Teori Vygotsky

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Biographical Sketch

       1896 - 1933
• Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky lahir th. 1896
  sama dengan Piaget
• Usia 15 th. dikenal sbg. “the little professor” ….
  memimpin diskusi/perdebatan
• Th.1913-1917 masuk Moskow University,
  mula2 di FK (krn ayahnya) tapi langsung
  pindah ke FH.
• Waktu yg bersamaan belajar juga di
  Shaniavsky University utk. Prog. Sejarah
  & Filsafat
• Tahun 1917 tamat dari kedua universitas
  di bidang Hukum dan Sejarah/Filsafat
• Mendapatkan Ph.D dari Shaniavsky
  University dgn disertasi mengenai Hamlet
• Th. 1924 bertemu Alexander Luria seorang
  psikolog Rusia

  mulai berkarya/
  dikenal di bid. Psikologi
   • antara lain:
   •   Ann Brown
   •   Michael Cole
   •   Bronfenbrenner
   •   Bruner
   •   Cohen & Siegel
   •   Rogoff
“adult collective is responsible for sharing
 its knowledge with children and other less
  advanced members of society in order to
    advance their cognitive development”

“human thought can be understood only by
          examining its history”
  “there can be conflict between developing
psychological structures, between currently held
 concepts and a new one, between the child and
             her environment, etc.”

         PROCESS                DEVELOPMENT
                • Th. 1930 ia mulai
                  ditangkap oleh Stalin
                  dgn. tuduhan sbg.
                  “bourgeois psychologist”
                  …. pengikut Piaget &
                  psikolog barat

menderita TBC   • Meninggal dlm usia 37
                  tahun (1933)

 • “Thought and
   Language” (1934/1962)

 • “The Collected Works of
   L.S. Vygotsky” (1987)
  Teori Vygotsky: Orientasi Umum

• Contextualist
   “human are embedded in social matrix
  (context) and human behavior cannot be
   understood independently of this matrix”

• Pandangan (Barat) saat itu
     “individual … separate from their
     social and physical environments”
         Karakteristik Umum

     1. The child-in-activity-in-context
              as the unit of study
      2. Zone of proximal development
  3. The social-cultural origins of mental
4. The mediation of intellectual functioning
          by tools provided by culture
       1. Child-in-activity-in-context
              as the unit study

• Pandangan “contextualist” thd. anak’
    “a child is not a constant, universal
     organism operating in a vacuum.”

 “… the mind is inherently social: the path
   from object to child and from child to
  object passes through another person.”
“the child, the other person, and the social
     context are fused in some activity.:

  “the social-cultural-historical contexts
   defines and shapes any particular child
            and his experience.”
  “at the same time children affect their
• Arti “context”
 “the environment as system        Messosystem
of nested structures, ranging
                                   Exosystem
from the immediate
face-to-face interaction
                                   Macrosystem
with another person to             Microsystem
general, all-encompassing
 cultural beliefs systems”
“Culture is both a product of its own history
   and a provider of contexts that shapes
 children’s development and, consequently,
           the future of the culture”

• “Culture”                  • What children think about
                               & acquire skills in
                             • How they acquire
“shared beliefs, values,
                               information & skills
knowledge, skills,
                             • When in development
structured,relationships,      children are allowed to
ways of doing things,          participate in certain
Symbol system, physical        activities
setting, & objects”          • Who is allowed to
                               in certain activities
• Culture organizes the child’s everyday

• “… it provides artifacts that mediate
   between people and their physical
  2. Zone of Proximal Development

The distance between a child’s “actual
development level as determined by
independent problem solving” and the
higher level of “potential development as
determined through problem solving under
adult guidance or in collaboration with
more capable peers”.
• “learning awakens a variety of internal development
  processes that are able to operate only when the child is
  interacting with people in his environment and in
  cooperation with his peers.”
• “the more skilled adult builds on the competencies the
  child has and presents him with activities supporting a
  level of competence slightly beyond where the child is
• “ children in various cultures learn skills valued by the
  culture by observing others and responding to their
  informal instruction.”
                          Prompts          Explanation
Adults or
                          Clues            Leading
“more                     Modeling        Questions
  capable     provides          Discussions
peers”                           Joint participation
                    “user friendly” context that helps
                    children perfect skills needed to
                    survive in the culture”
B     • Pandangan dasar:
E     “should be based on children’s potential
L       level more than on their actual level”
      • Bentuk:
               • Reciprocal teaching
R              • Guided participation
A                 • Apprenticeship
 3. Socio-cultural origins of individual mental
 functioning: The intermental constructs the

“… it appears first between people as an
 intermental category, and then within the
 child as an intramental category…”

 4. Intellectual functioning is mediated by
         tools provided by a culture
• “Peers and adults assist in this self-shaping process by
  helping children learn how to use their culture’s
  psychological and technical tools”

• “Psychological tools transform the elementary mental
  functions into higher mental functions”

• “elementary mental functions” = mental abilities
  common with animals
  “higher mental functions” = voluntary attention,
  logical & abstract thinking
  Psychological tools
  • Language system
  • Counting system            “internal oriented
       • Writing            toward changing ways
      • Diagrams            of thinking, controlling
        • Maps                   and organizing
 • Conventional signs              behavior”
     • Work of art
• Strategies for learning
Technical tools
     • Computers
    • Calculators
    • Typewriters     “externally oriented
        • Etc           towards changing

   physical devices
• Elementary mental functions are controlled by
  external stimuli, such as when perception and
  attention are elicited by a physical object.

• Higher mental functions use language and other
  symbol systems to voluntarily think about these
  objects and use them to solve problems.
Distributed or Shared Cognition

• “culture’s tools connect children through their
  activities, with the physical and social world”

• “a culture creates these tools to help people
  master the environment, the favored tools are
  passed on to children during social interchanges,
  and in turn the tools shape children’s minds.”

• Dynamic assessment
  “directly measures children’s readiness or potential for
  learning, rather than the products of previous learning”.

 “what children can do with the assistance of others is a
 better reflection of their intellectual ability than what they
 can do alone”.

              a child “is” what he “can be”