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					      Supreme
      Allied
      Commander
      Transformation
                                      Technology for
                                      Information,
      TIDE                            Decision and
                                      Execution superiority


      Network Enabling the Alliance and its partners
      through reuse, collaboration and experimentation
                                                                                1
                                                                 Johan A. Goossens
16 April 2008                               Head, C4 Technology Coordination Branch
     Allied Command Transformation

NATO’s forcing agent
    for change




     NATO’s ambassador for change
     NATO’s car salesmen for change
                                      2
    NATO’s New Ambition

   Rapid Reaction Forces
             =

Rapid Information Processing
   Rapid Decision Making
       Rapid Execution
                               3
Complex Heterogeneous World
              Complex challenges and threats

              Multiple domains:
                   National, alliance, coalition,
                    government, inter-agency,
                    IOs, NGOs

              Multiple cultures and languages

              Variety of policies, doctrine, standards
               and procedures

              Multitude of communication protocols
               and system interfaces

              Heterogeneous IT infrastructure

              Difficult implementation climate
                                                     4
      Information Collection Process
                                Information Systems
                                     Interfacing
                                       Parsing
                                      Mapping
                                     Translating
                  Raw                Correlating
                                                      Information
                  Data                 Routing
                                      Filtering                          Right Information
                                    Summarizing                            Right Format
                                     Calculating           Automated       Right Person
                                      Grouping             Processes        Right Place
                                                                            Right Time
            Interoperability


Issues:

• NATO depends on Nations and partners for data since it doesn’t own many collectors
• Data can/must be accepted in any format (beggars can’t be choosers)
• Computers should perform repetitive and mundane tasks

• More raw data is required to support situational awareness
• We need to start thinking about information acquisition (purchasing)
• Shouldn’t every information stream be real-time?                                      5
                Decision Making Process

                                                              Decision Making
                Knowledge
                                   Understanding
Information
                                          Human
                                         Cognitive
                                         Processes



     Issues:

     • Information systems need to be more intuitive to allow faster knowledge gathering
     • The human factor needs more attention in information system development
     • Humans are the main actors, information technology is just support cast

     • Sense-making in multi-lingual, multi-cultural environment
        How do we develop mental models of the mission space?

     • Do we need information from other domains to make decisions in our world?
                                                                                           6
                      C4ISR Conceptual View
 Human
Processes
                               Decision Superiority
                                                                                     Command
              Understanding/
                                                                                      Control
                                                       Orders/
               Knowledge                                Plans




   Information Superiority                            Execution Superiority

                                                                                     Computers
Automated
                                                                                   Communications
                Information                                      Desired effects
Processes




            NATO Network Enabled Capabilities (NNEC)
                                                                                     Intelligence
                                                                                    Surveillance
                                         Raw Data
                                                                                   Reconnaissance

                 Complex Heterogeneous World

                                                                                   Mapping C4ISR
                                                                                                7
                                                 (1)
                            Definitions
   C4 stands for Command and Control, Communications &
    Computers
   Command and Control refers to the ability of military
    commanders to direct forces. Communications and
    Computers are enablers
   The common variations of this acronym are:
       C²/C&C (Command and Control)
       C²IS (Command and Control Information Systems)
       C³ (Command, Control and Communications)
       C³I (Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence)
       C4 (Command, Control, Communications and Computers)
       C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence,
        Surveillance and Reconnaissance)
       C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence)
       C4I² (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence and
        Interoperability)
       C5I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Combat systems
        and Intelligence)
                                                                              8
Source: Wikipedia
                                             (2)
                          Definitions
   ISTAR stands for Intelligence, Surveillance, Target
    Acquisition and Reconnaissance. It describes methods of
    observing the enemy and one's area of operations

   Variations on this include:
       I (Intelligence)
       S&R (Surveillance and Reconnaissance)
       RSTA (Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition)
       STA (Surveillance and Target Acquisition)
       STAR (Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance)
       ERSTA (Electro-Optical Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target
        Acquisition)
       STANO (Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Night Observation)
       ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance)

                                                                     9
Source: Wikipedia
                                          (3)
                            Definitions

   In NATO, C3 is defined as Consultation, Command &
    Control

   In ACT, C4I means Command, Control, Communications,
    Computers and Intelligence

   In the NATO C3 Agency (NC3A), C3 is defined as
    Consultation, Command & Control but C4ISR is defined as
    defined as Consultation, Command, Control,
    Communications, Intelligence, Reconnaissance and
    Surveillance


                                                          10
Source: NATO HQ, ACT & NC3A Web Sites
TIDE Video




             11
Decision Wall
    Feb 2004




            12
Allied Action 2004 - Decision Wall




                                     13
        Operation Distinguished Games 2004
                                            Providing…
                                            •A land and maritime fused
                                            operational picture
                                            •A common air picture
                                            •A running event log
                                            •The CJTF homepage playing
                                            latest brief in sequence




…but highly flexible, and able to
 • Overlay geo and satellite images with
 COP data
 • Pull information feeds from across the
 NATO network
 • Be rapidly reconfigured to respond to
 commander’s information requirements
                                                                     14
Interactive Decision Wall




                            15
                                   The Technology Curve
                            Research   Bleeding    Leading    Mainstream   Obsolescence
                                         Edge       Edge
Operational Effectiveness




                                                       Where
       Total Cost




                                                         is
                                                        your
                                                      comfort
                                                       zone?

                                                   As short as 2 years

                                             Technology Maturity
(not scientific)                                                                          16
                                   The Technology Curve
                            Research    Bleeding    Leading     Mainstream   Obsolescence
                                          Edge       Edge
Operational Effectiveness
       Total Cost




                             R&D       Transformation         Operations

                                              Technology Maturity
(not scientific)                                                                            17
Tug of War (4 domains, 26 partners)

                                   Political
                                   Domain




                 Technology


Transformation                             Operations
   Domain                                   Domain




                              Implementation
                                 Domain

                                                        18
                                     Information Technology Revolution
                                     Artificial Intelligence                Intelligence agents                                         Knowledge networks           The
                                                                                                              Enterprise minds                                      Global
                                     Personal Assistance                                                                                                            Brain
                                                                            Semantic web                     Group minds           Smart marketplace


                                                    Semantic Web                                                              The Metaweb
Degree of Information Connectivity




                                                   Connects Knowledge                                                     Connects Intelligence
                                     Ontologies                                                           Semantic blogs
                                                                           Knowledge bases                                                “Relationship” web
                                     Taxonomies                   Knowledge management                                                      Decentralized communities


                                                               Information management                                                  Wikis
                                     Search engines                                                                                                 Syndication
                                                                                                             Marketplace auctions
                                     Content portal             Enterprise portals                                                                        Community portals
                                                                                         Web sites
                                                                                                             Blogs
                                                          The Web                                                           Social Software
                                                   Connects Information                                                       Connects People
                                     Databases
                                                                                                              Groupware
                                     File server
                                                                                                                                                 Social networks
                                                                           Email       Conferencing               Instant messaging

                                                                                   Degree of Social Connectivity                                                              19
                                                   Adopted from “Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything” by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams
                                   Teenagers
         IM/KM Tools
                                   NATO Investments
Collaboration Tools         Information Storage Tools

• Email, chat, VTC           • Document Management
• Instant messaging          • Databases (e.g. geo)
• White-boarding             • Portals
• Application sharing        • Wikis
• Blogs, bulletin boards     • YouTube
• Social networking

Training Tools              Search & Discovery Tools

• Computer Based Training    • Search engines
• Distance learning          • Publish & subscribe
• Gaming                     • Symantec mapping
                                                       20
                 Information Revolution
                       Change in Needs (Information Superiority)
                       Change in Expectations (Desire to Share)
                     Change in Scale & Tempo (Global & Immediate)




                                                          Digital
                       Technology
Analog                                                   Warriors
                        Nomads                            (need to share)
Warriors
(need to know)




                                                                            21
    TIDE: A case for Practical NNEC (1)

Large scale problem
Significant IT component
Rapid technology turnover
Incremental implementation

              The NNEC Challenge

Service unique requirements
Resulting in “stovepiping”
Reuse is critical strategy
                                   Stovepipes   22
       TIDE: A case for Practical NNEC (2)



     Sprints          Stovepipes   are turned into “Cylinders of Excellence”

Technology for Information. Decision and Execution superiority (TIDE)


                                     Powerful
                                    Capabilities




                                                             NNEC Now!    23
           TIDE Consortium Vision

   The TIDE Consortium aims to rapidly improve NATO’s
    Information Technology (IT) capabilities in order to achieve
    intended effects and to counter any potential threat in an ever-
    changing global environment.

   The TIDE Consortium will work closely with existing NATO and
    national initiatives to coherently achieve information, decision and
    execution superiority in a network enabled environment.

   The TIDE Consortium will focus on trust relationships to improve
    inter-organization collaboration and information exchange.

   The TIDE Consortium will use an evolutionary spiral methodology
    to deliver powerful, flexible, human-friendly, cost effective and
    sustainable capabilities through experimentation and innovative
    capability delivery mechanisms.

                                                                           24
                   TIDE Strategies

   Create a cooperative climate between stakeholders (“the
    sandbox”) for horizontal and vertical integration of functional
    services breaking down traditional stovepipe barriers

   Assist in developing a network-enabled service-oriented
    architecture facilitating global deployment, alliance/coalition
    interoperability and plug & play reconfiguration

   Rapidly improve operational information system capabilities like
    Situational Awareness, Decision Support and Collaboration
    through spiral development, experimentation and technology
    insertion

   Improve effectiveness of automated and human
    interfaces/processes through cognitive science experimentation
    and application of leading-edge cognitive analysis methods and
    processes
                                                                       25
How can we expect information systems
    to communicate with each others
 if the humans behind these systems
don’t communicate and/or collaborate?




                                        26
 How do we Capitalize on the
Power of Human Collaboration?




            One of the first Sprints
                                       27
TIDE Sprints




               28
                TIDE Sprint Rules

   Avoid “Death by PowerPoint”

   You are here to work; not just to “lurk”

   Contribute your knowledge and experience


   Collaborate, collaborate and collaborate
                                               29
                   Sprint Tracks
   Technology Track
       Coordinator/moderator: Mr. Mark Postal

   Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA) Track
       Coordinator/moderator: Mrs. Tracy Cheasley

   Operational Command & Control (C2) Track
       Coordinator/moderator: Mr. Johan Goossens

   WISE for ISAF Track
       Coordinator/moderator: Dr. Gernot Friedrich
                                                      30
        Transportation infrastructure:
            Terrorist target of choice
  AIR              RAIL                    BUS




                 MADRID                  LONDON
                    CAR                    RAIL




NEW YORK          EGYPT                  LONDON
                                                  31
         From the Sea …




It’s not about if… it’s about when!
                                      32
                 Inter-Agency and Inter-National exchanges
  Ministerial Departments          Inter-Agency Integration


    Justice

ForeignAffairs

   Interior

                                                      Functional Integration
  MOD/Navy

 Agriculture/
   Fishery

  Transport

  Economy/
  Customs

   Police
                                                              Multinational
                                                              Cooperation
                                                                           33
         MSA Information Architecture
MSSIS Phase I: Shared Network          MSSIS Phase II: NATO Networks
         Non-classified                NATO Unclassified
         Subscriber Network            Operational Data (U)      Data      Alerts
                                                                Fusion,     (U)
                                                               Display &
               Server                   Contracted Data (U)
                                                               Analysis    Reports
                                       Open Source Data (U)     Tool (U)     (U)

 AIS/Radar                    Client
data sources                  sites

                                       NATO Secret

                                       HISL, C/VOI Lists (C)     Data      Alerts
                                                                Fusion,     (C)
                                       Operational Data (C)    Display &
                                                               Analysis    Reports
                                       Intelligence Data (C)
                                                                Tool (C)     (C)

                                            MCCIS (C)
                                              RMP                                   34
Sense-Making Experimentation
                      Multi-National
            MNE 5     Experiment 5




                                       35
                 NURC - Partnering for Maritime Innovation

 Multi Sensor
  Tracking &
    Fusion

AIS, SAR and
maritime radar
data fusion

Examples of
“anomalies”:
-Radar without
SAR or AIS
-SAR without AIS                                             36
Intelligent Decision Aids




                            37
Intelligent Decision Aids




                            38
          Measuring Success

                 Capability


  Management                  Training




Friendliness                     Quality




   Maintenance                Cost

                  Reuse


                                           39
Just one more thing . . .




                            40

				
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