ten'sam-
|MECH ENG] A universal joint
that provides for constant
angular velocity of the driven    bent |civ ENG] A framework
support transverse to the        to form an oil similar to crude
length of a structure. { bent)   petroleum. Also known as
                                 coal hydrogenation. { 'ber-ge-
bent bar |civ ENG] A
                                 ss 'pras-ss )
longitudinal reinforcing bar
which is bent to pass from       Berl saddle (CHEM ENG] A
one face of a structural         type of column packing used
member to the other face. {      in distillation columns. { 'bsrl
'bent ,bar)                      ,sad-31}
bent-tube boiler |MECH ENG]      berm (civ ENG] A horizontal
A water-tube steam boiler in     ledge cut between the foot
which the tubes terminate in     and top of an embankment to
upper and lower steam-and-       stabilize   the    slope   by
water drums. Also known as       intercepting sliding earth. {
drum-type boiler. { 'bent ,tub   bsrm )
'boil *91}
                                 Bernoulli-Euler law (MECH] A
bentwood       (ENG]     Wood    law stating that the curvature
formed to shape by bending,      of a beam is proportional to
rather than by carving or        the bending moment. { ber,nu-
machining. { 'bent,wud )         le ]6il-3r [16 )
benzol-acetone process (         Berth el ot method (THERMO]
CHEM    ENG     ] A solvent      A method of measuring the
dewaxing process in which a      latent heat of vaporization of a
mixture of the solvent and oil   liquid      that       involves
containing wax is cooled until   determining the temperature
the wax solidifies and is then   rise of a water bath that
removed by filtration. {         encloses a tube in which a
'ben,z61 'as-3,ton ,pras-3s )    given amount of vapor is
                                 condensed. { 'ber-t3,lo ,meth-
Bergius process (CHEM ENG]
                                 3d )
Treatment of carbonaceous
matter, such as coal or          Berth on dynamometer (ENG]
cellulosic  materials,   with    An instrument for measuring
hydrogen      at     elevated    the   diameters    of  small
pressures and temperatures       objects, consisting of two
in the presence of a catalyst,   metal straightedges inclined
at a small angle and rigidly     beta-cutoff          frequency
joined together; a scale on      (ELECTR] The frequency at
one of the straightedges is      which the current amplification
used to read the diameters of    of an amplifier transistor drops
objects inserted between         to 3 decibels below its value
them. { 'b3r,than ^T-ns'mam-     at 1 kilohertz. { 'bad-s 'k3d,6f
sd-sr)                           ,fre-kw3n-se )
beryllium detector (ENG] An      Bethell process See full-cell
instrument designed to detect    process. { 'beth-sl 'pras-ss )
and analyze for beryllium by
                                 Betterton-Kroll       process
gamma-ray          activation
                                 (CHEM ENG] A method for
analysis. Also known as
                                 obtaining pure bismuth from
berylometer. { bs'ril-e-sm
                                 softened and desilverized
                                 lead. {[bed-sr-tsn [krol ,pras-
berylometer See beryllium        3s )
detector. { ,ber-3'lam-3d-or)
                                 Betti reciprocal theorem
best commercial practice         (MECH] A theorem in the
(ENG]      A     manufacturing   mathematical       theory     of
standard for a process vessel    elasticity which states that if
which has not been designed      an elastic body is subjected to
according to standard codes,     two systems of surface and
such as the American Society     body forces, then the work
of    Mechanical    Engineers    that would be done by the
Boiler Code. { ,best ks'msr-     first system acting through the
shsl 'prak-tss )                 displacements resulting from
                                 the second system equals the
beta (ELECTR] The current
                                 work that would be done by
gain of a transistor that is
                                 the second system acting
connected as a grounded-
                                 through the displacements
emitter amplifier, expressed
                                 resulting    from    the   first
as the ratio of change in
                                 system. { 'bat-te ri'sip-re-ksl
collector current to resulting
                                 ,thir-3m )
change in base current, the
collector     voltage   being    Betti's method |MECH ] A
constant. { 'bad-s )             method of finding the solution
of the equations of equilibrium    window or lens for a meter,
of an elastic body whose           tuning dial, or some other
surface displacements are          indicating device. 2. A
specified; it uses the fact that   sloping face on a cutting
the dilatation is a harmonic       tool. { 'bez-sl)
function     to   reduce     the
                                   B-H meter (ENG] A device
problem to the Dirichlet
                                   used to measure the intrinsic
problem. { 'bat-tez ,meth-3d)
                                   hysteresis loop of a sample of
Betz      momentum      theory     magnetic material. { ]be]ach
|MECH ENG] A theory of             ,med-3r)
windmill performance that
                                   bhp See boiler horsepower;
considers the deceleration in
                                   brake horsepower.
the air traversing the windmill
disk. { 'bets ms'ment-sm ,the-     bias (ELEC] 1. A direct-current
3-re )                             voltage used on signaling or
                                   telegraph        relays        or
bevel | DES ENG ] 1. The angle
                                   electromagnets to secure
between one line or surface
                                   desired time spacing of
and another line or surface, or
                                   transitions from marking to
the horizontal, when this
                                   spacing. 2. The restraint of a
angle is not a right angle. 2. A
                                   relay armature by spring
sloping surface or line. { 'bev-
                                   tension to secure a desired
                                   time spacing of transitions
beveled closer See          king   from marking to spacing. 3.
closer. {jbevald'klO'zar)          The effect on teleprinter
                                   signals produced by the
bevel gear |MECH ENG] One
                                   electrical characteristics of the
of a pair of gears used to
                                   line and equipment. 4. The
connect two shafts whose
                                   force applied to a relay to
axes intersect. { 'beval ,gir)
                                   hold it in a given position.
beveling See chamfering. {         (ELECTR] 1. A direct-current
'bev-o-lirj )                      voltage applied to a transistor
                                   control electrode to establish
bezel |DES ENG] 1. A grooved       the desired operating point.
rim    used   to    hold   a       2. See grid bias. { 'bT-ss )
transparent glass or plastic
bias-belted tire (ENG] A            curve of a vacuum tube or
motor-vehicle pneumatic tire        other device, due to improper
constructed with a belt of          biasing. { 'bT-ss dis 'tdr-shsn )
textile cord, steel, or fiber
                                    bias-ply tire (ENG] A motor-
glass     around        the tire
                                    vehicle pneumatic tire that
underneath the tread and on
                                    has crossed layers of ply cord
top of the ply cords, and laid
                                    set diagonally to the center
at an acute angle to the
                                    line of the tread. { [br-ss ,plT
center line of the tread. Also
known as belted-bias tire.
{\bl-5s ,bel* tod 'tTr)             bias voltage (ELECTR] A
                                    voltage applied or developed
bias compensation (ENG
                                    between two electrodes as a
ACOUS] The application of an
                                    bias. { 'bios ,vol*tij )
outward-directed tension to
the pickup arm of a record          biaxial stress (MECH] The
player to counteract the            condition in which there are
tendency of the arm to slide        three mutually perpendicular
toward the center. { 'br-ss         principal stresses; two act in
^am-psn^a-shsn )                    the same plane and one is
                                    zero. { bT'ak-se-sl ,stress )
bias current (ELECTR] 1. An
alternating electric current        Biazzi process (CHEM ENG] A
above about 40,000 hertz            continuous-flow process for
added to the audio current          the nitration of glycerin to
being recorded on magnetic          nitroglyc-erin; also used to
tape to reduce distortion. 2.       produce glycol dinitrate and
An electric current flowing         diethylene glycol nitrate. {
through     the    base-emitter     be'at-se ,pras-3s )
junction of a transistor and
adjusted to set the operating       bibb cock See bibcock. { 'bib
point of the transistor. { 'bT-ss   ,kak )
,k3r-3nt)                           bibcock (DES ENG] A faucet or
bias distortion (ELECTR]            stopcock whose nozzle is
Distortion resulting from the       bent downward. Also spelled
operation on a nonlinear            bibb cock. { 'bib,kak)
portion of the characteristic       bicable tramway (MECH ENG]
A tramway consisting of two        to sound incidences of 0 and
stationary cables on which the     180°. { ^T-ds'rek-shsn-sl 'mT-
wheeled carriages travel, and      kr^fon )
an endless rope, which
                                   Bierbaum scratch hardness
propels the carriages. {
                                   test (ENG] A test for the
'bT,ka*b3l 'tram,wa )
                                   hardness of a solid sample by
BiCMOS             technology      microscopic measurement of
(ELECTR] An integrated circuit     the width of scratch made by a
technology that combines           diamond point under preset
bipolar transistors and CMOS       pressure. { 'bir ,baum [skrach
devices on the same chip. {        'hard-nss ,test)
]bT'se,m6s tek,nal*3*je )
                                   biface tool (DES ENG] A tool,
bicycle (MECH ENG] A human-        as an ax, made from a coil
powered land vehicle with two      flattened on both sides to form
wheels, one behind the other,      a V-shaped cutting edge. {
usually propelled by the action    'bT,fas 'tiil)
of the rider's feet on the
                                   bifacial (DES ENG] Of a tool,
pedals. { 'bT,sik*3l)
                                   having both sides alike. {
bid (ENG] An estimate of costs     bT'fa-shsl )
for specified construction,
                                   bifilar electrometer (ENG] An
equipment,      or   services
                                   electrostatic voltmeter in which
proposed to a customer
                                   two conducting quartz fibers,
company by one or more
                                   stretched by a small weight or
supplier     or     contractor
                                   spring, are separated by their
companies. { bid )
                                   attraction      in     opposite
bidirectional (ENG] Being          directions toward two plate
directionally responsive to        electrodes      carrying     the
inputs in opposite directions. {   voltage to be measured. {
,bT* ds'rek-shsn-sl)               bT'fHsr Hek'tram-sd-sr)
bidirectional    microphone        bifilar micrometer See filar
(ENG ACOUS] A microphone           micrometer. { bi'fi-lsr ml'kram-
that responds equally well to      sd-sr)
sounds reaching it from the
                                   bifilar suspension [ENG] The
front and rear, corresponding
suspension of a body from            (ENG]     A       temperature-
two parallel threads, wires, or      measuring     instrument     in
strips. { bl'fi-lsr sss'pen-shsn )   which the differential thermal
                                     expansion of thin, dissimilar
bilateral tolerance |DES ENG]
                                     metals, bonded together into
The amount that the size of a
                                     a narrow strip and coiled into
machine part is allowed to
                                     the shape of a helix or spiral,
vary above or below a basic
                                     is used to actuate a pointer.
dimension; for example, 3.650
                                     Also known as differential
± 0.003 centimeters indicates
                                     thermometer. { [bT-ms'tal-
a tolerance of ± 0.003
centimeter. {bl'lad-s-rel 'tal-
s-rans )                             bin (ENG] An enclosed space,
                                     box, or frame for the storage
bilge block |civ ENG] A
                                     of bulk substance. { bin )
wooden support under the
turn of a ship's bilge in dry        binary component ( ELECTR]
dock. { 'bilj ,blak)                 An electronic component that
                                     can be in either of two condi-
bill |DES ENG] One blade of a
                                     tions at any given time. Also
pair of scissors, jbil)
                                     known as binary device. { 'bln-
billet (ENG] In a hydraulic          s-re ksm'po-nsnt)
extrusion press, a large
                                     binary counter See binary
cylindrical cake of plastic
                                     sealer. { 'bln-s-re 'kaunt-sr)
material placed within the
pressing chamber. { 'bil-st)         binary device See binary
                                     component. { 'bln-s-re di'vTs )
bimetallic strip ( ENG ] A strip
formed of two dissimilar             binary encoder (ELECTR] An
metals      welded    together;      encoder       that     changes
different          temperature       angular, linear, or other forms
coefficients of expansion of         of input data into binary
the metals cause the strip to        coded output characters. {
bend or curl when the                'bln-s-re en'kod-sr)
temperature changes. { [bT-
                                     binary logic (ELECTR] An
ms'tal-ik ,strip )
                                     assembly of digital logic
bimetallic        thermometer        elements which operate with
two distinct states. { 'bln-s-re   application     of     pressure
'laj-ik)                           without the addition of a
                                   binder. { 'bln-dsr-lss bri'ked-irj
binary sealer (ELECTR] A
sealer that produces one
output pulse for every two         binding post (ELEC] A
input pulses. Also known as        manually      turned    screw
binary counter; scale-of-two       terminal used for making
circuit. { 'bln-s-re ]ska-lsr)     electrical connections. { 'bin-
                                   dig ,post )
binary separation (CHEM
ENG] Separation by distillation    bind-seize See freeze. {[bind
or solvent extraction of a fully   [sez )
misci-ble liquid mixture of two
                                   biochemical profile (IND
chemical compounds. { 'bln-s-
                                   ENG] Data recorded by both
re sep-s'ra-shsn )
                                   electromyographic           and
binary signal (ELECTR] A           biomechanical means during
voltage or current which           the performance of a task to
carries information by varying     evaluate changes in the
between two possible values,       functional capacity of a worker
corresponding to 0 and 1 in        resulting from modifications in
the binary system. { 'bln-s-re     human-equipment interfaces.
'sig-nsl)                          { [bl-o'kem-o-kol 'pro,fll)
binary system (ENG] Any            biocontrol system (CONT
system       containing  two       SYS] A mechanical system
principal components. { 'bln-      that is controlled by biological
s-re 'sis-torn)                    signals, for example, a
                                   prosthesis      controlled    by
binder course (civ ENG]
                                   muscle activity. { ,bl-o-k3n'trol
Coarse aggregate with a
                                   ,sis-t3m )
bituminous binder between
the foundation course and          bioengineering (ENG] The
the wearing course of a            application of engineering
pavement. { 'bin-dor ,kors )       knowledge to the fields of
                                   medicine and biology. { ^I-
binderlessbriquetting (ENG]
                                   o^n-js'nir-ig )
Thebriquettingof coal by the
biofilter (ENG] An emission          recording biological functions
control device that uses             during space flight. { 'bl-o,pak)
microorganisms to destroy
                                     biosolid     (civ    ENG]    A
volatile organic compounds
                                     recyclable, primarily organic
and hazardous air pollutants. {
                                     solid material produced by
                                     wastewater            treatment
bioinstrumentation       (ENG]       processes. { ]bl-o,sal-3d )
The use of instruments
                                     biostabilizer (civ ENG ] A
attached to animals and man
                                     component in mechanized
to      record       biological
                                     composting systems; consists
parameters such as breathing
                                     of a drum in which moistened
rate,   pulse    rate,    body
                                     solid waste is comminuted
temperature, or oxygen in the
                                     and tumbled for about 5 days
blood. { [bl-Oiin-strs-msn'ta-
                                     until   the    aeration    and
shsn )
                                     biodegradation     turns    the
biomedical          engineering      waste into a fine dark
(ENG] The application of             compost. { ^I-o'stab-slJz-sr)
engineering technology to the
                                     biotechnical robot (CONT
solution of medical problems;
                                     SYS] A robot that requires the
examples are the develop-
                                     presence of a human operator
ment of prostheses such as
                                     in order to function. {[bl-oltek-
artificial valves for the heart,
                                     ns-ksl 'ro,bat)
various types of sensors for
the blind, and automated             biotelemetry (ENG] The use
artificial limbs. { ,bl-o'med-3-     of     telemetry    techniques,
ksl ,en-J3'nir-ir))                  especially radio waves, to
                                     study behavior and physiology
bionics (ENG] The study of
                                     of living things. { [bl-o-ts'lem-
systems,              particularly
                                     3-tre )
electronic systems, which
function after the manner of         Biot-Fourier       equation
living systems. { bl'an-iks )        (THERMO] An equation for
                                     heat conduction which states
biopak (ENG] A container for
                                     that the rate of change of
housing a living organism in a
                                     temperature at any point
habitable environment and for
                                     divided by the thermal
diffusivity       equals    the    surface when an electric
Laplacian of the temperature.      current is passed through a
{]byo ]fiir-ya i'kwa-zhon )        cell. { bl'po-lor i'lek.trod}
biotron |ENG] A test chamber       bipolar integrated circuit
used for biological research       |ELECTR] An integrated circuit
within which the environmental     in which the principal element
conditions can be completely       is    the    bipolar   junction
controlled,    thus    allowing    transistor. { br'po-lor 'in-
observations of the effect of      to,grad-od 'sor-kot )
variations in environment on
                                   bipolar junction transistor
living organisms. { 'bT-o,tran )
                                   |ELECTR] A bipolar transistor
bipolar amplifier |ELECTR] An      that is composed entirely of
amplifier capable of supplying     one type of semiconductor,
a pair of output signals corres-   silicon. Abbreviated B]T. Also
ponding to the positive or         known          as         silicon
negative polarity of the input     homojunction. { ]bT,pol-or
signal. { bl'po-lor 'am-plo^T-     ,jor)k-shon tran'zis-tor)
                                   bipolar magnetic driving unit
bipolar circuit |ELECTR] A         |ENG ACOUS] Headphone or
logic circuit in which zeros and   loudspeaker unit having two
ones are treated in a              magnetic poles acting directly
symmetric or bipolar manner,       on a flexible iron diaphragm. {
rather than by the presence        bT'po-lor mag'ned-ik 'drivirj
or absence of a signal; for        ,yu-not)
example,         a      balanced
                                   bipolar spin device See
arrangement in a square-
                                   magnetic switch. {jbT,po* lor
loop-ferrite magnetic circuit. {
                                   'spin di,vTs )
bT'po-lor 'sor-kot)
                                   bipolar spin switch See
bipolar electrode |ELEC]
                                   magnetic switch. {]bT,po-lor
Electrode, without metallic
                                   'spin ,swich )
connection with the current
supply, one face of which acts     bipolar transistor |ELECTR]
as anode surface andthe            A transistor that uses both
opposite face as a cathode         positive and negative charge
carriers. { bl'po-lor tranz'is-tor)   bistable circuit |ELECTR] A
                                      circuit with two stable states
birdcaged wire [ENG] Wire
                                      such that the transition
rope whose strands have
                                      between the states cannot be
been distorted into the shape
                                      accomplished       by     self-
of a birdcage by a sudden
                                      triggering. { ;bi;sta-bol ,sar-
release of a load during a
hoisting operation. { 'bord,kajd
,wTr)                                 bistable unit [ENG] A physical
                                      element that can be made to
Birkeland-Eyde          process
                                      assume either of two stable
|CHEM ENG] An arc process of
                                      states; a binary cell is an
nitrogen fixation in which air
                                      example. {]bl]sta-bol 'yii-not)
passes         through         an
alternating-current           arc     bistatic radar (ENG] Radar
flattened by a magnetic field         system in which the receiver is
to form about 1% nitric oxide.        some distance from the
{ |bork-tand [T-do 'pras-os )         transmitter, with separate
                                      antennas for each. { 'bT,stad-
Birmingham wire gage |DES
                                      ik 'ra,dar)
ENG] A system of standard
sizes of brass wire, telegraph        bit (DES ENG] 1. A machine
wire, steel tubing, seamless          part for drilling or boring. 2.
tubing, sheet spring steel,           The cutting plate of a plane. 3.
strip steel, and steel plates,        The blade of a cutting tool
bands, and hoops. Ab-                 such as an ax. 4. A removable
breviated BWG. { 'bor-mig-om          tooth of a saw. 5. Any cutting
'wTr ,gaj )                           device which is attached to or
                                      part of a drill rod or drill string
birth-death process |IND
                                      to bore or penetrate rocks. {
ENG] A simple queuing model
in which units to be served
arrive (birth) and depart             bit blank (DES ENG] A steel bit
(death) in a completely ran-          in which diamonds or other
dom manner. {[borth [deth             cutting media may be inset by
,pra,sos )                            hand peening or attached by a
                                      mechanical process such as
biscuit See preform. { 'bis-
                                      casting, sintering, or brazing.
Also known as bit shank;             bittern      (CHEM       ENG]
blank; blank bit; shank. { 'bit      Concentrated sea water or
.blarjk)                             brine containing the bromides
                                     and magnesium and calcium
bit breaker (DES ENG] A
                                     salts left in solution after
heavy plate that fits in a
                                     sodium chloride has been
rotary table for holding the drill
                                     removed by crystallization. {
bit while it is being inserted or
                                     'bid-orn )
broken out of the drill stem. {
'bit ,brak-or)                       bituminous          distributor
                                     (MECH ENG] A tank truck
bit cone See roller cone bit. {
                                     having a perforated spray bar
'bit ,kon )
                                     and used for pumping hot
bit drag (DES ENG] A rotary-         bituminous material onto the
drilling bit that has serrated       surface of a road or driveway.
teeth. Also known as drag            { br]tum-o-nos dis'trib-yod-or)
bit. { 'bit ,drag )
                                     bivane (ENG] A double-
bite (ENG] In glazing, the           jointed vane which measures
length of overlap of the inner       vertical as well as horizontal
edge of a frame over the edge        wind direction. { 'bT,van )
of the glass. { bit)
                                     blackbody (THERMO] An
bit      matrix      (ENG] The       ideal body which would
material, usually powdered           absorb all incident radiation
and fused tungsten carbide,          and reflect none. Also known
into which diamonds are set in       as hohlraum; ideal radiator. {
the manufacture of diamond           'blak;bad-e )
bits. { 'bit ,ma-triks )
                                     blackbody             radiation
bitrochanteric width ( IND           (THERMO] The emission of
ENG      ]    A     measurement      radiant energy which would
corresponding to hip breadth         take place from a blackbody
that is used in seating design.      at a fixed temperature; it takes
{ ,bi*tr3,kanjter*ik 'width )        place at a rate expressed by
                                     the Stefan-Boltzmann law,
bit shank See bit blank. { 'bit      with     a   spectral    energy
,shar)k)                             distribution   described      by
Planck's equation. { 'blak]bad-     'smok)
e ,ra-de'a-shon )
                                    black-surface       enclosure
blackbody       temperature         (THERMO] An enclosure for
|THERMO] The temperature of         which the interior surfaces of
a blackbody that emits the          the    walls   possess     the
same amount of heat radiation       radiation characteristics of a
per unit area as a given            black-body. { 'blak ,s3r-fes
object; measured by a total         in'klozh-sr)
radiation pyrometer. Also
                                    blacktop paver (MECH ENG] A
known      as     brightness
                                    construction   vehicle    that
temperature. { 'blak]bad-e
                                    spreads a specified thickness
                                    of bituminous mixture over a
black      box     [ENG]      Any   prepared surface. { 'blak,tap
component, usually electronic       ,pavar)
and having known input and
                                    bladder press (MECH ENG ] A
output, that can be readily
                                    machine which simultaneously
inserted into or removed from
                                    molds and cures (vulcanizes)
a specific place in a larger
                                    a pneumatic tire. { 'blad-sr
system without knowledge of
                                    ,pres )
the component's detailed
internal structure. { 'blak ,baks   blade (ELEC] A flat moving
)                                   conductor in a switch, (ENG]
                                    1. A broad, flat arm of a fan,
black-bulb      thermometer
                                    turbine, or propeller. 2. The
[ENG] A thermometer whose
                                    broad, flat surface of a
sensitive element has been
                                    bulldozer or snowplow by
made to approximate a
                                    which the material is moved.
blackbody by covering it with
                                    3. The part of a cutting tool,
lampblack. { 'blak ,bslb
                                    such as a saw, that cuts. {
                                    blad )
black smoke (ENG] A smoke
                                    bladed-surface aerator (civ
that has many par-ticulates in
                                    ENG]   A bladed, rotating
it from inefficient combustion;
                                    component     of   a  water
comes from burning fossil
                                    treatment plant; used to
fuel, either coal or oil. { ]blak
                                    infuse air into the water. {
'blad-sd ,s3r-fos 'er,ad-sr)       solid disk used to close off or
                                   seal a companion flange. {
Blake jaw crusher (MECH
                                   'blagk 'flanj )
ENG] A crusher with one fixed
jaw plate and one pivoted at       blankholder slide (MECH
the top so as to give the          ENG] The outer slide of a
greatest movement on the           double-action power press; it
smallest lump. { 'blak 'jo         is usually operated by toggles
,kresh-3r)                         or cams. { 'blagk,hol-d3r ,slTd )
blank (DES ENG] See bit            blanking (ENG] 1. The
blank, (ELECTR] TO cut off the     closing off of flow through a
electron beam of a television      liquid-containing process pipe
picture tube, camera tube, or      by the insertion of solid disks
cathode-ray oscilloscope tube      at joints or unions; used
during the process of retrace      during     maintenance     and
by applying a rectangular          repair work as a safety
pulse voltage to the grid or       precaution. Also known as
cathode during each retrace        blinding. 2. Cutting of plastic
interval. Also known as beam       or metal sheets into shapes
blank, (ENG] 1. The result of      by striking with a punch. Also
the final cutting operation on     known as die cutting. { 'blagk-
a natural crystal. 2. See blind,   ig )
                                   blast (ENG] The setting off of a
blank bit See bit blank. {         heavy explosive charge. {
'blagk ,bit)                       blast)
blanket gas (CHEM ENG] A           blast burner (ENG] A burner
gas phase introduced into a        in which a controlled burst of
vessel above a liquid phase to     air or oxygen under pressure
prevent contamination of the       is supplied to the illuminating
liquid, reduce hazard of           gas used. Also known as
detonation,   or    to   exert     blast lamp. { 'blast ,b3r-n3r)
pressure on the liquid. Also
                                   blast cleaning (ENG] Any
known as cushion gas. { 'blag-
                                   cleaning process in which an
kst ,gas )
                                   abrasive is directed at high
blank flange (DES ENG] A           velocity toward the surface
being cleaned, for example,         which water enters in the
sand blasting. { 'blast ,klen-ig    bottom of a pump stock. {
)                                   'blast,hoi )
blast ditching (civ ENG] The        blasthole      drilling      (ENG]
use of explosives to aid in         Drilling to produce a series of
ditch excavation, such as for       holes for placement of blasting
laying pipelines. { 'blast ,dich-   charges. { 'blast,hoi ,dril-ig )
ig )
                                    blasting (ENG] 1. Cleaning
blaster (ENG] A device for          materials by a blast of air that
detonating      an     explosive    blows small abrasive particles
charge; usually consists of a       against the surface. 2. The act
machine      by     which     an    of detonating an explosive. {
operator,      by       pressing    'bias-tig )
downward        or     otherwise
                                    blasting cap (ENG] A copper
moving a handle of the device,
                                    shell closed at one end and
may generate a powerful
                                    containing     a    charge     of
transient electric current which
                                    detonating compound, which
is transmitted to an electric
                                    is ignited by electric current
blasting cap. Also known as
                                    or the spark of a fuse; used
blasting machine. { 'bias-tor)
                                    for       detonating         high
blast freezer (ENG] An upright      explosives. { 'bias-tig ,kap )
freezer in which very cold air
                                    blasting fuse (ENG] A core of
circulated by blowers is used
                                    gunpowder in the center of
for rapid freezing of food. {
                                    jute, yarn, and so on for
'blast ,fre-z3r)
                                    igniting an explosive charge in
blast heater (MECH ENG] A           a shothole. { 'bias-tig ,£yQz }
heater that has a set of heat-
                                    blasting      machine      See
transfer coils through which
                                    blaster. { 'bias-tig ma'shen )
air is forced by a fan operating
at a relatively high velocity. {    blasting mat (ENG] A heavy,
'blast ,hed-3r)                     flexible,        tear-resistant
                                    covering that is spread over
blasthole (ENG] 1. A hole that
                                    the surface during blasting to
takes a heavy charge of
                                    contain earth fragments. {
explosive. 2. The hole through
'blast-ig ,mat)                    and to provide a stabilizing
                                   load, [ENG] A connection
blast lamp See blast burner;
                                   located at a low place in an
blowtorch. { 'blast , lamp )
                                   air line or a gasoline container
blast wall [ENG] A heavy wall      so that, by means of a small
used to isolate buildings or       valve, the condensed water or
areas which contain highly         other liquid can be drained or
combustible     or    explosive    bled off from the line or con-
materials or to protect a build-   tainer without discharging
ing or area from blast damage      the air or gas. { 'bled-or)
when exposed to explosions. {
                                   bleeder turbine [MECH ENG] A
'blast ,wol)
                                   multistage   turbine    where
Blears effect [ENG] The            steam is extracted (bled) at
dependence of the signal           pressures         intermediate
from an ionization gage on         between throttle and exhaust,
the geometry of the system         for process or feedwater
being measured when an             heating purposes. { 'bled-or
organic vapor is present in the    ,t3r-bsn )
vacuum; the effect can falsify
                                   bleeding [CHEM ENG] The
measurement results by up to
                                   undesirable movement of
an order of magnitude. { 'blirz
                                   certain components of a
                                   plastic material to the surface
bleed [ENG] TO let a fluid,        of a finished article. Also
such as air or liquid oxygen,      known as migration, [ENG]
escape       under   controlled    Natural separation of a liquid
conditions from a pipe, tank,      from a liquid-solid or semisolid
or the like through a valve or     mixture;      for      example,
outlet. { bled)                    separation of oil from a stored
                                   lubricating grease, or water
bleeder [ELECTR] A high            from freshly poured concrete.
resistance connected across        Also known as bleedout. {
the dc output of a high-           'bled-irj)
voltage power supply which
serves to discharge the filter     bleeding cycle [MECH ENG] A
capacitors after the power         steam cycle in which steam is
supply has been turned off,        drawn from the turbine at one
or more stages and used to         Measure of the ability of
heat the feedwater. Also
                                   an added component (for
known as regenerative cycle.
                                   example,       tetraethyl-lead,
{ 'bled-irj ,sl-ksl)
                                   isooctane, and aromatics) to
bleedout     See   bleeding.   {   affect the octane rating of a
'bled,aut)                         base gasoline stock. { 'blen-
                                   dig ,val-yu )
bleed valve [ ENG ] A small-
flow valve connected to a fluid    blendstock See blending
process vessel or line for the     stock. { 'blend,stak )
purpose of bleeding off small
                                   blend stop [BUILD] A thin
quantities of contained fluid. {
                                   wood strip fastened to the
'bled ,valv )
                                   exterior vertical edge of the
blended data [ENG] Q point         pulley stile or jamb to hold the
that is the combination of         sash in position. { 'blend ,stap
scan data and track data to        )
form a vector. {[blen-dsd 'dad-
                                   blind [ENG] A solid disk
                                   inserted at a pipe joint or
blending problem [IND ENG] A       union to prevent the flow of
linear programming problem in      fluids through the pipe; used
which it is required to find the   during      maintenance   and
least costly mix of ingredients    repair work as a safety
which yields the desired           precaution. Also known as
product      characteristics.  {   blank. { blind )
'blen-dirj ,prab-bm )
                                   blind     controller   system
blending stock [CHEM ENG]          [CONT SYS] A process control
Any substance used for             arrangement that separates
compounding          gasoline,     the in-plant measuring points
including natural gasoline,        (for example, pressure, tem-
catalytically        reformed      perature, and flow rate) and
products, and additives. Also      control points (for example, a
known as blendstock. { 'blen-      valve actuator) from the
dig ,stak)                         recorder or indicator at the
                                   central control panel. {[blind
blending       value      [ENG]
                                   ksn'trol-sr ,sis-t3m )
blind drilling [ ENG ] Drilling in   having one end closed off;
which the drilling fluid is not      commonly used in boiler
returned to the surface. {           construction. {[blind 'nip-sl)
'blind 'dril-iq )
                                     blind spot [ENG] An area on
blind flange [DES ENG] A             a filter screen where no
flange used to close the end         filtering occurs. Also known as
of a pipe. {[blind 'flanj )          dead area. { 'blind ,spat )
blind floor See subfloor. {          blink [MECH] A unit of time
[blind 'flor)                        equal to 10"5 day or to 0.864
                                     second. { blirjk )
blind hole [DES ENG] A hole
which      does     not     pass     blister [ENG] A raised area on
completely       through        a    the surface of a metallic or
workpiece. [ENG] A type of           plastic object caused by the
borehole that does not have          pressure of gases developed
the drilling mud or other            while the surface was in a
circulating medium carry the         partly molten state, or by
cuttings to the surface. { [blind    diffusion of high-pressure
'hoi)                                gases from an inner surface. {
blinding [ ENG ] 1. A thin layer
of lean concrete, fine gravel,       blistering     [ENG]      The
or sand that is applied to a         appearance of enclosed or
surface to smooth over voids         broken macroscopic cavities
in order to provide a cleaner,       in a body or in a glaze or
drier, or more durable finish.       other coating during firing. {
2. A layer of small rock chips       'blis-ts-rig}
applied over the surface of a
                                     block [DES ENG] 1. A metal or
freshly tarred road. 3. See
                                     wood case enclosing one or
blanking. { 'blln-dirj )
                                     more pulleys; has a hook with
blind joint [ENG] A joint            which it can be attached to an
which is not visible from any        object. 2. See cylinder block. {
angle. { [blind 'joint)              blak )
blind nipple [MECH ENG] A            block and fall See block and
short piece of piping or tubing      tackle. { [blak on 'fol)
block and tackle [MECH ENG]         when its moving elements are
Combination of a rope or            blocked so they cannot move;
other flexible material and         represents the resistance due
independently            rotating   only to electrical losses. {
frictionless    pulleys.    Also    'blakt ri'zis-tsns )
known as block and fall. {
                                    blocker-type forging | ENG ] A
,blak on 'tak-sl )
                                    type of forging for designs
block brake |MECH ENG] A            involving the use of large radii
brake which consists of a           and draft angles, smooth
block or shoe of wood               contours,     and     generous
bearing upon an iron or steel       allowances. { 'blak-sr ,tTp 'for-
wheel. { 'blak ,brak )              jirj)
block diagram |ENG] A               block hole [ENG] A small
diagram in which the essential      hole drilled into a rock or
units of any system are drawn       boulder into which an anchor
in the form of rectangles or        bolt or a small charge or
blocks and their relation to        explosive may be placed;
each other is indicated by          used in quarries for breaking
appropriate connecting lines. {     large blocks of stone or
'blak ^T-^gram )                    boulders. { 'blak ,hol)
blocked operation |CHEM             blockhouse (ENG] 1. A
ENG] The use of a single            reinforced concrete structure,
chemical or refinery process        often built underground or
unit alternately in more than       half-underground,           and
one operation; for example, a       sometimes dome-shaped, to
catalytic reactor will first        provide protection against
produce a chemical product          blast, heat, or explosion
and then will be blocked from       during rocket launchings or
the main process stream             related activities, and usually
during catalyst regeneration.       housing electronic equipment
{ 'blakt ap-s'ra-shsn )             used in launching the rocket.
                                    2. The activity that goes on in
blocked resistance | ENG
                                    such a structure. { 'blak,haus )
ACOUS ] Resistance of an
audio-frequency  transducer         blocking (ELECTR] 1. Applying
a high negative bias to the       'blak ,sek-sh3n )
grid of an electron tube to
                                  block signal system (CONT
reduce its anode current to
                                  SYS] An automatic railroad
zero.    2.   Overloading     a
                                  traffic control system in which
receiver by an unwanted
                                  the track is sectionalized into
signal so that the automatic
                                  electrical circuits to detect the
gain control reduces the
                                  presence of trains, engines, or
response to a desired signal.
                                  cars. { 'blak 'sig-nsl ,sis-t3m )
3. Distortion occurring in a
resistance-capacitance-           block system (civ ENG] A
coupled      electron     tube    railroad system for controlling
amplifier stage when grid         train movements by using
current flows in the following    signals between block posts,
tube,     (ENG]     Undesired     that is, the structures that
adhesion between layers of        contain     the      instruments
plastic materials in contact      indicating the positions of
during storage or use. { 'blak-   trains, conditions within block
irj )                             sections, and control levers
                                  for    signals      and     other
blocking capacitor See
                                  functions. { 'blak ,sis-t3m )
coupling capacitor. { 'blak-irj
ks'pas-sd-sr)                     blood bank (ENG] A place for
                                  storing whole blood or
blocking layer See depletion
                                  plasma under refrigeration. {
layer. { 'blak-ig ,la*
                                  'blsd ,bar)k)
                                  bloom (ENG] 1. Fluorescence
block plane (DES ENG] A           in lubricating oils or a cloudy
small type of hand plane,         surface on varnished or
designed for cutting across       enameled surfaces. 2. To
the grain of the wood and for     apply an antireflection coating
planing end grains. { 'blak       to glass. { blum )
,plan )
                                  blotter (ENG] A disk of
block section (civ ENG] In a      compressible material used
railroad system, a specific       between a grinding wheel and
length of track that is           its    flanges   to    avoid
controlled by stop signals. {     concentrated stress. { 'blad-
sr)                                Removal of liquids or solids
                                   from a process vessel or
blotter press (CHEM ENG] A
                                   storage vessel or aline by the
plate-and-frame filter in which
                                   use of pressure, (MECH ENG]
the filter medium is blotting
                                   The difference between the
paper. { 'blad-sr ,press )
                                   pressure at which the safety
blowback (CHEM ENG] 1. A           valve opens and the closing
continuous stream of liquid or     pressure. Also known as
gas bled through air lines from    blowback. { 'blo,daun )
instruments and to the
                                   blowdown line (CHEM ENG] A
process line being monitored;
                                   large conduit to receive and
prevents process fluid from
                                   confine fluids forced by
backing up and contacting the
                                   pressure       from     process
instrument. 2. Reverse flow of
                                   vessels. { 'blo,daun ,lm )
fluid through a filter medium to
remove caked solids. Also          blowdown stack (CHEM ENG]
known as backwash, (MECH           A vertical stack or chimney
ENG]     See     blowdown.     {   into which the contents of a
'blo,bak)                          chemical     or     petroleum
                                   process unit are emptied in
blowby ( MECH ENG ] Leaking
                                   case of an operational
of fluid between a cylinder
                                   emergency. { 'bl6,daun ,stak)
and     its   piston  during
operation. { 'blo.bT)              blower ( MECH ENG ] A fan
                                   which operates where the
blowcase (CHEM ENG] A
                                   resistance to gas flow is
cylindrical    or     spherical
                                   predominantly downstream of
corrosion-    and     pressure-
                                   the fan. { 'blo-sr)
resistant container from which
acid is forced by compressed       blowing (CHEM ENG] The
air to the agitator; used in       introduction of compressed air
manufacture of acids but           near the bottom of a tank or
largely     superseded       by    other container in order to
centrifugal pumps. Also known      agitate the liquid therein.
as acid blowcase; acid egg. {      (ENG] See blow molding. { 'blo-
'blo,kas )                         iq )
blowdown        (CHEM      ENG]    blowing     pressure     (ENG]
Pressure of the air or other         Valves in boiler piping which
gases used to inflate the            facilitate removal of solid
parison in blow molding. {           matter present in the boiler
'blo-irj ,presh-3r)                  water. { 'blo,6f ,valvz )
blowing still (CHEM ENG] A           blowout [ELEC] The melting of
still or process column in           an electric fuse because of
which blown or oxidized              excessive current, [ENG] 1.
asphalt is made. { 'blO'ig ,stil)    The bursting of a container
                                     (such as a tube pipe,
blow-lifting gripper | CONT
                                     pneumatic tire, or dam) by the
SYS ] A robot component that
                                     pressure of the contained
uses compressed air to lift
                                     fluid. 2. The rupture left by
objects. { 'bio jlift'ig ,grip-3r)
                                     such bursting. 3. The abrupt
blow molding [ENG] A                 escape of air from the
method of fabricating hollow         working chamber of a
plastic objects, such as             pneumatic caisson. { 'blo,aut
bottles, by forcing a parison        )
into a mold cavity and
                                     blowpipe [ ENG ] 1. A long,
shaping by internal air
                                     straight tube, used in glass
pressure. Also known as
                                     blowing, on which molten
blowing. { 'bio ,m6l*dig )
                                     glass is gathered and worked.
blown glass [ENG] Glassware          2. A small, tapered, and
formed by blowing air into a         frequently curved tube that
ball of liquefied glass until it     leads a jet, usually of air, into
reaches the desired shape. {         a flame to concentrate and
jblon 'glas )                        direct it; used in flame tests in
                                     analytical chemistry and in
blown tubing [ENG] A flexible        brazing and soldering of fine
thermoplastic film tube made         work. 3. See blowtorch. {
by applying pressure inside a        'blo,pTp )
molten extruded plastic tube
to expand it prior to cooling        blowpit     See   blowtank.     {
and winding flat onto rolls. {       'blo.pit)
jblon 'tQ-big )
                                     blow pressure [ENG] Air
blowoff valves [MECH ENG]            pressure required for plastics
blow molding. { 'bio ,presh-3r)    diameter of the die. { 'blo,3p
                                   ,ra-sho )
blow rate [ ENG ] The speed
of the cycle at which air or an    blunger [ENG ] 1. A large
inert     gas     is     applied   spatula-shaped        wooden
intermittently    during    the    implement used to mix clay
forming procedure of blow          with water. 2. A vat,
molding. { 'bio ,rat)              containing a rotating shaft
                                   with fixed knives, for mixing
blowtank [CHEM ENG] A tank
                                   clay and water into slip. {
or pit, used in papermaking,
into which the contents of a
digester are blown upon            blunging [ENG] The mixing or
completion of a cook. Also         suspending         of      ceramic
known as blowpit. { 'blo,tagk)     material in liquid by agitation,
                                   to form slip. { 'blsn-jig )
blowtorch [ENG] A small,
portable blast burner which        blunt file [ DES ENG ] A file
operates either by having air      whose edges are parallel.
or oxygen and gaseous fuel         {jblsnt ifrl)
delivered through tubes or by
                                   blunting [DES ENG] Slightly
having a fuel tank which is
                                   rounding a cutting edge to
pressured by a hand pump.
                                   reduce the probability of edge
Also known as blast lamp;
                                   chipping. { 'blsn-tig )
blowpipe. { 'blo,t6rch )
                                   BM See barrels per month;
blowup       [civ   ENG]  The
localized buckling or breaking
of a rigid pavement caused by      BMT See basic motion-time
excess pressure along its          study.
length. { 'blo,3p )
                                   BMX bicycle [MECH ENG] A
blowup ratio [ENG] 1. In blow      small, extremely strong, type
molding of plastics, the ratio     of bicycle, having generally
of the diameter of the mold        20-inch         (500-millimeter)
cavity to the diameter of the      wheels, large-cleat (knobbly)
parison. 2. In blown tubing,       tires, upright but not high-rise
the ratio of the diameter of the   handlebars, and a seat
finished product to the            positioned more towards the
rear wheel than on a               finer work later on. 2. To finish
conventional bicycle, and          the face of a building stone by
used for stunt riding and          cutting a series of parallel
tricks. { ^e^en^eks 'bT,sik-3l)    grooves. { bost)
board drop hammer [MECH            boaster See boasting chisel. {
ENG ] A type of drop hammer        'bo-stsr)
in which the ram is attached to
                                   boasting chisel [DES ENG] A
wooden boards which slide
                                   broad chisel used in boasting
between two rollers; after the
                                   stone.    Also     known      as
ram falls freely on the forging,
                                   boaster. { 'bos-tig ,chiz-3l)
it is raised by friction between
the rotating rollers. Also         boat spike [DES ENG] Along,
known as board hammer. {           square      spike     used   in
'bord 'drap ,ham-9i)               construction      with    heavy
                                   timbers. Also known as barge
board-foot [ENG] Unit of
                                   spike. { 'bot ,spTk)
volume in measuring lumber;
equals 144 cubic inches (2360      Bobillier's law [MECH] The
cubic centimeters), or the         law that, in general plane rigid
volume of a board 1 foot           motion, when a and b are the
square and 1 inch thick.           respective      centers       of
Abbreviated bd-ft. { jbord'fiit)   curvature of points A and B,
                                   the angle between ha and the
board hammer See board
                                   tangent to the cen-trode of
drop hammer. { 'bord ,ham-3r)
                                   rotation (pole tangent) and
boarding [ENG] 1. A batch of       the angle between Bb and a
boards. 2. Covering with           line from the centrode to the
boards. { 'bor-dig )               intersection of AB and ab
                                   (collineation axis) are equal
board      measure     [ENG]
                                   and opposite. { bo'bil-yaz ,16 )
Measurement of lumber in
board-feet. Abbreviated bm.        body [MECH ENG] The part of
{ 'bord ,mezh-3r)                  a drill which runs from the
                                   outer corners of the cutting
boast [ ENG ] 1. To shape
                                   lips to the shank or neck. {
stone or curve furniture
                                   'bad-e )
roughly in preparation for
body centrode [MECH] The           bogy. | ENG ] 1. A supporting
path      traced     by    the     and aligning wheel or roller on
instantaneous center of a          the inside of an endless track.
rotating body relative to the      2. A low truck or cart of solid
body. { [bad-e 'sen,trod )         build. 3. A truck or axle to
                                   which wheels are fixed, which
body cone [ MECH ] The cone
                                   supports a railroad car, the
in a rigid body that is swept
                                   leading end of a locomotive,
out      by    the      body's
                                   or the end of a vehicle (such
instantaneous axis during
                                   as a gun carriage) and which
Poinsot motion. Also known
                                   is allowed to swivel under it. 4.
as polhode cone. { 'bad-e ,kon
                                   A railroad car or locomotive
                                   supported by a bogie. |MECH
body      force    |MECH] An       ENG]      The        drive-wheel
external force, such as            assembly      and     supporting
gravity, which acts on all parts   frame comprising the four rear
of a body. { 'bad-e ,fdrs )        wheels of a six-wheel truck,
                                   mounted so that they can
body-load aggregate |IND           self-adjust to sharp curves
ENG] A biomechani-cal unit
                                   and irregularities in the road. {
that comprises the combined        'bo-ge )
weight of the load being
manipulated and the body           boiler |MECH ENG] A water
segments involved in the           heater for generating steam. {
task. {[bad-e ]lod 'a-gre-gst)     'bdil-sr)
body motion |IND ENG]              boiler air heater |MECH ENG]
Motion of parts of a human         A component of a steam-
body requiring a change of         generating unit that transfers
posture or weight distribution.    heat from the products of
{ 'bad-e ,mo-sh3n )                combustion after they have
                                   passed through the steam-
body rotation |CONT SYS] An        generating and superheating
axis of motion of a pick-and-      sections to combustion air,
place robot. { 'bad-e ro,ta-       which recycles heat to the
sh3n )                             furnace. { 'boil-sr 'er ,hed-3r)
bogie Also spelled bogey;          boiler casing |MECH ENG]
The        gas-tight structure     devices     which       maintain
surrounding the component          desired     boiler    operating
parts of a steam generator. {      conditions with respect to
'boil-sr ,kas-ir) )                variables such as feedwater
                                   flow, firing rate, and steam
boiler circulation |MECH
                                   temperature. { 'boil-sr ksn'trolz
ENG] Circulation of water and
steam in a boiler, which is
required       to     prevent      boiler draft |MECH ENG] The
overheating of the heat-           difference          between
absorbing surfaces; may be         atmospheric pressure and
provided naturally by gravita-     some lower pressure existing
tional forces, mechanically by     in the furnace or gas
pumps, or by a combination of      passages     of  a   steam-
both methods. { 'boil-sr ssr-      generating unit. { 'boil-sr
kys'la-shsn )                      ,draft)
boiler cleaning |ENG] A            boiler economizer |MECH
mechanical       or     chemical   ENG] A component of a
process for removal of             steam-generating unit that
grease, scale, and other           transfers heat from the
deposits from steam boiler         products of combustion after
surfaces. { 'boil-sr .klen-irj )   they have passed through the
                                   steam-generating and super-
boiler code | MECH ENG ] A
                                   heating sections to the
code,        established    by
                                   feedwater, which it recyceives
professional societies and
                                   from the boiler feed pump
administrative units, which
                                   and delivers to the steam-
contains the basic rules for
                                   generating section of the
the safe design, construction,
                                   boiler. { 'boil-sr i'kan-3,miz-3r)
and materials for steam-gen-
erating units, such as the         boiler efficiency |MECH ENG]
American         Society    of     The ratio of heat absorbed in
Mechanical Engineers code. {       steam to the heat supplied in
'boil-sr ,kod)                     fuel, usually measured in
                                   percent. { 'boil-sr i'fish-sn-se )
boiler controls |MECH ENG]
Either manual or automatic         boiler feedwater |MECH ENG]
Water supplied to a steam-          boiler     hydrostatic        test
generating unit. { 'boil-sr 'fed    |MECH ENG] A procedure that
,wod-3r)                            employs          water       under
                                    pressure, in a new boiler
boiler feedwater regulation
                                    before     use     or     in   old
|MECH ENG] Addition of water
                                    equipment         after      major
to the steam-generating unit
                                    alterations and repairs, to test
at a rate commensurate with
                                    the boiler's ability to withstand
the removal of steam from the
                                    about I72 times the design
unit. { 'boil-sr 'fed,wod-3r reg-
                                    pressure.      {    'boil-sr   hT-
ys'la-shsn )
                                    drs'stad-ik 'test)
boiler furnace |MECH ENG] An
                                    boiler layup |MECH ENG] A
enclosed space provided for
                                    significant length of time
the combustion of fuel to
                                    during which a boiler is
generate steam in a boiler.
                                    inoperative in order to allow
Also known as steam-gener-
                                    for repairs or preventive
ating furnace. { 'bdil-sr ^sr-nss
                                    maintenance. { 'boil-sr 'la-sp )
                                    boiler setting |MECH ENG]
boiler heat balance | MECH
                                    The supporting steel and
ENG ] A means of accounting
                                    gastight enclosure for a
for   the   thermal     energy
                                    steam generator. { 'boil-sr
entering a steam-generating
                                    ,sed-ir) )
system in terms of its ultimate
useful heat absorption or           boiler storage | MECH ENG ] A
thermal loss. { 'boil-or 'het       steam-generating unit that,
,bal-3ns )                          when out of service, may be
                                    stored wet (filled with water) or
boiler horsepower |MECH
                                    dry (filled with protective gas).
ENG] A measurement of water
                                    { 'bdil-sr ,stor-ij )
evaporation rate; I boiler
horsepower        equals      the   boiler superheater |MECH
evaporation per hour of 34'/2       ENG] A boiler component,
pounds (15.7 kilograms) of          consisting of tubular elements,
water at 212°F (100°C) into         in which heat is added to
steam at 212°F. Abbreviated         high-pressure      steam     to
bhp. { 'boil-or 'h6rs,pau-3r)       increase its temperature and
enthalpy.   {     'boil-sr    [sii-   conditions of exposure, as in
psr.hed-sr)                           the tank of a rocket being
                                      readied for launch. { 'b6il,6f)
boiler trim |MECH ENG] Piping
or tubing close to or                 bollard |civ ENG] A heavy
attachedto    a    boiler  for        post on a dock or ship used
connecting controls, gages, or        in mooring ships. { 'bal-srd )
other instrumentation. { 'boil-
                                      holograph | ENG ] Any
or ,trim )
                                      graphical record made by a
boiler tube |MECH ENG] One            bolometer; in particular, a
of the tubes in a boiler that         graph formed by directing a
carry water (water-tube boiler)       pencil of light reflected from
to be heated by the high-             the galvanometer of the
temperature gaseous prod-             bolometer at a moving photo-
ucts of combustion or that            graphic film. { 'bol-^graf)
carry combustion products
                                      bolometer        |ENG]      An
(fire-tube boiler) to heat the
                                      instrument that measures the
boiler water that surrounds
                                      energy of electromagnetic
them. { 'boil-sr ,tiib )
                                      radiation      in       certain
boiler walls |MECH ENG] The           wavelength      regions      by
refractory walls of the boiler        utilizing  the    change     in
furnace, usually cooled by            resistance of a thin conductor
circulating water and capable         caused by the heating effect
of withstanding high tempera-         of the radiation. Also known
tures and pressures. { 'boil-sr       as thermal detector. { bs'lam-
,wolz )                               sd-sr)
boiler water |MECH ENG]               bolster |ENG] A plate for
Water in the steam-generating         maintaining a fixed space
section of a boiler unit. { 'boil-    between     stacked        heat
sr ,wod-3r)                           exchangers       or       heat-
                                      exchanger shells. { 'bol-stsr)
boil-off     |THERMO]      The
vaporization of a liquid, such        bolster plate |MECH ENG] A
as liquid oxygen or liquid            plate fixed on the bed of a
hydrogen, as its temperature          power press to locate and
reaches its boiling point under       support the die assembly. {
'bol-stsr ,plat)                     concrete from adhering to
                                     the bolt. { 'bolt ,slev )
bolt |DES ENG] A rod, usually
of metal, with a square,             Boltzmann engine |THERMO]
round, or hexagonal head at          An     ideal   thermo-dynamic
one end and a screw thread           engine that utilizes blackbody
on the other, used to fasten         radiation; used to derive the
objects together. { bolt)            Stefan-Boltzmann       law.  {
                                     'bolts-msn ,en-J3n )
bolt blank |DES ENG] A
threadless bolt with a head          bomb ballistics |MECH] The
that can be threaded for             special branch of ballistics
specific applications. Also          concerned     with     bombs
known as screw blank. { 'bolt        dropped from aircraft. { 'bam
,blar)k)                             bs'lis-tiks )
bolted joint | ENG ] The             bomb calorimeter [ENG] A
assembly of two or more parts        calorimeter designed with a
by a threaded bolt and nut or        strong-walled container con-
by a screw that passes               structed of a corrosion-
through one member and               resistant alloy, called the
threads into another. { [bol-        bomb, immersed in about 2.5
tsd 'joint)                          liters of water in a metal
                                     container; the sample, usually
bolted rail crossing | civ ENG
                                     an organic compound, is
] A crossing whose running
                                     ignited by electricity, and the
surfaces are made of rolled
                                     heat generated is measured.
rail and whose parts are
                                     { 'bam kal-s'rim-sd-or}
joined with bolts. { [bol-tsd ,ral
'kros-irj)                           bombproof | ENG ] Referring
                                     to shelter, building, or other
bolting |ENG] A fastening
                                     installation   resistant    or
system using screw-threaded
                                     impervious to the effects of
devices such as nuts, bolts,
                                     bomb explosions. { 'bam,pruf)
or studs. { 'bol-tiq )
                                     bomb shelter | civ ENG ] A
bolt sleeve |DES ENG] A tube
                                     bomb-proof     structure  for
designed to surround a bolt in
                                     protection of people. { 'bam
a concrete wall to prevent the
bomb test (ENG] A leak-            wire, usually in zigzag form,
testing technique in which the     embedded in an insulating
vessel to be tested is             backing material, such as
immersed in a pressurized          impregnated paper or plastic,
fluid which will be driven         which is cemented to the
through any leaks present. {       pressure-sensing element. {
'bam ,test)                        ]ban-dsd 'stran ,gaj )
bond (civ ENG] A piece of          bonded transducer (ENG] A
building material that serves      transducer which employs a
to unite or bond, such as an       bonded strain gage for
arrangement      of  masonry       sensing pressure. { ]ban-dsd
units, (ELEC] The connection       tranz'du-ssr)
made by bonding electrically,
                                   bonder See       bondstone.    {
(ENG] 1. A wire rope that
fixes loads to a crane hook.
2. Adhesion between cement         bond header (BUILD] In
or concrete and masonry or         masonry, a stone that extends
reinforcement. { band )            the full thickness of the wall.
                                   Also known as throughstone.
Bond and Wang theory
                                   { 'band ,hed-3r)
(MECH ENG] A theory of
crushing and grinding from         bonding (ELEC] The use of
which     the    energy,      in   low-resistance material to
horsepower-hours, required to      connect electrically a chassis,
crush a short ton of material is   metal shield cans, cable
derived. {[band on 'warj ,the*     shielding braid, and other sup-
3-re)                              posedly equipotential points to
                                   eliminate            undesirable
bond course (BUILD] A
                                   electrical interaction resulting
course of headers to bond
                                   from high-impedance paths
the facing masonry to the
                                   between them. (ENG] 1. The
backing masonry. { 'band ,kors
                                   fastening together of two
                                   components of a device by
bonded strain gage (ENG] A         means of adhesives, as in
strain gage in which the           anchoring the copper foil of
resistance element is a fine       printed wiring to an insulating
baseboard. 2. See cladding. {       )
'ban-dirj )
                                    bond strength [ENG] The
bonding strength (MECH]             amount of adhesion between
Structural effectiveness of         bonded surfaces measured in
adhesives, welds, solders,          terms of the stress required to
glues, or of the chemical bond      separate a layer of material
formed between the metallic         from the base to which it is
and ceramic components of a         bonded. { 'band ,strer)kth )
cermet, when subjected to
                                    bond timber [BUILD] A section
stress loading, for example,
                                    of wood built horizontally into
shear,         tension,       or
                                    a brick or stone wall in order
compression.       {    'ban-dirj
                                    to strengthen it or to hold it
,strerjkth )
                                    together during construction. {
Bond's law (MECH ENG] A             'band ,tim-bor)
statement that relates the
                                    boom [ENG] 1. A row of joined
work required for the crushing
                                    floating timbers that extend
of   solid     materials    (for
                                    across a river or enclose an
example, rocks and ore) to
                                    area of water for the purpose
the product size and surface
                                    of keeping saw logs together.
area and the lengths of
                                    2. A temporary floating
cracks formed. Also known as
                                    barrier launched on a body of
Bond's third theory. { 'banz '16
                                    water to contain material, for
                                    example, an oil spill. 3. A
Bond's third theory See             structure consisting of joined
Bond's law. { 'banz ,thord 'the-    floating logs placed in a
o-re)                               stream to retard the flow,
                                    [MECH ENG] A movable steel
bondstone [BUILD] A stone
                                    arm installed on certain types
joining the coping above a
                                    of cranes or derricks to
gable to the wall. |civ ENG] A
                                    support hoisting lines that
masonry stone set with its
                                    must carry loads. { bum )
longest    dimension      per-
pendicular to the wall face to      boom cat [MECH ENG] A
bind the wall together. Also        tractor supporting a boom
known as bonder. { 'band,ston       and used in laying pipe. { bum
,kat)                             { 'bord ,sin-tho-sos )
boom dog [MECH ENG] A             boost [ELECTR] TO augment
ratchet device installed on a     in relative intensity, as to
crane to prevent the boom of      boost the bass response in
the crane from being lowered      an audio system, [ENG] TO
but permitting it to be raised.   bring about a more potent
Also known as boom ratchet.       explosion of the main charge
{ 'bum ,dog)                      of an explosive by using an
                                  additional charge to set it off. {
boomer [ENG] A device used
to tighten chains on pipe or
other equipment loaded on a       booster [ELEC] A small
truck to make the cargo           generator inserted in series or
secure. { 'biim-or)               parallel with a larger generator
                                  to maintain normal voltage
boomerang sediment corer
                                  output under heavy loads.
[ENG] A device, designed for
                                  [ELECTR] 1. A separate radio-
nighttime recovery of a
                                  frequency amplifier connected
sediment      core,     which
                                  between an antenna and a
automatically returns to the
                                  television receiver to amplify
surface after taking the
                                  weak signals. 2. A radio-
sample. { 'bu-mo,rar) 'sed-o-
                                  frequency      amplifier    that
mont ,kor-or)
                                  amplifies and re-broadcasts a
boom ratchet See boom dog.        received       television     or
{ 'bum ,rach-ot)                  communication radio carrier
                                  frequency for reception by the
boom stop [MECH ENG] A            general public. [ MECH ENG ]
steel projection on a crane       A compressor that is used as
that will be struck by the boom   the first stage in a cascade
if it is raised or lowered too    refrigerating system. { 'bus-
great a distance. { 'bum          tor)
                                  booster brake [MECH ENG] An
Boord synthesis [CHEM ENG]        auxiliary   air   chamber,
A method of producing alpha       operated from the intake
olefins by the reduction of       manifold    vacuum,    and
alpha bromo ethers with zinc.     connected to the regular
brake pedal, so that less          or device designed to bring
pedal pressure is required for     itself into a desired state by
braking. { 'bus-tor ,brak)         means of its own action. {
                                   'but,strap )
booster ejector [MECH ENG] A
nozzle-shaped apparatus from       bootstrap circuit [ELECTR] A
which a high-velocity jet of       single-stage amplifier in which
steam is discharged to             the output load is connected
produce a continuous-flow          between the negative end of
vacuum       for     process       the anode supply and the
equipment. { 'bus-tor e'jek-       cathode, while signal voltage
tor)                               is applied between grid and
                                   cathode; a change in grid volt-
booster fan [MECH ENG] A fan
                                   age changes the input signal
used to increase either the
                                   voltage with respect to ground
total pressure or the volume
                                   by an amount equal to the
of flow. { 'bus-tor ,fan )
                                   output signal voltage. {
booster pump [MECH ENG] A          'but,strap ,sor-kot)
machine used to increase
                                   bootstrap driver [ELECTR]
pressure in a water or
                                   Electronic circuit used to
compressed-air pipe. { 'bus-
                                   produce a square pulse to
tor ,pomp )
                                   drive the modulator tube; the
booster      stations     [ENG]    duration of the square pulse
Booster pumps or com-              is determined by a pulse-
pressors located at intervals      forming line. { 'but ,strap
along a liquid-products or gas     ,drTvor)
pipeline    to    boost     the
                                   bootstrap             integrator
pressure of the flowing fluid to
                                   [ELECTR]        A      bootstrap
keep it moving toward its
                                   sawtooth generator in which
destination. { 'bus-tor ,sta-
                                   an integrating amplifier is
shonz )
                                   used in the circuit. Also
bootjack [ENG] A fishing tool      known as Miller generator. {
used in drilling wells. {          'but,strap 'in-to,grad-or)
                                   bootstrapping [ELECTR]        A
bootstrap [ENG] A technique        technique   for lifting       a
generator        circuit    above   borehole survey | ENG ] Also
ground by a voltage value           known as drill-hole survey. 1.
derived from its own output         Determining the course of
signal. { 'but ,strap-ir) )         and the target point reached
                                    by a borehole, using an
bootstrap             sawtooth
                                    azimuth-and-dip      recording
generator [ELECTR] A circuit
                                    apparatus small enough to be
capable of generating a highly
                                    lowered into a borehole. 2.
linear     positive     sawtooth
                                    The record of the information
waveform through the use of
                                    thereby obtained. { 'b6r,hol
bootstrapping.        {]but,strap
                                    ,s3r-va )
]so,tuth 'jen-o,rad-or)
                                    borer    |MECH       ENG] An
bore     [DES ENG] Inside
                                    apparatus used to bore
diameter of a pipe or tube,
                                    openings into the earth up to
[MECH ENG] 1. The diameter of
                                    about 8 feet (2.4 meters) in
a piston-cylinder mechanism
                                    diameter. { 'bor-sr)
as found in reciprocating
engines,       pumps,       and     borescope (ENG] A straight-
compressors. 2. To penetrate        tube telescope using a mirror
or pierce with a rotary tool. 3.    or prism, used to visually
To machine a workpiece to           inspect a cylindrical cavity,
increase the size of an             such as the cannon bore of
existing hole in it. { bor)         artillery weapons for defects of
                                    manufacture     and      erosion
borehole See drill hole. {
                                    caused by firing. { 'b6r,skop )
                                    boresighting (ENG] Initial
borehole bit See noncoring
                                    alignment of a directional
bit. { 'bor,hol ,bit)
                                    microwave or radar antenna
borehole logging [ENG] The          system by using an optical
technique of investigating and      procedure or a fixed target at
recording the character of the      a known location. { 'b6r,sTd-ir)
formation penetrated by a drill     )
hole in mineral exploration
                                    boring bar (MECH ENG] A rigid
and exploitation work. Also
                                    tool holder used to machine
known as drill-hole logging. {
                                    internal surfaces. { 'bdr-iq
'b6r,h6l ,lag-ir))
,bar)                                minimize leakage. {]bosh 'fyul
                                     in'jek-shsn ,p3mp)
boring log See drill log. {
'bor-ig ,lag )                       Bosch metering system
                                     (MECH ENG] A system having a
boring machine (MECH ENG]
                                     helical groove in the plunger
A machine tool designed to
                                     which covers or uncovers
machine internal work such as
                                     openings in the barrel of the
cylinders, holes in castings,
                                     pump; most usually applied in
and dies; types are horizontal,
                                     diesel engine fuel-injection
vertical, jig, and single. { 'bor-
                                     systems. {[bosh 'med-s-rir)
iq mo 'shen )
boring mill (MECH ENG] A
                                     boss           (DES      ENG]
boring machine tool used
                                     Protuberance on a cast
particularly    for       large
                                     metal or plastic part to add
workpieces;     types        are
                                     strength, facilitate assembly,
horizontal and vertical. { 'bor-
                                     provide for fastenings, or so
ig ,mil)
                                     forth. { bos )
borrow (civ ENG] Earth
                                     Boston ridge (BUILD] A
material such as sand and
                                     method of applying shingles
gravel that is taken from one
                                     to the ridge of a house by
location to be used as fill at
                                     which the shingles alternate
another. { 'ba-ro )
                                     in overlap from one side of
borrow pit (civ ENG] An              the ridge to the other. { 'bos-
excavation dug to provide            ton ,rij )
material (borrow) for fill
                                     bottle (ENG] A container
elsewhere. { 'ba-ro ,pit)
                                     made from pipe or plate with
bort bit See diamond bit. {          drawn, forged, or spun end
'bort ,pit)                          closures, and used for
                                     storing or transporting gas.
Bosch fuel injection pump            { 'bad-si )
(MECH ENG] A pump in the fuel
injection system of an internal      bottle centrifuge (ENG] A
combustion engine, whose             centrifuge in which the
pump plunger and barrel are a        mixture to be separated is
very close lapped fit to             poured into small bottles or
test tubes; they are then           of a vertical reciprocating
placed in a rotor assembly          engine, compressor, or pump
which is spun rapidly. { 'bad-sl    when the piston is at the end
'sen-tra,fyuj )                     of     its    down     stroke.
                                    Abbreviated BDC. { 'bad-sm
bottleneck          assignment
                                    ,ded 'sen-tor)
problem (IND ENG] A linear
programming        problem     in   bottom     dump      (ENG] A
which it is required to assign      construction     wagon    with
machines to jobs (or vice           movable gates in the bottom
versa) so that the efficiency of    to allow vertical discharge of
the least efficient operation is    its contents. { 'bad-sm ,d3mp
maximized.       {   'bad-3l,nek    )
s'sTn-msnt ,prab-bm )
                                    bottomed hole (ENG] A
bottle thermometer (ENG] A          completed borehole, or a
thermoelectric    thermometer       borehole in which drilling
used for measuring air              operations      have     been
temperature; the name is            discontinued. {[bad-smd 'hoi)
derived from the fact that the
                                    bottom flow (ENG] A molding
reference thermocouple is
                                    apparatus that forms hollow
placed in an insulated bottle. {
                                    plastic articles by injecting the
'bad-sl thsr'mam-sd-sr)
                                    blowing air at the bottom of
bottom blow (ENG] A type of         the mold. { 'bad-3m ,flo )
plastics      blow     molding
                                    bottoming drill (DES ENG] A
machine in which air is
                                    flat-ended twist drill designed
injected into the parison from
                                    to convert a cone at the
the bottom of the mold. {
                                    bottom of a drilled hole into a
'bad-sm ,blo )
                                    cylinder. { 'bad-om-iq ,dril)
bottom chord (civ ENG] Any
                                    bottoms       (CHEM        ENG]
of the bottom series of truss
                                    Residual fractions that remain
members parallel to the
                                    at      the  bottom     of    a
roadway of a bridge. { 'bad-
                                    fractionating tower following
sm ,kord )
                                    distillation of the lighter
bottom dead center (MECH            components. { 'bad-smz )
ENG] The position of the crank
bottom sampler (ENG] Any          Friction between surfaces that
instrument used to obtain a       are neither completely dry nor
sample from the bottom of a       completely separated by a
body of water. { 'bad-sm ,sam-    lubricant. { 'baun-dre .frik-shsn
pl3r)                             )
bottom tap (DES ENG] A tap        boundary lubrication [ENG] A
with a chamfer I to IV2           lubricating condition that is a
threads in length. { 'bad-sm      combination of solid-to-solid
,tap )                            surface contact and liquid-film
                                  shear. { 'baun-dre Ju-brs'ka-
boulder buster (ENG] A
                                  shsn )
heavy, pyramidal- or conical-
point steel tool which may be     boundary monument [ENG] A
attached to the bottom end of     material object placed on or
a string of drill rods and used   near a boundary line to
to break, by impact, a boulder    preserve and identify the
encountered in a borehole.        location of the boundary line
Also known as boulder             on the ground. { 'baun-dre
cracker. { 'bol-dsr ,b3s-tsr)     ,man-y3-m3nt)
boulder cracker See boulder       boundary survey [ENG] A
buster. { 'bol-dsr ,krak-or)      survey made to establish or to
                                  reestablish a boundary line on
bounce table (MECH ENG] A
                                  the ground or to obtain data
testing device which subjects
                                  for constructing a map or plat
devices and components to
                                  showing a boundary line. {
impacts such as might be
                                  'baun-dre ,s3r-va )
encountered in accidental
dropping. { 'bauns ,ta-b3l )      bound vector [MECH] A vector
                                  whose line of application and
boundary      (ELECTR]    An
                                  point of application are both
interface between p-and n-
                                  prescribed, in addition to its
type semiconductor materials,
                                  direction. {[baund 'vek-tsr)
at which donor and acceptor
concentrations are equal. {       Bourdon pressure gage
'baun-dre )                       [ENG] A mechanical pressure-
                                  measuring         instrument
boundary     friction   |MECH]
                                  employing as its sensing
element a curved or twisted         distances, particularly around
metal tube, flattened in cross      corners. { 'bod-on ,ka-bsl )
section and closed. Also
                                    bowl classifier [CHEM ENG] A
known as Bourdon tube.
                                    shallow bowl with a concave
{]bur-dsn 'presh-sr
                                    bottom so that a liquid-solid
igaj )                              suspension can be fed to the
                                    center; coarse particles fall to
Bourdon tube See Bourdon
                                    the bottom, where they are
pressure gage. { 'bur-don 'tub
                                    raked to a central discharge
                                    point, and liquid and fine
Boussinesq equation [ENG]           particles overflow the edges
A relation used to calculate        and are collected. { jbol iklas-
the       influence      of    a    3,fT-3r)
concentrated load on the
                                    bowl mill See bowl-mill
backfill behind a retaining
                                    pulverizer. { 'bol ,mil)
wall. { 'bu-si'nesk i'kwa-shsn )
                                    bowl-mill pulverizer [MECH
Boussinesq's           problem
                                    ENG] A type of pulverizer which
[MECH] The problem of
                                    directly feeds a coal-fired
determining the stresses and
                                    furnace, in which springs
strains in an infinite elastic
                                    press pivoted stationary rolls
body, initially occupying all the
                                    against a rotating bowl
space on one side of an
                                    grinding ring, crushing the
infinite plane, and indented by
                                    coal between them. Also
a rigid punch having the form
                                    known as a bowl mill. { 'bol
of a surface of revolution with
                                    ,mil 'p3l-v3,riz-3r)
axis         of       revolution
perpendicular to the plane.         bowl scraper [MECH ENG] A
Also known as Cerruti's             towed steel bowl hung within
problem. { 'bti-si'nesks .prab-     a fabricated steel frame,
lsm )                               running on four or two wheels;
                                    transports soil, in addition to
Bowden cable [MECH ENG] A
                                    spreading and leveling it. {
wire made of spring steel
                                    'bol ,skrap-3r)
which is enclosed in a helical
casing and used to transmit         Bow's notation [MECH] A
longitudinal motions over           graphical   method    of
representing coplanar forces      box-coking test [ENG] A
and       stresses,     using     laboratory test which forecasts
alphabetical letters, in the      the quality of coke producible
solution of stresses or in        in commercial practice; uses a
determining the resultant of a    specially designed sheet-steel
system of concurrent forces. {    box containing about 60
'boz no'ta-shsn )                 pounds (27 kilograms) of coal
                                  in a commercial coke oven.
bowstring beam [civ ENG] A
                                  {;baks ;kok-ir) .test)
steel, concrete, or timber
beam or girder shaped in the      box girder [civ ENG] A hollow
form of a bow and string; the     girder or beam with a square
string resists the horizontal     or rectangular cross section.
forces caused by loads on         Also known as box beam. {
the arch. { 'bo ,strir) ,bem )    'baks .gsr-dsr)
box [DES ENG] See boxing,         box-girder bridge [civ ENG] A
[ENG] A protective covering or    fixed bridge consisting of steel
housing. { baks )                 girders fabricated by welding
                                  four plates into a box section. {
box beam See box girder. {
                                  'baks .gsr-dsr ,brij )
'baks ,bem )
                                  box header boiler [MECH
box caisson [civ ENG] A
                                  ENG] A horizontal boiler with a
floating steel or concrete box
                                  front header and rear inclined
with an open top which will be
                                  rectangular            header
filled and sunk at a foundation
                                  connected by tubes. { 'baks
site in a river or seaway. Also
                                  ,hed-or ,boil-3r)
known as American caisson;
stranded caisson. { 'baks         boxing [DES ENG] The
'ka,san )                         threaded nut for the screw of
                                  a mounted auger drill. Also
boxcar [ENG] A railroad car
                                  known as box. [ ENG ] A
with a flat roof and vertical
                                  method of securing shafts
sides, usually with sliding
                                  solely by slabs and wooden
doors, which carries freight
                                  pegs. { 'baks-irj )
that needs to be protected
from weather and theft. {         boxing shutter [BUILD] A
'baks,kar)                        window shutter which can be
folded into a boxlike enclosure     brace |DES ENG] A cranklike
or recess at the side of the        device used for turning a bit.
window frame. { 'baks-ig            [ENG] A diagonally placed
.shsd-sr)                           structural    member        that
                                    withstands tension and com-
box piles [civ ENG] Pile
                                    pression, and often stiffens a
foundations made by welding
                                    structure against wind. { bras )
together two sections of steel
sheet piling or combinations        brace and bit [DES ENG] A
of beams, channels, and             small hand tool to which is
plates. { 'baks ,pTlz )             attached a metal- or wood-
                                    boring bit. { [bras on 'bit )
boxplot [IND ENG] In quality
control, a graph summarizing        braced framing [civ ENG]
the distribution, central value,    Framing a building with post
and variability of a set of data    and braces for stiffness.
values; used to identify            {[brast 'fram-irj )
problems       (or     potential
                                    braced-rib arch [civ ENG] A
problems) that affect the
                                    type of steel arch, usually
quality of processes and
                                    used in bridge construction,
products. { 'baks,plat )
                                    which has a system of
box wrench [ENG] A closed-          diagonal bracing. { [brast [rib
end wrench designed to fit a        'arch )
variety of sizes and shapes of
                                    brace head [ENG] A cross
bolt heads and nuts. { 'baks
                                    handle attached at the top of
,rench )
                                    a column of drill rods by
Boyle's            temperature      means of which the rods and
[THERMO] For a given gas, the       attached bit are turned after
temperature at which the            each drop in chop-and-wash
virial coefficient B in the         operations while sinking a
equation of state Pv = RT[ 1 +      borehole through overburden.
(B/v) + {C/v2} + •••] vanishes. {   Also known as brace key. {
'boilz 'tem-pre-chsr)               'bras ,hed )
bpd See barrels per day.            brace key See brace head. {
                                    'bras ,ke )
bpm See barrels per month.
brace pile See batter pile. {        application   of     excessive
'bras ,pTl)                          weight, causing the tooth to
                                     become dull so that its softer
brachiating motion [CONT
                                     inner portion caves over the
SYS] A type of robotic motion
                                     harder case area. { 'brad-irj )
that employs legs or other
equipment      to  help    the       Bragg spectrometer [ ENG ]
manipulator move in its work-        An instrument for x-ray
ing environment. { [bra-ke'ad-       analysis of crystal structure
irj 'mo-shsn )                       and measuring wavelengths of
                                     x-rays and gamma rays, in
brachiating robot [CONT SYS]
                                     which a homogeneous beam
A robot that is capable of
                                     of x-rays is directed on the
moving over the surface of an
                                     known face of a crystal and
object. { [bra-ke'ad-irj 'ro,bat )
                                     the     reflected   beam      is
brachistochrone           [MECH]     detected in a suitably placed
The curve along which a              ionization     chamber.    Also
smooth-sliding particle, under       known           as      crystal
the influence of gravity alone,      spectrometer; crystal-diffract
will fall from one point to          ion spectrometer; ionization
another in the minimum               spectrometer.       {     'brag
time. {bre'kis-ts ,kron )            spek'tram-sd-sr)
bracing [ ENG ] The act or           braiding [ENG] Weaving fibers
process of strengthening or          into a hollow cylindrical shape.
making rigid. { 'bras-irj )          { 'brad-irj )
bracket [BUILD] A vertical           brainstorming [IND ENG] A
board to support the tread of        procedure used to find a
a stair, [civ ENG] A projecting      solution for a problem by
support. { 'brak-st )                collecting all the ideas,
                                     without regard for feasibility,
brad [DES ENG] A small               which occur from a group of
finishing nail whose body            people meeting together. {
either is of uniform thickness       'bran ,storm-irj )
or is tapered. { brad)
                                     brake [MECH ENG] A machine
bradding [ENG] A distortion          element for applying friction
of a bit tooth caused by the
to a moving surface to slow it    brake lining [MECH ENG] A
(and often, the containing        covering, riveted or molded to
vehicle or device) down or        the brake shoe or brake band,
bring it to rest. { brak )        which presses against the
                                  rotating brake drum; made of
brake shoe [MECH ENG] The
                                  either fabric or molded
contracting element of the
                                  asbestos material. { 'brak ,lin-
band brake. { 'brak ,band )
                                  ir) )
brake block [MECH ENG] A
                                  brake            mean-effective
portion of the band brake
                                  pressure [ MECH ENG ]
lining, shaped to conform to
                                  Applied to reciprocating piston
the curvature of the band and
                                  machinery,        the  average
attached     to     it    with
                                  pressure on the piston during
countersunk screws. { 'brak
                                  the power stroke, derived from
                                  the measurement of brake
brake drum [MECH ENG] A           power output. { 'brak [men
rotating cylinder attached to a   i'fek-tiv 'presh-sr)
rotating part of machinery,
                                  brake shoe [MECH ENG] The
which the brake band or
                                  renewable friction element of
brake shoe presses against. {
                                  a shoe brake. Also known as
'brak ,dr3m )
                                  shoe. { 'brak ,shu )
brake horsepower [MECH
                                  brake thermal efficiency
ENG] The power developed by
                                  [MECH ENG] The ratio of brake
an engine as measured by the
                                  power output to power input. {
force applied to a friction
                                  'brak 'thsr-msl s'fish-sn-se )
brake or by an absorption
dynamometer applied to the        branch [ELEC] A portion of a
shaft or flywheel. Abbreviated    network consisting of one or
bhp. { [brak 'h6rs,pau-3r)        more two-terminal elements in
                                  series. Also known as arm.
brake line [MECH ENG] One
                                  [ENG] In a piping system, a
of the pipes or hoses that
                                  pipe that originates in or
connect the master cylinder
                                  discharges into another pipe.
and the wheel cylinders in a
                                  Also known as branch line. {
hydraulic brake system. {
                                  branch )
'brak ,1m )
branch-and-bound                    from wine or fermented fruit
technique [ IND ENG ] A             juice, usually after the aging
technique     in    nonlinear       of the wine in wooden casks;
programming in which all sets       cognac is a brandy distilled
of feasible solutions are           from wines made from grapes
divided into subsets, and           from the Cognac region of
those having bounds inferior        France. { 'bran-de )
to others are rejected.
                                    Brayton cycle |THERMO] A
{[branch on [baund tek'nek)
                                    thermodynamic           cycle
branch gain See branch              consisting of two const ant-
transmittance. { 'branch ,gan       pressure           processes
)                                   interspersed with two const
                                    ant-entropy processes. Also
branch line [ civ ENG ] A
                                    known as complete-expansion
secondary line in a railroad
                                    diesel cycle; loule cycle. {
system that connects to the
                                    'brat-sn ,sT-k3l)
main line. [ENG] See branch. {
'branch ,1m )                       brazed shank tool | MECH
                                    ENG ] A metal cutting tool
branch sewer [civ ENG] A
                                    made of a material different
part of a sewer system that is
                                    from the shank to which it is
larger in diameter than the
                                    brazed. { [brazd 'sharjk ,tul )
lateral sewer system; receives
sewage from both house              breaching |MECH ENG] The
connections     and       lateral   space between the end of the
sewers. { [branch [sii-or}          tubing and the jacket of a hot-
                                    water or steam boiler. { 'brech-
branch transmittance [CONT
                                    irj )
SYS] The amplification of
current or voltage in a branch      breadboard model [ENG]
of an electrical network; used      Uncased assembly of an
in the representation of such       instrument or other piece of
a network by a signal-flow          equipment, such as a radio
graph. Also known as branch         set, having its parts laid out
gain. { [branch trans'mit-sns )     on a flat surface and
                                    connected together to permit a
brandy |CHEM ENG] A potable
                                    check or demonstration of its
alcoholic beverage distilled
operation.     {     'bred,bdrd    effect or the avalanche effect.
,mad*3l)                           { 'brak,daun ]dT,od )
breakaway wrist |CONT SYS]         breakdown          impedance
A robotic wrist that has a         [ELECTR] Of a semiconductor,
safety feature that guarantees     the small-signal impedance at
its protection from damage if      a specified direct current in
too much force is exerted on       the breakdown region. { 'brak
the wrist or end effector. {       ,daun im'ped-sns )
'brak-3,wa ,rist)
                                   breakdown potential See
break-bulk cargo | IND ENG ]       breakdown       voltage. {
Miscellaneous goods packed         'brak,daun ps'ten-shsl)
in boxes, bales, crates, cases,
                                   breakdown region |ELECTR]
bags, cartons, barrels, or
                                   Of a semiconductor diode,
drums; may also include lum-
                                   the entire region of the volt-
ber, motor vehicles, pipe,
                                   ampere characteristic beyond
steel, and machinery. { [brak
                                   the initiation of breakdown for
[bslk 'kar-go )
                                   increasing magnitude of bias.
breakdown |ELEC] A large,          { 'brak ,daun ,re-J3n )
usually abrupt rise in electric
                                   breakdown voltage |ELEC] 1.
current in the presence of a
                                   The voltage measured at a
small increase in voltage; can
                                   specified current in the
occur in a confined gas
                                   electrical breakdown region of
between two electrodes, a
                                   a semiconductor diode. Also
gas tube, the atmosphere (as
                                   known as Zener voltage. 2.
lightning),   an      electrical
                                   The voltage at which an
insulator, and a reverse-
                                   electrical breakdown occurs in
biased semiconductor diode.
                                   a dielectric. 3. The voltage at
Also known as electrical
                                   which an electrical breakdown
breakdown. { 'brak,daun )
                                   occurs in a gas. Also known
breakdown diode |ELEC] A           as     breakdown       potential;
semiconductor diode in which       sparking potential; sparking
the          reverse-voltage       voltage. { 'brak,daun ,v6l*tij )
breakdown mechanism is
                                   breaker cam |MECH ENG] A
based either on the Zener
                                   rotating, engine-driven device
in the ignition system of an        ,fre*kw3n*se )
internal combustion engine
                                    breaking load |MECH] The
which causes the breaker
                                    stress which, when steadily
points to open, leading to a
                                    applied    to    a     structural
rapid fall in the primary
                                    member, is just sufficient to
current. { 'bra-ksr ,kam )
                                    break or rupture it. Also known
breaker plate [ENG] In plastics     as ultimate load. { 'brak-ig ,lod
die forming, a perforated plate     )
at the end of an extruder
                                    breaking pin device [ENG] A
head; often used to support a
                                    device designed to relieve
screen to keep foreign
                                    pressure resulting from inlet
particles out of the die. { 'bra-
                                    static pressure by the fracture
ksr ,plat)
                                    of a loaded part of a pin. {
break-even analysis |IND            'brak-irj ,pin di'vTs )
ENG] Determination of the
                                    breaking strength [ MECH ]
break-even point. { bra'ke-
                                    The ability of a material to
vsn s'nal-s-sss )
                                    resist breaking or rupture from
break-even point |IND ENG]          a tension force. { 'brak-irj
The point at which a company        ,strer)kth )
neither makes a profit nor
                                    breaking stress [MECH] The
suffers a loss from the
                                    stress required to fracture a
operations of the business,
                                    material       whether      by
and at which total costs are
                                    compression,       tension, or
equal to total sales volume. {
                                    shear. { 'brak-ig ,stres )
bra'ke-vsn ,point)
                                    breakout [ELEC] A joint at
break frequency |CONT SYS]
                                    which one or more conductors
The frequency at which a
                                    are brought out from a
graph of the logarithm of the
                                    multiconduc-tor cable, [ENG]
amplitude of the frequency
                                    Failure or collapse of a bore-
response versus the logarithm
                                    hole wall due to stress
of the frequency has an
                                    anisotropy. { 'bra,kaut)
abrupt change in slope. Also
known as corner frequency;          breakout schedule [IND ENG]
knee frequency. { 'brak             A schedule for a construction
job site, generally in the form     exchange system, the first
of    a     bar     chart,  that    appearance of unadsorbed
communicates detailed day-          ions of the type which deplete
today activities to all working     the activity of the resin bed;
levels on the project. {            this indicates that the bed
'brak,aut ,skej*3l )                must be regenerated. {
                                    'brak,thru )
breakover [ELECTR] In a
silicon controlled rectifier or     breakwater |civ ENG] A wall
related device, a transition into   built into the sea to protect a
forward conduction caused by        shore        area,      harbor,
the application of an ex-           anchorage, or basin from the
cessively high anode voltage.       action of waves. { 'brak,w6d-
{ 'bra^ko-vsr)                      3r)
breakover voltage [ELECTR]          breast boards |civ ENG]
The positive anode voltage at       Timber planks used to support
which a silicon controlled recti-   the     tunnel  face    when
fier      switches  into     the    excavation is in loose soil. {
conductive state with gate          'brest ,bdrdz )
circuit open. { 'bra^ko-vsr
                                    breast drill |DES ENG] A
,v6l*tij )
                                    small, portable hand drill
breakpoint [CHEM ENG] See           customarily        used     by
breakthrough. [IND ENG] In a        handsetters to drill the holes
time study, the end of an           in bit blanks in which
element in a work cycle and         diamonds are to be set; it
the point at which a reading is     includes a plate that is
made. Also known as end             pressed against the worker's
point;    reading    point.   {     breast. { 'brest ,dril)
                                    breasting dolphin |civ ENG]
breakthrough [CHEM ENG] 1.          A pile or other structure
A localized break in a filter       against which a moored ship
cake or precoat that permits        rests. { [brest-ig [dal-fsn )
fluid to pass through without
                                    breast wall |civ ENG] A low
being filtered. Also known as
                                    wall built to retain the face of
breakpoint. 2. In an ion-
                                    a natural bank of earth. {
'brest ,wol )                       that mixes the gases to
                                    provide      low       breathing
breather pipe |MECH ENG] A
                                    resistance. { 'brelh-iq ,bag )
pipe that opens into a
container for ventilation, as in    breathing line [civ ENG] A
a crankcase or oil tank. Also       level of 5 feet (1.5 meters)
known        as       crankcase     above the floor; suggested
breather. { 'bre-thsr ,pTp)         temperatures    for     various
                                    occupancies of rooms and
breath-hold diving [ENG] A
                                    other chambers are usually
form of diving without the use
                                    given at this level. { 'breth-iq
of any artificial breathing
                                    ,lTn )
mixtures. { 'breth ,hold ,divir))
                                    breeching [MECH ENG] A duct
breathing [ENG] 1. Opening
                                    through which the products of
and closing of a plastics mold
                                    combustion are transported
in orderto let gases escape
                                    from the furnace to the stack;
during molding. Also known
                                    usually applied in steam
as degassing. 2. Movement of
                                    boilers. { 'bre-chirj )
gas, vapors, or air in and out
of a storage-tank vent line as a    Brennan monorail car [MECH
result of liquid expansions and     ENG] A type of car balanced
contractions      induced     by    on a single rail so that when
temperature       changes.     {    the car starts to tip, a force
'breth-iq )                         automatically applied at the
                                    axle    end      is   converted
breathing apparatus [ENG]
                                    gyroscopically into a strong
An appliance that enables a
                                    righting moment which forces
person      to     function  in
                                    the car back into a position of
irrespirable    or    poisonous
                                    lateral equilibrium. { [bren-on
gases or fluids; contains a
                                    'man-3,ral ,kar)
supply of oxygen and a
regenerator which removes           Brewster process [CHEM
the carbon dioxide exhaled. {       ENG] Concentration of dilute
'brelh-iq ap-s'rad-ss )             acetic acid by use of an
                                    extraction    solvent        (for
breathing bag [ENG] A
                                    example, isopropyl ether),
component of a sem-iclosed-
                                    followed by distillation. { 'brii-
circuit breathing apparatus
stsr ,pras-3s )                    bridge; may be fixed or seated
                                   on expansion rollers. { 'brij
brick molding [BUILD] A
                                   ,ber*irj )
wooden molding applied to
the gap between the frame of       bridge cable [civ ENG] Cable
a door or window and the           from which a roadway or
masonry into which the frame       truss is suspended in a
has been set. {]brik [mold-ir))    suspension bridge; may be of
                                   pencil-thick wires laid parallel
brick seat [BUILD] A ledge on
                                   or strands of wire wound
a footing or a wall for
                                   spirally. { 'brij ,ka* bal}
supporting     a    course  of
masonry. { 'brik,set)              bridge crane [MECH ENG] A
                                   hoisting machine in which the
bridge [civ ENG] A structure
                                   hoisting apparatus is carried
erected to span natural or
                                   by a bridgelike structure
artificial obstacles, such as
                                   spanning the area over which
rivers, highways, or railroads,
                                   the crane operates. { 'brij
and supporting a footpath or
                                   ,kran )
roadway       for    pedestrian,
highway, or railroad traffic. [    bridge foundation [civ ENG]
ELEC      ] 1. An electrical       The piers and abutments of a
instrument having four or more     bridge,    on   which    the
branches, by means of which        superstructure rests. { 'brij
one or more of the electrical      faun'da-shsn )
constants of an unknown
                                   bridge hybrid See hybrid
component           may      be
                                   junction. { 'brij 'hi-brad)
measured. 2. An electrical
shunt path. { brij)                bridge limiter [ELECTR] A
                                   device employed in analog
bridge abutment [ civ ENG ]
                                   computers to keep the value
The end foundation upon
                                   of a variable within specified
which       the       bridge
                                   limits. { [brij [lim-sd-sr)
superstructure rests. { 'brij
^bst-msnt)                         bridge magnetic amplifier
                                   [ELECTR] A magnetic amplifier
bridge bearing [CIV ENG]
                                   in which each of the gate
The support at a bridge pier
                                   windings is connected in
carrying the weight of the
series with an arm of a bridge      bridge     vibration      [MECH]
rectifier; the rectifiers provide   Mechanical vibration of a
self-saturation and direct-         bridge superstructure due to
current output. {[brij mag'ned-     natural and human-produced
ik 'am-pl3,fr*3r)                   excitations. { 'brij vT'bra-shsn
bridge oscillator [ELECTR] An
oscillator using a balanced         bridgewall |MECHENG] A wall
bridge circuit as the feedback      in a furnace over which the
network. { 'brij as-s'lad-sr)       products       of  combustion
                                    flow. { 'brij,w6l)
bridge pier [civ ENG] The
main support for a bridge,          bridging amplifier |ELECTR]
upon     which     the bridge       Amplifier    with    an   input
superstructure          rests;      impedance sufficiently high so
constructed of masonry, steel,      that its input may be bridged
timber, or concrete founded         across a circuit without sub-
on firm ground below river          stantially affecting the signal
mud. { 'brij ,pir)                  level of the circuit across
                                    which it is bridged. { 'brij-irj
bridge rectifier [ELECTR] A
full-wave rectifier with four
elements connected as a             bridging                connection
bridge circuit with direct          |ELECTR] Parallel connection
voltage obtained from one pair      by means of which some of
of opposite junctions when          the signal energy in a circuit
alternating voltage is applied      may be withdrawn frequently,
to the other pair. {[brij ^ek-      with imperceptible effect on
t^fT-sr)                            the normal operation of the
                                    circuit. { 'brij-irj k^nek-shsn )
bridge trolley [MECH ENG]
Either       of the   wheeled       bridging loss |ELECTR] LOSS
attachments at the ends of          resulting from bridging an
the bridge of an overhead           impedance         across       a
traveling crane, permitting the     transmission            system;
bridge to move backward and         quantitatively, the ratio of the
forward on elevated tracks. {       signal power delivered to that
'brij ,tral-e )                     part of the system following
the bridging point, and            Briggs pipe thread See
measured before the bridging,      American       standard       pipe
to the signal power delivered      thread. { ]brigz 'pip ,thred )
to the same part after the
                                   brightness temperature See
bridging. { 'brij-irj ,16s )
                                   blackbody     temperature. {
bridle |ENG] A pumping unit        'brTt-nss ,tem-pre-ch3r)
cable that is looped over the
                                   brine cooler [MECH ENG] The
horse     head      and  then
                                   unit for cooling brine in a
connected to the carrier bar;
                                   refrigeration system; the brine
supports the polished-rod
                                   usually flows through tubes or
clamp. { 'bfid-sl )
                                   pipes       surrounded        by
bridled-cup       anemometer       evaporating refrigerant. { 'brTn
[ENG] A combination cup            ,kul-3r)
anemometer and pressure-
                                   Brinell number [ENG] A
plate anemometer, consisting
                                   hardness rating obtained from
of an array of cups about a
                                   the Brinell test; expressed in
vertical axis of rotation, the
                                   kilograms       per      square
free rotation of which is
                                   millimeter. { bre'nel ,n3m-bsr)
restricted   by     a    spring
arrangement; by adjustment         Brinell test [ ENG ] A test to
of the force constant of the       determine the hardness of a
spring,       an        angular    material, in which a steel ball 1
displacement can be obtained       centimeter in diameter is
which is proportional to wind      pressed into the material with
velocity. { ]brid-3ld [ksp an-     a standard force (usually 3000
s'mam-sd-sr)                       kilograms);      the   spherical
                                   surface area of indentation is
Briggs equalizer [ENG] A
                                   measured and divided into
breathing device consisting of
                                   the load; the results are
head harness, mouthpiece,
                                   expressed as Brinell number.
nose       clip,    corrugated
                                   { bre'nel ,test)
breathing tube, an equalizing
device, 120 feet (37 meters) of    briquetting [ENG] 1. The
reinforced air tubes, and a        process of binding together
strainer and spike. { ]brigz 'e-   pulverized minerals, such as
kwsjTz-sr)                         coal dust, into briquets under
pressure, often with the aid of      (Btu^^,). 2. A unit of heat
a binder, such as asphalt. 2.        energy that is equal to 1/180
A process or method of               of the heat needed to raise 1
mounting mineral ore, rock, or       pound of air-free water from
metal       fragments     in    an   32°F (0°C) to 212°F (100°C) at
embedding          or      casting   a constant pressure of 1
material, such as natural or         standard atmosphere; it is
artificial resins, waxes, metals,    found experimentally to be
or alloys, to facilitate handling    equal to 1055.79 joules. Also
during grinding, polishing, and      known as mean British
microscopic examination. { bri       thermal unit (Btumean). 3. A unit
'ked-irj )                           of     heat     energy      whose
                                     magnitude is such that 1
brisance index [ ENG ] The
                                     British thermal unit per pound
ratio of an explosive's power
                                     equals 2326 joules per
to shatter a weight of graded
                                     kilogram; it is equal to exactly
sand as compared to the
                                     1055.05585262 joules. Also
weight of sand shattered by
                                     known as international table
TNT. { brs'zans ]in,deks )
                                     British thermal unit (Btu,T). {
British imperial pound [             'brid-ish 'thsr-msl ,ytl*n3t}
MECH ] The British standard of
                                     brittle ness [MECH] That
mass, of which a standard is
                                     property    of     a    material
preserved by the government.
                                     manifested by fracture without
{ 'brid-ish im'pir-e-si 'paund )
                                     appreciable     prior     plastic
British      thermal       unit      deformation. { 'brid-sl-nss )
[THERMO] Abbreviated Btu. 1.
                                     brittle temperature [THERMO]
A unit of heat energy equal to
                                     The temperature point below
the heat needed to raise the
                                     which a material, especially
temperature of I pound of air-
                                     metal, is brittle; that is, the
free water from 60° to 61 °F at
                                     critical normal stress for
a constant pressure of 1
                                     fracture is reached before the
standard atmosphere; it is
                                     critical shear stress for plastic
found experimentally to be
                                     deformation. { 'brid-sl ,tem-
equal to 1054.5 joules. Also
known as sixty degrees
Fahrenheit British thermal unit      Brix degree [CHEM ENG] A
unit of the Brix scale. { 'briks   laboratory test in which the
do,gre )                           unsaturated     hydrocarbons
                                   present in a crude oil are
Brix scale [CHEM ENG] A
                                   determined by mixing a
hydrometer scale for sugar
                                   sample with bromine; the
solutions     indicating     the
                                   lower the rate of bromine ab-
percentage by weight of sugar
                                   sorption, the more paraffinic
in the solution at a specified
                                   the test sample. { 'br6,men
temperature. { 'briks ,skal)
broach      [MECH     ENG]    A
                                   bromine value |CHEM ENG] An
multiple-tooth, barlike cutting
                                   expression representing the
tool; the teeth are shaped to
                                   number of centigrams of
give a desired surface or
                                   bromine absorbed by 1 gram
contour, and cutting results
                                   of oil under test conditions; an
from each tooth projecting
                                   indication of the degree of
farther than the preceding
                                   unsaturation of a given oil. {
one. { broch )
                                   'br6,men ,val-yu )
broaching [ ENG ] 1. The
                                   brooming |civ ENG] A method
restoration of the diameter of a
                                   of finishing uniform concrete
borehole by reaming. 2. The
                                   surfaces, such as the tops of
breaking down of the walls
                                   pavement slabs or floor slabs,
between two contiguous drill
                                   by dragging a broom over the
holes, [MECH ENG] The
                                   surface to produce a grooved
machine-shaping of metal or
                                   texture. { 'bru-mirj )
plastic by pushing or pulling a
broach across a surface or         brown acid |CHEM ENG] Oil-
through an existing hole in a      soluble petroleum sulfonate
workpiece. { 'broch-irj)           found in sludge following
                                   sulfuric acid treatment of
broaching bit See reaming
                                   petroleum products. { [braun
bit. { 'broch-irj bit)
                                   [as-sd )
broken-color       work     See
                                   brown smoke [ENG] Smoke
antiquing. { [bro-ksn jkal* ■5T
                                   with less particu-lates than
                                   black smoke; comes from
bromine test [CHEM ENG] A          burning fossil fuel, usually fuel
oil. {]braun [smok )               operating speed and power
                                   factor. { 'brash ,shif*tir) ,mod-
Brunton       See      Brunton
compass. { 'brant-sn )
                                   BSD See barrels per stream
Brunton compass (ENG] A
compact field compass, with
sights and reflector attached,     B size ( ENG ] 1. One of a
used for geological mapping        series of sizes to which
and surveying. Also known as       trimmed paper and board are
Brunton;       Brunton    pocket   manufactured; for size BN,
transit. { 'brant-sn ,kam-p3s )    with N equal to any integer
                                   from 0 to 10, the length of the
Brunton pocket transit See
                                   shorter side is 2~N/2 meters,
Brunton compass. { 'brant-sn
                                   and the length of the longer
,pak-3t 'tran-zst)
                                   side is 2(I~N|/2 meters, with
brush (ELEC] A conductive          both lengths rounded off to the
metal or carbon block used to      nearest millimeter. 2. Of a
make sliding electrical contact    sheet of paper, the dimen-
with a moving part. { brash )      sions 11 inches by 17 inches
                                   (279 millimeters by 432
brush hopper (IND ENG] A           millimeters). { 'be ,sTz )
rotating brush that wipes
quantities of eyelets, rivets,     BT See bathythermograph.
and other small special parts
                                   Btu See British thermal unit.
past shaped openings in a
chute. { 'brash ,hap-3r)           bu See bushel.
brush rake (MECH ENG] A            bubble cap (CHEM ENG] A
device with heavy-duty tines       metal cap covering a hole in
that is fixed to the front of a    the plate within a distillation
tractor or other prime mover       tower; designed to permit
for use in land clearing. {        vapors to rise from below the
'brash ,rak)                       plate, pass through the cap,
                                   and make contact with liquid
brush-shifting motor (ENG] A
                                   on the plate. { 'bsb-sl ,kap )
category of alternating-current
motor in which the brush           bubble-cap plate (CHEM ENG]
contacts shift to modify           One of the devices in large-
diameter fractional distillation    fractional distillation. Also
columns that are designed to        known as bubble-cap tray. {
produce a bubbling action to        'bsb-sl ,tra )
exchange the vapor bubbles
                                    bubble-tray column (CHEM
flowing up the column. { 'bsb-
                                    ENG] A fractionating column
sl ,kap ,plat)
                                    whose plates are formed from
bubble-cap tray See bubble          bubble caps. { 'bsb-sl ,tra
tray. { 'bsb-sl ]kap ,tra)          ,kal*3m )
bubble mold cooling (ENG] In        bubble tube (ENG] The glass
plastics injection molding,         tube in a spirit level
cooling by means of a               containing the liquid and
continuous      liquid  stream      bubble. { 'bob-al ,tiib )
flowing into a cavity equipped
                                    buck (BUILD] The frame into
with an outlet at the end
                                    which the finished door fits. {
opposite the inlet. { 'bob-si
                                    bsk )
,mold ,ku-lir))
                                    bucket (ENG] 1. A cup on the
bubble          test     (ENG]
                                    rim of a Pelton wheel against
Measurement of the largest
                                    which water impinges. 2. A re-
opening in the mesh of a filter
                                    versed curve at the toe of a
screen; determined by the
                                    spillway to deflect the water
pressure needed to force air
                                    horizontally     and     reduce
or gas through the screen
                                    erosiveness. 3. A container
while it is submerged in a
                                    on a lift pump or chain pump.
liquid. { 'bsb-sl ,test)
                                    4. A container on some bulk-
bubble tower (CHEM ENG ] A          handling equipment, such as
plate tower used in distillation,   a bucket elevator, bucket
with plates containing bubble       dredge, or bucket conveyor.
caps.                               5. A water outlet in a turbine.
                                    6. See calyx. { 'bsk-st)
bubble tray (CHEM ENG] A
perforated,   circular    plate     bucket carrier See bucket
placed within a distillation        conveyor. { 'bsk-st ,kar-e-sr)
tower at specific places to
                                    bucket conveyor (MECH
collect   the   fractions    of
                                    ENG]  A continuous bulk
petroleum     produced       in
conveyor constructed of a          known as bucket ladder;
series of buckets attached to      bucket-line dredge; ladder-
one or two strands of chain or     bucket dredge; ladder dredge.
in some instances to a belt.       { 'bsk-st ,lad-3r ,drej )
Also called bucket carrier. {
                                   bucket-ladder        excavator
'bsk-st ksn'va-sr)
                                   See trench excavator. { 'bsk-
bucket dredge ( MECH ENG ] A       st ,lad*3r 'ek-sks-vad-sr)
floating mechanical excavator
                                   bucket-line dredge See
equipped with a bucket
                                   bucket-ladder dredge. { 'bsk-
elevator. { 'bsk-st ,drej )
                                   st ,1m ,drej )
bucket elevator (MECH ENG] A
                                   bucket loader |MECH ENG] A
bucket conveyor operating on
                                   form of portable, self-feeding,
a steep incline or vertical
                                   inclined bucket elevator for
path. Also known as elevating
                                   loading bulk materials into
conveyor. { 'bsk-st ]el-3,vad-
                                   cars, trucks, or other con-
                                   veyors. { 'bsk-st ,lod-3r)
bucket excavator (MECH
                                   bucket temperature [ENG]
ENG] An elevating scraper,
                                   The surface temperature of
that is, one that does the work
                                   ocean water as measured by
of a conventional scraper but
                                   a bucket thermometer. { 'bsk-
has      a   bucket     elevator
                                   st [tem-pra-chor)
mounted in front of the bowl. {
'bsk-st ]ek-sks,vad-3r)            bucket thermometer [ENG] A
                                   thermometer mounted in a
bucket ladder See bucket-
                                   bucket and used to measure
ladder dredge. { 'bsk-at , lad -
                                   the temperature of water
                                   drawn into the bucket from the
bucket-ladder dredge (MECH         surface of the ocean. { 'bsk-st
ENG] A dredge whose digging        thsr'mam-sd-sr)
mechanism consists of a lad-
                                   bucket-wheel       excavator
derlike truss on the periphery
                                   [MECH ENG] A continuous
of which is attached an
                                   digging     machine     used
endless chain riding on
                                   extensively  in   large-scale
sprocket wheels and carrying
                                   stripping    and      mining.
attached      buckets.    Also
Abbreviated BWE. Also known         structural support for        a
as rotary excavator. { 'bsk-st      furnace wall. { 'b3k,sta )
,wel 'ek-sk^vad-sr)
                                    buffer [ELEC] An electric
Buckingham's          equations     circuit or component that
[MECH ENG] Equations which          prevents            undesirable
give the durability of gears and    electrical interaction between
the dynamic loads to which          two circuits or components.
they are subjected in terms of      [ELECTR] 1. An isolating circuit
their dimensions, hardness,         in an electronic computer
surface     endurance,       and    used to prevent the action of a
composition. { 'bsk-ig-smz          driven circuit from affecting
i'kwa-zhsnz )                       the corresponding driving
                                    circuit.    2.    See     buffer
buckle plate [ civ ENG ] A
                                    amplifier, [ENG] A device,
steel floor plate which is
                                    apparatus, or piece of material
slightly arched to increase
                                    designed        to      reduce
rigidity. { 'bsk-sl ■Plat)
                                    mechanical shock due to
Buckley gage [ENG] A                impact. { 'bsf-sr)
device that measures very
                                    buffered FET logic [ELECTR] A
low gas pressures by sensing
                                    logic gate configuration used
the amount of ionization
                                    with gallium-arsenide field-
produced in the gas by a
                                    effect transistors operating in
predetermined            electric
                                    the depletion mode, in which
current. { 'bsk-le ,gaj)
                                    the level shifting required to
buckling [ENG] Wrinkling or         make the input and output
warping of fibers in a              voltage levels compatible is
composite material, [MECH]          achieved with Schottky barrier
Bending of a sheet, plate, or       diodes. Abbreviated BFL. {
column supporting a compres-        'bsf-srd ;ef|e|te 'laj-ik )
sive load. { 'bok-lirj)
                                    buffing [ENG] The smoothing
buckling stress [MECH] Force        and brightening of a surface
exerted by the crippling load. {    by an abrasive compound
'bok-lirj ,stres )                  pressed against it by a soft
                                    wheel or belt. { 'bof-irj)
buckstay     [MECH     ENG]    A
buffing wheel [DES ENG] A            structure    for       human
flexible wheel with a surface        occupancy and use. { 'bil-dig )
of fine abrasive particles for
                                     building-block     approach
buffing operations. { 'bof-irj
                                     [IND ENG] A technique for
                                     development of a set of
bug        [ELECTR]      1.     A    standard data by creating
semiautomatic code-sending           fixed groups or modules of
telegraph      key    in    which    work elements that may be
movement of a lever to one           added together to obtain time
side produces a series of            values for elements and
correctly spaced dots and            entire operations. { 'bild-irj
movement to the other side           ,blak 3,proch )
produces a single dash. 2. An
                                     building code [civ ENG] Local
electronic listening device,
                                     building laws to promote safe
generally concealed, used for
                                     practices in the design and
commercial         or     military
                                     construction of a building. {
espionage, [ENG] 1. A defect
                                     'bil-dirj ,kod )
or imperfection present in a
piece of equipment. 2. See           building dock [civ ENG] A
bullet. { bog )                      type of graving dock or basin,
                                     usually built of concrete, in
buggy See concrete buggy. {
                                     which ships are constructed
'bsg-e )
                                     and then floated out through
buhrstone mill [MECH ENG] A          a caisson gate after flooding
mill for grinding or pulverizing     the dock. { 'bil-dig ,dak)
grain in which a flat siliceous
                                     building envelope [civ ENG]
rock (buhrstone), generally of
                                     The interior, enclosed space
cellular quartz, rotates against
                                     of a building. { 'bil-dig 'en-
a stationary stone of the
                                     velop )
same material. { 'b3r,ston ,mil
)                                    building       footprint       See
                                     footprint. { 'bil-dig ,fut, print)
build [ELECTR] TO increase in
received signal strength. { bild     building line [civ ENG] A
)                                    designated line beyond which
                                     a building cannot extend. {
building [civ ENG] A fixed
'bil-dig ,lm )                     bulk cargo [IND ENG] Cargo
                                   which is loaded into a ship's
buildup index       See fire-
                                   hold without being boxed,
danger meter.       { 'bil,d3p
                                   bagged or hand stowed, or is
,in,deks )
                                   transported in large tank
built-in beam See fixed-end        spaces. { [bslk 'kar,go )
beam. { ]bilt,in 'bem )
                                   bulk density [ENG] The mass
built-up beam [ENG] A              of powdered or granulated
structural steel member that is    solid material per unit of
fabricated by welding or           volume. { ]bslk 'den-ssd-e )
riveting rather than being
                                   bulk diode |ELECTR] A
rolled. { 'bilt,3p 'bem )
                                   semiconductor     microwave
built-up edge [ENG] Chip           diode that uses the bulk
material adhering to the tool      effect, such as Gunn diodes
face adjacent to a cutting         and diodes operating in
edge during cutting. { 'bilt,3p    limited        space-charge-
'ej )                              accumulation modes. {[bslk
                                   'dl ,inmost
built-up roof [BUILD] A roof
constructed of several layers      bulk effect |ELECTR] An
of felt and asphalt. { 'bilt,3p    effect that occurs within the
'ruf)                              entire bulk of a semiconductor
                                   material rather than in a
bulb angle [DES ENG] A steel       localized region or junction. {
angle iron enlarged to a           'bslki'fektj
bulbous thickening at one
end. { 'bslb .ag-gsl )             bulk-effect device |ELECTR] A
                                   semiconductor device that
bulge forming [ENG] A              depends on a bulk effect, as in
process by which contours          Gunn and avalanche devices.
are formed on the sides of         { 'balk i'fekt di'vTs )
tubular       work-pieces     by
exerting pressure inside the       bulk factor [ENG] The ratio of
tube to force expansion into a     the volume of loose powdered
die clamped around the             or granulated solids to the vol-
exterior. { 'bslj ,f6rm-ir) )      ume of an equal weight of the
                                   material after consolidation
into a voidless solid. { 'balk    bulk material [IND ENG]
,fak*tar)                         Material purchased in uniform
                                  lots and in quantity for
bulk-handling         machine
                                  distribution as required for a
[MECH ENG] Any of a
                                  project. {[balk majtir-e-al)
diversified group of materials-
handling machines designed        bulk micromachining [ENG]
for handling unpackaged, di-      A set of processes that
vided materials. { 'balk ,hand-   enable the three-dimensional
lir) ms'shen )                    sculpting of single-crystal
                                  silicon   to   make    small
bulkhead line [civ ENG] The
                                  structures that serve as
farthest offshore line to which
                                  components                 of
a      structure    may      be
                                  microsensors. { [balk ^T-kro-
constructed             without
                                  mo'shen-ir) )
interfering with navigation. {
'balk ,hed ,1m )                  bulk modulus See bulk
                                  modulus of elasticity. { ]bslk
bulkhead wharf [ civ ENG ] A
                                  'maj-s-lss )
bulkhead that may be used as
a wharf by addition of mooring    bulk modulus of elasticity
appurtenances, paving, and        [MECH] The ratio of the
cargo-handling facilities. {      compressive or tensile force
'b3lk,hed ,worf)                  applied to a substance per
                                  unit surface area to the
bulking value [CHEM ENG]
                                  change in volume of the
The relative ability of a
                                  substance per unit volume.
pigment or other substance to
                                  Also known as bulk modulus;
increase the volume of paint. {
                                  compression              modulus;
'bal-kirj ,val*yu )
                                  hydrostatic modulus; modulus
bulk insulation [ENG] A type      of compression; modulus of
of insulation that retards the    volume elasticity. { [balk
flow     of    heat   by   the    'maj*,*l3s sv i,las'tis*3d*e )
interposition of many air
                                  bulk rheology [MECH] The
spaces and, in most cases,
                                  branch of rheology wherein
by opacity to radiant heat. {
                                  study of the behavior of matter
[balk in-ss'la-shsn )
                                  neglects effects due to the
surface of a system. {[balk      movement of solids such as
re'al-3-je)                      grain, sand, gravel, coal, or
                                 wood chips. {[balk 'tranz,port)
bulk         photoconductor
[ELECTR] A photocon-ductor       bulldozer [MECH ENG] A
having high power-handling       wheeled or crawler tractor
capability and other unique      equipped with a reinforced,
properties that depend on the    curved steel plate mounted in
semiconductor and doping         front, perpendicular to the
materials used, j                ground, for pushing excavated
                                 materials. { 'bill ,doz-3r)
bulk resistor [ELECTR] An
integrated-circuit resistor in   bullet [ ENG ] 1. A conical-
which the n-type epitaxial       nosed      cylindrical    weight,
layer of a semiconducting        attached to a wire rope or
substrate is used as a           line, either notched or seated
noncriti-cal        high-value   to engage and attach itself to
resistor; the spacing between    the upper end of a wire line
the attached terminals and       core      barrel     or     other
the sheet resistivity of the     retrievable     or    retractable
material together determine      device that has been placed
the resistance value. { 'balk    in a borehole. Also known as
ri'zis-tsr)                      bug; go-devil; overshot. 2. A
                                 scraper with self-adjusting
bulk strain [MECH] The ratio
                                 spring blades, inserted in a
of the change in the volume
                                 pipeline and carried forward
of a body that occurs when
                                 by the fluid pressure, clearing
the body is placed under
                                 away accumulations or debris
pressure, to the original
                                 from the walls of a pipe. Also
volume of the body. { 'balk
                                 known as go-devil. 3. A
,stran )
                                 bullet-shaped weight or small
bulk strength [ MECH ] The       explosive charge dropped to
strength per unit volume of a    explode      a      charge     of
solid. {[balk 'strerjkth )       nitroglycerin placed in a bore-
                                 hole. Also known as go-devil.
bulk transport [MECH ENG ]       4. An electric lamp covered by
Conveying,    hoisting,  or      a conical metal case, usually
elevating   systems     for
at the end of a flexible metal       which swings the derrick in a
shaft. 5. See torpedo. { 'btil-st)   vertical plane. { 'bill ,wel)
bullet drop [MECH ] The              Bulygen number [THERMO] A
vertical drop of a bullet. { 'bul-   dimensionless number used in
st ,drap)                            the study of heat transfer
                                     during evaporation. { 'biil-o-jon
bull gear [DES ENG] A bull
wheel with gear teeth. { 'bill
,gir)                                bump contact |ELECTR] A
                                     large-area contact used for
bulling bar [ENG] A bar for
                                     alloying   directly  to    the
ramming clay into cracks
                                     substrate of a transistor for
containing blasting charges
                                     mounting or interconnecting
which are about to be
                                     purposes. { 'bomp ,kan,takt)
exploded. { 'bul-irj ,bar)
                                     bumper [ENG] 1. A metal bar
bull nose [BUILD] A rounded
                                     attached to one or both ends
external angle, as one used
                                     of a powered transportation
at window returns and
                                     vehicle,      especially      an
doorframes. { 'bul ,noz )
                                     automobile,       to     prevent
bull-nose bit See wedge bit. {       damage to the body. 2. In a
'bill ,noz ,bit)                     drilling operation, the support-
                                     ing stay between the main
bull-nose plane [DES ENG] A          foundation sill and the engine
small rabbet plane used to           block. 3. In drilling, a fishing
smooth or shape joints or            tool for loosening jammed
other places that cannot be          cable tools. { 'bom-por)
reached by larger planes. {
]btil ,noz 'plan )                   bumping See chugging.           {
                                     'bom-pig )
bull wheel [MECH ENG] 1. The
main wheel or gear of a              bund       |civ     ENG]      An
machine, which is usually the        embankment or embanked
largest and strongest. 2. A          thoroughfare along a body of
cylinder which has a rope            water; the term is used
wound about it for lifting or        particularly for such structures
hauling. 3. Awheel attached to       in the Far East. { bond)
the base of a derrick boom
bundling machine |MECH            bunkering and fuel-oil bunker-
ENG]     A     device    that     ing. { 'bog-kor-ir))
automatically    accumulates
                                  bunny suit (ENG] Protective
cans, cartons, or glass
                                  clothing worn by an individual
containers for semiautomatic
                                  who works in a clean room to
or automatic loading or for
                                  prevent     contamination   of
shipping      cartons      by
                                  equipment and materials. {
assembling the packages into
                                  'bon-e ,sut)
units of predetermined count
and pattern which are then        Bunsen burner ( ENG ] A type
machine-wrapped in paper,         of gas burner with an
film      paperboard,      or     adjustable air supply. { 'bon-
corrugated board. { 'bond-lig     son 'bor-nor)
mo'shen )
                                  Bunsen ice calorimeter (
bund wall (ENG] A retaining       ENG ] Apparatus to gage heat
wall designed to contain the      released during the melting of
contents of a tank or a storage   a compound by measuring the
vessel in the event of a          increase in volume of the
rupture or other emergency. {     surrounding ice-water solution
'bond ,wol)                       caused bythe melting of the
                                  ice. Also known as ice
bunker (civ ENG] A bin, often
                                  calorimeter. { 'bon-son 'Ts kal-
elevated, that is divided into
compartments for storing
material such as coal or sand.    buoy (ENG] An anchored or
(MECH ENG ] A space in a          moored floating object, other
refrigerator designed to hold a   than a lightship, intended as
cooling element. { 'bog-kor)      an aid to navigation, to attach
                                  or     suspend      measuring
bunkering (ENG] Storage of
                                  instruments, or to mark the
solid or liquid fuel in
                                  position of something beneath
containers from which the fuel
                                  the water. { boi)
can be continuously or
intermittently withdrawn to       buoyancy-type         density
feed a furnace, internal          transmitter ( ENG ] An
combustion engine, or fuel        instrument which records the
tank, for example, coal           specific gravity of a flowing
stream of a liquid or gas,           Also known as intrusion
using    the    principle   of       alarm. { 'bor-glor o]larm )
hydrostatic weighing. { 'boi-
                                     buried set-point method
on-se      ,tTp     'den-sod-e
                                     (CONT SYS] A procedure for
                                     guiding a robot manipulator
buoy sensor (ENG ACOUS] A            along a template, in which
hydrophone used as a sensor          low-gain     servomechanisms
in buoy projects; some               apply a force along the edge
hydrophone     arrays    are         of the template, while the
designed for telemetering. {         manipulator's tool is parallel
'boi ,sen-sor)                       to, and buried below, the
                                     template surface. { 'ber-ed
burden (ELEC] The amount
                                     'set,point ,meth-od )
of power drawn from the
circuit     connecting         the   burn (ENG] TO consume fuel. {
secondary terminals of an            born )
instrument           transformer,
                                     burn cut See parallel cut. {
usually expressed in volt-
                                     'born ,kot)
amperes, (ENG] 1. The dis-
tance from a drill hole to the       burner (CHEM ENG] A furnace
more or less vertical surface        where sulfur or sulfide ore are
of rock that has already been        burned to produce sulfur
exposed by blasting or               dioxide and other gases,
excavating. 2. The volume of         (ENG] 1. The part of a fluid-
the rock to be removed by            burning device at which the
blasting in a drill hole. { 'bord-   flame is produced. 2. Any
on )                                 burning device used to soften
                                     old paint to aid in its removal.
burglar alarm (ENG] An alarm
                                     3. A worker who operates a
in which interruption of electric
                                     kiln which burns brick or tile. 4.
current to a relay, caused, for
                                     A worker who alters the
example, by the breaking of a
                                     properties of a mineral
metallic tape placed at an
                                     substance by burning. 5. A
entrance     to    a   building,
                                     worker who uses a flame-
deenergizes the relay and
                                     cutting torch to cut metals,
causes the relay contacts to
                                     (MECH ENG] A unit of a steam
operate the alarm indicator.
boiler which mixes and             ignited by a flame held close
directs the flow of fuel and air   to its surface; used to test
so as to ensure rapid ignition     safety of kerosine and other
and complete combustion. {         illuminating oils. { 'bor-nirj
'bor-nor)                          ,point)
burner windbox (ENG] A             burning quality (ENG] Rated
chamber      surrounding    a      performance for a burning oil
burner, under positive air         as determined by specified
pressure,      for     proper      ASTM (American Society for
distribution and discharge of      Testing and Materials) tests. {
secondary air. { 'bor-nor          'bor-nirj ,kwal- od-e )
'wind,baks )
                                   burning-quality index | ENG ]
burnettize (ENG] TO saturate       Prediction        of      burning
fabric or wood with a solution     performance of furnace and
of    zinc   chloride   under      heater oils; derived from
pressure to keep it from           ASTM (American Society for
decaying. { bor'nedjz )            Testing       and       Materials)
                                   distillation, API (American
burn-in (ELECTR] Operation of
                                   Petroleum Institute) gravity,
electronic components before
                                   paraffinicity, and volatility. {
they are applied in order to
                                   'bsr-nirj jkwal*ad*e ,in,deks )
stabilize their characteristics
and reveal defects. (ENG] See      burnish [ ENG ] T O polish or
freeze. { 'born ,in )              make shiny. { 'bsr-nish )
burning (ENG] The firing of        burnisher [ENG] A tool with a
clay products placed in a kiln.    hard, smooth rounded edge
{ 'bor-nirj )                      or surface; used for finishing
                                   the edges of scraper blades,
burning index        See fire-
                                   for smoothing or polishing
danger meter.       { 'bor-nig
                                   plastic or metal surfaces, or
]in,deks )
                                   for     other      applications
burning point (ENG] The            requiring manipulation by
lowest temperature at which a      rubbing. { 'bsr-ns-shsr)
volatile oil in an open vessel
                                   burnout [ELEC] Failure of a
will continue to burn when
                                   device due to excessive heat
produced      by     excessive      connections between load
current, [ENG] An instance of a     circuits and each of the
device or a part overheating        polarities (in direct-current
so    as     to    result    in     systems) or phases (in
destruction or damage. {            alternating-current systems) of
'b3rn,aut)                          the source of electric power.
                                    2. See busbar, [ELECTR] One
Burnside boring machine
                                    or more conductors in a
[MECH ENG] A machine for
                                    computer       along     which
boring in all types of ground
                                    information is transmitted
with the feature of controlling
                                    from any of several sources
water immediately if it is
                                    to      any      of     several
tapped. { 'b3rn,sTd 'bor-irj
                                    destinations, [ENG] A motor
ms'shsn )
                                    vehicle for carrying a large
bursting strength [MECH] A          number of passengers, {bos)
measure of the ability of a
                                    bus cable [ELECTR] An
material to withstand pressure
                                    electrical conductor that can
without rupture; it is the
                                    be attached to a bus to extend
hydraulic pressure required to
                                    it outside the computer
burst a vessel of given
                                    housing or join it to another
thickness. { 'bsr-stig ,strerjkth
                                    bus     within    the     same
                                    computer. { 'bos ,ka-b3l)
burst pressure [MECH] The
                                    bushel [MECH] Abbreviated
maximum inside pressure that
                                    bu. 1. A unit of volume (dry
a process vessel can safely
                                    measure) used in the United
withstand. { 'bsrst ,presh-3r)
                                    States, equal to 2150.42 cubic
burton [ MECH ENG ] A small         inches    or     approximately
hoisting tackle with two blocks,    35.239 liters. 2. A unit of
usually a single block and a        volume (liquid and dry
double block, with a hook           measure) used in Britain,
block in the running part of the    equal to 2219.36 cubic inches
rope. { 'bsrt-sn )                  or 8 imperial gallons (approxi-
                                    mately 36.369 liters). { 'bush-
bus [ELEC] 1. A set of two or       sl )
more electric conductors that
serve       as      common          bush hammer [MECH ENG] A
hand-held or power-driven            hydrogen chloride promoter.
hammer that has a serrated           { 'byu,tan 'va-psr ,faz ^sam-s-
face   containing    pyramid-        re'za-shsn )
shaped points and is used to
                                     butt [BUILD] The bottom or
dress a concrete or stone
                                     cover edge of a shingle, [DES
surface. { 'bush ,ham-3r)
                                     ENG]   The enlarged and
bushing [DES ENG] See                squared-off     end   of     a
nipple, [ELEC] See sleeve. [         connecting rod or similar link
MECH ENG ] A removable piece         in a machine. { bst)
of soft metal or graphite-filled
                                     butterfly damper See butterfly
sintered metal, usually in the
                                     valve. { 'bad*ar,flT ,dam*par)
form of a bearing, that lines a
support for a shaft. { 'bush-irj )   butterfly nut See wing nut. {
                                     'bad*ar,flT ,nat)
Butamer process [ CHEM ENG
] A method of iso-merizing           butterfly       valve    [ENG]
normal butane into isobutane         Avalvethat utilizes aturn-able
in the presence of hydrogen          disk element to regulate flow
and a solid, noble-metal             in a pipe or duct system, such
catalyst; used to prepare raw        as a hydraulic turbine or a
material    in   a    gasoline       ventilating     system.   Also
alkylation process. { 'byud-s-       known as butterfly damper. {
msr ,pras-as}                        'bad-ai^fTr ,valv )
butane      dehydrogenation          Butterworth filter [ELECTR]
[CHEM ENG] A process to              An electric filter whose pass
remove hydrogen from butane          band (graph of transmission
to    produce    butene   or         versus frequency) has a
butadiene. { 'byu,tan de,hT-         maximally flat shape. { 'bod-
dra-js'na-shsn )                     sr.wsrth 'fil-tar)
butane          vapor-phase          Butterworth head [MECH
isomerization [CHEM ENG] A           ENG] A mechanical hose head
process to isomerize normal          with revolving nozzles; used to
butane into isobutane in the         wash      down      shipboard
presence     of    aluminum          storage tanks. { 'bsd-sr
chloride    catalyst    and          ,w3rth ,hed )
butt fusion [ENG] The joining        to the base wafer of an alloy-
of two pieces of plastic or          junction   transistor.    Also
metal pipes or sheets by             known as dot. 2. The
heating the ends until they          container that holds the
are molten and then pressing         carbon granules of a carbon
them together to form a              microphone. Also known as
homogeneous bond. { 'bat             carbon button. { 'bat*an)
,fyu-zh3n )
                                     button bit |DES ENG] A drilling
butt gage [ ENG ] A tool used        bit made with button-shaped
to mark the outline for the          tungsten carbide inserts. {
hinges on a door. { 'bst ,gaj )      'bat* on ,bit)
butt joint [ELEC] A connection       button die |DESENG] A mating
formed by placing the ends of        member, usually replaceable,
two conductors together and          for a piercing punch. Also
joining them by welding,             known as die bushing. { 'bst-
brazing, or soldering. [ENG] A       sn ,dT)
joint in which the parts to be
                                     button head |DES ENG] A
joined are fastened end to
                                     screw, bolt, or rivet with a
end or edge to edge with one
                                     hemispherical head. { 'b3t-
or more cover plates (or other
                                     3n,hed )
strengthening)         generally
used to accomplish the               buttress |civ ENG] A pier
joining. { 'bat joint)               constructed at right angles to
                                     a restraining wall on the side
buttock lines [ENG] The lines
                                     opposite to the restrained
of intersection of the surface
                                     material;       increases  the
of an aircraft or its float, or of
                                     strength and thrust resistance
the hull of a ship, with its
                                     of the wall. { 'bs-tres )
longitudinal vertical planes.
Also known as buttocks. {            buttress dam |civ ENG] A
'bsd-sk ,lmz )                       concrete dam constructed as
                                     a series of buttresses. { 'bs-
buttocks See buttock lines. {
                                     tres ,dam )
'bsd-sks )
                                     buttress thread |DES ENG] A
button [ELECTR] 1. A small,
                                     screw thread whose forward
round piece of metal alloyed
face is perpendicular to the       'bT,pas )
screw axis and whose back
                                   bypass channel (civ ENG ] 1.
face is at an angle to the axis,
                                   A channel built to carry
so that the thread is both
                                   excess water from a stream.
efficient in transmitting power
                                   Also known as flood relief
and strong. { 'bs-tres ,thred )
                                   channel; floodway. 2. A
buzz |CONT SYS] See dither.        channel constructed to divert
|ELECTR] The condition of a        water from a main channel. {
combinatorial circuit with feed-   'bT,pas ,chan-3l )
back that has undergone a
                                   bypass filter (ELECTR] Filter
transition, caused by the
                                   which      provides    a    low-
inputs, from an unstable state
                                   attenuation path around some
to a new state that is also
                                   other equipment, such as a
unstable. { bsz )
                                   carrier frequency filter used to
BWE      See      bucket-wheel     bypass a physical telephone
excavator.                         repeater station. { 'bT,pas
BWG See Birmingham wire
gage.                              bypass valve (ENG] A valve
                                   that opens to direct fluid
BX cable |ELEC] Insulated
                                   elsewhere when a pressure
wires in flexible metal tubing
                                   limit is exceeded. { 'bT,pas
used for bringing electric
power        to      electronic
equipment. {]be]eks [ka-bsl)       by-product (ENG] A product
                                   from a manufacturing process
bypass |civ ENG] A road
                                   that is not considered the
which carries traffic around a
                                   principal material. { 'bT,prad-
congested       district    or
temporary obstruction. |ELEC]
A shunt path around some           c See calorie.
element or elements of a
                                   C See capacitance; capacitor;
circuit, (ENG] An alternating,
usually smaller, diversionary
flow path in a fluid dynamic       C2 See command and control.
system to avoid some device,       { 'se 'tii )
fixture, or obstruction. {
C3 See command, control,           insulation. { 'ka-bsl )
and communications. { 'se
                                   cable buoy [ENG] A buoy
                                   used to mark one end of a
cab |ENG] In a locomotive,         submarine underwater cable
truck, tractor, or hoisting        during time of installation or
apparatus, a compartment for       repair. { 'ka-bsl ,boi )
the operator. { kab )
                                   cable conveyor |MECH ENG]
cabinet file |DES ENG] A           A powered conveyor in which
coarse-toothed file with flat      a trolley runs on a flexible,
and convex faces used for          torque-transmitting cable that
woodworking. { 'kab-s-nst ,fTl )   has helical threads. { 'ka-bsl
cabinet hardware |DES ENG]
Parts for the final trim of a      cable drilling [ENG] Rock
cabinet, such as fastening         drilling in which the rock is
hinges, drawer pulls, and          penetrated by percussion, at
knobs. { 'kab-s-nst [hard          the bottom of the hole, of a bit
,wer)                              suspended from a wire line
                                   and given motion by a beam
cabinet saw |DES ENG] A
                                   pivoted at the center. { 'ka-bsl
short saw, one edge used for
                                   ,dril*ir) )
ripping,   the     other     for
crosscutting. { 'kab-s-nst ,so )   cable duct [ENG] A pipe,
                                   either     earthenware      or
cabinet scraper |DES ENG] A
                                   concrete,    through   which
steel tool with a contoured
                                   prestressing wires or electric
edge      used    to     remove
                                   cable are pulled. { 'ka-bsl
irregularities on a wood
surface. { 'kab-s-nst ,skrap-3r)
                                   cable-laid      [DES      ENG]
cable |DES ENG] A stranded,
                                   Consisting of three ropes with
ropelike assembly of wire or
                                   a left-hand twist, each rope
fiber. |ELEC] Strands of
                                   having three twisted strands. {
insulated           electrical
                                   'ka-bsl ,lad )
conductors laid together,
usually around a central core,     cableman [ENG] A person
and surrounded by a heavy          who installs, repairs, or
otherwise works with cables. {       cable vault [civ ENG] A
'ka-bsl-msn )                        manhole containing electrical
                                     cables, [ELEC] Vault in which
cable railway [MECH ENG] An
                                     the outside plant cables are
inclined track on which rail
                                     spliced to the tipping cables. {
cars travel, with the cars fixed
                                     'ka-bsl ,volt)
to an endless steel-wire rope
at equal spaces; the rope is         cableway [MECH ENG] A
driven    by     a    stationary     transporting system consisting
engine. { 'ka-bsl ]ral,wa )          of a cable extended between
                                     two or more points on which
cable release [ENG] A wire
                                     cars are propelled to transport
plunger to actuate the shutter
                                     bulk materials for construction
of a camera, thus avoiding
                                     operations. { 'ka-bsl.wa )
undesirable             camera
movement. { 'ka-bsl ri'les )         cableway carriage [MECH
                                     ENG] A trolley that runs on
cable-stayed bridge [civ
                                     main load cables stretched
ENG] A modification of the
                                     between two or more towers. {
cantilever bridge consisting of
                                     'ka-bs^wa 'kar-ij )
girders or trusses cantilevered
both ways from a central             caboose [ENG] A car on a
tower and supported by               freight train, often the last
inclined cables attached to the      car, usually for use by the
tower at top or sometimes at         train crew. { ks'biis )
several levels. { 'ka-bsl ,stad
                                     cab signal [ENG] A signal in a
,brij )
                                     locomotive that informs the
cable-system drill See churn         engine     operator     about
drill. { 'ka-bsl jsis* torn ,dril)   conditions   affecting     train
                                     movement. { 'kab ,sig-n3l)
cable-tool drilling [ENG] A
drilling procedure in which a        cadastral survey [civ ENG] A
sharply pointed bit attached to      survey made to establish
a cable is repeatedly picked         property lines. { ks'das-trsl)
up and dropped on the bottom
                                     cage [MECH ENG] A frame for
of the hole. { 'ka-bsl ft til
                                     maintaining          uniform
,dril*ig )
                                     separation between the balls
or rollers in a bearing. Also       powder into a solid mass by
known as separator. { kaj )         heat, pressure, or water. {
                                    'kak-irj )
cage     mill   [MECH     ENG]
Pulverizer used to disintegrate     cal See calorie.
clay, press cake, asbestos,
                                    Cal See kilocalorie.
packing-house     by-products,
and various tough, gummy,           calandria | CHEM ENG ] One
high-moisture-content or low-       of the tubes through which
melting-point materials. { 'kaj     the heating fluid circulates in
,mil)                               an evaporator. { ks'lan-dre-s )
cairn [ENG] An artificial           calandria evaporator See
mound of rocks, stones, or          short-tubevertical evaporator. {
masonry, usually conical or         ks'lan-dre-s i'vap-^rad-sr)
pyramidal, whose purpose is
to designate or to aid in identi-   calcimeter      (ENG]      An
fying a point of surveying or of    instrument for estimating the
cadastral importance. { kern )      amount of lime in soils. {
caisson | civ ENG ] 1. A
watertight,     cylindrical or      calcination (CHEM ENG] A
rectangular chamber used in         process in which a material is
underwater construction to          heated to a temperature
protect workers from water          below its melting point to
pressure and soil collapse. 2.      effect        a        thermal
A float used to raise a sunken      decomposition or a phase
vessel. 3. See dry-dock             transition other than melting. {
caisson. { 'ka ,san )               ,kal* ss'na-shsn )

caisson foundation |civ             calcine (ENG] 1. To heat to a
ENG] A shaft of concrete
                                    high    temperature    without
placed under a building             fusing, as to heat unformed
column or wall and extending        ceramic materials in a kiln, or
down to hardpan or rock. Also       to heat ores, precipitates,
known as pier foundation. {         concentrates, or residues so
'ka,san foun'da-shsn )              that hydrates, carbonates, or
                                    other     compounds        are
caking | ENG ] Changing of a        decomposed and the volatile
material is expelled. 2. To          ,k3rv)
heat      under          oxidizing
                                     calibration markers (ENG] On
conditions. { 'kal,sTn )
                                     a radar display, electronically
calcining furnace (ENG] A            generated     marks     which
heating device, such as a            provide numerical values for
vertical-shaft kiln, that raises     the navigational parameters
the temperature (but not to the      such as bearing, distance,
melting point) of a substance        height, or time. { 'kal-^bra-
such as limestone to make            shsn ,mar-k3rz )
lime. Also known as calciner.
                                     California     polymerization
{ 'kal,sin-ig ,fer*n3s )
                                     (CHEM ENG] A polymerization
calefaction    (ENG]      1.         process for converting C3—C4
Warming. 2. The condition of         olefins to motor fuel by utilizing
being warmed. { [kal-3[fak-          a catalyst of phosphoric acid
sh3n )                               on quartz chips. { ]kal-3]for-
                                     ny3 p3,lim-3-re'za-shsn )
calender (ENG] 1. To pass a
material between rollers or          caliper    (DES   ENG]      An
plates to thin it into sheets or     instrument with two legs or
to make it smooth and glossy.        jaws that can be adjusted for
2.   The     machine      which      measuring linear dimensions,
performs this operation. { 'kal-     thickness, or diameter. { 'kal-
sn-dsr)                              s-psr)
calibrating tank (ENG] A tank        caliper gage (DES ENG] An
having known capacity used to        instrument,      such      as   a
check the volumetric accuracy        micrometer, of fixed size for
of liquid delivery by positive-      calipering. { 'kal-s-psr ,gaj )
displacement meters. Also
                                     calk See caulk. { kok)
known as meter-proving tank.
{ 'kal-3,brad-ir) ,tar)k)            Callendar    and     Barnes'
                                     continuous-flow calorimeter
calibration curve (ENG] A
                                     (ENG] A calorimeter in which
plot of calibration data, giving
                                     the heat to be measured is
the correct value for each
                                     absorbed by water flowing
indicated reading of a meter
                                     through a tube at a constant
or control dial. { 'kal-^bra-shsn
rate, and the quantity of heat     relating    temperature    and
is determined by the rate of       resistance of platinum, ac-
flow and the temperature           cording      to   which     the
difference between water at        temperature is the sum of a
ends of the tube. {]kal -on -dor   linear    function    of    the
on 'barnz ksn'tin • ys-wss ,flo    resistance of platinum and a
kal-s'rim-sd-sr)                   small correction term, which is
                                   a    quadratic    function    of
Calendar's compensated air
                                   temperature. { 'kal-sn-dsrz
thermometer (ENG] A type of
                                   i'kwa-zhsn )
constant-pressure        gas
thermometer in which errors        Callendar's     thermometer
resulting from temperature         See    platinum    resistance
differences   between    the       thermometer. { 'kal-sn-dsrz
thermometer bulb and the           thsr'mam-sd-sr)
connecting      tubes    and
                                   calorie (THERMO] Abbreviated
manometer used to maintain
                                   cal; often designated c. 1. A
constant     pressure    are
                                   unit of heat energy, equal to
eliminated   by    the  con-
                                   4.1868 joules. Also known as
figuration of the connecting
                                   International Table calorie (IT
tubes. { [kal-sn-dsrz ]kam-
                                   calorie). 2. A unit of energy,
p3n,sad-3d 'er ths^mam-sd-
                                   equal to the heat required to
                                   raise the temperature of I
Calendar's             equation    gram of water from 14.5° to
(THERMO] 1. An equation of         15.5°C at a constant pressure
state     for    steam    whose    of 1 standard atmosphere;
temperature is well above the      equal to 4.1855 ± 0.0005
boiling point at the existing      joules. Also known as fifteen-
pressure, but is less than the     degrees calorie; gram-calorie
critical temperature: (V — b) =    (g-cal); small calorie. 3. A unit
(RT/j?) - (fl/T), where V is the   of heat energy equal to 4.184
volume, R is the gas constant,     joules;         used           in
T is the temperature, p is the     thermochemistry. Also known
pressure, n equals 10/3, and       as thermochemical calorie. {
a and b are constants. 2. A        'kal-s-re )
very       accurate     equation
                                   calorific   value    (   ENG    ]
Quantity of heat liberated on     fundamental       unit     of
the complete combustion of a      measurement is the joule or
unit weight or unit volume of     the calorie (4.184 joules). {
fuel. {]kal-3]rif-ik 'val-yu)     kal-s'rim-s-tre )
calorifier (ENG] A device that    calyx | ENG ] A steel tube that
heats fluids by circulating       is a guide rod and is also
them over heating coils. {        used to catch cuttings from a
ks'lor-s.fT-sr)                   drill rod. Also known as
                                  bucket; sludge barrel; sludge
calorimeter      (ENG]   An
                                  bucket. { 'ka,liks )
apparatus for measuring heat
quantities generated in or        calyx drill (ENG] A rotary core
emitted by materials in           drill with hardened steel shot
processes such as chemical        for cutting rock. Also known
reactions, changes of state,      as shot drill. { 'ka,liks ,dril )
or formation of solutions. {
                                  cam (MECH ENG ] A plate or
                                  cylinder which communicates
calorimetric test ( ENG ] The     motion to a follower by means
use of a calorimeter to           of its edge or a groove cut in
determine the thermochemical      its surface. { kam )
characteristics of propellants
                                  cam acceleration (MECH
and explosives; properties
                                  ENG] The acceleration of the
normally determined are heat
                                  cam follower. { 'kam ak-sel-
of combustion, heat of
                                  s'ra-shsn )
explosion, heat of formation,
and heat of reaction. { k3[16r-   camber (DES ENG] Deviation
3[me-trik 'test)                  from a straight line; the term
                                  is applied to a convex,
calorimetry      [ENG]    The
                                  edgewise sweep or curve, or
measurement of the quantity
                                  to the increase in diameter at
of heat involved in various
                                  the center of rolled materials.
processes, such as chemical
                                  { 'kam-bsr)
reactions, changes of state,
and formations of solutions, or   camber angle (MECH ENG]
in the determination of the       The inclination from the
heat capacities of substances;    vertical of the steerable
wheels of an automobile. {        cam nose (MECH ENG] The
'kam-bsr ,ar)-g3l )               high point of a cam, which in a
                                  reciprocating engine holds
cam cutter (MECH ENG ] A
                                  valves open or closed. { 'kam
semiautomatic or automatic
                                  ,noz )
machine that produces the
cam contour by swinging the       cam pawl (MECH ENG] A pawl
work as it revolves; uses a       which prevents a wheel from
master cam in contact with a      turning in one direction by a
roller. { 'kam ,k3d-3r)           wedging       action,      while
                                  permitting it to rotate in the
cam dwell (DES ENG] That part
                                  other direction. { 'kam ,pol)
of a cam surface between the
opening      and       closing    Campbell-Stokes recorder
acceleration sections. { 'kam     (ENG] A sunshine recorder in
,dwel)                            which the time scale is
                                  supplied by the motion of the
cam engine (MECH ENG] A
                                  sun and which has a spherical
piston engine in which a cam-
                                  lens that burns an image of
and-roller mechanism seems
                                  the sun upon a specially
to    convert    reciprocating
                                  prepared card. { [kam-sl
motion into rotary motion. {
                                  [stoks ri 'kord-sr)
'kam ,en-J3n )
                                  camp ceiling (BUILD] A ceiling
camera     study       See
                                  that is flat in the center portion
memomotion study. { 'kam-ra
                                  and sloping at the sides. {
,st3d-e )
                                  'kamp ,se-litj)
cam follower (MECH ENG] The
                                  cam profile (DES ENG] The
output link of a cam
                                  shape of the contoured cam
mechanism. { 'kam ,fal*3*w3r)
                                  surface by means of which
cam mechanism (MECH ENG]          motion is communicated to
A mechanical linkage whose        the follower. Also known as
purpose is to produce, by         pitch line. { 'kam ,pro,fTl)
means of a contoured cam
                                  camshaft (MECH ENG] A
surface, a prescribed motion
                                  rotating shaft to which a cam
of the output link. { 'kam ^ek-
                                  is attached. { 'kam,shaft )
^niz-sm )
can (DES ENG] A cylindrical         canned pump (MECH ENG] A
metal vessel or container,          watertight pump that can
usually with an open top or a       operate under water. { [kand
removable cover. { kan )            'pomp )
canal (civ ENG] An artificial       cannibalize (ENG] TO remove
open waterway used for              parts from one piece of
transportation, waterpower, or      equipment and use them to
irrigation, (DES ENG] A groove      replace like, defective parts in
on the underside of a corona.       a similar piece of equipment
{ ks'nal)                           in order to keep the latter
                                    operational. { 'kan-
canalization       (ENG]   Any
system of distribution canals       canonical     equations     of
or conduits for water, gas,         motion      See     Hamilton's
electricity, or steam. { ^an-sl-    equations of motion. {ks'nan-
s'za-shsn )                         s-ksl i'kwa-zhsnz sv 'mo-shsn
cancellation circuit (ELECTR]
A circuit used in providing         canonical form (CONT SYS] A
moving-target indication on a       specific type of dynamical
plan position indicator scope;      system     representation      in
cancels     constant-amplitude      which the associated matrices
fixed-target     pulses     by      possess specific row-column
subtraction of successive           structures. { ks'nan-s-ksl ,form
pulse trains. { kan-ss'la-shsn      )
                                    canonically        conjugate
canister       See       charcoal   variables ( MECH ] A gen-
canister. { 'kan-s'stsr)            eralized coordinate and its
                                    conjugate     momentum.      {
canned motor (MECH ENG] A
                                    ks'nan-s-kle ]kan-J3-gst 'ver-
motor enclosed within a
                                    e-s-bslz )
casing along with the driven
element (that is, a pump) so        canonical momentum See
that the motor bearings are         conjugate     momentum.   {
lubricated by the same liquid       ks'nan-s-ksl ms'ment-sm )
that is being pumped. { [kand
                                    canonical      transformation
(MECH] A transformation which     { 'kant-sl.e-vsr [brij )
occurs among the coordinates
                                  cantilever footing |civ ENG]
and momenta describing the
                                  A footing used to carry a load
state of a classical dynamical
                                  from two columns, with one
system and which leaves the
                                  column and one end of the
form of Hamilton's equations
                                  footing placed against a
of motion unchanged. Also
                                  building line or exterior wall. {
known         as       contact
                                  'kant-sl.e-vsr 'fud-irj )
transformation. { ks'nan-s-
ksl ^ranz-fer'ma-shsn )           cantilever retaining wall |civ
                                  ENG] A type of wall formed of
cant file (DES ENG] A fine-
                                  three cantilever beams: stem,
tapered file with a triangular
                                  toe projection, and heel
cross section, used for
                                  projection. { 'kant-sl.e-vsr
sharpening saw teeth. { 'kant
                                  ri'tan-ig wol)
                                  cantilever spring | MECH ENG
cant hook (DES ENG] A lever
                                  ] A flat spring supported at
with a hooklike attachment at
                                  one end and holding a load at
one end, used in lumbering.
                                  or near the other end. { 'kant-
{ 'kant ,huk)
                                  sl.e-vsr ,sprirj )
cantilever (ENG] 1. A beam or
                                  cantilever vibration |MECH]
member securely fixed at one
                                  Transverse oscillatory motion
end and hanging free at the
                                  of a body fixed at one end. {
other end. 2. In particular, in
                                  'kant-sl.e-vsr vT'bra-shsn )
an atomic force microscope a
very small beam that has a tip    canting |MECH] Displacing
attached to its free end; the     the free end of a beam which
deflection of the beam is used    is fixed at one end by
to measure the force acting       subjecting it to a sideways
on the tip. { 'kant-sl.e-vsr)     force which is just short of that
                                  required to cause fracture. {
cantilever bridge |civ ENG] A
fixed bridge consisting of two
spans projecting toward each      canting strip See water table.
other and joined at their ends    { 'kant-ig .strip )
by a suspended simple span.
                                  cant strip |BUILD] 1. A strip
placed along the angle           capacitance bridge |ELEC] A
between a wall and a roof so     bridge for comparing two
that the roofing will not bend   capacitances, such as a
sharply. 2. A strip placed       Schering bridge. { ks'pas-s-
under the edge of the lowest     tsns .brij )
row of tiles on a roof to give
                                 capacitance level indicator
them the same slope as the
                                 (ENG] A level indicator in
other tiles. { 'kant .strip )
                                 which the material being
cap | ENG ] A detonating or      monitored serves as the
blasting cap. {kapj              dielectric of a capacitor
                                 formed by a metal tank and an
capacitance |ELEC] The ratio
                                 insulated electrode mounted
of the charge on one of the
                                 vertically in the tank. { ks'pas-
conductors of a capacitor
                                 s-tsns [lev-sl 'in-ds.kad-sr)
(there being an equal and
opposite charge on the other     capacitance meter (ENG] An
conductor) to the potential      instrument used to measure
difference      between   the    capacitance     values   of
conductors. Symbolized C.        capacitors or of circuits
Formerly known as capacity.      containing capacitance. {
|ENG] In a closed feedwater      ks'pas-s-tons .med-sr)
heater, the volume of water
required for proper operation
                                 intrusion detector (ENG] A
of the drain control valve. {
                                 boundary alarm system in
ks'pas-s-tsns )
                                 which the approach of an
capacitance altimeter [ENG]      intruder to an antenna wire
An absolute altimeter which      encircling the protected area a
determines height of an          few feet above ground
aircraft    aboveground    by    changes the antenna-ground
measuring the variations in      capacitance and sets off the
capacitance between two          alarm. {ks'pas-s-tsns [p-s.rad-
conductors on the aircraft       sd in'tru-zhsn di'tek-tsr)
when the ground is near
                                 capacitance standard See
enough to act as a third
                                 standard capacitor. { ks'pas-
conductor.       {   ks'pas-s-
                                 s-tsns .stan-dsrd )
capacitive coupling (ELEC]            dielectric      and       which
Use of a capacitor to transfer        introduces capacitance into a
energy from one circuit to            circuit,    stores     electrical
another. { ks'pas-s-tsns .ksp-        energy, blocks the flow of
lig )                                 direct current, and permits the
                                      flow of alternating current to a
capacitive          electrometer
                                      degree dependent on the
(ENG] An instrument for
                                      capacitor's capacitance and
measuring small voltages; the
                                      the current frequency. Sym-
voltage is applied to the plates
                                      bolized C. Also known as
of a capacitor when they are
                                      condenser;               electric
close together, then the
                                      condenser. { ks'pas-sd-sr)
voltage source is removed
and the plates are separated,         capacitor bank (ELEC] A
increasing       the      potential   number         of     capacitors
difference between them to a          connected in series or in
measurable         value.     Also    parallel. { ks'pas-sd-or .barjk)
known as condensing elec-
                                      capacitor color code ( ELEC]
trometer.      {      ko]pas-3d-iv
                                      A method of marking the
                                      value on a capacitor by
capacitive           pressure         means of dots or bands of
transducer (ENG] A meas-              colors as specified in the
urement device in which               Electronic              Industry
variations in pressure upon a         Association color code. {
capacitive             element        ks'pas-sd-sr 'ksl-sr ,kod )
proportionately change the
                                      capacitor hydrophone (ENG
element's capacitive rating
                                      ACOUS]         A      capacitor
and thus the strength of the
                                      microphone that responds to
measured electric signal from
                                      waterborne sound waves. {
the device. { ks]pas-3d-iv
                                      ks'pas-sd-sr 'hT-dra.fon )
'presh-sr tranz.du-ssr)
                                      capacitor loudspeaker See
capacitor (ELEC] A device
                                      electrostatic loudspeaker. {
which consists essentially of
                                      ks'pas-sd-sr 'laud.spek-sr)
two conductors (such as
parallel     metal     plates)        capacitor microphone (ENG
insulated from each other by a        ACOUS]    A     microphone
consisting essentially of a       the available capacity of an
flexible metal diaphragm and      apparatus or industrial plant
a rigid metal plate that          to store, process, treat,
together form a two-plate air     manufacture, or produce.
capacitor; sound waves set        {ks'pas-sd-e ,fak-trome
the diaphragm in vibration,
                                  cap crimper [ENG] A tool
producing         capacitance
                                  resembling a pliers that is
variations that are converted
                                  used to press the open end of
into audiofrequency signals by
                                  a blasting cap onto the safety
a suitable amplifier circuit.
                                  fuse before placing the cap in
Also known as condenser
                                  the primer. { 'kap ,krim-p3r)
microphone;       electrostatic
microphone. { ks'pas-sd-sr        cape chisel [DES ENG] A
'mT-krs.fon )                     chisel that tapers to a flat,
                                  narrow cutting end; used to
capacitor      pickup  (ENG
                                  cut flat grooves. { 'kap ,chiz-3l
ACOUS] A phonograph pickup
in which movements of the
stylus in a record groove         cape foot [MECH] A unit of
cause variations in the           length equal to 1.033 feet or
capacitance of the pickup. {      to 0.3148584 meter. { 'kap
ks'pas-sd-sr 'pik-sp )            ,fut)
capacity See capacitance. {       capillarity correction [ENG]
ks'pas-sd-e )                     AS applied to a mercury
                                  barometer, that part of the
capacity correction (ENG]
                                  instrument correction which is
The correction applied to a
                                  required by the shape of the
mercury barometer with a
                                  meniscus of the mercury. {
nonadjust-able cistern in
                                  ,kap-3'lar-3d-e k^rek-shsn )
order to compensate for the
change in the level of the        capillary collector [ENG] An
cistern as the atmospheric        instrument for collecting liquid
pressure changes. { ks'pas-       water from the atmosphere;
sd-e ks'rek-shsn )                the    collecting    head      is
                                  fabricated of a porous material
capacity factor |IND ENG] The
                                  having a pore size of the order
ratio of average actual use to
                                  of    30    micrometers;     the
pressure difference across the      between the pipe exterior and
water-air interface prevents air    the socket within it, forming a
from entering the capillary sys-    tight fit. { 'kap-3,ler-e ,fid*ig )
tem while allowing free flow of
                                    capillary tube [ENG] A tube
water. { 'kap-3,ler-e ks'lek-tsr)
                                    sufficiently    fine  so that
capillary     drying      [ENG]     capillary attraction of a liquid
Progressive     removal       of    into the tube is significant. {
moisture from a porous solid        'kap-3,ler-e ,tub )
mass by surface evaporation
                                    capillary viscometer [ ENG ] A
followed      by       capillary
                                    long, narrow tube that is used
movement of more moisture
                                    to measure the laminar flow of
to the drying surface from the
                                    fluids. { 'kap-3,ler-e vis'kam-
moist inner region, until the
surface and core stabilize at
the        same       moisture      capital amount factor [ IND
concentration. { 'kap-3,ler-e       ENG ] Any of 20 common
'drT-irj )                          compound interest formulas
                                    used     to     calculate   the
capillary electrometer [ENG]
                                    equivalent uniform annual
An electrometer designed to
                                    cost of all cash flows. { 'kap-
measure a small potential
                                    st-sl s'maunt ,fak-t3r)
difference between mercury
and an electrolytic solution in     capital budgeting [ IND ENG ]
a capillary tube by measuring       Planning the most effective
the effect of this potential        use of resources to obtain the
difference on the surface           highest possible level of
tension between the liquids.        sustained profits. { 'kap-st-sl
Also known as Lippmann              'bsj-sd-ig )
electrometer. { 'kap-s, ler-e
ijek'tram-sd-sr)                    capital expenditure [IND ENG]
                                    Money spent for long-term
capillary fitting [ENG] A pipe      additions or improvements
fitting having a socket-type        and charged to a capital
end so that when the fitting is     assets account. { 'kap-st-si
soldered to a pipe end, the         ik'spen-di-chsr)
solder flows by capillarity
along the annular space             capped fuse [ENG] A length
of safety fuse with the cap or        unscrewed. { 'kap-tiv 'fas-sn-
detonator crimped on before           sr)
it is taken to the place of use.
                                      captive test [ENG] A hold-
{ 'kapt 'fyuz )
                                      down test of a propulsion
capping [ENG] Preparation             subsystem, rocket engine, or
of a capped fuse. { 'kap-ig )         motor. { 'kap-tiv 'test)
cap screw [DES ENG] A screw           capture area [ENG ACOUS]
which passes through a clear          The effective area of the
hole in the part to be joined,        receiving     surface of    a
screws into a threaded hole in        hydrophone, or the available
the other part, and has a             power of the acoustic energy
head which holds the parts            divided by its equivalent
together. { 'kap ,skru )              plane-wave intensity. { 'kap-
                                      chsr ,er-e-3)
capstan [ENG] A shaft which
pulls magnetic tape through           capturing [ENG] The use of a
a machine at constant                 torquer to restrain the spin
speed. { 'kap-stsn )                  axis of a gyro to a specified
                                      position relative to the spin
capstan nut [DES ENG] A nut
                                      reference axis. { 'kap-chs-rig )
whose edge has several
holes, in one of which a bar          car See automobile. { kar)
can be inserted for turning it. {
                                      Caratheodory's         principle
'kap-stsn ,nst)
                                      [THERMO] An expression of the
capstan screw [DES ENG] A             second            law          of
screw whose head has                  thermodynamics which says
several radial holes, in one of       that in the neighborhood of
which a bar can be inserted           any equilibrium state of a
for turning it. { 'kap-stsn ,skru )   system, there are states
                                      which are not accessible by a
capsule [ENG] A boxlike
                                      reversible or irreversible adia-
component or unit, often
                                      batic process. Also known as
sealed. { 'kap-ssl)
                                      principle of inaccessibility. {
captive fastener [DES ENG] A          ^ar-^ta-s'ddr-ez 'prin-ss-psl)
screw-type fastener that does
                                      carbide tool [DES ENG] A
not drop out after it has been
cutting tool made of tungsten,     carbon dioxide, stored under
titanium, or tantalum carbides,    800-900 pounds per square
having high heat and wear          inch (5.5-6.2 megapascals) at
resistance. { 'kar,bTd ,tul)       normal room temperature. {
                                   ]kar-bsn dT'ak,sTd 'fir ik'stig-
carbometer [ ENG ] An
instrument for measuring the
carbon content of steel by         carbon hydrophone |ENG
measuring           magnetic       ACOUS] A carbon microphone
properties of the steel in a       that responds to waterborne
known magnetic field. {            sound waves. {[kar-bsn 'hT-
kar'bam-sd-sr)                     dre,fon )
carbonation [CHEM ENG] The         carbon knock |MECH ENG]
process by which a fluid,          Premature ignition resulting in
especially a beverage, is          knocking or pinging in an
impregnated      with   carbon     internal combustion engine
dioxide. { ^ar-bs'na-shsn )        caused when the accumula-
                                   tion of carbon produces
carbon bit [DES ENG] A
                                   overheating in the cylinder. {
diamond bit in which the
                                   'kar-bsn ,nak)
cutting medium is inset
carbon. { [kar-bsn [bit)           carbon microphone |ENG
                                   ACOUS] A microphone in
carbon burning rate [CHEM
                                   which a flexible diaphragm
ENG] The weight of carbon
                                   moves in response to sound
burned per unit time from the
                                   waves and applies a varying
catalytic-cracking catalyst in
                                   pressure to a container filled
the regenerator. { [kar-bsn
                                   with carbon granules, causing
'born-irj ,rat)
                                   the    resistance    of    the
carbon canister See charcoal       microphone        to     vary
canister. {ikar-bsn 'kan-s-stsr)   correspondingly. { [kar-bsn
                                   'mT-kr^fon )
carbon       dioxide      fire
extinguisher |CHEM ENG] A          carbon-pile          pressure
type     of   chemical     fire    transducer        (ENG]     A
extinguisher in which the          measurement device in which
extinguishing agent is liquid      variations in pressure upon a
conductive      carbon    core     with a fixed electrode and a
proportionately change the         movable electrode, so that
core's electrical resistance,      motion    of    the  movable
and thus the strength of the       electrode varies the resist-
measured electric signal from      ance of the granules. { 'kar-
the device. { 'kar-bsn ,pTl        bsn tranz'dii-ssr)
'presh-sr tranz ,d(i-s3r)
                                   carburetion |CHEM ENG] The
carbon residue |CHEM ENG]          process of enriching a gas by
The quantity of carbon             adding volatile carbon com-
produced from a lubricating        pounds,        such         as
oil heated in a closed             hydrocarbons, to it, as in the
container under standard           manufacture of carbureted
conditions. { 'kar-bsn 'rez-3,du   water gas. |MECH ENG] The
)                                  process of mixing fuel with air
                                   in a carburetor. { ^ar-bs'ra-
carbon-residue test |CHEM
                                   shsn )
ENG] A destructive-distillation
method for estimation of           carburetor |CHEM ENG] An
carbon residues in fuels and       apparatus     for    vaporizing,
lubricating oils. Also known as    cracking, and enriching oils in
Conradson carbon test. { 'kar-     the       manufacture         of
bsn 'rez-3,du ,test)               carbureted water gas. |MECH
                                   ENG] A device that makes and
carbon             resistance
                                   controls the proportions and
thermometer | ENG ] A highly
                                   quantity of fuel-air mixture fed
sensitive           resistance
                                   to a spark-ignition internal
thermometer for measuring
                                   combustion engine. { 'kar-
temperatures in the range
0.05-20   K;    capable     of
measuring        temperature       carburetor icing |MECH ENG]
changes of the order 10~5          The formation of ice in an
degree. { 'kar-bsn ri]zis-tsns     engine carburetor as a
th3r,mam-sd-sr)                    consequence of expansive
                                   cooling and evaporation of
carbon transducer | ENG ] A
                                   gasoline. { 'kar-b^red-sr J-sig)
transducer  consisting    of
carbon granules in contact         card |ELECTR] A printed circuit
board or other arrangement of     cardioid microphone |ENG
miniaturized components that      ACOUS] A microphone having
can be plugged into a             a heart-shaped, or cardioid,
computer or peripheral device.    response pattern, so it has
{ kard)                           nearly uniform response for a
                                  range of about 180° in one
Cardan joint See Hooke's
                                  direction    and     minimum
joint. { 'kar,dan joint)
                                  response in the opposite
Cardan motion |MECH ENG]          direction. { 'kard-e,6id 'mT-
The      straight-line    path    kr^fon )
followed    by      a   moving
                                  cardioid pattern |ENG] Heart-
centrode     in    a   four-bar
                                  shaped pattern obtained as
centrode linkage. { 'kar,dan
                                  the response or radiation
'mo-shsn )
                                  characteristic     of    certain
Cardan shaft |MECH ENG] A         directional antennas, or as
shaft with a universal joint at   the response characteristic of
its end to accommodate a          certain types of microphones.
varying shaft angle. { 'kar,dan   { 'kard-e,6id ,pad-3rn )
                                  card key access |ENG] A
Cardan's suspension |DES          physical security system in
ENG] An arrangement of rings      which doors are unlocked by
in which a heavy body is          placing a badge that contains
mounted so that the body is       magnetically coded informa-
fixed at one point; generally     tion in proximity to a reading
used in a gyroscope. {            device; some systems also
'kar,danz sss'pen-shsn )          require the typing of this
                                  information on a keyboard. {
card-edge connector |ELEC]        'kard ,ke 'ak,ses )
A connector that mates with
printed-wiring leads running to   car dump |MECH ENG] Any
the edge of a printed circuit     one of several devices for
board on one or both sides.       unloading industrial or railroad
Also known as edgeboard           cars by rotating or tilting the
connector. { 'kard ,ej ks'nek-    car. { 'kar ,d3mp )
                                  car-following theory [ENG] A
mathematical model of the         divided by its temperature
interactions between motor        equals 0. Also known as
vehicles in terms of relative     Clausius theorem. { kar]not
speed, absolute speed, and        'kloz-e-os i,kwa-zh3n )
separation. { 'kar^al-s-wir)
                                  Carnot cycle |THERMO] A
,the-3-re )
                                  hypothetical cycle consisting
cargo boom |MECH ENG]             of four reversible processes in
Along spar extending from the     succession: an isothermal
mast of a derrick to support or   expansion and heat addition,
guide    objects     lifted  or   an isentropic expansion, an
suspended. { 'kar-go ,bum )       isothermal compression and
                                  heat rejection process, and
cargo mill |IND ENG] A sawmill
                                  an isentropic compression. {
equipped with docks so the
                                  kar'no ,si-k3l)
product can be loaded directly
onto ships. { 'kar-go ,mil )      Carnot efficiency |THERMO]
                                  The efficiency of a Carnot
cargo winch | MECH ENG ] A
                                  engine receiving heat at a
motor-driven hoisting machine
                                  temperature absolute T, and
for cargo having a drum
                                  giving it up at a lower
around which a chain or rope
                                  temperature    absolute    T2;
winds as the load is lifted. {
                                  equal to (T, - T2)flV { kar'no
'kar-go ,winch )
                                  i'fish-sn-se )
carillon | ENG ] A musical
                                  Carnot engine |MECH ENG]
instrument played from a
                                  An ideal, friction-less engine
keyboard with two or more full
                                  which operates in a Carnot
chromatic octaves of fine bells
                                  cycle. { kar'no 'en-jsn )
shaped for homogeneity of
timbre. { 'kar-3,lan )            Carnot number |THERMO] A
                                  property of two heat sinks,
Carnot-Clausius      equation
                                  equal to the Carnot efficiency
|THERMO] For any system
                                  of an engine operating
executing a closed cycle of
                                  between them. {kar'no ^sm-
reversible    changes,     the
integral over the cycle of the
infinitesimal amount of heat      Carnot's theorem |THERMO]
transferred to the system         1. The theorem that all
Carnot engines operating            carriage [ENG] 1. A device
between          two        given   that moves in a predetermined
temperatures have the same          path in a machine and carries
efficiency, and no cyclic heat      some other part, such as a
engine operating between two        recorder head. 2. A mecha-
given temperatures is more          nism designed to hold a paper
efficient than a Carnot engine.     in the active portion of a
2. The theorem that any             printing or typing device, for
system has two properties,          example,       a     typewriter
the thermodynamic tempera-          carriage, [MECH ENG] A
ture T and the entropy S,           structure on an industrial
such that the amount of heat        truck or stacker that supports
exchanged in an infinitesimal       forks or other attached
reversible process is given         equipment       and     travels
bydQ        =       TdS;      the   vertically within the mast. {
thermodynamic temperature is        'kar-ij )
a strictly increasing function
                                    carriage bolt [DES ENG] A
of the empirical temperature
                                    round-head type of bolt with a
measured on an arbitrary
                                    square neck, used with a nut
scale. { kar'noz 'thir-sm )
                                    as a through bolt. { 'kar-ij ,bolt
carousel |MECH ENG] A               )
rotating transport system that
                                    carriage stop [MECH ENG] A
transfers     and      presents
                                    device added to the outer
workpieces for loading and
                                    way of a lathe bed for
unloading by a robot or other
                                    accurately spacing grooves,
machine. { ,kar-3'sel)
                                    turning multiple diameters
carpenter's level |DES ENG] A       and lengths, and cutting off
bar, usually of aluminum or         pieces of specified thickness. {
wood, containing a spirit           'kar-ij ,stap)
level. { 'kar-psn-tsrz ,lev-3l)
                                    carrier [MECH ENG] Any
car retarder [ENG] A device         machine     for  transporting
located along the track to          materials or people. { 'kar-e-
reduce or control the velocity      sr)
of railroad or mine cars. {[kar
                                    carrier    line    [ELEC]    Any
transmission line used for        attached to the yoke is rotated
multiple-channel       carrier    fast. { 'kar ,shak-3r)
communication. { 'kar-e-sr .lTn
                                  car stop [ENG] An appliance
                                  used to arrest the movement
carrier pipe [ ENG ] Pipe used    of a mine or railroad car. {
to carry or conduct fluids, as    'kar ,stap )
contrasted with an exterior
                                  Cartesian-coordinate robot [
protective or casing pipe. {
                                  CONT SYS ] A robot having
'kar-e-sr ,pTp )
                                  orthogonal, sliding joints and
carrousel [ IND ENG ] In an       supported by a nonrotary
assembly-line operation, a        base as the axis. { kar'te-zhsn
conveyor that moves objects       ko]drd-3n-3t 'ro,bat)
in a complete circuit on a
                                  Cartesian diver manostat
horizontal plane. { ka-rs'sel)
                                  [ENG] Preset, on-off-control
carrying capacity [ELEC]          manometer arrangement by
The maximum amount of             which    a    specified   low
current or power that can be      pressure (high vacuum) is
safely handled by a wire or       maintained via the rise or
other component. { 'kar-e-ig      submergence of a marginally
ks'pas-sd-e)                      buoyant float within a liquid
                                  mercury reservoir. { kar'te-
carry-over     [CHEM      ENG]
                                  zhan jdTvar 'man-3,stat)
Unwanted liquid or solid
material carried by the           cartridge [ENG] A cylindrical,
overhead effluent from a          waterproof, paper shell filled
fractionating          column,    with high explosive and
absorber, or reaction vessel. {   closed at both ends; used in
'kar-e ,0-vsr)                    blasting, [ENGACOUS] See
                                  phonograph        pickup; tape
car shaker [MECH ENG] A
                                  cartridge. { 'kar-trij )
device consisting of a heavy
yoke on an open-top car's         cartridge filter [ENG ] A filter
sides that actively vibrates      for the clarification of process
and rapidly discharges a load,    liquids    containing      small
such as coal, gravel, or sand,    amounts of solids; turgid liquid
when an unbalanced pulley         flows between thin metal
disks, assembled in a vertical     [ ELECTR ] See avalanche.
stack, to openings in a central    [ENG] An arrangement of
shaft supporting the disks, and    separation devices, such as
solids are trapped between         isotope              separators,
the disks. { 'kar-trij ,fil-tor)   connected in series so that
                                   they multiply the effect of each
cartridge starter [MECH ENG]
                                   individual device. { ka'skad )
An explosive device which,
when placed in an engine and       cascade compensation |
detonated, moves a piston,         CONT SYS ] Compensation in
thereby starting the engine. {     which the compensator is
'kar-trij ,stard-3r)               placed in series with the
                                   forward transfer function. Also
car tunnel kiln [ENG] A long
                                   known         as          series
kiln with the fire located near
                                   compensation;           tandem
the midpoint; ceramic ware is
                                   compensation. { ka'skad kam-
fired by loading it onto cars
                                   pon'sa-shon )
which are pushed through the
kiln. { 'kar 'tsn-sl ,kil)         cascade control |CONT SYS]
                                   An automatic control system
Casale process [CHEM ENG]
                                   in which various control units
A process that employs
                                   are linked in sequence, each
promoted iron oxide catalyst
                                   control unit regulating the
for synthesis of ammonia
                                   operation of the next control
from nitrogen and hydrogen.
                                   unit in line. { ka'skad ksn.trol )
{ k3,sal*e ,pras-3s )
                                   cascade cooler |CHEM ENG]
cascade [ELEC] An electric-
                                   Fluid-cooling device through
power circuit arrangement in
                                   which the fluid flows in a
which circuit breakers of
                                   series of horizontal tubes, one
reduced interrupting ratings
                                   above the other; cooling
are used in the branches, the
                                   water from a trough drips over
circuit breakers being assisted
                                   each tube, then to a drain.
in their protection function by
                                   Also known as serpentine
other circuit breakers which
                                   cooler; trickle cooler. { ka'skad
operate                  almost
instantaneously. Also known
as backup arrangement,             cascaded [ENG] Of a series
of elements or devices,            settler units, counterflowing to
arranged so that the output of     heavy material, in such a
one feeds directly into the        manner that fresh liquid
input of another, as a series of   contacts       treated     heavy
dynodes or a series of airfoils.   material, and spent (used)
{ ka'skad-sd )                     liquid       contacts       fresh
                                   (untreated) heavy material. {
cascade impactor (ENG] A
                                   ka'skad [mik-ssr iset'lar)
low-speed im-paction device
for use in sampling both solid     cascade pulverizer (MECH
and      liquid   atmospheric      ENG] A form of tumbling
suspensoids; consists of four      pulverizer that uses large
pairs of jets (each of             lumps to do the pulverizing. {
progressively smaller size)        ka'skad 'psl-v^nz-sr)
and sampling plates working
                                   cascade system ( MECH ENG ]
in series and designed so that
                                   A combination of two or more
each plate collects particles of
                                   refrigeration          systems
one size range. { ka'skad
                                   connected      in   series     to
                                   produce       extremely     low
cascade limiter (ELECTR] A         temperatures,      with      the
limiter circuit that uses two      evaporator of one machine
vacuum tubes in series to          used to cool the condenser of
give      improved       limiter   another. { ka'skad ,sis-t3m )
operation for both weak and
                                   cascade tray ( CHEM ENG ] A
strong signals in a frequency-
                                   fractionating apparatus that
modulation receiver. Also
                                   consists of a series of parallel
known as double limiter. {ka
                                   troughs arranged in stairstep
'skad 'lim-sd-sr)
                                   fashion. { ka'skad ,tra )
cascade mixer-settler (CHEM
                                   cascading (ELEC] An effect
ENG] Series of liquid-holding
                                   in which a failure of an
vessels with stirrers, each
                                   electrical   power       system
connected to an unstirred
                                   causes this system to draw
vessel in which solids or
                                   excessive amounts of power
heavy immiscible liquids settle
                                   from power systems which are
out of suspension; light liquid
                                   interconnected with it, causing
moves through the mixer-
them to fail, and these           member around the opening
systems      cause   adjacent     of a door or window, (DES
systems to fail in a similar      ENG] The outer portion of a
manner, and so forth, (MECH       tire assembly consisting of
ENG] An effect in ball-mill       fabric or cord to which rubber
rotating devices when the         is vulcanized. (MECH ENG] A
upper level of crushing           fire-resistant covering used to
bodies breaks clear and falls     protect part or all of a steam
to the top of the crop load. {    generating unit. { 'ka,sir) )
ka'skad-ig )
                                  casing nail (DES ENG] A nail
cascading drain (MECH ENG]        about half a gage thinner than
A flow of water into the          a common wire nail of the
closed shell of a feedwater       same length. { 'ka,sir) ,nal)
heater from a water source
                                  casing shoe (ENG] A ring
maintained at a higher
                                  with a cutting edge on the
pressure. { ka'skad-irj 'dran )
                                  bottom of a well casing. {
case (ENG] An item designed       'ka,sir) ,shu )
to hold a specific item in a
                                  cassette ( ENG ] A light-tight
fixed position by virtue of
                                  container designed to hold
conforming dimensions or
                                  photographic film or plates,
attachments; the item which it
                                  (ENG ACOUs] A small,
contains is complete in itself
                                  compact container that holds
for removal and use outside
                                  a magnetic tape and can be
the container. { kas )
                                  readily   inserted   into   a
case bay (BUILD] A division of    matching tape recorder for
a roof or floor, consisting of    recording or playback; the
two principal rafters and the     tape passes from one hub
joists between them. { 'kas ,ba   within the container to the
)                                 other hub. { ks'set)
casement window ( BUILD ] A       cast (ENG] 1. To form a liquid
window hinged on the side         or plastic substance into a
that opens to the outside. {      fixed shape by letting it cool in
'kas-msnt 'win-do )               the mold. 2. Any object which
                                  is formed by placing a
casing   (BUILD] A    finishing
castable substance in a mold        front wheels. 2. A wheel
or form and allowing it to          which is free to swivel about
solidify. Also known as             an axis at right angles to the
casting. { kast )                   axis of the wheel, used to
                                    support trucks, machinery, or
Castaing-Slodzian        mass
                                    furniture. { 'kas-tor)
analyzer See direct-imaging
mass analyzer. { [kas -tag          cast-film extrusion See chill-
[slo-zhsn ,mas 'an-3,lTz-3r)        roll extrusion. {]kast jfilm
                                    ik'stru-zhon )
castellated bit (DES ENG] 1. A
long-tooth, sawtooth bit. 2. A      Castigliano's principle See
diamond-set coring bit with a       Castigliano's theorem. { ^as-
few large diamonds or hard          til'ya-noz ,prin-s3-p3l )
metal cutting points set in the
                                    Castigliano's theorem |MECH
face of each of several
                                    ] The theorem that the
upstanding prongs separated
                                    component         in  a   given
from each other by deep
                                    direction of the deflection of
waterways. Also known as
                                    the point of application of an
padded bit. { 'kas-t3,lad*3d
                                    external force on an elastic
                                    body is equal to the partial
castellated nut (DES ENG] A         derivative of the work of
type of hexagonal nut with a        deformation with respect to
cylindrical     portion   above     the component of the force in
through which slots are cut so      that direction. Also known as
that a cotter pin or safety wire    Castigliano's principle. { ^as-
can hold it in place. { 'kas-       til'ya-noz ,thir-3m )
t3,lad-3d 'not)
                                    casting See cast. { 'kast-ig )
caster      (ENG]       1.   The
                                    casting area [ENG] In plastics
inclination of the kingpin or
                                    injection       molding,    the
its equivalent in automotive
                                    moldable        area     of   a
steering, which is positive if
                                    thermoplastic material for a
the kingpin inclines forward,
                                    given thickness and under
negative if it inclines backward,
                                    given conditions of molding. {
and zero if it is vertical as
                                    'kast-irj ,er*e*3 )
viewed along the axis of the
casting strain |MECH] Any            reactor. { 'kad-sl-sst ,strip-
strain that results from the
cooling of a casting, causing
casting stress. { 'kast-irj ,stran   catalytic activity |CHEM ENG]
)                                    The ratio of the space velocity
                                     of a catalyst being tested, to
casting stress |MECH ] Any
                                     the space velocity required
stress that develops in a
                                     for a standard catalyst to give
casting due to geometry and
                                     the same conversion as the
casting shrinkage. { 'kast-iq
                                     catalyst under test. { ]kad-
,stres )
                                     3l]id-ik ak'tivsd-e )
Castner cell |CHEM ENG] A
                                     catalytic converter |CHEM
type of mercury cell used in
                                     ENG] A device that is fitted to
the commercial production of
                                     the exhaust system of an
chlorine and sodium. { 'kast-
                                     automotive       vehicle    and
nsr ,sel)
                                     contains a catalyst capable of
Castner process |CHEM ENG]           converting potentially polluting
A process used industrially to       exhaust gases into harmless
make       high-test    sodium       or less harmful products. {
cyanide by reacting sodium,          [kad-3l[id-ik ksn'vsrd-sr)
glowed charcoal, and dry
                                     catalytic       cracker     See
ammonia       gas    to   form
                                     catalytic cracking unit. { [kad-
sodamide, which is converted
                                     3l[id-ik 'krak-sr)
to cyanamide immediately;
the cyana-mide is converted          catalytic cracking |CHEM ENG]
to cyanide with charcoal. {          Conversion of high-boiling
'kast-nsr ,pras-3s )                 hydrocarbons        into lower-
                                     boiling types by a catalyst. {
cast setting See mechanical
                                     ]kad-3l[id-ik 'krak-iq )
setting. { 'kast ,sed-ig )
                                     catalytic cracking unit |CHEM
catalyst stripping |CHEM
                                     ENG] A unit in a petroleum
ENG] Introduction of steam to
                                     refinery in which a catalyst is
remove           hydrocarbons
                                     used to carry out cracking of
retained on the catalyst; the
                                     hydrocarbons. Also known as
steam is introduced where the
                                     catalytic cracker. { [kad-3l[id-ik
spent catalyst leaves the
'krak-lrj ,yu* not)                 in a ball mill in which some,
                                    leaving the top of the crop
catalytic        hydrogenation
                                    load, fall with impact to the toe
|CHEM ENG] Hydro-genating by
                                    of the load. { 'kad-^rak-tir) )
means of catalysts such as
nickel or palladium. { [kad-        catastrophic failure (ENG] 1.
3l[id-ik ^T-dre-js'na-shsn )        A sudden failure without
                                    warning, as opposed to
catalytic     polymerization
                                    degradation failure. 2. A
|CHEM ENG] Polymerization of
                                    failure whose occurrence can
monomers to form high-
                                    prevent        the   satisfactory
molecular-weight molecules
                                    performance of an entire
in the presence of catalysts. {
                                    assembly or system. { ^ad-
]kad-3l]id-ik   ps.lim-s-re'za-
                                    s'straf-ik 'fal-ysr)
shsn )
                                    catch (DES ENG] A device
catalytic reforming |CHEM
                                    used for fastening a door or
ENG]        Rearranging        of
                                    gate and usually operated
hydrocarbon molecules in a
                                    manually from only one side,
gasoline           boiling-range
                                    for example, a latch. { kach )
feedstock         to        form
hydrocarbons having a higher        catch basin (civ ENG] 1. A
antiknock                quality.   basin at the point where a
Abbreviated CR. { [kad-3l[id-       street gutter empties into a
ik re'for-mirj )                    sewer, built to catch matter
                                    that would not easily pass
cat-and-mouse           engine
                                    through the sewer. 2. A well
(MECH ENG] A type of rotary
                                    or reservoir into which surface
engine, typified by the Tschudi
                                    water may drain off. { 'kach
engine, which is an analog of
                                    ,ba-s3n )
the    reciprocating     piston
engine, except that the pistons     catching diode (ELECTR]
travel in a circular motion.        Diode connected to act as a
Also known as scissor               short circuit when its anode
engine. { ]kat on 'maus ,en-        becomes positive; the diode
J3n )                               then prevents the voltage of a
                                    circuit terminal from rising
cataracting |MECH ENG ] A
                                    above the diode cathode
motion of the crushed bodies
voltage. { 'kach-iq ,dT,od }        naphtha-reforming     process
                                    with a catalyst of platinum-
catchwater (civ ENG] A ditch
                                    silica-alumina which results in
for catching water on sloping
                                    very high hydrogen purity. {
land. { 'kach,w6d-3r)
                                    'kat,f6r-mir) )
cat cracker (CHEM ENG] A
                                    cathetometer       [ENG]     An
refinery unit where catalytic
                                    instrument for measuring
cracking is done. { 'kat ,krak-
                                    small differences in height, for
                                    example,      between       two
catenary suspension (ENG]           columns of mercury. { ^ath-
Holding a flexible wire or          s'tam-sd-sr)
chain aloft by its end points;
                                    cathode |ELEC] The terminal
the wire or chain takes the
                                    at which current leaves a
shape of a catenary. { 'kat-
                                    primary cell or storage
3,ner-e sss'pen-shsn )
                                    battery; it is negative with
caterpillar (MECH ENG] A            respect to the device, and
vehicle, such as a tractor or       positive with respect to the
army tank, which runs on two        external circuit. |ELECTR] 1.
endless belts, one on each          The     primary    source    of
side, consisting of flat treads     electrons in an electron tube;
and kept in motion by toothed       in directly heated tubes the
driving wheels. { 'kad-sr.pil-sr)   filament is the cathode, and in
                                    indirectly heated tubes a
caterpillar chain (DES ENG] A       coated       metal    cathode
short, endless chain on which       surrounds        a      heater.
dogs (grippers) or teeth are        Designated K. Also known as
arranged to mesh with a             negative electrode. 2. The
conveyor.    {   'kad-3r,pil-or     terminal of a semiconductor
,chan )                             diode that is negative with
caterpillar gate (civ ENG] A        respect to the other terminal
steel gate carried on crawler       when the diode is biased in
tracks that is used to control      the forward direction. {
water flow through a spillway.      'kath,od )
{ 'kad-3r,pil-3r ,gat)              cathode efficiency |CHEM
catforming     (CHEM ENG] A         ENG] The proportion of current
used for completion of a given     bridge. { 'kat,wok)
process at the cathode. {
                                   caul (ENG] A sheet of metal
'kath,od i,fish*3n*se )
                                   or other material that is
cathode-ray tube |ELECTR]          heated and used to equalize
An electron tube in which a        pressure during fabricating
beam of electrons can be           plywood, shaping surface
focused to a small area and        veneer, and hot-pressing
varied     in    position   and    composite materials, {kolj
intensity on        a   surface.
                                   caulk (ENG] TO make a seam
Abbreviated CRT. Originally
                                   or point airtight, watertight, or
known as Braun tube; also
                                   steamtight by driving in
known as electron-ray tube. {
                                   caulking compound, dry pack,
'kath,od ]ra ,tub )
                                   lead wool, or other material.
cathodic inhibitor |CHEM           Also spelled calk. { kok)
ENG] A compound, such as
                                   caulking iron (DES ENG] A
calcium       bicarbonate    or
                                   tool for applying caulking to a
sodium phosphate, which is
                                   seam. { 'kok-irj J-srn )
deposited on a metal surface
in a thin film that operates at    causality (MECH] In classical
the cathodes to provide            mechanics, the principle that
physical protection over the       the specification of the
entire      surface     against    dynamical variables of a
corrosive      attack   in    a    system at a given time, and of
conducting medium. { ks'thad-      the external forces acting on
ik in'hib-sd-sr)                   the    system,      completely
                                   determines the values of
catwalk (ENG] A narrow,
                                   dynamical variables at later
raised platform or pathway
                                   times.   Also     known       as
used for passage to otherwise
                                   determinism. { kd 'zal-sd-e )
inaccessible areas, such as a
raised walkway on a ship           causal system (CONT SYS] A
permitting   fore   and    aft     system whose response to an
passage when the main deck         input does not depend on
is awash, a walkway on the         values of the input at later
roof of a freight car, or a        times. Also known as non-
walkway along a vehicular          anticipatory system; physical
system. { 'ko-zsl ,sis-t3m )      sns )
causticization (CHEM ENG] A       cavings See slough. { 'kavirjz
process for converting an         )
alkaline carbonate into lime. {
                                  cavitation (ENG] Pitting of a
'kos-ts-ss'za-shsn )
                                  solid surface such as metal or
caustic treater ( CHEM ENG ]      concrete. { ^avs'ta-shsn )
A vessel containing a strong
                                  cavitation           resistance
alkali through which solutions
                                  inducer (MECH ENG] In liquid
are passed for removal of
                                  flows       through      rotating
undesirable substances, for
                                  machinery, an axial flow pump
example,             sulfides,
                                  with high-solidity blades that is
mercaptans, or acids. { 'ko-
                                  used in front of a main pump
stik ,tred-3r)
                                  in order to increase the inlet
cautious control (CONT SYS]       head and thereby prevent
A control law for a stochastic    cavitation in the downstream
adaptive control system which     impeller.     {   ,kav3]ta-sh3n
hedges and uses lower gain        ri'sis-tons in,du-s3r)
when the estimates are un-
                                  cavity frequency meter (ENG]
certain. { 'ko-shss ksn'trol)
                                  A device that employs a cavity
cave (ENG] A pit or tunnel        resonator      to     measure
under a glass furnace for         microwave frequencies. {
collecting ashes or raking the    'kavsd-e 'fre-kwsn-se ,med-3r)
fire. { kav )
                                  cavity impedance (ELECTR]
Cavendish balance (ENG] An        The impedance of the cavity
instrument for determining the    of a microwave tube which
constant of gravitation, in       appears across the gap
which one measures the            between the cathode and the
displacement of two small         anode. { 'kavsd-e im'ped-sns
spheres of mass m, which are      )
connected by a light rod
                                  cavity magnetron (ELECTR] A
suspended in the middle by a
                                  magnetron having a number
thin wire, caused by bringing
                                  of resonant cavities forming
two large spheres of mass M
                                  the anode; used as a
near them. { 'kavsn-dish 'bal-
microwave oscillator. { 'kav        constant         size;       gives
sd-e 'mag-n^tran )                  information concerning quality
                                    level, its variability, and
cavity radiator (THERMO] A
                                    evidence of assignable causes
heated enclosure with a small
                                    of variation. { 'se ,chart )
opening which allows some
radiation to escape or enter;       CCR process See cyclic
the     escaping    radiation       catalytic reforming process. {
approximates that of a              ,se,se'ar ,pras-os )
blackbody. { 'kavsd-e 'rad-
                                    CD-4 sound See compatible
                                    discrete four-channel sound.
cavity       resonance     (ENG     {]se]de 'for ,saund )
ACOUs] The natural resonant
                                    ceiling (BUILD) The covering
vibration of a loudspeaker
                                    made of plaster, boards, or
baffle; if in the audio range, it
                                    other material that constitutes
is evident as unpleasant
                                    the overhead surface in a
emphasis of sounds at that
                                    room. { 'se-lig )
frequency. { 'kavsd-e 'rez-sn-
sns )                               ceiling light (ENG) A type of
                                    cloud-height indicator which
cavity wall (BUILD] A wall
                                    uses a searchlight to project
constructed in two separate
                                    vertically a narrow beam of
thicknesses with an air space
                                    light onto a cloud base. Also
between; provides thermal
                                    known as ceiling projector. {
insulation. Also known as
                                    'se-lig ,lTt)
hollow wall. { 'kavsd-e ,wol )
                                    ceiling projector See ceiling
c axis (MECH ENG] The angle
                                    light. { 'se-lirj pro'jek-tor)
that specifies the rotation of a
machine tool about the z axis.      ceilometer       (ENG)      An
{ 'se ,ak-s3s )                     automatic-recording      cloud-
                                    height indicator. { se'lam-od-
CCD See         charge-coupled
                                    cell (ELEC) A single unit of a
C chart ( IND ENG ] A quality-
                                    battery, ( IND ENG ) A
control chart showing number
                                    manufacturing unit consisting
of defects in subgroups of
                                    of a group of work stations
and     their   interconnecting       1 foot (0.3048 meter) per
materials-trans            port       second in 1 second. { 'se-lo )
mechanisms and storage
                                      Celsius degree (THERMO)
buffers. { sel)
                                      Unit of temperature interval or
cellular cofferdam (civ ENG)          difference equal to the kelvin.
A cofferdam consisting of             { 'sel-se-os di'gre)
interlocking steel-sheet piling
                                      Celsius temperature scale
driven as a series of
                                      (THERMO) Temperature scale
interconnecting cells; cells
                                      in which the temperature Qc in
may be of circular type or of
                                      degrees Celsius (°C) is
straight-wall diaphragm type;
                                      related to the temperature Tk
space between lines of pilings
                                      in kelvins by the formula 0e =
is filled with sand. { 'sel-yo-lor
                                      Tk - 273.15; the freezing point
'k6f-or,dam )
                                      of    water     at     standard
cellular horn See multicellular       atmospheric pressure is very
horn. { 'sel-yo-lor 'horn )           nearly     0°C      and      the
                                      corresponding boiling point is
cellular manufacturing (IND
                                      very nearly 100°C. Formerly
ENG) A type of manufacturing
                                      known       as       centigrade
in    which    equipment       is
                                      temperature scale. { 'sel-se-os
organized into groups or cells
                                      'tem-pro-chor ,skal)
according to function and
intermachine relationships. {         cementation        (ENG)      1.
]sel-yo-lor ,man-o'fak-chor-ig )      Plugging a cavity or drill hole
                                      with cement. Also known as
cellular     striation      (ENG)
                                      dental work. 2. Consolidation
Stratum of cells inside a
                                      of loose sediments or sand by
cellular-plastic object that
                                      injection of a chemical agent
differs noticeably from the cell
                                      or binder. { ,se ,men'ta-shon )
structure of the remainder of
the material. { 'sel-yo-lor strl'a-   cement gun ( MECH ENG ) 1. A
shon )                                machine for mixing, wetting,
                                      and     applying    refractory
celo (MECH ) A unit of
                                      mortars to hot furnace walls.
acceleration equal to the
                                      Also known as cement injec-
acceleration of a body whose
                                      tor. 2. A mechanical device
velocity changes uniformly by
for the application of cement     center    (IND    ENG)     A
or mortar to the walls or roofs   manufacturing    unit    con-
of mine openings or building      taining   a    number      of
walls. { si'ment ,gon )           interconnected cells. { 'sen-
cement injector See cement
gun. { si'ment in 'jek-torj       center-bearing          swing
                                  bridge (civ ENG) A type of
cement kiln (ENG) A kiln used
                                  swing bridge that has a single
to fire cement to less than
                                  large bearing on a pier, called
complete melting. { si'ment
                                  the pivot pier, in the
                                  waterway. { sen-tor ,ber-irj
cement mill (MECH ENG) A          'swig ,brij )
mill for grinding rock to a
                                  center drill (ENG) A two-
powder for cement. { si'ment
                                  fluted tool consisting of a
                                  twist   drill   with      a 60°
cement pump (MECH ENG) A          countersink; used to drill
piston device used to move        countersink center holes in a
concrete through pipes. {si       workpiece to be mounted
'ment ,pomp)                      between centers for turning or
                                  grinding. { 'sen-tor ,dril)
cement silo ( ENG ) A silo
used to store dry, bulk           center gage (DES ENG) A
cement. { si'ment 'sT,lo )        gage used to check angles;
                                  for example, the angles of
cement valve (MECH ENG) A         cutting tool points or screw
ball-, flapper-, or clack-type    threads, or the angular
valve placed at the bottom of     position of cutting tools. {
a string of casing, through       'sen-tor ,gaj )
which cement is pumped, so
that when pumping ceases,         center-gated mold (ENG) A
the valve closes and prevents     plastics injection mold with
return of cement into the         the        filling      orifice
casing. { si 'ment ,valv )        interconnected to the nozzle
                                  and the center of the cavity
centare     See   centiare.   {   area. { 'sen-tor ,gad-od 'mold
'sen,tar)                         )
centering (civ ENG) A curved,       a body by a static fluid in
temporary support for an arch       which it is submerged or
or dome during a casting or         floating; located at the centroid
laying operations. { 'sen-to-       of displaced volume. { 'sen-tor
rig)                                ov 'boi-on-se )
centering machine (MECH             center of force (MECH) The
ENG) A machine for drilling         point toward or from which a
and countersinking work to be       central force acts. { 'sen-tor
turned on a lathe. { 'sen-to-rig    ov 'tors )
ma'shen )
                                    center of gravity |MECH ] A
centerless grinder (MECH            fixed point in a material body
ENG) A       cylindrical metal-     through which the resultant
grinding machine that carries       force of gravitational attraction
the work on a support or blade      acts. { 'sen-tor sv 'grav-sd-e)
between two abrasive wheels.
                                    center of inertia See center of
{ 'sen-tor-los 'grin-dor)
                                    mass. { 'sen-tor sv i'nsr-shs )
center line (ENG) A line that
                                    center of mass | MECH ] That
represents    an     axis      of
                                    point of a material body or
symmetry on a plane figure
                                    system of bodies which moves
such as a plan for a structure
                                    as though the system's total
or a machine. { 'sen-tor ,lm )
                                    mass existed at the point and
center of attraction (MECH )        all external forces were
A point toward which a force        applied at the point. Also
on a body or particle (such as      known as center of inertia;
gravitational or electrostatic      centroid. { 'sen-tor sv 'mas )
force) is always directed; the
                                    center-of-mass coordinate
magnitude of the force
                                    system (MECH| A reference
depends only on the distance
                                    frame which moves with the
of the body or particle from
                                    velocity of the center of mass,
this point. { 'sen-tor ov o'trak-
                                    so that the center of mass is
shon )
                                    at rest in this system, and the
center of buoyancy (MECH)           total momentum of the
The point through which acts        system is zero. Also known
the resultant force exerted on      as center of momentum
coordinate system. { 'sen-tor        sv ss'spen-shsn )
sv 'mas ko'ord-nst ,sis-t3m )
                                     center of twist | MECH ] A
center-of-momentum                   point on a line parallel to the
coordinate system See cen-           axis of a beam through which
ter-of-mass          coordinate      any transverse force must be
system. { 'sen-tor sv ms'men-        applied to avoid twisting of the
tsm ko'drd-nst ,sis-t3m )            section. Also known as
                                     shear center. { 'sen-tor sv
center of oscillation |MECH ]
Point in a physical pendulum,
on the line through the point        center plug | DES ENG ] A
of suspension and the center         small diamond-set circular
of mass, which moves as if all       plug, designed to be inserted
the mass of the pendulum             into the annular opening in a
were concentrated there. {           core bit, thus converting it to a
'sen-tor sv ,as-3'la-sh3n )          noncoring bit. { 'sen-tor ,plsg )
center of percussion |MECH]          center punch | DES ENG ] A
If a rigid body, free to move        tool similar to a prick punch
in a plane, is struck a blow at      but having the point ground to
a point O, and the line of           an angle of about 90°; used to
force is perpendicular to the        enlarge prick-punch marks or
line from O to the center of         holes. { 'sen-tor ,ponch )
mass, then the initial motion
                                     center square |DES ENG] A
of the body is a rotation about
                                     straight edge with a sliding
the center of percussion
                                     square; used to locate the
relative to O; it can be shown
                                     center of a circle. { 'sen-tor
to coincide with the center of
oscillation relative to O. { 'sen-
tor sv psr'kssh-sn )                 centiare |MECH] Unit of area
                                     equal to 1 square meter. Also
center      of     suspension
                                     spelled centare. { 'sen-te,ar)
|MECH] The intersection of the
axis of rotation of a pendulum       centibar |MECH] A unit of
with a plane perpendicular to        pressure equal to 0.01 bar or
the axis that passes through         to 1000 pascals. { 'sent-3,bar)
the center of mass. { 'sen-tor
                                     centigrade       heat       unit
|THERMO] A unit of heat            column      of    mercury      1
energy, equal to 0.01 of the       centimeter high, having a
quantity of heat needed to         density of 13.5951 grams per
raise 1 pound of air-free          cubic centimeter, when the
water from 0 to 100°C at a         acceleration of gravity is equal
constant pressure of 1             to its standard value (980.665
standard atmosphere; equal to      centimeters per second per
1900.44 joules. Symbolized         second); it is equal to
CHU;      (more     correctly)     1333.22387415 pascals; it
CHUmean. { 'sent-3,grad 'het       differs from the dekatorr by
,yu-n3t)                           less than 1 part in 7,000,000.
                                   Abbreviated     cmHg.       Also
centigrade         temperature
                                   known as centihg. { 'sent-
scale See Celsius tempera-
                                   3,med-3r sv 'msr-kys-re )
ture scale. { 'sent-3,grad 'tem-
pra-chsr ,skal)                    central control |SYS ENG]
                                   Control exercised over an
centigram |MECH] Unit of
                                   extensive and complicated
mass equal to 0.01 gram or
                                   system from a single center. {
10~ 5 kilogram. Abbreviated
                                   'sen-tral ksn'trol)
eg. { 'sent-3,gram )
                                   central force |MECH] A force
centihg See centimeter of
                                   whose line of action is always
mercury. { 'sen,tig or ]sent-
                                   directed toward a fixed point;
e,ach'je )
                                   the force may attract or repel.
centiliter |MECH ] A unit of       { 'sen-tral 'fdrs )
volume equal to 0.01 liter or to
                                   central gear |MECH ENG] The
10~5 cubic meter. { 'sent-
                                   gear on the central axis of a
                                   planetary gear train, about
centimeter |MECH] A unit of        which a pinion rotates. Also
length equal to 0.01 meter.        known as sun gear. { 'sen-
Abbreviated cm. { 'sent-           tral 'gir)
                                   central heating |civ ENG] The
centimeter of mercury |MECH]       use of a single steam or hot-
A unit of pressure equal to the    water heating plant to serve a
pressure that would support a      group of buildings, facilities, or
even a complete community             center of force, in the effective
through     a    system      of       potential governing the radial
distribution pipes. { 'sen-tral       motion of a particle of
'hed-ig )                             nonvanishing             angular
                                      momentum in a central force
centralized traffic control
                                      field, which results from the
|civ ENG] Control of train
                                      centrifugal force and prevents
movements          by        signal
                                      the particle from reaching the
indications given by a train
                                      center of force, or causes its
director at a central control
                                      Schrodinger wave function to
point. Abbreviated CTC. {
                                      vanish there in a quantum-
'sen-tra,lTzd 'traf-ik ksn'trol)
                                      mechanical system. { ,sen'trif-
central orbit |MECH] The              i-g3l 'bar-e-sr)
path followed by a body
                                      centrifugal brake |MECH ENG]
moving under the action of a
                                      A safety Device on a hoist
central force. { 'sen-tral 'or-
                                      drum that applies the brake if
                                      the drum speed is greater
centrifugal |MECH] Acting or          than a set limit. { ,sen'trif*i*
moving in a direction away            gal 'brak)
from the axis of rotation or the
                                      centrifugal casting [ENG] A
center of a circle along which
                                      method for casting metals or
a body is moving. { ,sen 'trif-i-
                                      forming thermoplastic resins in
                                      which the molten material
centrifugal atomizer |MECH            solidifies in and conforms to
ENG] Device that atomizes             the shape of the inner surface
liquids with a spinning disk;         of a heated, rapidly rotating
liquid is fed onto the center of      container. { ^en'trif-i-gal 'kast-
the disk, and the whirling            irj )
motion (3000 to 50,000
                                      centrifugal       clarification
revolutions per minute) forces
                                      |MECH ENG] The removal of
the liquid outward in thin
                                      solids from a liquid by
sheets to cause atomization. {
                                      centrifugal    action      which
,sen'trif-i-g3l 'ad-^mTz-sr)
                                      decreases the settling time of
centrifugal barrier |MECH ] A         the particles from hours to
steep rise, located around the        minutes.     {      ^en'trif-i-gal
,klar*i*fa'ka*shan )                    lers. { ,sen'trif*i*g3l ka'lek-tar)
centrifugal        classification       centrifugal   compressor |
|MECH        ENG]     Atype        of   MECH ENG ] A machine in
centrifugal            clarification    which a gas or vapor is
purposely designed to settle            compressed       by     radial
out only the large particles            acceleration in an impeller
(rather than all particles) in a        with a surrounding casing,
liquid      by    reducing       the    and     can    be   arranged
centrifuging         time.          {   multistage for high ratios of
,sen'trif*i*g3l                         compression. { ^en'trif-i-gal
,klas*a*fa'ka*shan )                    kam'pres-ar)
centrifugal classifier |MECH            centrifugal            discharge
ENG]       A      machine      that     elevator |MECH ENG] A high-
separates particles into size           speed bucket elevator from
groups by centrifugal force. {          which free-flowing materials
,sen'trif*i*g3l 'klas-a,fT-ar)          are discharged by centrifugal
                                        force at the top of the loop. {
centrifugal clutch |MECH
                                        ^en'trif-i-gal 'dis,charj ^l-a^ad-
ENG] A clutch operated by
centrifugal force from the
speed of rotation of a shaft, as        centrifugal extractor |CHEM
when heavy expanding friction           ENG] A device for separating
shoes act on the internal               components of a liquid
surface of a rim clutch, or a           solution, consisting of a series
flyball-type mechanism is               of perforated concentric rings
used to activate clutching              in a cylindrical drum that
surfaces on cones and disks.            rotates       at     2000-5000
{ ,sen 'trif-i-gal 'klach )             revolutions      per     minute
                                        around a cylindrical shaft;
centrifugal collector |MECH
                                        liquids enter and leave
ENG] Device used to separate
                                        through the shaft; they flow
particulate matter of 0.1 -1000
                                        radially and concurrently in the
micrometers        from       an
                                        rotating drum. { ,sen'trif*i*g3l
airstream; some types are
simple      cyclones,      high-
efficiency cyclones, and impel-         centrifugal fan | MECH ENG ] A
machine for moving a gas,              centrifugal governor (MECH
such as air, by accelerating it        ENG]    A governor whose
radially outward in an impeller        flyweights     respond        to
to a surrounding casing,               centrifugal force to sense
generally of scroll shape. {           speed. { ,sen'trif*i*gal 'gav-a-
^en'trif-i-gal 'fan )                  nar)
centrifugal filter (ENG] An            centrifugal molecular still
adaptation of the centrifugal          (CHEM ENG] A device used for
settler; centrifugal action of a       molecular distillation; material
spinning container segregates          is fed to the center of a hot,
heavy and light materials but          rapidly rotating cone housed
heavy       materials         escape   in a chamber at a high
through nozzles as a thick             vacuum; centrifugal force
slurry. { ^en'trif-i-gal 'fil*tar)     spreads the material rapidly
                                       over the hot surface, where
centrifugal filtration (MECH
                                       the evaporable material goes
ENG] The removal of a liquid
                                       off as a vapor to the
from a slurry by introducing
                                       condenser. { ,sen'trif*i*gal
the slurry into a rapidly
                                       ma'lek-ya-lar 'stil)
rotating basket, where the
solids are retained on a               centrifugal moment (MECH]
porous screen and the liquid           The product of the magnitude
is forced out of the cake by the       of centrifugal force acting on a
centrifugal           action.  {       body and the distance to the
,sen'trif*i*gal fil'tra-shan )         center       of    rotation.   {
                                       ,sen'trif*i*gal 'mo-mant)
centrifugal force ( MECH ] 1.
An outward pseudo-force, in a          centrifugal pump (MECH ENG]
reference frame that is rotat-         A machine for moving a liquid,
ing with respect to an inertial        such as water, by accelerating
reference frame, which is              it radially outward in an
equal and opposite to the              impeller to a surrounding
centripetal force that must act        volute casing. { ,sen'trif*i*gal
on a particle stationary in the        'pamp )
rotating frame. 2. The reaction
                                       centrifugal sedimentation
force to a centripetal force. {
                                       (CHEM ENG] Removing solids
,sen'trif*i*gal 'fors )
from liquids by causing               centrifugal         tachometer
particles to settle through the       (MECH ENG] An instrument
liquid radially toward or away        which       measures            the
from the center of rotation           instantaneous angular speed
(depending on the solid-liquid        of a shaft by measuring the
relative densities) by use of a       centrifugal force on a mass
centrifuge.     {   ,sen'trif*i*gal   rotating with it. { ,sen'trif*i*gal
,sed*a*man'ta*shan )                  ta'kam-ad-ar)
centrifugal    separation    (        centrifuge (MECH ENG] 1. A
MECH ENG ] The separation of          rotating device for separating
two immiscible liquids in a           liquids of different specific
centrifuge within a much              gravities or for separating
shorter period of time than           suspended colloidal particles,
could be accomplished solely          such as clay particles in an
by gravity. { ,sen'trif*i* gal        aqueous             suspension,
,sep'a'ra*shan )                      according      to   particle-size
                                      fractions by centrifugal force.
centrifugal settler (CHEM
                                      2. A large motor-driven
ENG] Spinning container that
                                      apparatus with a long arm, at
separates solid particles from
                                      the end of which human and
liquids;      centrifugal    force
                                      animal subjects or equipment
causes suspended solids to
                                      can be revolved and rotated
move toward or away from the
                                      at various speeds to simulate
center       of rotation, thus
                                      the prolonged accelerations
concentrating them in one
                                      encountered in rockets and
area        for     removal.     {
                                      spacecraft. { 'sen-tr^fyiij )
,sen'trif*i*gal 'set-lar)
                                      centrifuge refining |CHEM
centrifugal switch (MECH
                                      ENG] The use of centrifuges
ENG ] A switch opened or
                                      for liquids processing, such as
closed by centrifugal force;
                                      separation           of solids or
used on some induction
                                      immiscible droplets from liquid
motors to open the starting
                                      carriers, or for liquid-liquid
winding when the motor has
                                      solvent extraction. { 'sen-
almost reached synchronous
                                      tr^fyiij ri'fln-ir) )
speed. { ,sen'trif*i*gal 'swich )
                                      centripetal |MECH] Acting or
moving in a direction toward      centroid See center of mass.
the axis of rotation or the       { 'sen,troid )
center of a circle along which
                                  centroid    of   asymptotes
a body is moving. { ,sen'trip-
                                  |CONT SYS] The intersection of
3d-3l )                           asymptotes in a root-locus
                                  diagram. { 'sen,troid sv 'as-
centripetal       acceleration
                                  sm^od-ez )
|MECH ] The radial component
of the acceleration of a          cepstrum      vocoder      |ENG
particle or object moving         ACOUS] A digital device for
around a circle, which can be     reproducing speech in which
shown to be directed toward       samples of the cepstrum of
the center of the circle. Also    speech, together with pitch
known          as        radial   information, are transmitted to
acceleration. { ^en'trip-sd-sl    the receiver, and are then
ik^el-s'ra-shsn )                 converted into an impulse
                                  response that is convolved
centripetal force |MECH] The
                                  with an impulse train gener-
radial force required to keep a
                                  ated     from      the     pitch
particle or object moving in a
                                  information.    {     'sep-trem
circular path, which can be
shown to be directed toward
the center of the circle. {       ceramic capacitor | ELEC ] A
^en'trip-sd-si 'fors )            capacitor whose dielectric is a
                                  ceramic material such as
centrobaric       |MECH]   1.
                                  steatite or barium titanate, the
Pertaining to the center of
                                  composition of which can be
gravity, or to some method of
                                  varied to give a wide range of
locating it. 2. Possessing a
                                  temperature coefficients. {
center of gravity. { ]sen-tro
                                  ss'ram-ik ks'pas-sd-sr)
                                  ceramic        cartridge  |ENG
centrode |MECH ] The path
                                  ACOUS] A device containing a
traced by the instantaneous
                                  piezoelectric ceramic element,
center of a plane figure when
                                  used in phonograph pickups
it undergoes plane motion. {
                                  and microphones. { ss'ram-
'sen,trod )
                                  ik 'kar-trij )
ceramic earphones See             ceraunograph     |ENG]    An
crystal headphones. { ss'ram-     instrument that detects radio
ik 'ir,fonz )                     waves generated by lightning
                                  discharges and records
ceramic glaze |ENG] A glossy
                                  their occurrence. { ss'ron-
finish on a clay body obtained
by spraying with metallic
oxides, chemicals, and clays      Cermak-Spirek furnace | ENG
and firing at high temperature.   ] An automatic re-verberatory
{ ss'ram-ik 'glaz )               furnace of rectangular form
                                  divided into two sections by a
ceramic microphone |ENG
                                  wall; used for roasting zinc
ACOUS] A microphone using
                                  and       quicksilver      ores.
a ceramic cartridge. { ss'ram-
                                  {]s3r,mak [spir-ek .fsr-nss )
ik 'mT-kr^fon )
                                  cermet resistor |ELEC] A
ceramic        pickup   |ENG
                                  metal-glaze              resistor,
ACOUS] A phonograph pickup
                                  consisting of a mixture of
using a ceramic cartridge. {
                                  finely   powdered       precious
ss'ram-ik 'pik-sp )
                                  metals       and      insulating
ceramic radiant | ENG ] A         materials fired onto a ceramic
baked-clay component of a         substrate. { 's3r,met ri'zis-tsr)
gas heating unit which
                                  Cerruti's      problem      See
radiates       heat        when
                                  Boussinesq's       problem.   {
incandescent from the gas
                                  se'rii-dez ,prab-l3m )
flame. { ss'ram-ik 'rad-e-snt)
                                  certainty          equivalence
ceramics |ENG] The art and
                                  control |CONT SYS] An optimal
science of making ceramic
                                  control law for a stochastic
products. { ss'ram-iks )
                                  adaptive control system which
ceramic tool |DES ENG] A          is obtained by solving the
cutting tool made from            control problem in the case of
metallic oxides. { ss'ram-ik      known      parameters         and
,tul)                             substituting     the      known
                                  parameters        with       their
ceramic transducer See            estimates.     {      'ssrt-sn-te
electrostriction transducer. {    i'kwivs-lsns ksn'trol)
ss'ram-ik tranz'du-sor)
cesium magnetometer |ENG]         cfs See cusec.
A magnetometer that uses a
                                  eg See centigram.
cesium            atomic-beam
resonator as a frequency          chain      |civ    ENG]    See
standard in a circuit that        engineer's chain; Gunter's
detects very small variations     chain. |DES ENG] 1. A flexible
in magnetic fields. { 'se-ze-sm   series of metal links or rings
^ag-ns'tam-sd-sr)                 fitted into one another; used
                                  for supporting, restraining,
cesspit     See   cesspool.   {
                                  dragging, or lifting objects or
                                  transmitting power. 2. A mesh
cesspool |civ ENG] An             of rods or plates connected
underground tank for raw          together, used to convey
sewage       collection; used     objects or transmit power. {
where there is no sewage          chan )
system. Also known as
                                  chain belt |DES ENG] Belt of
cesspit. { 'ses,pul)
                                  flat links to transmit power. {
cetane index |CHEM ENG] An        'chan ,belt)
empirical method for finding
                                  chain block | MECH ENG ] A
the cetane number of a fuel
                                  tackle which uses an endless
based on API gravity and
                                  chain rather than a rope, often
the mid boiling point. {
                                  operated from an overhead
'se,tan ,in,deks )
                                  track to lift heavy weights
cetane number |CHEM ENG]          especially in workshops. Also
The percentage by volume of       known as chain fall; chain
cetane (cetane number 100) in     hoist. { 'chan ,blak )
a       blend      with      a-
                                  chain bond |civ ENG] A
methylnaphthalene       (cetane
                                  masonry bond formed with a
number 0); indicates the
                                  chain or bar. { 'chan ,band )
ability of a fuel to ignite
quickly after being injected      chain conveyor |MECH ENG]
into the cylinder of an engine.   A    machine    for   moving
{ 'se,tan ^sm-bsr)                materials that carries the
                                  product on one or two endless
CFIA See component-failure-
                                  linked chains with crossbars;
impact analysis.
allows smaller parts to be            used to feed, carry, and burn
added as the work passes. {           a noncoking coal in a furnace,
'chan ksn'va-sr)                      control the air for combustion,
                                      and discharge the ash. { 'chan
chain course |civ ENG] A
                                      ,grat ,stok-3r)
course of stone held together
by iron cramps. { 'chan ,kors )       chain hoist See chain block. {
                                      'chan ,hoist )
chain drive |MECH ENG] A
flexible device for power             chaining |civ ENG] In land
transmission,      hoisting,   or     surveying,          measuring
conveying, consisting of an           distance by means of a
endless chain whose links             chain or tape. { 'chan-irj )
mesh with toothed wheels
                                      chain pump | MECH ENG ] A
fastened to the driving and
                                      pump containing an endless
driven shafts. { 'chan ,driv )
                                      chain that is fitted at intervals
chain fall See chain block. {         with disks and moves through
'chan ,fol )                          a pipe and raises sludge. {
                                      'chan ,p3mp )
chain-float liquid-level gage
[ENG] Float device to measure         chain radar system [ENG] A
the level of liquid in a vessel;      number of radar stations
the float, suspended from a           located at various sites on a
counterweighted chain draped          missile range to enable
over a toothed sprocket, rises        complete     radar     coverage
or falls with the liquid level,       during a missile flight; the
and the chain movement turns          stations are linked by data
the sprocket to position a            and communication lines for
calibrated depth-indicator. {         target    acquisition,    target
'chan [flot 'lik-wsd [lev-sl ,gaj )   positioning, or data-recording
                                      purposes. { [chan 'ra,dar ,sis-
chain gear JMECH ENG] A
                                      t3m )
gear that transmits motion
from one wheel to another by          chain riveting [ENG] Riveting
means of a chain. { 'chan ,gir)       consisting of rivets one
                                      behind the other in rows along
chain grate stoker |MECH
                                      the seam. { 'chan ,riv*3d*ir) )
ENG] A wide, endless chain
chain saw [ MECH ENG ] A          adjacent chambers in a ring or
gasoline-powered saw for          oval through which the fire
felling and bucking timber,       moves, taking several days to
operated by one person; has       make a circuit; waste gas
cutting teeth inserted in a       from the fire preheats ware in
sprocket chain that moves         chambers toward which the
rapidly around the edge of an     fire      is  moving,    while
oval-shaped blade. { 'chan ,so    combustion air is preheated
)                                 by ware in chambers already
                                  fired. { 'cham-bsr ,kil)
chain tongs [DES ENG] A tool
for turning pipe, using a chain   chamber process [CHEM
to encircle and grasp the         ENG] An obsolete method of
pipe. { 'chan ,tarjz )            manufacturing sulfuric acid in
                                  which sulfur dioxide, air, and
chain vise [DES ENG] A vise
                                  steam are reacted in a lead
in which the work is
                                  chamber with oxides of
encircled and held tightly by
                                  nitrogen as the catalyst. {
a chain. { 'chan ,vTs )
                                  'cham-bsr ,pras-3s )
chaldron [MECH] 1. A unit of
                                  chamber test [ENG] A fire test
volume in common use in the
                                  developed specifically for floor
United Kingdom, equal to 36
                                  coverings that measures the
bushels, or 288 gallons, or
                                  speed and distance of the
approximately 1.30927 cubic
                                  spread of flames under
meters. 2. A unit of volume,
                                  specified conditions. { 'cham-
formerly used for measuring
                                  bsr ,test)
solid substances in the United
States, equal to 36 bushels,      chamfer [ENG] TO bevel a
or approximately 1.26861          sharp edge on a machined
cubic meters. { 'chdl-dran )      part. { 'cham-fer)
chamber [civ ENG] The space       chamfer angle [DES ENG] The
in a canal lock between the       angle that a beveled surface
upper and lower gates. {          makes with one of the original
'chamber)                         surfaces. { 'cham-fer ,ar)-g3l )
chamber kiln [ENG] A kiln         chamfering   [MECH    ENG]
consisting of a series of         Machining  operations   to
produce a beveled edge. Also          temperatures because of con-
known as beveling. { 'cham-fe-        gealing. { 'chan-sl )
rir) )
                                      channeler See channeling
chamfer plane [DES ENG] A             machine. { 'chan-sl-91}
plane for chamfering edges of
                                      channel FET microphone
woodwork. { 'cham-fer ,plan )
                                      [ENG ACOUS] A microphone
change gear [ MECH ENG ] A            in which a membrane is used
gear used to change the               as the gate to a field-effect
speed of a driven shaft while         transistor (FET) located just
the speed of the driving              below it, and motion of the
remains constant. { 'chanj            membrane modulates the
,gir)                                 current between the source
                                      and drain of the transistor. {
changing bag [ENG] An
                                      [chan-sl [fet 'mT-kr^fon or
enclosure        of      lightproof
material used for operations
such as loading of film holders       channeling machine [MECH
in daylight. { 'chanj-ir) ,bag )      ENG] An electrically powered
                                      machine that operates by a
channel [CHEM ENG] In
                                      chipping action of three to five
percolation filtration, a portion
                                      chisels while traveling back
of the clay bed where there is
                                      and forth on a track; used for
a preponderance of flow, [civ
                                      primary separation from the
ENG] A natural or artificial
                                      rock    ledge     in    marble,
waterway     connecting      two
                                      limestone, and soft sandstone
bodies of water or containing
                                      quarries. Also known as
moving water, [ELECTR] 1. A
                                      channeler.     {     'chan-sl-ir)
path for a signal, as an audio
                                      ms'shen )
amplifier may have several
input channels. 2. The main           channel iron |DES ENG] A
current path between the              metal strip or beam with a U-
source and drain electrodes           shape. { 'chan-sl J-srn )
in a field-effect transistor or
                                      channel process JCHEM ENG]
other semiconductor device,
                                      A carbon-black process in
[ENG] The forming of cavities
                                      which iron channel beams are
in a gear lubricant at low
                                      used as depositing surfaces
for carbon black. { 'chan-sl      characteristic |ELECTR] A
,pras-3s )                        graph showing how the
                                  voltage or current between
chaos See chaotic behavior. {
                                  two terminals of an electronic
'ka,as )
                                  device varies with the voltage
chaotic behavior | MECH ] The     or current between two other
behavior of a system whose        terminals. { ,kar-ik-ts'ris-tik)
final   state    depends     so
                                  characteristic length |MECH]
sensitively on the system's
                                  A convenient reference length
precise initial state that the
                                  (usually constant) of a given
behavior      is    in   effect
                                  configuration, such as overall
unpredictable and cannot be
                                  length of an aircraft, the
distinguished from a random
                                  maximum diameter or radius
process, even though it is
                                  of a body of revolution, or a
strictly determinate in a
                                  chord or span of a lifting
mathematical sense. Also
                                  surface.    {   ,kar-ik-t3'ris-tik
known as chaos. { ka'ad-ik
                                  'lerjkth )
                                  characterization          factor
Chapman-Jouguet           plane
                                  |CHEM ENG] A number which
|MECH] A hypothetical, infinite
                                  expresses the variations in
plane, behind the initial shock
                                  physical     properties     with
front, in which it is variously
                                  change in character of the
assumed that reaction (and
                                  paraffinic stock; ranges from
energy release) has effectively
                                  12.5 for paraffinic stocks to
been completed, that reaction
                                  10.0 for the highly aromatic
product gases have reached
                                  stocks. Also known as Watson
thermodynamic equilibrium,
                                  factor. { ,kar-ik-t3-re'za-sh3n
and that reaction gases,
streaming backward out of
the detonation, have reached      charcoal canister |MECH
such a condition that a for-      ENG] In an evaporative control
ward-moving sound wave            system, a container filled with
located at this precise plane     activated charcoal that traps
would remain a fixed distance     gasoline vapors emitted by
behind the initial shock. {       the fuel system. Also known
[chap-msn zhii]gwa ,plan )        as canister; carbon canister. {
'char,k6l 'kan-s'stsr)                3. The material or part to be
                                      heated      by    induction     or
charcoal test |CHEM ENG] A
                                      dielectric heating. 4. The
determination of the natural
                                      measurement or weight of
gasoline content of natural
                                      material, either liquid, pre-
gas by adsorbing the gasoline
                                      formed, or powder, used to
on activated charcoal and
                                      load a mold at one time during
then       recovering      it    by
                                      one cycle in the manufacture
distillation. { 'char,kol ,test)
                                      of plastics or metal. |MECH
charge |ELEC ] 1. A basic             ENG] 1. In refrigeration, the
property      of     elementary       quantity       of     refrigerant
particles of matter; the charge       contained in a system. 2. To
of an object may be a positive        introduce the refrigerant into a
or negative number or zero;           refrigeration system. { charj )
only integral multiples of the
                                      charge collector |ELEC] The
proton charge occur, and the
                                      structure within a battery
charge of a body is the
                                      electrode that provides a path
algebraic sum of the charges
                                      for the electric current to or
of its constituents; the value
                                      from the active material. Also
of the charge may be inferred
                                      known as current collector. {
from the Coulomb force
                                      'charj ks.lek-tsr)
between charged objects.
Also known as electric                charge conservation See
charge, quantity of electricity.      conservation of charge. {
2. To convert electrical              'charj ,kan-s3r'va-sh3n )
energy to chemical energy in
                                      charge-coupled          device
a secondary battery. 3. To
                                      |ELECTR] A semiconductor
feed electrical energy to a
                                      device     wherein      minority
capacitor or other device that
                                      charge is stored in a spatially
can store it. |ENG] 1. A unit of
                                      defined     depletion    region
an explosive, either by itself
                                      (potential well) at the surface
or contained in a bomb,
                                      of a semiconductor and is
projectile, mine, or the like, or
                                      moved about the surface by
used as the propellant for a
                                      transferring this charge to
bullet or projectile. 2. To load
                                      similar     adjacent      wells.
a borehole with an explosive.
                                      Abbreviated CCD. { 'charj
iksp-sld di'vTs )                    charging current |ELEC] The
                                     current that flows into a
charge-coupled             image
                                     capacitor when a voltage is
sensor |ELECTR] A device in
                                     first applied. { 'char-jig ,k3r-
which charges are introduced
when light from a scene is
focused on the surface of the        charging pump |CHEM ENG]
device; image points are             Pump         that     provides
accessed      sequentially      to   pressurized fluid flow for the
produce a television-type            input of another unit, such as
output signal. Also known as         to a triplex pump that requires
solid-state image sensor. {          positive pressure. { 'char-jig
'charj [ksp-sld 'im-ij ,sen-s3r)     ,p3mp )
charge density |ELEC] The            chart comparison unit |ENG]
charge per unit area on a            A     device    that    permits
surface or per unit volume           simultaneous viewing of a
in space. { 'charj ,den-s3d-e )      radar plan position indicator
                                     display and a navigation chart
charge-mass ratio | ELEC ]
                                     so     that    one     appears
The ratio of the electric
                                     superimposed on the other.
charge of a particle to its
                                     Also known as autoradar plot.
mass. { ,charj ,mas 'ra-sho)
                                     { 'chart ksm'par-3-ssn ,yu*ri3t)
charge quantization |ELEC]
                                     chart datum See datum
The principle that the electric
                                     plane. { 'chart ,dad-3m )
charge of an object must
equal an integral multiple of a      chart desk [ENG] A flat
universal basic charge. {            surface on which charts are
'charj ,kwan-t3'za-sh3n )            spread out, usually with
                                     storage space for charts and
charge-transfer            device
                                     other navigating equipment
JELECTR] A semiconductor
                                     below the plotting surface. {
device that depends upon
                                     'chart ,desk )
movements of stored charges
between predetermined loca-          chart recorder [ENG] A
tions, as in charge-coupled          recorder in which a dependent
and charge-injection devices. {      variable is plotted against an
'charj ,tranz-f3r di'vTs )           independent variable by an
ink-filled pen moving on plain      straighten and clean threads
paper, a heated stylus on           on screws or pipes. { chas )
heat-sensitive paper, a light
                                    chase mortise [ DES ENG ] A
beam or electron beam on
                                    mortise with a sloping edge
photosensitive paper, or an
                                    from bottom to surface so that
electrode on electrosensi-tive
                                    a tenon can be inserted when
paper. The plot may be linear
                                    the outside clearance is small.
or curvilinear on a strip chart
                                    { 'chas ,m6rd-3s )
recorder, or polar on a circular
chart recorder. { 'chart ri'kord-   chaser [ENG] A thread-cutting
sr)                                 tool with many teeth. { 'chas-
charitable [ENG] A flat
surface on which charts are         chase ring [MECH ENG] In
spread out, particularly one        nobbing, the ring which
without storage space below         restrains the blank from
the plotting surface, as in         spreading during hob sinking.
aircraft and VPR (virtual PPI       { 'chas ,rirj )
reflectoscope) equipment. {
'chart ,ta*bal )                    chasing tool [DES ENG] A
                                    hammer or chisel used to
chase [BUILD] A vertical            decorate metal surfaces. {
passage for ducts, pipes, or        'chas-ig ,tul)
wires in a building, [DES ENG]
A series of cuts, each having       chassis [ENG] 1. A frame on
a path that follows the path of     which the body of an
the cut before it; an example       automobile or airplane is
is a screw thread, [ENG] 1.         mounted. 2. A frame for
The main body of the mold           mounting the working parts of
which contains the molding          a radio or other electronic
cavity or cavities. 2. The          device. { 'chas-e )
enclosure used to shrink-fit        chassis ground [ELEC] A
parts of a mold cavity in place     connection made to the metal
to prevent spreading or dis-        chassis   on   which    the
tortion, or to enclose an           components of a circuit are
assembly of two or more parts       mounted, to serve as a
of a split-cavity block. 3. To      common return path to the
power source.         {   'chas-e     measured has been balanced
,graund )                             by     the   pressure    head
                                      resulting from tilting of the
chassis punch [DES ENG] A
                                      entire apparatus. { 'chad-ok
hand tool used to make
                                      ,gaj )
round or square holes in
sheet metal. { 'chas-e ,psnch         check     [ENG]    A    device
)                                     attached to something in
                                      order to limit the movement,
chatter [ELEC] Prolonged
                                      such as a door check. { chek)
undesirable opening and
closing of electric contacts, as      check dam [civ ENG] A low,
on a relay. Also known as             fixed structure, constructed of
contact chatter, [ENG] An irreg-      timber, loose rock, masonry,
ular alternating motion of the        or concrete, to control water
parts of a relief valve due to        flow in an erodable channel or
the application of pressure           irrigation canal. { 'chek ,dam )
where contact is made
                                      checkerboard regenerator
between the valve disk and
                                      [ENG] An open-checkerwork
the seat, [ENG ACOUS]
                                      arrangement of firebrick in a
Vibration of a disk-recorder
                                      high-temperature        chamber
cutting stylus in a direction
                                      that absorbs heat during a
other than that in which it is
                                      batch processing cycle, then
driven. { 'chad-sr)
                                      releases it to preheat fresh
chattering [CONT SYS] A               combustion air during the
mode of operation of a relay-         down      cycle;    used,    for
type control system in which          example, in the steel industry
the relay switches back and           with open-hearth and heat-
forth infinitely fast. { 'chads-rig   treating furnaces. { 'chek-
)                                     3r,bord ri'jen-^rad-sr)
Chattock gage [ENG] A form            checker plate [ENG] A type
of micromano-meter in which           of slip-resistant floor plate
observation of the interface          with a distinctive raised
between     two    immiscible         pattern that is used for
liquids is used to determine          walkways and platforms. {
when the pressure to be               'chek-sr ,plat )
checkers      [ENG]     Open       )
brickwork in a checkerboard
                                   check valve [MECH ENG] A
regenerator allowing for the
                                   device      for     automatically
passage of hot, spent gases. {
                                   limiting flow in a piping system
'chek-srz )
                                   to a single direction. Also
check fillet [BUILD] A curb set    known as nonreturn valve. {
into a roof to divert or control   'chek ,valv)
the flow of rainwater. { 'chek
                                   cheesebox still [CHEM ENG]
                                   One of the first types of
checkout [ENG] A sequence          vertical   cylindrical  stills
of actions to test or examine      designed with a vapor dome. {
a thing as to its readiness for    'chez,baks ,stil)
incorporation into a new phase
                                   cheese head [DES ENG] A
of use or as to the perfor-
                                   raised cylindrical head on a
mance       of   its   intended
                                   screw or bolt. { 'chez ,hed )
function. { 'chek,aut)
                                   chemical engineering [ ENG ]
check rail [BUILD] A rail,
                                   That branch of engineering
thicker than the window, that
                                   serving those industries that
spans the opening between
                                   chemically convert basic raw
the top and bottom sash;
                                   materials into a variety of
usually beveled and rabbeted.
                                   products, and dealing with the
See guardrail. { 'chek ,ral )
                                   design and operation of
check stop [BUILD] A narrow        plants and equipment to
length of wood or metal that is    perform      such work;      all
installed to hold a sliding        products are formed in
element in place, such as the      chemical processes involving
lower part of a sash of a          chemical reactions carried out
double-hung window. { 'chek        under a wide range of
,stap )                            conditions and frequently
                                   accompanied by changes in
check study [IND ENG] A
                                   physical state or form. { 'kem-
review of a job or operation in
                                   i-ksl ,en*J3'nir*ir) )
part or in its entirety to
evaluate the validity of a         chemical film dielectric
standard time. { 'chek ,st3d-e     |ELEC] An extremely thin layer
of material on one or both            pumping action is based on
electrodes of an electrolytic         evaporation of a metal whose
capacitor, which conducts             vapor then reacts with the
electricity in only one direction     chemically active molecules in
and thereby constitutes the           the gas to be evacuated. {
insulating element of the             'kem-i-ksl 'T-sn ,p3mp )
capacitor. { 'kem-i-ksl ,film
                                      chemically sensitive field-
,dT-3'lek-trik )
                                      effect transistor [ELECTR] A
chemical fire extinguisher            field-effect transistor in which
|CHEM ENG] Any of three types         the ordinary gate electrode is
of      fire          extinguishers   replaced by a chemically
(vaporizing liquid, carbon            sensitive membrane so that
dioxide, and dry chemical)            the gain of the transistor
which expel chemicals in solid,       depends on the concentration
liquid, or gaseous form to            of chemical substances. {
blanket or smother a fire. {          'kem-ik-le ]sen-ssd-iv 'feld
'kem-i-ksl 'fir ik'stirj-gwish-or)    ijfekt tran,zis-t3r)
chemical force microscope             chemical process industry
[ENG] A modification of the           [CHEM ENG] An industry in
atomic force microscope in            which the raw materials
which an organic monolayer            undergo chemical conversion
on the probe tip that termi-          during their processing into
nates with specific chemical          finished products, as well as
functional groups is sensitive        (or instead of) the physical
to       specific   molecular         conversions       common    to
interactions between these            industry in general; includes
groups and those on the               the     traditional  chemical,
sample surface. {[kem-o-kol           petroleum, and petrochemical
,fors 'mT-kr^skop )                   industries. { [kem-i-ksl 'pra-
                                      sss ,in-d3-stre )
chemical hygrometer See
absorption     hygrometer. {          chemical pulping [CHEM
'kem-i-ksl hT'gram-sd-sr)             ENG] Separation of wood fiber
                                      for paper pulp by chemical
chemical ion pump [CHEM
                                      treatment of wood chips to
ENG] A vacuum pump whose
                                      dissolve  the    lignin  that
cements the fibers together. {      'kem-i-ksl thsr'mam-sd-sr)
'kem-i-ksl 'polp-irj)
                                    chemurgy [CHEM ENG] A
chemical reactor [CHEM              branch       of     chemistry
ENG] Vessel, tube, pipe, or         concerned with the profitable
other container within which a      utilization of organic raw
chemical reaction is made to        materials,          especially
take place; may be batch or         agricultural   products,   for
continuous, open or packed,         nonfood purposes such as for
and     can    use      thermal,    paints and varnishes. { 'ke-
catalytic,   or      irradiation    msr-je )
actuation. { 'kern-i-ksl re'ak-
                                    cherry picker [MECH ENG] Any
                                    of several small traveling
chemical similitude [CHEM           cranes, especially one used
ENG] A procedure used to            to hoist a passenger on the
ensure satisfactory operation       end of a boom. { 'cher-e ,pik-
of a full-scale chemical            3r )
process by comparison with
                                    Chicago boom [MECH ENG] A
pilot plant data. { 'kem-i-ksl
                                    hoisting  device  that   is
ss'mil-^tud )
                                    supported on the structure
chemical sterilization [ ENG ]      being erected. { shs'ka-go
The use of bactericidal             ,bum )
chemicals       to     sterilize
                                    Chicago caisson [civ ENG] A
solutions,   air,   or    solid
                                    cofferdam about 4 feet (1.2
surfaces. { 'kem-i-ksl ^ter-s-
                                    meters) in diameter lined with
ta'za-shsn )
                                    planks and sunk in medium-
chemical thermometer [ENG]          stiff clays to hard ground for
A filled-system temperature-        pier foundations. Also known
measurement device in which         as open-well caisson. {
gas or liquid enclosed within       shs'ka-go 'ka,san )
the device responds to heat
                                    Child-Langmuir      equation
by a volume change (rising or
                                    See Child's law.
falling of mercury column) or
by a pressure change (open-         Child-Langmuir-Schottky
ing or closing of spiral coil). {   equation See Child's law. {
[child   [lag-myur       'shat,ke   Method of extruding plastic
i'kwa-zhsn )                        film in which the film is cooled
                                    while being drawn around two
Child's law [ ELECTR] A law
                                    or more highly polished chill
stating that the current in a
                                    rolls, inside of which there is
thermionic     diode       varies
                                    cooling water. Also known as
directly with the three-halves
                                    cast-film extrusion. { 'chil ,rol
power of anode voltage and
                                    ek'stru-zhsn )
inversely with the square of
the distance between the            chimney [BUILD] A vertical,
electrodes,    provided       the   hollow structure of masonry,
operating conditions are such       steel, or concrete, built to
that the current is limited only    convey gaseous products of
by the space charge. Also           combustion from a building.
known as Child-Lang-muir            [ELECTR] A pipelike enclosure
equation;      Child-Langmuir-      that is placed over a heat sink
Schottky equation; Langmuir-        to improve natural upward
Child equation. { 'chlldz ,16 )     convection of heat and
                                    thereby increase the dissipat-
Chile mill [MECH ENG] A
                                    ing ability of the sink. {
crushing mill having vertical
                                    'chim,ne )
rollers running in a circular
enclosure with a stone or iron      chimney apron [BUILD] A
base or die. Also known as          flashing made of a nonferrous
edge runner. { 'chil-e ,mil)        metal, such as copper, that is
                                    built into the masonry of the
chiller [CHEM ENG] Oil-
                                    chimney and the roofing
refining apparatus in which
                                    material at the place where
the temperature of paraffin
                                    the roof is penetrated by the
distillates    is       lowered
                                    chimney. { 'chim-ne ,a-pran )
preparatory to filtering out the
solid wax components. { 'chil-      chimney bar [BUILD] A
sr)                                 wrought-iron or steel lintel
                                    which is supported by the
chill roll [ENG] A cored roll
                                    sidewalls and carries the
used in chill-roll extrusion of
                                    masonry above the fireplace
plastics. { 'chil ,rol)
                                    opening. Also known as
chill-roll   extrusion     [ENG]    turning bar. { 'chim,ne ,bar)
chimney cap | civ ENG ] A          cap on the upper part of the
rotary device fitted to a          cutting iron of a carpenter's
chimney and moved by the           plane designed to give the
wind so that the chimney is        tool rigidity and also to break
turned away from the wind to       up the wood shavings. { 'chip
permit the escape of smoke         ,kap )
while rain or snow is pre-
                                   chip capacitor | ELECTR] A
vented from entering the
                                   single-layer    or   multilayer
chimney. { 'chim-ne ,kap)
                                   monolithic           capacitor
chimney core | MECH ENG ]          constructed in chip form, with
The inner section of a double-     metallized terminations to
walled chimney which is            facilitate direct bonding on
separated from the outer           hybrid integrated circuits. {
section by an air space. {         'chip ks'pas-sd-sr)
'chim,ne ,kor)
                                   chip log |ENG] Aline, marked
chip |ELECTR] 1. The shaped        at intervals (commonly 50 feet
and processed semiconductor        or 15 meters), that is paid out
die that is mounted on a sub-      over the stern of a moving
strate to form a transistor,       ship and is pulled out by a
diode, or other semiconductor      drag (the chip), to determine
device. 2. An integrated           the ship's speed. { 'chip ,lag )
microcircuit   performing     a
                                   chipper |ENG] A tool such as
significant number of functions
                                   a chipping hammer used for
and constituting a subsystem.
                                   chipping. |MECH ENG] A ma-
Also known as microchip. {
                                   chine with revolving knives for
                                   reducing large pieces of wood
chip breaker | DES ENG ] An        to chips. { 'chip-sr)
irregularity or channel cut into
                                   chipping hammer |ENG] A
the face of a lathe tool behind
                                   hand or pneumatic hammer
the cutting edge to cause
                                   with chisel-shaped or pointed
removed stock to break into
                                   faces used to remove rust
small chips or curls. { 'chip
                                   and scale from metal sur-
                                   faces. { 'chip-ig ,ham-3r)
chip cap |DES ENG] A plate or
                                   chip   resistor   |ELECTR]    A
thick-film resistor constructed     ,ej 'arj-gol)
in chip form, with metallized
                                    chisel-tooth saw (DES ENG] A
terminations to facilitate direct
                                    circular saw with chisel-
bonding on hybrid integrated
                                    shaped cutting edges. { 'chiz-
circuits. { 'chip ri'zis-tsr)
                                    sl 'tilth 'so)
chirp radar [ENG] Radar in
                                    Chladni's figures (MECH]
which a swept-fre-quency
                                    Figures produced by sprinkling
signal is transmitted, received
                                    sand or similar material on a
from       a     target,   then
                                    horizontal plate and then
compressed in time to give a
                                    vibrating the plate while hold-
narrow pulse called the chirp
                                    ing it rigid at its center or
signal. { 'chsrp ,ra,dar)
                                    along its periphery; indicate
chisel |DES ENG] A tool for         the nodal lines of vibration. {
working the surface of various      'klad,nez ,fig-ysrz )
materials, consisting of a
                                    chloralkali (CHEM ENG] Either
metal bar with a sharp edge
                                    of the products of the
at one end and often driven
                                    industrial    electrolysis of
by a mallet. { 'chiz-sl )
                                    sodium chloride, that is,
chisel bit See chopping bit. {      sodium       hydroxide     or
'chiz-sl ,bit)                      chlorine. { klor'al-ks.lT)
chisel    bond     (ENG]     A      chloralkali process (CHEM
thermocompression bond in           ENG] An industrial chemical
which a contact wire is             process       based   on    the
attached to a contact pad on a      electrolysis of sodium chloride
semiconductor      chip     by      for the production of sodium
applying pressure with a            hydroxide and chlorine. {
chisel-shaped tool. { 'chiz-sl      ^lor'al-ksjT ,pra-S3S)
,band )
                                    chlorinator (CHEM ENG] The
chisel-edge angle (DES ENG]         apparatus          used        in
The angle included between          chlorinating. { 'klor-^nad-sr)
the chisel edge and the
                                    choke ( ELEC ] An inductance
cutting edge, as seen from
                                    used in a circuit to present a
the end of the drill. Also
                                    high      impedance         to
known as web angle. { 'chiz-sl
frequencies above a specified      either one or two choppers. {
frequency     range     without    'chap-sr 'am-pl^fT-sr)
appreciably limiting the flow of
                                   chopper-stabilized amplifier
direct current. Also known as
                                   ( ELECTR] A direct-current
choke coil, (MECH ENG] TO
                                   amplifier in which a direct-
increase the fuel feed to an
                                   coupled amplifier is in parallel
internal combustion engine
                                   with a chopper amplifier. {
through the action of a choke
                                   [chap-sr [sta-bsjTzd 'am-pl^fl-
valve. See choke valve. {
                                   chopper transistor (ELECTR]
choke coil See choke. { 'chok
                                   A bipolar or field-effect
                                   transistor operated as a
choked neck (DES ENG]              repetitive "on/off" switch to
Container neck which has a         produce            square-wave
narrowed or constricted            modulation of an input signal.
opening. { ]chokt 'nek)            { 'chap-sr tran'zis-tsr)
choke valve (MECH ENG] A           chopping        (ELECTR]   The
valve which supplies the           removal, by electronic means,
higher suction necessary to        of one or both extremities of a
give the excess fuel feed          wave at a predetermined
required for starting a cold       level. { 'chap-ig )
internal combustion engine.
                                   chopping bit (MECH ENG] A
Also known as choke. { 'chok
                                   steel bit with a chisel-shaped
,valv )
                                   cutting edge, attached to a
chopper (ENG] Any knife, axe,      string of drill rods to break up,
or mechanical device for           by impact, boulders, hardpan,
chopping or cutting an object      and a lost core in a drill hole.
into segments. { 'chap-sr)         Also known as chisel bit. {
                                   'chap-irj ,bit )
chopper amplifier (ELECTR] A
carrier amplifier in which the     chop-type feeder (MECH ENG]
direct-current input is filtered   Device for semi-continuous
by a low-pass filter, then         feed of solid materials to a
converted into a square-wave       process unit, with intermittent
alternating-current signal by      opening and closing of a
hopper gate (bottom closure)          dots on the film. { ,kran-o'sT-
by a control arm actuated by          kl3|graf)
an eccentric cam. { 'chap, tip
                                      chronograph | ENG ] An
                                      instrument used to register the
chord | civ ENG] The top or           time of an event or graphically
bottom, generally horizontal          record time intervals such as
member of a truss. { kdrd )           the duration of an event. {
chordal thickness |DES ENG]
The tangential thickness of a         chronometric data | ENG ]
tooth on a circular gear, as          Data in which the desired
measured along a chord of             quantity is the time of
the pitch circle. { 'kord-al 'thik-   occurrence of an event or the
nss )                                 time interval between two or
                                      more events. { 'kran-3,me-trik
chrome tanning |CHEM ENG]
                                      'dad-s )
Tanning treatment of animal
skin with chromium salts.             chronometric         radiosonde
{[krom 'tan-irj)                      [ENG] A radiosonde whose
                                      carrier wave is switched on
chromoradiometer | ENG ] A
                                      and off in such a manner that
radiation meter that uses a
                                      the interval of time between
substance     whose     color
                                      the transmission of signals is a
changes with x-ray dosage. {
                                      function of the magnitude of
                                      the meteorological elements
chronocyclegraph |IND ENG]            being measured. { [kran-3[me-
A device used in micromotion          trik 'rad-e-o,sand )
studies to record a complete
                                      chronometric      tachometer
work cycle by taking still
                                      (ENG] A tachometer which
pictures with long exposures,
                                      repeatedly      counts    the
the motion paths being traced
                                      revolutions during a fixed
by small electric lamps
                                      interval of time and presents
fastened to the worker's
                                      the average speed during the
hands or fingers; time is
                                      last timed interval. {[kran-
obtained by interrupting the
                                      3]me-trik ts'kam-sd-sr)
light circuits with a controlled
frequency which produces              chronothermometer (ENG] A
thermometer consisting of a        suspended from a flexible
clock    mechanism    whose        cable, to which a reciprocating
speed is a function of             motion is imparted by its
temperature;    automatically      suspension from an oscillating
calculates    the      mean        beam or sheave, causing the
temperature.    {   ]kran-6-       bit to be raised and dropped.
thsr'mam-sd-sr)                    Also known as American
                                   system drill; cable-system
CHU See centigrade heat unit.
                                   drill. { 'chsrn ,dril)
CHUmean       See    centigrade
                                   churn shot drill (MECH ENG] A
heat unit.
                                   boring rig with both churn and
chuck (DES ENG] A device for       shot drillings. { 'chsrn ,shat
holding a component of an          ,dril)
instrument rigid, usually by
                                   chute (ENG] A conduit for
means of adjustable jaws or
                                   conveying          free-flowing
set screws, such as the
                                   materials at high velocity to
workpiece in a metalworking
                                   lower levels. { shut)
or woodworking machine, or
the stylus or needle of a          chute spillway (civ ENG] A
phonograph pickup. { chsk)         spillway in which the water
                                   flow passes over a crest into a
chucking (MECH ENG] The
                                   sloping, lined, open channel;
grasping of an outsize
                                   used for earth and rock-fill
workpiece in a chuck or jawed
                                   dams. { [shut 'spil,wa )
device in a lathe. { 'chok-irj )
                                   C3I See command, control,
chucking machine (MECH
                                   communications,                and
ENG] A lathe or grinder in
                                   intelligence. { 'se 'thre 'T )
which the outsize workpiece is
grasped in a chuck or jawed        cinetheodolite      (ENG]     A
device. { 'chok-irj ms'shen )      surveying theodolite in which
                                   35-millimeter motion picture
churn drill (MECH ENG]
                                   cameras with lenses of 60- to
Portable drilling equipment,
                                   240-inch (1.5- to 6.1 -meter)
with drilling performed by a
                                   focal length are substituted for
heavy string of tools tipped
                                   the surveyor's eye and
with a blunt-edge chisel bit
                                   telescope; used for precise
time-correlated observation of      and installation actions to
distant airplanes, missiles,        upgrade a communications
and       artificial  satellites.   circuit to meet an operational
{jsin*3*the'ad*3,lTt)               requirement; includes the
                                    reduction      of    noise,    the
Cipolletti weir (civ ENG]
                                    equalization of phase and
Trapezoidal weir in which the
                                    level stability and frequency
sides of the notch slope are
                                    response, and the correction
one horizontal to four vertical;
                                    of impedance discontinuities,
used to measure water flow in
                                    but does not include normal
open channels, especially
                                    maintenance         and     repair
streams and rivers. { chip-
                                    activities. { 'ssr-kst ksn'dish-s-
s'led-e 'wer)
                                    nir) )
circle shear (MECH ENG] A
                                    circuit diagram (ELEC] A
shearing machine that cuts
                                    drawing, using standardized
circular disks from a metal
                                    symbols, of the arrangement
sheet rolling between the
                                    and interconnections of the
cutting wheels. { 'ssr-ksl
                                    conductors and components
                                    of an electrical or electronic
circuit See electric circuit. {     device or installation. Also
'ssr-kst)                           known as schematic circuit
                                    diagram; wiring diagram. {
circuit analyzer See volt-          'ssr-kst ,dT-3,gram )
ohm-milliammeter. { 'ssr-kst
,an-3,lTz-3r)                       circuit   element       See
                                    component. { 'ssr-kst \e\-5-
circuit board See printed           msnt)
circuit board. { 'ssr-kst ,bord )
                                    circuit interrupter (ELEC] A
circuit breaker (ELEC] An           device in a circuit breaker to
electromagnetic device that         remove energy from an arc in
opens a circuit automatically       order to extinguish it. { 'ssr-kst
when the current exceeds a          ,in-t3,r3p-t3r)
predetermined value. { 'SOT-
feat ,brak-3r)                      circuit loading (ELEC] Power
                                    drawn from a circuit by an
circuit conditioning (ELECTR]       electric measuring instrument,
Test, analysis, engineering,
which may alter appreciably          Continuous-length   opening
the quantity being measured. {       with circular cross section
'ssr-kst ,lod*ir) )                  through which liquid or gas
                                     can be made to flow. { 'SOT-
circuit protection |ELECTR]
                                     kys-lsr 'chan-sl )
Provision for automatically
preventing      excess       or      circular-chart          recorder
dangerous temperatures in a          [ENG] Graphic pen-and-ink
conductor and limiting the           recorder where measured
amount of energy liberated           values are drawn onto a
when an electrical failure           rotating circular chart by the
occurs. { 'ssr-kst pre'tek-shsn      backward        and       forward
)                                    movement of a pivoted pen
                                     actuated by the input signal
circuitry |ELEC] The complete
                                     (such      as       temperature,
combination of circuits used in
                                     pressure, flow, or force) from
an electrical or electronic
                                     an instrument transmitter. {
system or piece of equipment.
                                     'ssr-kys-lsr ,chart ri'kdrd-sr)
{ 'ssr-ks-tre )
                                     circular cutter |MECH ENG] A
circuit testing |ELEC] The
                                     rotating blade with a square
testing of electric circuits to
                                     or knife edge used to slit or
determine and locate an
                                     shear metal. { 'ssr-kys-lsr
open circuit, or a short circuit
or leakage. { 'ssr-kst ,tes-tir) )
                                     circular form tool [DES ENG]
circuit theory |ELEC] The
                                     A round or disk-shaped tool
mathematical analysis of
                                     with the cutting edge on the
conditions and relationships in
                                     periphery. { 'ssr-kys-tar ,form
an electric circuit. Also known
as electric circuit theory. {
'ssr-kst ,the-3-re)                  circular inch |MECH ] The
                                     area of a circle 1 inch (25.4
circular burner |ENG] A fuel
                                     millimeters) in diameter. {
burner having a round
                                     'ssr-kys-tar 'inch )
opening. { 'ssr-kys-lsr 'bsrn-
sr)                                  circular mil |MECH] A unit
                                     equal to the area of a circle
circular     channel        [ENG]
                                     whose diameter is 1 mil
(0.001 inch); used chiefly in      circular cone. { 'ssr-kys-lsr
specifying      cross-sectional    'skan-irj )
areas of round conductors.
                                   circular spike [ENG] A metal
Abbreviated cir mil. { 'SOT-kys-
                                   timber connector fitted with a
lsr 'mil)
                                   circular series of sharp teeth
circular motion |MECH ] 1.         that dig into the wood,
Motion of a particle in a          preventing lateral motion, as a
circular path. 2. Motion of a      bolt is tightened through the
rigid body in which all its        wood and the spike. { 'ssr-kys-
particles move in circles about    lsr 'spTk)
a common axis, fixed with
                                   circular velocity |MECH] At
respect to the body, with a
                                   any specific distance from the
common angular velocity. {
                                   primary, the orbital velocity re-
'ssr-kys-lsr 'mo-shsn )
                                   quired to maintain a const
circular pitch |DES ENG] The       ant-radius orbit. { 'ssr-kys-lsr
linear measure in inches           vs'las-sd-e )
along the pitch circle of a gear
                                   circulating fluid [ENG] A fluid
between corresponding points
                                   pumped into a borehole
of adjacent teeth. { 'SOT-kys-
                                   through the drill stem, the flow
lsr 'pich )
                                   of which cools the bit and
circular plane |DES ENG] A         transports the cuttings out of
plane that can be adjusted for     the borehole. { 'sor-kyojad-irj
convex or concave surfaces. {      'flu-sd )
'SOT-kys-lsr 'plan )
                                   circulating pump [CHEM ENG]
circular saw |MECH ENG] Any        Pump used to circulate
of several power tools for         process liquid out of and back
cutting wood or metal, having      into a process system, as in
a thin steel disk with a           the circulation of distillation
toothed edge that rotates on a     column bottoms through an
spindle. { 'ssr-kys-lsr 'so )      external     heater,    or  the
                                   circulation of storage tank
circular scanning | ENG ]
                                   bottoms to mix tank contents.
Radar scanning in which the
                                   { 'ssr-kysjad-ir) 'pomp )
direction   of     maximum
radiation describes a right        circulating    system     [CHEM
ENG]   Fluid system in which         bo'ram-od-or)
the process fluid is taken
                                     civil engineering [ENG] The
from and pumped back into
                                     planning, design, construction,
the system, as in the circula-
                                     and maintenance of fixed
tion of distillation column
                                     structures and ground facilities
bottoms through an external
                                     for industry, transportation,
heater. { 'ssr-kysjad-ir) 'sis-
                                     use and control of water, or
torn )
                                     occupancy. { 'siv-ol en-jo'nir-
circulation area [BUILD] The         irj)
area required for human traffic
                                     cladding [ENG] Process of
in    a   building,     including
                                     covering one material with
permanent              corridors,
                                     another and bonding them
stairways,             elevators,
                                     together under high pressure
escalators, and lobbies. { ^sr-
                                     and temperature. Also known
kys-'la-shsn ,er-e-3 )
                                     as bonding. { 'klad-irj )
circumferentor [ ENG ] A
                                     clamp [ DES ENG ] A tool for
horizontal compass used in
                                     binding or pressing two or
surveying that has arms
                                     more parts together, by
diametrically placed with
                                     holding them firmly in their
vertical slit sights in them. {
                                     relative    positions.      See
                                     clamping circuit. { klamp )
cir mil See circular mil.
                                     clamping coupling [MECH
cistern [civ ENG] A tank for         ENG] A coupling with a split
storing water or other liquid. {     cylindrical element which
'sis-torn )                          clamps     the    shaft    ends
                                     together        by        direct
cistern barometer [ENG] A
                                     compression, through bolts or
pressure-measuring device in
                                     rings, and by the wedge
which pressure is read by the
                                     action of conical sections; not
liquid rise in a vertical, closed-
                                     considered a permanent part
top tube as a result of system
                                     of the shaft. { 'klamp-irj ,k3p-
pressure on a liquid reservoir
                                     lir) )
(cistern) into which the
bottom, open end of the tube         clamping gripper [CONT SYS]
is immersed. { 'sis-torn             A robot element that uses
two-link movements, parallel-      clamshell     grab          See
jaw       movements,    and        clamshell bucket. {       'klam
combination movements to           ,shel ,grab )
grasp and handle objects. {
                                   clamshell snapper (MECH
'klamp-irj 'grip-sr)
                                   ENG] A      marine sediment
clamping plate [ENG] A plate       sampler      consisting      of
on a mold which attaches the       snapper jaws and a footlike
mold to a machine. { 'klamp-       projection which, upon striking
ig ,plat)                          the bottom, causes a spring
                                   mechanism to close the jaws,
clamping pressure |ENG] In
                                   thus trapping a sediment
injection and transfer-molding
                                   sample. { 'klan^shel ,snap-3r)
of plastics, the pressure ap-
plied to keep the mold closed      Clapeyron-Clausius
in opposition to the fluid         equation      See     Clausius-
pressure of the molding            Clapeyron equation. {kla-pa-
material. { 'klamp-irj ,presh-     ron ]kloz-e-3s i,kwa-zh3n )
                                   Clapeyron equation See
clamp screw |DES ENG] A            Clausius-Clapeyron equation. {
screw that holds a part by         kla-pa-ron i'kwa-zhsn )
forcing it against another
                                   Clapeyron's theorem ( MECH
part. { 'klamp ,skru )
                                   ] The theorem that the strain
clamp-screw sextant (ENG] A        energy of a deformed body is
marine sextant having a            equal to one-half the sum
clamp screw for controlling the    over     three    perpendicular
position of the tangent screw. {   directions of the displacement
'klamp ,skru ,seks-t3nt)           component         times      the
                                   corresponding              force
clamshell bucket (MECH
                                   component,             including
ENG] A two-sided bucket used
                                   deforming loads and body
in a type of excavator to dig in
                                   forces, but not the six
a vertical direction; the bucket
                                   constraining forces required to
is dropped while its leaves are
                                   hold the body in equilibrium. {
open and digs as they close.
                                   kla-pa-ronz ,thir-3m )
Also known as clamshell grab.
{ 'klan^shel ,b3k-3t)              clapper box (MECH ENG] A
hinged device that permits a           suspended solids in a liquid,
reciprocating cutting tool (as         determined by visual or
in a planer or shaper) to clear        optical methods. { 'klar-sd-e )
the work on the return stroke.
                                       Clark process (CHEM ENG]
{ 'klap-sr ,baks )
                                       Softening of water by adding
clarification (CHEM ENG] The           alkaline solutions of calcium
removal of small amounts               hydroxide so that the acid
(usually less than 0.2%) of fine       carbonates are converted to
particu-late solids from liquids       normal carbonates. { 'klark
(such as drinking water) by            ,pras-3s )
methods such as gravity
                                       clasp (DES ENG] A releasable
sedimentation,        centrifugal
                                       catch which holds two or more
sedimentation, filtration, and
                                       objects together. { klasp )
magnetic separation. { ^ar-s-
fe'ka-shsn )                           clasp lock (DES ENG] A spring
                                       lock with a self-locking
clarifier (ENG] A device for
                                       feature. { 'klasp ,lak)
filtering a liquid. { 'klar-3,fT-3r)
                                       clasp nut (DES ENG] A split
clarifying agent See fining. {
                                       nut that clasps a screw when
'klar-3,fT-ir) ,a-jsnt)
                                       closed around it. { 'klasp ,nst)
clarifying centrifuge (MECH
                                       class A push-pull sound
ENG] A device that clears
                                       track (ENG ACOUS] Two
liquid of foreign matter by
                                       single photographic sound
centrifugation. { 'klar-3,fT-ir)
                                       tracks side by side, the
'sen-tra,fyuj )
                                       transmission of one being
clarifying filter (ENG] Any            180° out of phase with the
filter, such as a sand filter or a     transmission of the other;
cartridge filter, used to purify       both positive and negative
liquids with a low solid-liquid        halves of the sound wave are
ratio; in some instances color         linearly recorded on each of
may be removed as well. {              the two tracks. { ,klas 'a [push
'klar-^ft-ir) ,fil-tsr)                [pul 'satin ,trak)
clarity (CHEM ENG] Measure of          class B push-pull sound
the    amount    of   opaque           track (ENG ACOUS] Two
photographic sound tracks           classifier (MECH ENG] Any
side by side, one of which          apparatus     for    separating
carries the positive half of the    mixtures of materials into their
signal only, and the other the      constituents according to size
negative half; during the           and density. { 'klas-3,fr-3r)
inoperative half-cycle, each
                                    Claude process (CHEM ENG]
track transmits little or no
                                    A process of ammonia
light. { ,klas 'be [push [pul
                                    synthesis which uses high
'satin ,trak)
                                    operating pressures and a
classical mechanics (MECH]          train of converters. { 'klod
Mechanics        based   on         ,pras-as}
Newton's laws of motion. {
                                    clausius (THERMO] A unit of
'klas-s-ksl ms'kan-iks )
                                    entropy equal to the increase
classification      (ENG]      1.   in entropy associated with the
Sorting out or categorizing of      absorption        of      1000
particles     or  objects     by    international table calories of
established criteria, such as       heat at a temperature of I K,
size, function, or color. 2.        or to 4186.8 joules per kelvin.
Stratification of a mixture of      { 'kloz-e-ss )
various-sized particles (that is,
sand and gravel), with the
                                    equation       (THERMO]     An
larger particles migrating to
                                    equation governing phase
the bottom. See grading. {
                                    transitions of a substance,
,klas-3-f3'ka-shsn )
                                    dp/dT = AH/(TAV), in which p
classification track (civ ENG]      is the pressure, T is the
A railroad track used to            temperature at which the
separate cars from a train          phase transition occurs, AH is
according to destination. {         the change in heat content
^las-s-fe'ka-shsn ,trak )           (enthalpy), and AV is the
                                    change in volume during the
classification yard (civ ENG ]
                                    transition. Also known as Cla-
A railroad yard for separating
                                    peyron-Clausius       equation;
trains according to car
                                    Clapeyron equation. { kloz-e-
destination. { .klas-s-fs'ka-
                                    ss kla-pa,ron i,kwa-zhon )
shsn ,yard )
Clausius-Dickel column See          the temperature. { 'kldz-e-ss
thermogravitational       column.   ,16 )
{[kloz-e-ss [dik-sl 'kal-sm )
                                    Clausius number |THERMO] A
Clausius equation (THERMO]          dimensionless number used
An equation of state in             in    the   study     of   heat
reference to gases which            conduction in forced fluid flow,
applies a correction to the van     equal to V3Lp/£AT, where V is
der Waals equation: {P +            the fluid velocity, p is its
(HV[T(V + c) 2 ])) (V - nb) =       density, L is a characteristic
HRT, where P is the pressure,       dimension, k is the thermal
T the temperature, V the            conductivity, and AT is the
volume of the gas, n the            temperature     difference.    {
number of moles in the gas, R       'kloz-e-ss ^sm-bsr)
the gas constant, a depends
                                    Clausius'            statement
only on temperature, Ms a
                                    |THERMO] A formulation of the
constant, andc is a function of
                                    second            law        of
a and b. { 'kloz-e-ss i'kwa-
                                    thermodynamics, stating it is
zhsn )
                                    not possible that, at the end
Clausius             inequality     of a cycle of changes, heat
|THERMO] The principle that         has been transferred from a
for any system executing a          colder to a hotter body without
cyclical process, the integral      producing some other effect. {
over the cycle of the               'kloz-e-ss 'stat-msnt)
infinitesimal amount of heat
                                    Clausius     theorem         See
transferred to the system
                                    Clausius inequality. { 'kloz-e-ss
divided by its temperature is
                                    'thir-sm )
equal to or less than zero.
Also known as Clausius              Claus method |CHEM ENG]
theorem;       inequality     of    Industrial method of obtaining
Clausius. { 'kloz-e-ss in-i'kwal-   sulfur by a partial oxidation of
sd-e )                              gaseous hydrogen sulfide in
                                    the air to give water and
Clausius law |THERMO] The
                                    sulfur. { 'klaus ,meth-3d)
law that an ideal gas's
specific heat at constant           claw |DES ENG] A fork for
volume does not depend on           removing nails or spikes. { klo
)                                   power-driven,           handheld
                                    spade for digging hard soil or
claw bar See ripping bar. {
                                    soft rock. { 'kla ,dig-sr)
'klo ,bar)
                                    clay press | ENG ] A press
claw clutch |MECH ENG] A
                                    used to remove excess water
clutch consisting of claws that
                                    from a pottery-clay slurry. {
interlock     when        pushed
                                    'kla ,pres )
together. { 'klo ,klsch )
                                    clay refining |CHEM ENG] A
claw coupling |MECH ENG] A
                                    treating process for vaporized
loose        coupling having
                                    gasoline       or     other light
projections or claws cast on
                                    petroleum         product;    the
each face which engage in
                                    material is passed through a
corresponding notches in the
                                    bed of granular clay, and
opposite faces; used in
                                    certain olefins are polymerized
situations in which shafts
                                    to gums and absorbed by the
require instant connection. {
                                    clay. { 'kla rs'fin-ig )
'klo ,k3p-lir) )
                                    clay regeneration |CHEM
claw hammer |DES ENG] A
                                    ENG] Cleaning coarse-grained
woodworking hammer with a
                                    absorbent clays for reuse in
flat working surface and a
                                    percolation       processes    by
claw to pull nails. { 'klo ,ham-
                                    deoiling them with naphtha,
                                    steaming out excess naphtha,
clay atmometer [ENG] An             and roasting in a stream of air
atmometer consisting of a           to remove carbonaceous mat-
porous porcelain container          ter. { 'kla ri-jen-s'ra-shsn )
connected to a calibrated
                                    cleaning eye See cleanout. {
reservoir filled with distilled
                                    'klen-ig ,T )
water;       evaporation       is
determined by the depletion         cleaning lane |ENG] A space
of water. { 'kla at'mam-sd-sr)      that is located between
                                    adjacent rows of tubes in a
clay bitA bit designed for use
                                    heat exchanger and allows
on a clay barrel. See mud
                                    passage of a cleaning
auger. { 'kla ,bit)
                                    device. { 'klen-ig ,lan )
clay digger |MECH ENG] A
cleaning turbine |MECH ENG]        ,6g-3r)
A tool for cleaning the interior
                                   clean room [ENG] A room in
surfaces of heat exchangers
                                   which elaborate precautions
and boiler tubes; consists of a
                                   are employed to reduce dust
drive motor, a flexible drive
                                   particles     and         other
cable or hose, and a head that
                                   contaminants in the air, as re-
is an arrangement of blades,
                                   quired for assembly of
modified drill bits, or brushes.
                                   delicate equipment. { 'klen
{ 'klen-ig .tsr-bsn )
                                   ,rum )
cleanout |ENG] A pipe fitting
                                   clean track [ENG ACOUS] A
containing a removable plug
                                   sound      track having no
that provides access for
                                   leakage from other tracks.
inspection or cleaning of the
                                   {[klen [trak)
pipe run. Also known as ac-
cess eye; cleaning eye. {          cleanup [ELECTR] Gradual
'klen,aut)                         disappearance of gases from
                                   an electron tube during
cleanout auger See cleanout
                                   operation, due to absorption
jet auger. { 'klen,aut ,6g-3r)
                                   by getter material or the tube
cleanout door |ENG] An             structure, [ENG] The time
opening in the side of a tank      required for a leak-testing
usually at ground level and        system to reduce its signal
covered by a plate to provide      output to 37% of the signal
access      for    removal  of