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					Romanesque
Architecture
 Architectural History
      ACT 322
    Doris Kemp
                    Topics
   Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
   Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures
   Romanesque Architecture
   Romanesque Architecture: Early Romanesque in
    Germany and Normandy
     Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
   After the move of the seat of the Roman
    Empire to Constantinople, the Greco-Roman
    culture went into collapse
     Latin was displaced as the common language
     Disintegration of Roman law

     Cessation of urban life

     A major decline in monumental art and architecture
    Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
   Charlemagne
     King of the Franks who vowed to restore the
      Roman culture to its height
     Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Roman pope
      on Christmas Day, 800 A.D.
     Carolingian Renaissance
         Latin for Charles the Great (Charlemagne)
         Renewal of the Latin language, literature, art, and
          architecture
         Birth of Pre-Romanesque architecture
    Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
   Pre-Romanesque
       Architecture looked back to Rome in its glory days
          The style was never recaptured despite the effort
          Structures were reinterpretations of antiquity, forward-
           looking and innovative
          Non-Roman qualities of abstraction, fragmentation, and
           volumetric energy
        Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
                  Structures
   Traits of Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
    structures:
     Strongly defined spatial units
     Chains of modular construction

     fragmentation
        Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
                  Structures
   Palatine Chapel
     c. 796 – 805
     Located at Charlemagne's palace at Aachen

     Domed

     Double-shelled

     Two-storied octagon plan

     Monumental façade
        Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
                  Structures
   Palatine Chapel
       Reminiscent of early
        Christian and Byzantine
        Architecture
       Was a rebuilt version of S.
        Vitale
            One of the most
             impressive of late antique
             Roman structures



                                          Photo: Sullivan
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
          Structures




                     Photo: Sullivan
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
          Structures




                     Photo: Sullivan
        Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
                  Structures
   St. Riquier
       Transformed the fundamental concept of the early
        Christian basilica
            More complex, composed of many independent group
             formations
       Powerful vertical massings at both ends
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
          Structures




                   Photo: Sullivan
        Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
                  Structures
   Gatehouse/Torhalle
     Located in Lorsch, Germany
     c. 767 – 774

     Saddle-roofed central block flanked by twin vertical
      stair towers
     Features a chapel originally dedicated to St. Michael

     Resembles Roman triumphal arches
         Two-storied facades
         Richly ornamented
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
          Structures




                     Photo: Sullivan
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
          Structures




                     Photo: Sullivan
        Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
                  Structures
   Germigny-des-Pres
       Located on the Loire
        River
       c. 806
       Reflects the influences of
        both Byzantium and
        Islam




                                     Photo: Sullivan
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
          Structures




                     Photo: Sullivan
        Carolingian Pre-Romanesque:
                  Structures
   The main aspects of the standard monastery
    were conceived during the Carolingian period
       St. Gall plan
          Ideal architectural plan of a traditional monastery
          Was never built

          Plan included:
                A small city featuring a medical center and a cemetery
                U-shaped corridor to provide orderly traffic flow
         Romanesque Architecture
   Charlemagne’s death in 814 led to a dark century
    for Europe due ton invaders
       Slavic, Magyar, Arab pirates, and Vikings
   When the invasions ceased economic conditions
    improved
       Cultural revival and religious enthusiasm brought
        about a wave of church-building
             Romanesque Architecture:
       Early Romanesque in Germany and
                   Normandy
   Imperial Romanesque (Germany)
       Antithetical tendencies
          Conservative and nostalgic
          Looked back fondly to the works of Charlemagne

          Inventive and progressive

          Drew on early Christian, imperial Roman, and Byzantine
           models
        Romanesque Architecture:
      Early Romanesque in Germany and
                   Normandy
   Munster Cathedral
     Located in Essen, Germany
     Late 10th century

     Retrospective, loosely based on St. Riquier and St.
      Gall
     Freedom in design and energy that contrast with the
      perfectionist spirit of the cathedral’s Byzantine
      models and the determination of Charlemagne's
      architecture
 Romanesque Architecture:
Early Romanesque in Germany and
          Normandy




                         Photo: Sullivan
           Romanesque Architecture:
         Early Romanesque in Germany and
                   Normandy
   St. Michael’s Cathedral
       Located at Hildesheim,
        Germany
       More contemporary style
        than at Munster
       Square schematic
       c. 1001 - 1033




                                  Photo: Sullivan
            Romanesque Architecture:
       Early Romanesque in Germany and
                    Normandy
   Imperial Cathedral of Speyer
     Located in Speyer, Germany
     c. 1030 – 1060

     Built by Emperor Konrad II

     Impressive wall articulation
         Crucial for the development of Romanesque architecture
         Wall shaped into powerful multilayer configuration
 Romanesque Architecture:
Early Romanesque in Germany and
          Normandy




                         Photo: Sullivan
             Romanesque Architecture:
       Early Romanesque in Germany and
                 Normandy
   Norman Romanesque
       In the early tenth century the Vikings settled in
        Normandy, France
            Buildings in Normandy were crucial to the development
             in France
           Romanesque Architecture:
         Early Romanesque in Germany and
                   Normandy
   Mont-Saint-Michael
       Medieval shrine in
        Normandy, France
       Norman counterpart to
        the Speyer Cathedral in
        Germany




                                  Photo: Sullivan
            Romanesque Architecture:
       Early Romanesque in Germany and
                   Normandy
   Abbey Church of Notre Dame de Jumieges
     Notable for the immense height of its crossing tower
     Facade was derived from Carolingian westwork
      tradition
         Central structure was set forward between twin bases of
          square towers that rise as octagons above lines of the roof
         Set precedence for the twin-towered facades that
          dominated the exteriors of the major French Gothic
          cathedrals
 Romanesque Architecture:
Early Romanesque in Germany and
          Normandy




                         Photo: Sullivan
 Romanesque Architecture:
Early Romanesque in Germany and
          Normandy




                 Photo: Sullivan
                     References
   Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/
   http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
   Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to
    Postmodernity
   Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture
Romanesque
Architecture
 Architectural History
      ACT 322
    Doris Kemp

				
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