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  OBSEVABLE UNIVERSE LINKED TO QUR-AN
                           Hussain Y. I. Omari

                 Physics Dept./ Mutah Univ./ JORDAN

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hubble Ultra Deep Field image of a region of the observable universe
(equivalent sky area size shown in bottom left corner), near the
constellation Fornax. Each spot is a galaxy, consisting of billions of stars.
The light from the smallest, most redshifted galaxies originated roughly
13 billion years ago.

In Big Bang cosmology, the observable universe consists of the galaxies
and other matter that we can in principle observe from Earth in the
present day, because light (or other signals) from those objects has had
time to reach us since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
Assuming the Universe is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the
observable universe is roughly the same in every direction—that is, the
observable universe is a spherical volume (a ball) centered on the
observer, regardless of the shape of the Universe as a whole. The actual
shape of the Universe may or may not be spherical. However, the
portion of it that we (humans, from the perspective of planet Earth) are
able to observe is determined by whether or not the light and other signals
originating from distant objects has had time to arrive at our point of
observation (planet Earth). Therefore, the observable universe appears
from our perspective to be spherical. Every location in the Universe has
its own observable universe which may or may not overlap with the one
centered around the Earth.

The word observable used in this sense does not depend on whether
modern technology actually permits detection of radiation from an object
in this region (or indeed on whether there is any radiation to detect). It
simply indicates that it is possible in principle for light or other signals
from the object to reach an observer on Earth. In practice, we can see
objects only as far as the surface of last scattering, before which the
Universe was opaque to photons.

The hot state is indicated by:

) َ‫(صُم اعزَُِ إِلَّ الغمبء ٌَٓ دُخبنٌ فَمَابَ لٍَاب َلِاألسض اِئزَِٕاب ًََُااب وََ رشٌااب لَبلَزَاب وَرَٕىَاب ََابئِ ِ ٕه‬
                   ْ                   َْ ْ       ْ         ْ ِ ْ َ َ َ                   َ َ ِ َ ِ َ َّ        َ ْ َّ
                                                                                                   .] 11 ‫[ـصٍّذ آ٠خ‬

                           .‫(لَبلَزَب وَرَٕىَب ََبئِ ِ ٕهَ ) : عٍٝ اٌفٛس. (الغمبء ٌَٓ دُخبنٌ ) رىٛٔذ عٍٝ اٌفٛس‬
                                        ّ        َ َ ِ َ ِ َ َّ                                ْ

Allâh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama
(upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to
Ardh (lower - interior - part of the Universe; not earth): 'Come ye,
willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing
obedience'." (Surah 41, Verse 11).
At early stages, the Universe was hot and opaque as indicated by the
verse: "and it had been smoke".

However, it may be possible in the future to observe the still older
neutrino background, or even more distant events via gravitational waves
(which also move at the speed of light). Sometimes a distinction is made
between the visible universe, which includes only signals emitted since
the last scattering time, and the observable universe, which includes
signals since the beginning of the cosmological expansion (the Big Bang
in traditional cosmology, the end of the inflationary epoch in modern
cosmology).

According to the Big Bang model, the Universe expanded from an
extremely dense and hot state and continues to expand today. The dense
and hot initial state is indicated by the verses:

‫ٚرؤوذ ا٢٠بد ٚاألؽبد٠ش أْ اٌغّّٛاد ٚاألسض وبٔزب سرمب ً عٕذ ثذا٠خ اٌخٍك (وََلَم َٔش الَّزٔهَ رفَاشَا‬
    ُ َ ِ َ ْ َ                                                                               َّ                       ّ
) َ‫وَنَّ الغ امبَاد َاََسض ربوَزَااب سرماااب فَفَزَمىَبٌمااب َا َنىَااب اااهَ الماابء ر اَ َلاآء َ اآ وَفَ ا َ ُٔ ْ اىُااُن‬
         ِ                     ‫ْ ُ َ َ َ ْ ِ ْ َ ِ ُ َّ َ ْ م‬                            َْ         َ َ ْ ْ َ ِ َ َ َّ
                                                                 َّ
                          .)‫[األٔج١بء 03]. ٚأِب ا٢ْ ـٙٓ ثغػ ٚـزك (عّشٞ 4002 : األسظْٛ اٌغّجع‬
                                                                          ّ
"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper
part of universe) and the Ardh (lower - interior - part of the
Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove
asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).
The Arabic word (Ratq), implies that at early stages of Universe, matter
used to have smeared and continuous mass distribution with high density,
and both matter and radiation were coupled together. Later on, God clove
them asunder (Fatq): Implying that matter had started clumping and
holding together to help forming seven distinct firmaments (Samawat)
and seven interior levels of Ardh (very likely to be seven distinct shell-
like fences of dark matter). Also, later the universe became transparent,
and matter is no more coupled to radiation (Fatq). Consequently Sama
(Upper part of Universe) and Ardh (Interior part of Universe) are
decoupled; each into seven distinct and probably concentric spherical
shells.       The seven Ardhean (plural of Ardh: Ground) mentioned by
authentic hadiths (Prophet's sayings) are seven distinct levels.                                                     It is
possible that galaxies and clusters of galaxies are distributed over
Ardhean. As such, Ardhean represent a major part of the cosmic dark
matter that supports forming gravitationally bounded galaxies and
clusters (Omari, 2002; Omari, 2004; Omari, 2004).




The Sculptor Wall:The map below is a slice of the universe which shows
the Sculptor Wall. This map is a plot of 7400 bright galaxies (from the
HyperLeda database) in the vicinity of the Sculptor Wall. Our galaxy is at
the bottom and the top of the map is 800 million light years away. The
red line shows the Sculptor Wall which is sometimes called the Southern
Wall. The wall is faint beyond 500 million light years because the data is
incomplete beyond that distance. Notice that the nearest part of the wall
(the Phoenix supercluster) lies next to a large rectangular void. This is
called the Sculptor Void, and it is one of the largest voids in the nearby
universe (http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/superc/sclphe.html).
A Slice of the Universe: By collecting distances to thousands of galaxies
in a narrow strip of the sky, it is possible to produce a slice of the
universe, like this one shown below from The 2dF Galaxy Redshift
Survey which looks out into the universe to 3.5 billion light years,
although not much data was collected for galaxies beyond 3 billion light
years. These types of plots show how clustered the galaxies in the
universe really are, even on the largest scales. About 52 000 galaxies are
plotted.

Inflation is indicated by the verses:

‫- (َالغمبء ثَىَٕىَبٌَب ثِإَٔٔذ َإِوَّاب لَمُعا ُُنَ * َاَسض فَشَلْاىَبٌَب فَاىِ ْ م المبٌاذَُنَ * َااهْ راَ َلَآء‬
‫َ ِ ُ ِّ ْ م‬             ِ َْ َ                    َ َ ْ َ           ِ ُ          َ ‫ْ م‬           ْ َ َ َّ َ
                                                              ّ                      ُ َّ َ ْ ُ ِ ْ َ ْ
                                                       .[‫خنَمىَب صَ َإه لَ َنَّكم رَزرشَنَ ) ] 74-94 الزاسٔبد‬ ْ َ
                 Observable_universe_atlasoftheuniverse.gif‎

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed
Have vast power; to create the vastness of Sama and Space and
continue to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground;
interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the
galaxies -: How excellently We do spread out * And of everything We
have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction " (Surah No. 51,
verse 47- 49).

The age of the Universe is about 13.7 billion years, but due to the
expansion of space we are now observing objects that are now
considerably farther away than a static 13.7 billion light-years distance.
The edge of the observable universe is now located about 46.5 billion
light-years away, giving an observable diameter of 93 billion light-
years.[1]

The vast majority of the energy density is believed to be composed of
dark matter and dark energy. This is likely indicated by the verse: And
of everything We have created pairs (like: {Dark energy, energy},
{Dark matter, matter}, {particle, antiparticle}).




The Universe versus the observable universe

While special relativity constrains objects in the Universe from moving
faster than the speed of light with respect to each other, there is no such
constraint when space itself is expanding. This means that the size of the
observable universe could be smaller than the entire universe; there
are some parts of the Universe which might never be close enough for the
light to overcome the speed of the expansion of space, in order to be
observed on Earth. Some parts of the Universe which are currently
observable may later be unobservable due to ongoing expansion. [2][3]

               )38-39 ْ‫(فَ َ وُلغم ثِمب رُجصشَنَ * َاب ََل رُجصشَنَ ) (اٌؾبلخ ط 96، ا٢٠زب‬
                                                ُ ِ ْ      َ َ     ُ ِ ْ َ ُ ِ ْ

(So I do call to witness what ye see * And what ye see not,) (S. 69, V.
38-39)
Some parts of the Universe may simply be too far away for the light from
there to have reached Earth. Due to the expansion of space, at a later time
they could be observed.

        .]10-11 ْ‫(فَبسرَمِت َُٔم رَأْرِٓ الغمبء ثِذُخبن اجِٕه* َٔغشَّ الىَّبط ٌزا ًزاة وَلِٕم) [اٌذخب‬
                   ّ     ٌ ٌ ََ ََ َ                ْ ‫َّ َ ُ َ م ُ م‬                  َ ْ ْ ْ

(Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will bring forth a kind of
smoke (or mist) plainly visible * Enveloping the people: this will be a
Penalty Grievous.) (S. 44, V. 10-11)

Both popular and professional research articles in cosmology often use
the term "Universe" to mean "observable universe". This can be justified
on the grounds that we can never know anything by direct
experimentation about any part of the Universe that is causally
disconnected from us, although many credible theories require a total
Universe much larger than the observable universe. No evidence exists to
suggest that the boundary of the observable universe corresponds
precisely to the physical boundary of the universe (if such a boundary
exists);

Qur-an declares that a boundary does exist for an observable
universe that is relatively very small compared to the total universe:

         . 32 ُ‫- (َا َنىَب الغمبء عمفاب احفُُظاب ٌَم ًَهْ آَٔبرٍِب ا ْ شضُنَ ) عٛسح األٔج١بء آ٠خ سل‬
                                         ُ ِ ُ َ              ُْ َ      ْ َ ْ َ َ َ َّ     ْ َ َ
(And We have made the Sama (Firmaments) as a canopy well
guarded: yet do they turn away from the Signs which these things
(point to)!) (S. 21, . 32)
 .6 ُ‫- (وَفَنَم َٔىظُشَا إِلَّ الغمبء فَُلٍَم رْٕفَ ثَىَٕىَبٌَب َصَ َّٔىَّبٌَب َاب لٍَب اهْ فُشَج) عٛسح ق آ٠خ سل‬
                    ‫ُ م‬     ِ َ َ َ                 َ       ْ         َ ْ ُ ْ ِ َ َّ           ُ ْ ْ
(Do they not look at the Sama (firmament, sky) above them? How
We have constructed it and adorned it, and there are no flaws in it?)
(S. 50, V. 6)
                              . 27 ُ‫- (وَوَوزُم وََلذ خنماب وَم الغمبء ثَىَبٌَب * ) عٛسح إٌبصعبد آ٠خ سل‬
                                                                      ُ َ َّ ْ ْ َ ُّ َ ْ ْ
(What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the heaven (above)?
(Allah) hath constructed it * On high hath He raised its canopy, and
He hath given it order and perfection.) (S. 79, V. 27-28)

This is exceedingly unlikely in that it would imply that Earth is exactly at
the center of the Universe, in violation of the Copernican principle. I do
not agree with this statement. The Earth is very close to the first
firmament (boundary of observable universe) (Omari 2002).

It is likely that the galaxies within our visible universe represent only a
minuscule fraction of the galaxies in the Universe. According to the
theory of cosmic inflation and its founder, Alan Guth, the lower bound
for the diameter of the entire Universe could be at least in the range of
1023 to 1026 times as large as the observable universe.

This is very likely the case according to Qur-an:

                                                                            ‫واضاء الكُن الغٕش اشئٕخ‬
                               :ٌٟ‫ٟٚ٘ ِٓ اٌذاخً (األصؽش) إٌٝ اٌخبسط (األوجش) عٍٝ إٌؾٛ اٌزب‬
                                                              :)Firmaments( ‫الغمبَاد الغجع‬
   .12 ُ‫- (فَمَضبٌُهَّ عجع عمبَاد فِٓ َُٔإه َوََ َ ّ فِٓ رَ عمبء وَاشٌَب) عٛسح ـصٍذ آ٠خ سل‬
                             َ ْ ‫ُ ِّ َ َ م‬       ْ َ ِ َْ ْ      ‫َْ َ َ َ َ م‬     َ
(So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days and He
assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the
lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the
Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.) (S. 41, V.
12)

ْ‫(الَّزْ خنَك عجع عمبَاد َجَبلاب اب رَشِ فِٓ خنك الش ْ مبن اهْ رَفَبَد فَبساع الجَصش ٌَ رَشِ ااه‬
   ِ َ َْ َ َ ْ ْ ِ ْ ‫ُ م‬            ِ ِ َ َّ ِ ْ َ          َ َ          ِ ‫ِ َ َ َْ َ َ َ َ م‬
‫فُطُُس * صُم اساع الجَصش رشرَٕه َٔىمَنِت إِلَٕكَ الجَصش خبعئاب ٌَُُ َ غٕش) [ اٌٍّكه 4-3]. رشك١ش ا٢٠كخ‬
                            ٌ ِ َ َ ِ َ ُ َ ْ ْ ْ                     ِ ْ َّ َ َ َ ْ ْ ِ ْ َّ ‫م‬
                                              ّ
                                       .‫) ألٞ رفبٚد‬Optical( ‫إٌٝ أعذاَ إِىبٔ١خ اٌشؤ٠خ اٌجصش٠خ‬
[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above
another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of
(Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?
[4] Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to
thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.
‫- (َثَىَٕىَب فَُلَكم عج اب َلذَاداا) ] 21 إٌجك [ . ٠ش٠كذ عكجع عكّبٚاد لٛ٠ّكخ اٌخٍكك ِؾىّكخ اٌجٕكبء، ٌٚٙكزا‬
                     ُ                                                        ِ َْ ُْ ْ ْ َ
                                                                            َّ ِّ
‫ٚصفٙب ثبٌشذح (اٌمشغجٟ، اٌغبِع ألؽىبَ اٌمشآْ. ط 91، ص211 ؛ أثٛ ؽ١ّكبْ، اٌجؾكش اٌّؾك١ػ. ط‬
                                                                                        .)384 ‫01، ص‬
(And (have We not) built over you the seven Firmaments,) (S. 78, V.
12)
                  . [ِْٕٛ‫- (َلَمَذ خنَمىَب فَُلَكم عجع ََشائِك َاب رىَّب ًَهْ الخنك غبفِنِٕهَ ) ] 71 اٌّؤ‬
                                             َ ِ َْ ْ         ُ َ َ َ َ َ َْ ُْ ْ ْ َ ْ َ
(And We have made, above you, seven firmaments; and We are
never unmindful of (Our) Creation) (S. 23, V. 17)
‫ٚاٌطّشائك ٟ٘ اٌطّجمبد ثععُٙب ـٛق ثعكط أٚ ٚساء ثعكط (اٌمشغجكٟ، اٌغكبِع ألؽىكبَ اٌمكشآْ. ط‬
‫21، ص 57 ؛ اثكٓ وض١كش، رفغك١ش اٌمكشآْ اٌعمك١ُ. َ 3 ، ص 523 ؛ األٔذٌغكٟ اٌؽشٔكبغٟ، إٌٙكش‬
‫اٌّبد ِٓ اٌجؾش اٌٝ اٌّؾ١ػ. َ 4 ص 612-712؛ اٌعّكبدٞ، أثكٟ اٌغكعٛد، رفغك١ش أثكٟ اٌغكعٛد، ط‬
         .‫6، ص 721). ٌّٚب وبْ اٌجٕبء خبٌ١ب ً ِٓ اٌفطٛس ٚاٌشمٛق ـئُّٔٗ ال ثُذ ثٕبء لٌّٛٞ ِزّبعه‬
                       ٌ َّ                  ُّ                     ُ           ّ
ُ‫- (ٌُُ الَّزْ خنَك الغمبَاد َاََسض فِٓ عزَّخ ؤََّبم صُم اعزَُِ ًنَّ ال َشػ) عٛسح اٌؾذ٠ذ آ٠خ سلك‬
                      ِ ْ ْ     َ َ ْ َّ ‫ِ ِ م‬                 َ ْ ْ َ ِ َ َ َّ َ َ ِ َ
                                                                                                       .4
( He it is Who created the firmaments and the Ardh (dark matter;
not earth) in six Days, and is moreover firmly established on the
Throne (of authority).) (S. 57, V. 4)
‫َاه ٌزا المجَٕ امٕع أٖبد الزٓ رزحذّس ًاه خنَاك الغامبَاد َاََسض فِآ عازَّخ ؤََّابم. فابلمشاد‬
          ‫ِ ِ م‬                َ ْ ْ َ ِ َ َ َّ َ َ
                                                          .‫اىٍب ٌُ الغمُاد الغجع َاَسضٕه الغجع‬
                                                             ّ             ّ
The Day here after, The Samawat (Firmaments) will be cracked:
                                                                                               َ
                            . 37 ُ‫(فَإِرا اوشمَّذْ الغمبء فَكبوَذْ َسدحا ربلذٌَبن) عٛسح اٌشؽّٓ آ٠خ سل‬
                                                      ِ ِّ َ َ ْ َ        َ ُ َ َّ        َ
(When the sky is rent asunder, and it becomes red like ointment) (S.
55, V. 37)
                                    .16 ُ‫(َاوشمَّذْ الغمبء فٍَٓ َُٔائِز َإٌَخٌ) عٛسح اٌؾبلخ آ٠خ سل‬
                                                                 ِ َ ‫َّ َ ُ ِ َ ْ َ م‬         َ َ
‫.‪(And the sky will be rent asunder, for it will that Day be flimsy,) (S‬‬
‫)61 .‪69, V‬‬
                                                                                                ‫َ‬
                                                  ‫(إِرا الغمبء اوفَطَشدْ ) عٛسح االٔفطبس آ٠خ سلُ 1 .‬
                                                                                ‫َ‬       ‫َّ َ ُ‬
‫)1 .‪(When the Sky is cleft asunder;) (S. 82, V‬‬
                                                                                                ‫َ‬
                                                   ‫(إِرا الغمبء اوشمَّذْ ) عٛسح االٔشمبق آ٠خ سلُ 1 .‬
                                                                                    ‫َّ َ ُ َ‬
‫)1 .‪(When the Sky is rent asunder,) (S. 84, V‬‬
                                                                   ‫الجىخ ( ‪)Paradise, Heaven‬‬
                                                                    ‫٠زٕبـظ اٌّغب٘ذْٚ ـٟ ِبئخ دسعخ‬
‫(ـٟ اٌغٕخ ِبئخ دسعخ ، ِب ث١ٓ وً دسعز١ٓ وّب ث١ٓ اٌغّبء ٚاألسض ، ٚاٌفشدٚط أعال٘ب دسعخ ،‬
‫ِٕٚٙب رفغكش أٔٙكبس اٌغٕكخ األسثعكخ ، ِٚكٓ ـٛلٙكب ٠ىكْٛ اٌعكشػ . ـكئرا عك ٌزُ ف ـغكٍٖٛ اٌفكشدٚط )‬
‫(اٌشاٚٞ: عجبدح ثكٓ اٌصكبِذ اٌّؾكذس: األٌجكبٟٔ - اٌّصكذس: صكؾ١ؼ اٌغكبِع - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ:‬
                                                              ‫4424، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫‪(In Heaven there are hundred levels, between each two neighboring‬‬
‫‪is as between Sama (lower firmament) and Ardh (Earth). Paradise is‬‬
‫.)… ‪the highest level‬‬
‫( اٌغٕخ ِبئخ دسعخ ، ث١ٓ وً دسعز١ٓ وّب ث١ٓ اٌغّبء ٚاألسض ، ِٚٓ ـٛلٙب ٠ىكْٛ اٌعكشػ ، ٚإْ‬
‫اٌفشدٚط ِٓ أعال٘ب دسعخ ِٕٚٙب رفغش أٔٙبس اٌغٕخ األسثعخ ، ـغكٍٖٛ اٌفكشدٚط ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: عجكبدح‬
‫ثٓ اٌصبِذ اٌّؾذس: اثٓ خض٠ّخ - اٌّصذس: اٌزٛؽ١ذ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 742/1، خالصكخ ؽىكُ‬
                               ‫اٌّؾذس: [أشبس ـٟ اٌّمذِخ أٔٗ صؼ ٚصجذ ثبإلعٕبد اٌضبثذ اٌصؾ١ؼ]‬
‫( اٌغٕخ ِبئكخ دسعكخ وكً دسعكخ ِٕٙكب ِكب ثك١ٓ اٌغكّبء ٚاألسض ٚإْ أعال٘كب اٌفكشدٚط ٚإْ أٚعكطٙب‬
‫اٌفشدٚط ٚإْ اٌعشػ عٍٝ اٌفشدٚط ِٕٙب رفغش أٔٙكبس اٌغٕكخ ـكئرا ِكب عك ٌزُ ف ـغكٍٖٛ اٌفكشدٚط )‬
‫(اٌككشاٚٞ: ِعككبر ثككٓ عجككً اٌّؾككذس: األٌجككبٟٔ - اٌّصككذس: صككؾ١ؼ اثككٓ ِبعككٗ - اٌصككفؾخ أٚ اٌككشلُ:‬
                                                              ‫2153، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(إْ أدٔٝ أً٘ اٌغٕخ ِٕضٌخ ٌّٓ ٠ٕمش إٌٝ عٕبٔٗ ٚأصٚاعٗ ٚٔعّٗ ٚخذِٗ ٚعشسٖ ِغ١شح أٌؿ عٕخ .‬
‫ٚأوشَ عٍٝ ف ِٓ ٠ٕمش إٌٝ ٚعٙٗ ؼذٚح ٚعش١خ صُ لشأ : { ٚعٖٛ ٠ِٛئز ٔبظشح { 22 } إٌٝ‬
‫سثٙب ٔبظشح { { 32 ) (اٌشاٚٞ: عجذف ثٓ عّش اٌّؾذس: اٌشٛوبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: اٌفزؼ اٌشثبٟٔ -‬
                                         ‫اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 2/667، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ)‬
                                                                                              ‫الكشعٓ:‬
‫(َّللاُ ََل إِلًََ إِ ََّل ٌُُ الحٓ المَُُّٕم ََل رَأْخزيُ عىَخٌ َ ََل وَُم لًَُ اب فِٓ الغامبَاد َااب فِآ ا ََْسض ااهْ را‬
 ‫ْ ِ َ َ‬               ‫َّ َ َ ِ َ َ‬      ‫َ‬      ‫ُ ُ ِ َ ْ ٌ‬                   ‫َ ْ َ ُّ ْ ُ‬                            ‫َّ‬

                                                                               ‫ْ ِ ُ َ‬
‫الَّزْ َٔشفَع ًىذيُ إِ ََّل ثِإِروًِ َٔ ْ نَم اب ثَْٕهَ ؤَذٍٔم َااب خنفٍَام َ ََل ُٔحٕطُاُنَ ثِشَآء ااهْ ًنماً إِ ََّل ثِماب‬
  ‫َ‬           ‫ْ م ِ ِِْ ِ‬               ‫ِ‬       ‫ِْ ِْ َ َ َْ ُ ْ َ‬                                           ‫ْ ُ َِْ‬      ‫ِ‬
           ‫َلَبء َعع رشعًُُّٕ الغمبَاد َاََسض َ ََل َٔئُُديُ ِ فظٍُمب ٌَُُ ال َنِٓ ال َظٕم) (اٌجمشح 552)‬
                           ‫ُ ْ ُ َ َ َ ْ ُّ ْ ِ ُ‬                   ‫َّ َ َ ِ َ ْ ْ َ َ‬                       ‫َ َ ِ َ ُْ ِ‬

‫,‪(Allah! There is no god but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting‬‬
‫‪Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the‬‬
‫‪heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence‬‬
‫‪except as He permitteth? He knoweth what (appeareth to His‬‬
‫‪creatures as) Before or After or Behind them. Nor shall they compass‬‬
‫‪aught of His knowledge except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend‬‬
‫‪over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding‬‬
‫‪and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in‬‬
‫)552 .‪glory).) (S. 2, V‬‬

‫(عٓ اثٓ عجبط لبي اٌىشعٟ ِٛظع اٌمكذِ١ٓ ، ٚاٌعكشػ ال ٠مكذس أؽكذ لكذسٖ ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: عكع١ذ ثكٓ‬
‫عج١ش اٌّؾذس: اٌز٘جٟ - اٌّصذس: اٌعٍٛ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ: 67، خالصكخ ؽىكُ اٌّؾكذس: سٚاركٗ‬
                                                                                                                      ‫صمبد)‬
‫(٠غّككع ف األٌٚكك١ٓ ٚا٢خ كش٠ٓ ٌّ١مككبد ٠ككَٛ ِعٍككَٛ أسثعكك١ٓ عككٕخ، شبخصككخ أثصككبسُ٘ إٌككٝ اٌغككّبء‬
‫٠ٕمشْٚ إٌٝ ـصً اٌمعبء، ـ١ٕضي ف ِٓ اٌعكشػ إٌكٝ اٌىشعكٟ ـكٟ ظٍكً ِكٓ اٌؽّكبَ. ) (اٌكشاٚٞ:‬
‫عجذف ثكٓ ِغكعٛد اٌّؾكذس: اٌكز٘جٟ - اٌّصكذس: اٌعكشػ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ: 67، خالصكخ ؽىكُ‬
                                                                                                         ‫اٌّؾذس: ؽغٓ)‬
‫(إرا عٍظ اٌشة عٍٝ اٌىشعٟ ، عّع ٌٗ أغ١ػ و غ١ػ اٌشؽً اٌغذد ) (اٌشاٚٞ: عّكش ثكٓ اٌخطكبة‬
      ‫اٌّؾذس: اٌز٘جٟ - اٌّصذس: اٌعشػ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 99، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫( ٠غّككع ف األٌٚكك١ٓ ٚا٢خككش٠ٓ ٌّ١مككبد ٠ككَٛ ِعٍككَٛ أسثعكك١ٓ عككٕخ شبخصككخ أثصككبسُ٘ إٌككٟ اٌغككّبء‬
‫٠ٕزمشْٚ ـصً اٌمعبء، ٚ٠ٕضي ف ـٟ ظً اٌؽّبَ ِكٓ اٌعكشػ إٌكٝ اٌىشعكٟ . ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: عجكذف‬
‫ثٓ ِغعٛد اٌّؾكذس: اٌكز٘جٟ - اٌّصكذس: اٌعٍكٛ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ: 19، خالصكخ ؽىكُ اٌّؾكذس:‬
                                                                                                            ‫إعٕبدٖ ؽغٓ)‬
‫(عٓ عجذ ف ثٓ ِغعٛد سظٟ ف عٕٗ لبي : ِب ثك١ٓ اٌغكّبء اٌمصكٜٛ ٚاٌىشعكٟ خّغكّبئخ عكبَ ،‬
‫ٚث١ٓ اٌىشعٟ ٚاٌّبء وزٌه ، ٚاٌعشػ ـٛق اٌّبء ، ٚف ـكٛق اٌعكشػ ، ٚال ٠خفكٝ عٍ١كٗ شكٟء ِكٓ‬
‫أعّبٌىُ ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: - اٌّؾكذس: اٌكز٘جٟ - اٌّصكذس: اٌعكشػ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ: 501، خالصكخ‬
                                                                     ‫ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: إعٕبدٖ صؾ١ؼ)‬
‫( ِب ث١ٓ عّبء اٌذٔ١ب ٚاٌزٟ رٍ١ٙب ِغ١شح خّغّبئخ عبَ ِٚب ث١ٓ وبي عّبء٠ٓ خّغّبئخ عبَ ِٚب ثك١ٓ‬
‫اٌغّبء اٌغبثعخ ٚاٌىشعٟ ِغ١شح خّغّبئخ عكبَ ِٚكب ثك١ٓ اٌىشعكٟ ٚاٌّكبء خّغكّبئخ عكبَ ٚاٌعكشػ‬
‫عٍٝ اٌّبء ٚف عً روشٖ عٍٝ اٌعشػ ٠عٍُ ِب أٔزُ عٍ١كٗ ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: عجكذف ثكٓ ِغكعٛد اٌّؾكذس:‬
‫اٌٙ١ضّككٟ - اٌّصككذس: ِغّككع اٌضٚائككذ - اٌصككفؾخ أٚ اٌككشلُ: 1/19، خالصككخ ؽىككُ اٌّؾككذس: سعبٌككٗ‬
                                                                                   ‫سعبي اٌصؾ١ؼ)‬


‫- ‪Prophet Mohammed - peace and blessing of ALLAH be upon him‬‬
‫-‪said: (Between the closest firmament and the next one five hundred‬‬
‫‪years, And between each two adjacent firmaments five hundred‬‬
‫‪years. And between the seventh firmament and the Throne five‬‬
‫-‪hundred years. And between the Throne and water five hundred‬‬
‫‪years, And the throne (of authority on the water, And God, Greatest‬‬
‫‪mentioned, is on (top) of the throne (of authority) knows what you‬‬
‫.)‪are doing‬‬


‫(عٓ اثٓ عجبط ـٟ لٌٛٗ رعكبٌٝ { ٚعكع وشعك١ٗ اٌغكّٛاد ٚاألسض } اٌىشعكٟ ِٛظكع اٌمكذِ١ٓ ،‬
‫ٚاٌعشػ ال ٠مذس لذسٖ إال ف رعبٌٝ ) (اٌشاٚٞ: - اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصكذس: شكشػ اٌطؾبٚ٠كخ -‬
                                 ‫اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 972، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ ِٛلٛؾ)‬
‫(عككٓ أثككٟ ِٛعككٝ أْ اٌىشعككٟ ِٛظككع اٌمككذِ١ٓ ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: - اٌّؾككذس: اثككٓ ؽغككش اٌعغككمالٟٔ -‬
‫اٌّصككذس: ـككزؼ اٌجككبسٞ الثككٓ ؽغككش - اٌصككفؾخ أٚ اٌككشلُ: 8/74، خالصككخ ؽىككُ اٌّؾككذس: إعككٕبدٖ‬
                                                                                           ‫صؾ١ؼ)‬
‫(عٓ أثٟ ِٛعٝ لبي : اٌىشعٟ ِٛظع اٌمذِ١ٓ ٌٚكٗ أغك١ػ وك غ١ػ اٌشؽكً ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: أثكٛ ِٛعكٝ‬
‫األشككعشٞ اٌّؾككذس: األٌجككبٟٔ - اٌّصككذس: ِخزصككش اٌعٍككٛ - اٌصككفؾخ أٚ اٌككشلُ: 58، خالصككخ ؽىككُ‬
                                                                         ‫اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ ِٛلٛؾ)‬
‫(اٌىشعككٟ ِٛظككع اٌمككذِ١ٓ ، ٚاٌعككشػ ال ٠مككذس لككذسٖ إال ف رعككبٌٝ ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: عجككذف ثككٓ عجككبط‬
‫اٌّؾككذس: األٌجككبٟٔ - اٌّصككذس: اٌزعٍ١ككك عٍككٝ اٌطؾبٚ٠ككخ - اٌصككفؾخ أٚ اٌككشلُ: 63، خالصككخ ؽىككُ‬
                                                                         ‫اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ ِٛلٛؾ)‬
‫(عٓ اثٓ عجبط لبي : اٌىشعٟ ِٛظع اٌمذِ١ٓ ، ٚاٌعشػ ال ٠مذس أؽذ لكذسٖ ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: عكع١ذ ثكٓ‬
‫عج١كككش اٌّؾكككذس: األٌجكككبٟٔ - اٌّصكككذس: ِخزصكككش اٌعٍكككٛ - اٌصكككفؾخ أٚ اٌكككشلُ: 54، خالصكككخ ؽىكككُ‬
                                                                                 ‫اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ ِٛلٛؾ)‬
                  ‫َفٓ الحذٔش الزْ ٔشًَٔ وثُ رس الغفبسْ (سضٓ َّللا ًىً) رمب وَسدي المحذصُن:‬
‫(ِككب اٌغككّٛاد اٌغككجع ـككٟ اٌىشعككٟ إال وؾٍمككخ ٍِمككبح ثك سض ـككالح ، ٚ ـعككً اٌعككشػ عٍككٝ اٌىشعككٟ‬
‫وفعً رٍه اٌفالح عٍٝ رٍه اٌؾٍمخ ) (األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصكذس: اٌغٍغكٍخ اٌصكؾ١ؾخ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ:‬
                                                        ‫901، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ [ٌطشلٗ])‬
‫(ِككب اٌغككّبٚاد اٌغككجع ـككٟ اٌىشعككٟ إال وؾٍمككخ ٍِمككبح ثك سض ـككالح ، ٚـعككً اٌعككشػ عٍككٝ اٌىشعككٟ‬
‫وفعً رٍكه اٌفكالح عٍكٝ رٍكه اٌؾٍمكخ ) (األٌجكبٟٔ - اٌّصكذس: اٌزعٍ١كك عٍكٝ اٌطؾبٚ٠كخ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ‬
                                      ‫اٌشلُ: 63، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: ٘زا اٌمذس ـمػ صؼ ِشـٛعب ً)‬
‫(ِكب اٌىشعكٟ ـككٟ اٌعكشػ إال وؾٍمكخ ِككٓ ؽذ٠كذ أٌم١ككذ ثك١ٓ ظٙكشٞ ـككالح ِكٓ األسض ) (األٌجككبٟٔ -‬
              ‫اٌّصذس: ششػ اٌطؾبٚ٠خ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 972، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ)‬
‫(لٍذ : ٠ب سعٛي ف أ٠ّب أٔضي عٍ١ه أعمُ ، لبي : آ٠خ اٌىشعكٟ ، صكُ لكبي : ٠كب أثكب رس ِكب اٌغكّٛاد‬
‫اٌغجع ِع اٌىشعٟ إال وؾٍمخ ٍِمبح ث سض ـالح ، ٚـعً اٌعشػ عٍكٝ اٌىشعكٟ وفعكً اٌفكالح عٍكٝ‬
‫اٌؾٍمككخ ) (اثككٓ ر١ّ١ككخ - اٌّصككذس: ِغّككٛا اٌفزككبٜٚ - اٌصككفؾخ أٚ اٌككشلُ: 6/655، خالصككخ ؽىككُ‬
                                                                                ‫اٌّؾذس: ِشٙٛس ٌٗ غشق)‬
‫(٠ب أثب رس ِب اٌغّٛاد اٌغجع ِع اٌىشعٟ إال وؾٍمخ ٍِمبح ث سض ـالح ٚـعً اٌعشػ عٍٝ اٌىشعٟ‬
‫وفعً اٌفالح عٍٝ اٌؾٍمخ ) (اثٓ ؽغش اٌعغمالٟٔ - اٌّصذس: ـزؼ اٌجبسٞ الثٓ ؽغكش - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ‬
                                      ‫اٌشلُ: 31/224، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: ٌٗ شب٘ذ ثغٕذ صؾ١ؼ)‬

                                                                                                     ‫ال شػ:‬

    ‫ْ َ ِ َ َ َّ َ َّ ْ َ َ ْ َ َ ُ‬                                                            ‫َّ ِ َ َ‬
‫(فُ اٌَّزٞ سـَكع اٌغَّكّبٚاد ثِؽ١ْكش عّكذ رَشْٚ ََٔٙكب صُكُ اعْكزَٜٛ عٍَكٝ اٌعكشْ ػ ٚعكخش اٌشكّظ ٚاٌمَّكش وكًٌّ‬
                                         ‫َ َ‬        ‫َّ‬            ‫َ َ ِ َ ِ ََ ٍ َ‬
‫٠َغْ شٞ ألَعً ِغّٝ ٠ُذثِّش األَِش ٠ُفَصِّ ً ا٢٠َبد ٌَعٍَّىُ ثٍِِمَبء سثِّىُ رُٛلَُِْٕٛ ) (اٌشعذ ، ط 31 ، آ٠خ 2)‬
                                    ‫ِ َ ُْ‬          ‫ِ َ ُْ‬        ‫ُ ْ‬         ‫ِ ِ َ ٍ ُ َ ًّ َ ُ ْ ْ َ‬

‫‪(Allah is He Who raised the Samawat (Firmaments, sky) without any‬‬
‫‪pillars that ye can see; then He established Himself on the Throne (of‬‬
‫!)‪Authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His Law‬‬
‫‪Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all‬‬
‫‪affairs, explaining the Signs in detail, that ye may believe with‬‬
‫)2 .‪certainty in the meeting with your Lord.) (S. 13, V‬‬

‫(وبْ إٌجٟ صٍٝ ف عٍ١ٗ ٚعٍُ ٠مٛي عٕذ اٌىشة : ( ال إٌٗ إال ف اٌعٍ١ُ اٌؾٍ١ُ ، ال إٌٗ إال ف سة‬
‫اٌعككشػ اٌعمكك١ُ ، ال إٌككٗ إال ف سة اٌغككّبٚاد ٚسة األسض سة اٌعككشػ اٌىككش٠ُ ) . ) (اٌككشاٚٞ:‬
‫عجكذف ثككٓ عجكبط اٌّؾككذس: اٌجخككبسٞ - اٌّصكذس: صككؾ١ؼ اٌجخكبسٞ - اٌصككفؾخ أٚ اٌككشلُ: 6247،‬
                                                                       ‫خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: [صؾ١ؼ]‬
‫(أْ ٔجٟ ف صٍٝ ف عٍ١ٗ ٚعٍُ وبْ ٠مٛي عٕذ اٌىشة " ال إٌٗ إال ف اٌعم١ُ اٌؾٍ١ُ . ال إٌٗ إال ف‬
‫سة اٌعككشػ اٌعمكك١ُ . ال إٌككٗ إال ف سة اٌغككّبٚاد ٚسة األسض ٚسة اٌعككشػ اٌىككش٠ُ " . ٚـككٟ‬
‫سٚا٠ككخ : أْ سعككٛي ف صككٍٝ ف عٍ١ككٗ ٚعككٍُ وككبْ ٠ككذعٛ ثٙككٓ ٚ٠مككٌٛٙٓ عٕككذ اٌىككشة . ـككزوش ثّضككً‬
‫ؽككذ٠ش ِعككبر ثككٓ ٘شككبَ عككٓ أث١ككٗ ، عككٓ لزككبدح . ؼ١ككش أٔككٗ لككبي " سة اٌغككّبٚاد ٚاألسض " . ٚـككٟ‬
‫سٚا٠خ : أْ إٌجٟ صٍٝ ف عٍ١ٗ ٚعٍُ وبْ ، إرا ؽضثٗ أِش ، لبي . ـزوش ثّضً ؽذ٠ش ِعبر عٓ أث١ٗ‬
‫. ٚصاد ِعٙٓ " ال إٌٗ إال سة اٌعشػ اٌىكش٠ُ " . ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: عجكذف ثكٓ عجكبط اٌّؾكذس: ِغكٍُ -‬
                ‫اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ ِغٍُ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 0372، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(إْ ف إرا أؽت عجذا ٔبدٜ عجش٠ً عٍ١كٗ اٌغكالَ : أٔكب أؽكت عجكذٞ ـالٔكب ، ـ١ٕكٖٛ عجش٠كً ـكٟ ؽٍّكخ‬
‫اٌعشػ ـ١ؾجٗ أ٘كً اٌعكشػ ، ـ١غكّعٗ أ٘كً اٌغكّبء رؾكذ اٌعكشػ ـ١ؾجكٗ أ٘كً اٌغكّبء اٌغكبثعخ ، صكُ‬
‫٠ٕضي عّبء عّبء ؽزٝ ٠ٕضي إٌٝ عّبء اٌذٔ١ب ، صُ ٠ٙجػ إٌٝ األسض ـ١ؾجٗ أً٘ األسض ، ٚاٌجؽط‬
‫ِضً رٌه ) (اٌشاٚٞ: أثٛ ٘ش٠شح اٌّؾذس: أثٛ ٔع١ُ - اٌّصكذس: ؽٍ١كخ األٌٚ١كبء - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ:‬
        ‫3/692، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ ِزفك عٍ١ٗ [أٞ:ث١ٓ اٌعٍّبء] ِٓ ؽذ٠ش أثٟ صبٌؼ‬
‫(ٚاٌعشػ ـٛق اٌّبء ٚف ـٛق اٌعشػ ٚ٘ٛ ٠عٍُ ِب أٔزُ عٍ١كٗ ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: - اٌّؾكذس: اثكٓ ر١ّ١كخ -‬
              ‫اٌّصذس: ِغّٛا اٌفزبٜٚ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 3/931، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: ؽغٓ‬
‫(ِككب اٌغككّٛاد اٌغككجع ـككٟ اٌىشعككٟ إال وؾٍمككخ ٍِمكبح ثك سض ـككالح ، ٚ ـعككً اٌعككشػ عٍككٝ اٌىشعككٟ‬
‫وفعككً رٍككه اٌفككالح عٍككٝ رٍككه اٌؾٍمككخ ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: أثككٛ رس اٌؽفككبسٞ اٌّؾككذس: األٌجككبٟٔ - اٌّصككذس:‬
             ‫اٌغٍغٍخ اٌصؾ١ؾخ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 901، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ [ٌطشلٗ]‬
‫( ٠غّككع ف األٌٚكك١ٓ ٚا٢خككش٠ٓ ٌّ١مككبد ٠ككَٛ ِعٍككَٛ أسثعكك١ٓ عككٕخ ، شبخصككخ أثصككبسُ٘ إٌككٝ اٌغككّبء‬
‫٠ٕمشْٚ إٌٝ ـصً اٌمعبء ، ـ١ٕضي ف ِٓ اٌعشػ إٌٝ اٌىشعٟ ـٟ ظٍكً ِكٓ اٌؽّكبَ . ) (اٌكشاٚٞ:‬
‫عجذف ثكٓ ِغكعٛد اٌّؾكذس: اٌكز٘جٟ - اٌّصكذس: اٌعكشػ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ: 67، خالصكخ ؽىكُ‬
                                                                                          ‫اٌّؾذس: ؽغٓ‬
‫(إْ ف أرْ ٌٟ أْ أؽذس عٓ د٠ه لذ ِشلذ سعالٖ األسض , ٚعٕمٗ ِضٕ١خ رؾذ اٌعشػ,ٚ٘ٛ ٠مٛي‬
‫: عككجؾبٔه ِككب أعمّككه ! ـ١ككشد عٍ١ككٗ : ال ٠عٍككُ رٌككه ِككٓ ؽٍككؿ ثككٟ وبرثككب . ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: أثككٛ ٘ش٠ككشح‬
‫اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ اٌغبِع - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 4171، خالصخ ؽىكُ اٌّؾكذس:‬
                                                                                                      ‫صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(أرْ ٌٟ أْ أؽذس عٓ ٍِه ِٓ ؽٍّخ اٌعشػ ، سعالٖ ـٟ األسض اٌغفٍٝ ، ٚ عٍٝ لشٔٗ اٌعشػ ،‬
‫ٚ ث١ٓ شؾّخ أرٔ١ٗ ٚ عبرمكٗ خفمكبْ اٌط١كش عكجعّبئخ عكبَ ، ٠مكٛي رٌكه اٌٍّكه عكجؾبٔه ؽ١كش وٕكذ )‬
‫(اٌشاٚٞ: أٔظ ثٓ ِبٌه اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: صكؾ١ؼ اٌغكبِع - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ: 358،‬
                                                                           ‫خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(أرْ ٌٟ أْ أؽذس عٓ ٍِه ِكٓ ِالئىكخ ف رعكبٌٝ ؽٍّكخ اٌعكشػ ، ِكب ثك١ٓ شكؾّخ أرٔكٗ إٌكٝ عبرمكٗ‬
‫ِغ١شح عجعّبئخ عٕخ ) (اٌشاٚٞ: عبثش ثٓ عجذف اٌّؾكذس: األٌجكبٟٔ - اٌّصكذس: صكؾ١ؼ اٌغكبِع -‬
                                               ‫اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 458، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(إْ أسٚاػ اٌشٙذاء ـٟ عٛؾ غ١ش خعش ، ٌٙب لٕبد٠ً ِعٍمخ رؾذ اٌعشػ ، رغشػ ِٓ اٌغٕخ ؽ١ش‬
‫شبءد ، صُ ر ٚٞ إٌٝ رٍه اٌمٕبد٠ً ، ـبغٍع إٌ١ُٙ سثٙكُ اغالعكخ ـمكبي : ٘كً رشكزْٙٛ شك١ئب ا لكبٌٛا :‬
‫أٞ شٟء ٔشزٟٙ ٚٔؾٓ ٔغشػ ِٓ اٌغٕخ ؽ١ش شئٕب ا ـ١فعً رٌه ثُٙ صالس ِكشاد ، ـٍّكب سأٚا أٔٙكُ‬
‫ٌُ ٠زشوٛا ِٓ أْ ٠غ ٌٛا ، لبٌٛا : ٠ب سة ٔش٠ذ أْ رشد أسٚاؽٕكب ـكٟ أعغكبدٔب ؽزكٝ ٔشعكع إٌكٝ اٌكذٔ١ب‬
‫ـٕمزككً ـككٟ عككج١ٍه ِككشح أخككشٜ ! ـٍّككب سأٜ أْ ٌكك١ظ ٌٙككُ ؽبعككخ رشوككٛا ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: وعككت ثككٓ ِبٌككه‬
‫اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ اٌغبِع - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 8551، خالصخ ؽىكُ اٌّؾكذس:‬
                                                                                                      ‫صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(إْ اٌّزؾبث١ٓ ثبهلل ـٟ ظً اٌعشػ ) (اٌشاٚٞ: ِعبر ثٓ عجً اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
                                  ‫اٌغبِع - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 7391، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(أال أعٍّه وٍّبد إرا لٍزٙٓ ؼفش ف ٌه ، ٚإْ وٕذ ِؽفٛسا ٌه ا لً : ال إٌكٗ إال ف اٌعٍكٟ اٌعمك١ُ‬
‫، ال إٌٗ إال ف اٌؾى١ُ اٌىش٠ُ ، ال إٌٗ إال ف عجؾبْ ف سة اٌغّٛاد اٌغجع ٚسة اٌعشػ اٌعم١ُ ،‬
‫اٌؾّككذ هلل سة اٌعككبٌّ١ٓ ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: عٍككٟ ثككٓ أثككٟ غبٌككت اٌّؾككذس: األٌجككبٟٔ - اٌّصككذس: صككؾ١ؼ‬
                                  ‫اٌغبِع - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 1262، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(وبْ ٠ذعٛ عٕذ اٌىشة : ال إٌٗ إال ف اٌعم١ُ اٌؾٍ١ُ ، ال إٌٗ إال ف سة اٌعشػ اٌعم١ُ ، ال إٌكٗ إال‬
‫ف سة اٌغككّٛاد اٌغككجع ٚ سة األسض ، ٚ سة اٌعككشػ اٌىككش٠ُ ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: عجككذف ثككٓ عجككبط‬
‫اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ اٌغبِع - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 0494، خالصخ ؽىكُ اٌّؾكذس:‬
                                                                                                      ‫صؾ١ؼ‬
‫( ٌّب أص١ت إخٛأه ث ؽذ ، ععً ف أسٚاؽُٙ ـٟ عٛؾ غ١ش خعكش ركشد أٔٙكبس اٌغٕكخ ، ر وكً ِكٓ‬
‫صّبس٘ب ، ٚر ٚٞ إٌٝ لٕبد٠ً ِٓ ر٘ت ، ِعٍمخ ـٟ ظً اٌعشػ ، ـٍّب ٚعذٚا غ١ت ِ وٍُٙ ِٚششثُٙ‬
‫ِٚم١ٍُٙ ، لبٌٛا : ِٓ ٠جٍػ إخٛإٔب عٕب أٔب أؽ١بء ـٟ اٌغٕخ ٔشصق ٌئال ٠ض٘ذٚا ـكٟ اٌغٙكبد ٚال ٠زىٍكٛا‬
‫عٕذ اٌؾشة ا ـمبي ف رعبٌٝ : أٔب أثٍؽُٙ عٕىُ ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: عجكذف ثكٓ عجكبط اٌّؾكذس: األٌجكبٟٔ -‬
              ‫اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ اٌغبِع - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 5025، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(ٌّككب لعككٝ ف اٌخٍككك ، وزككت ـككٟ وزبثككٗ ، ـٙككٛ عٕككذٖ ـككٛق اٌعككشػ : إْ سؽّزككٟ ؼٍجككذ ؼعككجٟ )‬
‫(اٌشاٚٞ: أثٛ ٘ش٠شح اٌّؾكذس: األٌجكبٟٔ - اٌّصكذس: صكؾ١ؼ اٌغكبِع - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ: 4125،‬
                                                                         ‫خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫( ِب لبي عجذ ال إٌٗ إال ف لػ ِخٍصب ، إال ـزؾذ ٌٗ أثٛاة اٌغّبء ، ؽزٝ رفعٟ إٌكٝ اٌعكشػ ، ِكب‬
‫اعزٕجذ اٌىجبئش ) (اٌشاٚٞ: أثٛ ٘ش٠شح اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ اٌغكبِع - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ‬
                                                          ‫اٌشلُ: 8465، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: ؽغٓ‬
‫(الجٍٛا اٌجششٜ ٠ب ثٕٟ رّ١ُ . لبٌٛا : [ لكذ ] ثشكشرٕب ـ عطٕكب . لكبي : الجٍكٛا اٌجشكشٜ ٠كب أ٘كً اٌك١ّٓ .‬
‫لبٌٛا : لذ ثششرٕب ـبلط ٌٕب عٍٝ ٘زا األِش و١ؿ وبْ ا ـمبي : وبْ ف عٍٝ اٌعشػ ، ٚوبْ لجً وً‬
‫شككٟء ، ٚوزككت ـككٟ اٌٍككٛػ وككً شككٟء ٠ىككْٛ ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: عّككشاْ ثككٓ ؽصكك١ٓ اٌّؾككذس: األٌجككبٟٔ -‬
                  ‫اٌّصذس: ِخزصش اٌعٍٛ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 04، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(ٌّب لعٝ ف اٌخٍك وزت ـٟ وزبثٗ ـٙٛ عٕذٖ ـٛق اٌعشػ : إْ سؽّزٟ عجمذ ؼعجٟ ٚـٟ ٌفع :‬
‫إْ ف وزت وزبثب لجً أْ ٠خٍك اٌخٍك : إْ سؽّزكٟ عكجمذ ؼعكجٟ ، ـٙكٛ عٕكذٖ ـكٛق اٌعكشػ ٚـكٟ‬
‫ٌفع آخش : ٌّب خٍك ف اٌخٍك وزت ـٟ وزبة وزجٗ عٍٝ ٔفغٗ ـٙٛ ِشـٛا ـٛق اٌعشػ : إْ سؽّزٟ‬
‫رؽٍت ؼعجٟ ) (اٌشاٚٞ: أثٛ ٘ش٠كشح اٌّؾكذس: األٌجكبٟٔ - اٌّصكذس: ِخزصكش اٌعٍكٛ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ‬
                                                            ‫اٌشلُ: 12، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(ِب اٌىشعٟ ـٟ اٌعشػ إال وؾٍمخ ِٓ ؽذ٠ذ أٌم١ذ ث١ٓ ظٙشٞ ـالح ِٓ األسض ) (اٌشاٚٞ: أثكٛ رس‬
‫اٌؽفبسٞ اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: شكشػ اٌطؾبٚ٠كخ - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشلُ: 972، خالصكخ ؽىكُ‬
                                                                                       ‫اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(أرْ ٌٟ أْ أؽذس عٓ ٍِه ِٓ ِالئىخ ف ، ِٓ ؽٍّخ اٌعشػ : إْ ِب ث١ٓ شؾّخ أرٔٗ إٌٝ عبرمكٗ ،‬
‫ِغ١شح عجعّبئخ عبَ ) (اٌشاٚٞ: عبثش ثٓ عجذف اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ أثكٟ داٚد -‬
                                           ‫اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 7274، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(ِككب اٌغككّبٚاد اٌغككجع ـككٟ اٌىشعككٟ إال وؾٍمككخ ٍِمككبح ثك سض ـككالح ، ٚـعككً اٌعككشػ عٍككٝ اٌىشعككٟ‬
‫وفعككً رٍككه اٌفككالح عٍككٝ رٍككه اٌؾٍمككخ ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: - اٌّؾككذس: األٌجككبٟٔ - اٌّصككذس: اٌزعٍ١ككك عٍككٝ‬
            ‫اٌطؾبٚ٠خ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 63، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: ٘زا اٌمذس ـمػ صؼ ِشـٛعب ً‬
‫(أرْ ٌٟ أْ أؽذس عٓ ٍِه ِٓ ِالئىخ ف عض ٚعً ِٓ ؽٍّخ اٌعشػ ، إْ ِب ث١ٓ شؾّخ أرٔٗ إٌكٝ‬
‫عبرمٗ ِغ١شح عجعّبئخ عبَ ) (اٌشاٚٞ: - اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: ششػ اٌطؾبٚ٠كخ - اٌصكفؾخ‬
                                                   ‫أٚ اٌشلُ: 972، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(أرْ ٌٟ أْ أؽذس عٓ ٍِه ِٓ ِالئىكخ ف رعكبٌٝ ِكٓ ؽٍّكخ اٌعكشػ . إْ ِكب ثك١ٓ شكؾّخ أرٔكٗ إٌكٝ‬
‫عبرمٗ ِغ١شح عجعّبئخ عبَ . ) (اٌشاٚٞ: عبثش ثٓ عجذف اٌّؾكذس: اٌكٛادعٟ - اٌّصكذس: اٌصكؾ١ؼ‬
              ‫اٌّغٕذ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 562، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: اسرمٝ اٌؾذ٠ش إٌٝ اٌصؾخ‬
‫(لٌٟٛ : اٌٍُٙ سة اٌغّٛاد اٌغجع ، ٚسة اٌعشػ اٌعم١ُ ، سثٕكب ٚسة وكً شكٟء ، ِٕكضي اٌزكٛساح‬
‫ٚاإلٔغ١ً ٚاٌمشآْ ، ـكبٌك اٌؾكت ٚإٌكٜٛ ، أعكٛر ثكه ِكٓ شكش وكً شكٟء أٔكذ آخكز ثٕبصك١زٗ ، أٔكذ‬
‫األٚي ؛ ـٍ١ظ لجٍه شٟء ، ٚأٔذ ا٢خش ؛ ـٍ١ظ ثعذن شٟء ، ٚأٔذ اٌمب٘ش ، ـٍك١ظ ـٛلكه شكٟء ،‬
‫ٚأٔذ اٌجبغٓ ؛ ـٍ١ظ دٚٔه شٟء ، الط عٕكٟ اٌكذ٠ٓ ، ٚأؼٕٕكٟ ِكٓ اٌفمكش ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: أثكٛ ٘ش٠كشح‬
‫اٌّؾذس: األٌجبٟٔ - اٌّصذس: صؾ١ؼ اٌغبِع - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 4244، خالصخ ؽىكُ اٌّؾكذس:‬
                                                                                          ‫صؾ١ؼ)‬
 ‫لمذ وَضحذ اَ بدٔش الشاشٔفخ ونّ الجاضء المشئآ ااه الكاُن ٌاُ ااضء ٔغإش ااذاا ااه اجماُ‬
             ‫ّ‬
                                                                                            ‫الكُن.‬

‫‪It is also possible that the Universe is smaller than the observable‬‬
‫‪universe. In this case, what we take to be very distant galaxies may‬‬
‫‪actually be duplicate images of nearby galaxies, formed by light that has‬‬
‫.‪circumnavigated the Universe‬‬

‫ّ‬                               ‫َ َّ َ ِ َ ِ َّ ْ ِ‬                                   ‫ّ‬
‫ٌٚعً ٘زا ثعطٌ ِكٓ ِكذٌٛي لٌٛكٗ رعكبٌٝ (َالغامبء راد الشااع) (اٌطكبسق 11) ، عٍكٝ اعزجكبس أْ‬
                                                                             ‫اٌغّّبء ٕ٘ب ٟ٘ اٌجٕبء.‬
‫:‪This is likely to be among things indicated by the following verse‬‬
‫)11 ‪(By the samaa (Firmament) which returns), (Surah 86, verse‬‬
                                    ‫ٚ٘زٖ اٌطّجمبد اٌغّجع ِغٛاح، روشٖ رعبٌٝ ـٟ ِٛاظع ِزعذِّدح :‬
                                                                      ‫ّ‬   ‫ُ‬
‫- (ٌُُ الَّزْ خنَك لَكم اب فِٓ اََسض امٕ اب صُم اعزَُِ إِلَّ الغامبء فَغاُاٌُهَّ عاجع عامبَاد ٌَُاُ‬
‫َ ْ َ َ َ َ م َ َ‬        ‫َّ َ ِ َ َّ‬          ‫َّ ْ َ‬        ‫ْ ْ ِ َ ِ‬     ‫َ ِ َ َ ُْ َ‬
                                                                                  ‫ُ ِّ ْ م َ ٌ‬
                                                          ‫ثِكَ َلَٓء ًنِٕم) ( اٌجمشح آ٠خ سلُ 92 ).‬
‫‪(It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on Ardh; then‬‬
‫‪He turned to the Sama and made them into seven firmaments. And‬‬
‫)92 .‪of all things He hath perfect knowledge. ) (S. 2, V‬‬
ِ‫- (الَّزْ خنَك عجع عمبَاد َجَبلاب اب رَشِ فِٓ خنك الش ْ مبن اهْ رَفَابَد فَابساع الجَصاش ٌَاَ رَاش‬
 َ ْ َ َ ْ ْ ِ ْ ‫ُ م‬                  ِ ِ َ َّ ِ ْ َ       َ َ          ِ ‫ِ َ َ َْ َ َ َ َ م‬
                                                                               .[‫اهْ فُطُُس) ]3 اٌٍّه‬
                                                                                           ‫م‬        ِ
[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above
another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of
(Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?
Actually, duplicate images are referred to by Rashed (Rashed Omari, H.
Y. 1999, Finite Closed Universe Contained in a Spherical Shell SAMA',
Al-Manarah Journal, Al al-BAYT University, Mafraq, Jordan, Vol. 4,
No. 2, 85-107.).

It is difficult to test this hypothesis experimentally because different
images of a galaxy would show different eras in its history, and
consequently might appear quite different. A 2004 paper [4] claims to
establish a lower bound of 24 giga parsecs (78 billion light-years) on the
diameter of the whole Universe, making it, at most, only slightly smaller
than the observable universe. This value is based on matching-circle
analysis of the WMAP data.

                    )38-39 ْ‫(فَ َ وُلغم ثِمب رُجصشَنَ * َاب ََل رُجصشَنَ ) (اٌؾبلخ ط 96، ا٢٠زب‬
                                                     ُ ِ ْ      َ َ     ُ ِ ْ َ ُ ِ ْ

(So I do call to witness what ye see * And what ye see not,) (S. 69, V.
38-39)

Size

The comoving distance from Earth to the edge of the visible universe
(also called the particle horizon) is about 14 billion parsecs (46.5
billion light-years) in any direction.[5] This defines a lower limit on the
comoving radius of the observable universe, although as noted in the
introduction, it is expected that the visible universe is somewhat smaller
than the observable universe since we see only light from the cosmic
microwave background radiation that was emitted after the time of
recombination, giving us the spherical surface of last scattering
(gravitational waves could theoretically allow us to observe events that
occurred earlier than the time of recombination, from regions of space
outside this sphere). The visible universe is thus a sphere with a diameter
of about 28 billion parsecs (about 93 billion light-years).

Assuming that space is roughly flat, this size corresponds to a comoving
volume of about 3×1080 cubic meters. This is equivalent to a volume of
about 41 decillion cubic light-years short scale (4.1 X 1034 cubic light
years).

The figures quoted above are distances now (in cosmological time), not
distances at the time the light was emitted. For example, the cosmic
microwave background radiation that we see right now was emitted at the
time of recombination, 379,000[6] years after the Big Bang, which
occurred around 13.7 billion (13.7×109) years ago. This radiation was
emitted by matter that has, in the intervening time, mostly condensed into
galaxies, and those galaxies are now calculated to be about 46 billion
light-years from us. To estimate the distance to that matter at the time the
light was emitted, a mathematical model of the expansion must be chosen
and the scale factor, a(t), calculated for the selected time since the Big
Bang, t. For the observationally-favoured Lambda-CDM model, using
data from the WMAP spacecraft, such a calculation yields a scale factor
change of approximately 1292. This means the Universe has expanded to
1292 times the size it was when the CMBR photons were released.

Qur-an might be giving a value for this factor. If my understanding
is correct, this value is 1000; as indicated by the following two verses:
Concerning early stages of the universe, Qur-an says:

) َ‫)ُٔذثِّش اََاش اهَ الغمبء إِلَاّ اََسض صُام َٔ ْ اشج إِلَٕاً فِآ َٔاُم رابنَ اماذَاسيُ وَلافَ عاىَخ اماب رَ ُاذَُّن‬
                َّ ِ ‫َ م‬    ْ ُ ِْ            َ ‫ْم‬         ِ ْ ُ ُ َّ ِ ْ ْ                   ِ َ َّ   ِ َ ْ ْ ُ َ
                                                                                        )5 ‫(اٌغغذح ط 23 ، آ٠خ‬

(He rules (all) affairs from the heavens to the Ardh: in the end will (all
affairs) go up to Him, on a Day, the space whereof will be (as) a thousand
years of your reckoning.) (S. 32, V. 5).

At Final stages of the universe (Day of Judgment), Qur-an says:

)‫(اهَ َّللاِ رْ الم َبسج * رَ ْ اشج الم َ ئِكاخُ َالاشَح إِلَٕاً فِآ َٔاُم رابنَ اماذَاسيُ خمغإهَ وَلافَ عاىَخ‬
 ‫َ م‬         ْ        ِ ْ َ ُ ِْ        َ ‫ْم‬       ِ ْ ُ ُّ َ َ َ ْ ُ ُ                  ِ ِ َ ْ ِ َّ ِ
‫(اٌّعبسط ط 07 ، آ٠خ 4-3). رَ ْ شج الم َ ئِكخُ َالشَح": { ـِٟ ٠َْٛ َ وبَْ ِمذَاسٖ خَ ّغك١َٓ أَ ٌْكؿ عكَٕخ‬
    َ             ِ ْ        ِْ َ                    ُ ُّ َ َ َ ْ ُ ُ
                                                                َ َْ َ           َ ْ
                       .)ٟ‫} ٠َعِٕٟ ٠َْٛ َ اٌمِ١َبِخ (اٌطجشٞ). ٚاٌعشط : آـَخ رَعْشض ٌِشعْ ً ٚاؽذَح (اٌمشغج‬
                                     ِ َ ٍ ِ      ِ                                                 ْ

Also these two verses have some other correct meanings (interpretations):
The first is probably indicating the length of the day of creation for
Samawat (Firmaments) and Ardh (Dark matter, and the coupled radiation
and matter in early stage of universe). The latter is also indicating the
length of the Day of Judgment.

                                                                                              )Heaven ( ‫الجىخ‬
‫( ـٟ اٌغٕخ ِبئخ دسعخ ، ِب ث١ٓ وً دسعز١ٓ وّب ث١ٓ اٌغّبء ٚاألسض ، ٚاٌفشدٚط أعال٘كب دسعكخ‬
) ‫، ِٕٚٙب رفغش أٔٙبس اٌغٕخ األسثعخ ، ِٚٓ ـٛلٙكب ٠ىكْٛ اٌعكشػ . ـكئرا عك ٌزُ ف ـغكٍٖٛ اٌفكشدٚط‬
:ُ‫(اٌشاٚٞ: عجبدح ثكٓ اٌصكبِذ اٌّؾكذس: األٌجكبٟٔ - اٌّصكذس: صكؾ١ؼ اٌغكبِع - اٌصكفؾخ أٚ اٌكشل‬
                                                                       ‫4424، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: صؾ١ؼ‬
(In Heaven there are hundred levels, between each two neighboring
is as between Sama (lower firmament) and Ardh (Earth). Paradise is
the highest level …).
                           (100 levels) * (500 yr/level) = 50000 yr

                                                                                           :‫َفٓ الحذٔش الششٔف‬
ٓ‫(ثعضذ أٔب ٚاٌغبعخ وٙزٖ ِٓ ٘زٖ، أٚ وٙبر١ٓ. ٚلشْ ث١ٓ اٌغجبثخ ٚاٌٛعطٝ . ) (اٌكشاٚٞ: عكًٙ ثك‬
،5301 :ُ‫عككعذ اٌغككبعذٞ اٌّؾككذس: اٌجخككبسٞ - اٌّصككذس: صككؾ١ؼ اٌجخككبسٞ - اٌصككفؾخ أٚ اٌككشل‬
                                                                   )]‫خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: [صؾ١ؼ‬
ٞ‫(ثعضككذ أٔككب ٚاٌغككبعخ وٙككبر١ٓ. ٠شكك١ش ثئصككجع١ٗ ـ١ّككذّ٘ب . ) (اٌككشاٚٞ: عككًٙ ثككٓ عككعذ اٌغككبعذ‬
ُ‫اٌّؾكككذس: اٌجخكككبسٞ - اٌّصكككذس: صكككؾ١ؼ اٌجخكككبسٞ - اٌصكككفؾخ أٚ اٌكككشلُ: 3056، خالصكككخ ؽىككك‬
                                                                                 )]‫اٌّؾذس: [صؾ١ؼ‬
‫(سأ٠ذ سعٛي ف صٍٝ ف عٍ١ٗ ٚعٍُ لبي ثئصجع١ٗ ٘ىزا ، ثبٌٛعطٝ ٚاٌزٟ رٍٟ اإلثٙكبَ : ( ثعضكذ‬
‫أٔب ٚاٌغبعخ وٙبر١ٓ ) . ) (اٌشاٚٞ: عًٙ ثٓ ععذ اٌغبعذٞ اٌّؾذس: اٌجخبسٞ - اٌّصكذس: صكؾ١ؼ‬
                            )‫اٌجخبسٞ - اٌصفؾخ أٚ اٌشلُ: 6394، خالصخ ؽىُ اٌّؾذس: [صؾ١ؼ‬

Hence, the most distant matter that is observable at present, 46 billion
light-years away, was only 36 million light-years away from the matter
that would eventually become Earth when the microwaves we are
currently receiving were emitted.

Misconceptions

Many secondary sources have reported a wide variety of incorrect figures
for the size of the visible universe. Some of these figures are listed below,
with brief descriptions of possible reasons for misconceptions about
them.

       13.7 billion light-years. The age of the Universe is estimated to be
        13.7 billion years. While it is commonly understood that nothing
        travels faster than light, it is a common misconception that the
        radius of the observable universe must therefore amount to only
        13.7 billion light-years. This reasoning makes sense only if the
        Universe is the flat spacetime of special relativity; in the real
        Universe, spacetime is highly curved on cosmological scales,
        which means that 3-space (which is roughly flat) is expanding, as
        evidenced by Hubble's law. Distances obtained as the speed of light
        multiplied by a cosmological time interval have no direct physical
        significance.[7]
       15.8 billion light-years. This is obtained in the same way as the
        13.7 billion light year figure, but starting from an incorrect age of
        the Universe which was reported in the popular press in mid-
        2006.[8][9][10] For an analysis of this claim and the paper that
        prompted it, see.[11]
       27.4 billion light-years. This is a diameter obtained from the
        (incorrect) radius of 13.7 billion light-years.
       78 billion light-years. This is a lower bound for the diameter of
        the whole Universe, based on the estimated current distance
        between points that we can see on opposite sides of the cosmic
        microwave background radiation (CMBR). If the whole Universe
        is smaller than this sphere, then light has had time to
        circumnavigate it since the big bang, producing multiple images of
        distant points in the CMBR, which would show up as patterns of
        repeating circles.[12]

The circumnavigation (of course among various other things) is
probably indicated by the verses:

(By the samaa (Firmament) which returns), (Surah 86, verse 11)
ّ                               ِ ْ َّ ِ َ ِ َ َّ َ                                  ّ
ْ‫ٌٚعً ٘زا ثعطٌ ِٓ ِكذٌٛي لٌٛكٗ رعكبٌٝ (َالغامبء راد الشااع) (اٌطكبسق 11) ، عٍكٝ اعزجكبس أ‬
                                                                             .‫اٌغّّبء ٕ٘ب ٟ٘ اٌجٕبء‬
                                    : ‫ٚ٘زٖ اٌطّجمبد اٌغّجع ِغٛاح، روشٖ رعبٌٝ ـٟ ِٛاظع ِزعذِّدح‬
                                                                      ّ   ُ
ُ‫- (ٌُُ الَّزْ خنَك لَكم اب فِٓ اَسض امٕ اب صُم اعزَُِ إِلَاّ الغامبء فَغاُاٌُهَّ عاجع عامبَاد ٌَُا‬
َ َ ‫َ ْ َ َ َ َ م‬        َّ َ ِ َ َّ           َ ْ َّ        ِ َ ِ ْ      َ ُْ َ َ ِ َ
                                                                                 ٌ َ ‫ُ ِّ ْ م‬
                                                              .[‫ثِكَ َلَٓء ًنِٕم) ]92 عٛسح اٌجمشح‬
(It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on Ardh; then
He turned to the Sama and made them into seven firmaments. And
of all things He hath perfect knowledge. ) (S. 2, V. 29)
ِ‫- (الَّزْ خنَك عجع عمبَاد َجَبلاب اب رَشِ فِٓ خنك الش ْ مبن اهْ رَفَابَد فَابساع الجَصاش ٌَاَ رَاش‬
 َ ْ َ َ ْ ْ ِ ْ ‫ُ م‬                  ِ ِ َ َّ ِ ْ َ       َ َ          ِ ‫ِ َ َ َْ َ َ َ َ م‬
                                                                               .[‫اهْ فُطُُس) ]3 اٌٍّه‬
                                                                                           ‫م‬        ِ
[3] He Who created the seven Samawat (sky, Firmament) one above
another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of
(Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?

Cornish et al. looked for such an effect at scales of up to 24 gigaparsecs
(78 billion light years) and failed to find it, and suggested that if they
could extend their search to all possible orientations, they would then "be
able to exclude the possibility that we live in a Universe smaller than 24
Gpc in diameter". The authors also estimated that with "lower noise and
higher resolution CMB maps (from WMAP's extended mission and from
Planck), we will be able to search for smaller circles and extend the limit
to ~28 Gpc."[4] This estimate of the maximum diameter of the CMBR
sphere that will be visible in planned experiments corresponds to a radius
of 14 gigaparsecs, the same number given in the previous section.

       156 billion light-years. This figure was obtained by doubling 78
        billion light-years on the assumption that it is a radius. Since 78
        billion light-years is already a diameter, the doubled figure is
        incorrect. This figure was very widely reported.[13][14][15]
       180 billion light-years. This estimate accompanied the age
        estimate of 15.8 billion years in some sources; [16] it was obtained
        by adding 15% to the figure of 156 billion light years.

Even prominent physicists have made errors here. See Tamara Davis's
2004                    Ph.D.                     for                  details                    at
http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/download/tamarad/papers/thesis_complete.
pdf

Large-scale structure

Sky surveys and mappings of the various wavelength bands of
electromagnetic radiation (in particular 21-cm emission) have yielded
much information on the content and character of the universe's structure.
The organization of structure appears to follow as a hierarchical model
with organization up to the scale of superclusters and filaments. Larger
than this, there seems to be no continued structure, a phenomenon which
has been referred to as the End of Greatness.

Walls, filaments and voids




DTFE reconstruction of the inner parts of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift
Survey

The organization of structure arguably begins at the stellar level, though
most cosmologists rarely address astrophysics on that scale. Stars are
organized into galaxies, which in turn form clusters and superclusters that
are separated by immense voids, creating a vast foam-like structure
sometimes called the "cosmic web". Prior to 1989, it was commonly
assumed that virialized galaxy clusters were the largest structures in
existence, and that they were distributed more or less uniformly
throughout the universe in every direction. However, based on redshift
survey data, in 1989 Margaret Geller and John Huchra discovered the
"Great Wall", a sheet of galaxies more than 500 million light-years long
and 200 million wide, but only 15 million light-years thick. The existence
of this structure escaped notice for so long because it requires locating the
position of galaxies in three dimensions, which involves combining
location information about the galaxies with distance information from
redshifts. In April 2003, another large-scale structure was discovered, the
Sloan Great Wall. In August 2007, a possible supervoid was detected in
the constellation Eridanus.[17] It coincides with the 'WMAP Cold Spot', a
cold region in the microwave sky that is highly improbable under the
currently favored cosmological model. This supervoid could cause the
cold spot, but to do so it would have to be improbably big, possibly a
billion light-years across.

In more recent studies the universe appears as a collection of giant
bubble-like voids separated by sheets and filaments of galaxies, with the
superclusters appearing as occasional relatively dense nodes. This
network is clearly visible in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. In the
figure a 3-D reconstruction of the inner parts of the survey is shown,
revealing an impressive view on the cosmic structures in the nearby
universe. Several superclusters stand out, such as the Sloan Great Wall,
the largest structure in the universe known to date.

The existence of voids in Dark matter, and hence in clusters of
galaxies is indicated by the verse:

‫(وََلَم َٔش الَّزٔهَ رفَشَا وَنَّ الغامبَاد َاََسض ربوَزَاب سرمااب فَفَزَمىَبٌماب َا َنىَاب ااهَ المابء راَ َلَآء‬
‫ْ ُ َ َ َ ْ ِ ْ َ ِ ُ َّ ْ م‬                        َْ        َ َ ْ ْ َ ِ َ َ َّ         ُ َ ِ َ ْ َ
  .)‫َ ٓ وَفَ َ ُٔ ْ اىُُنَ ) [األٔج١بء 03]. ٚأِب ا٢ْ ـٙٓ ثغػ ٚـزك (عّشٞ 4002 : األسظْٛ اٌغّجع‬
                                                               َّ       ّ                        ِ
"Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama: upper
part of universe) and the Ardh (Dark matter, lower - interior - part
of the Universe) were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove
asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).

End of Greatness

The End of Greatness is an observational scale discovered at roughly
100 Mpc (roughly 300 million lightyears) where the lumpiness seen in
the large-scale structure of the universe is homogenized and isotropized
as per the Cosmological Principle. The superclusters and filaments seen
in smaller surveys are randomized to the extent that the smooth
distribution of the universe is visually apparent. It was not until the
redshift surveys of the 1990s were completed that this scale could
accurately be observed.[18]

Observations




"Panoramic view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of
galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The image is derived from the 2MASS
Extended Source Catalog (XSC)—more than 1.5 million galaxies, and the
Point Source Catalog (PSC)--nearly 0.5 billion Milky Way stars. The
galaxies are color coded by 'redshift' obtained from the UGC, CfA, Tully
NBGC, LCRS, 2dF, 6dFGS, and SDSS surveys (and from various
observations compiled by the NASA Extragalactic Database), or photo-
metrically deduced from the K band (2.2 um). Blue are the nearest
sources (z < 0.01); green are at moderate distances (0.01 < z < 0.04) and
red are the most distant sources that 2MASS resolves (0.04 < z < 0.1).
The map is projected with an equal area Aitoff in the Galactic system
(Milky Way at center)." [19]

Another indicator of large-scale structure is the 'Lyman alpha forest'. This
is a collection of absorption lines which appear in the spectral lines of
light from quasars, which are interpreted as indicating the existence of
huge thin sheets of intergalactic (mostly hydrogen) gas. These sheets
appear to be associated with the formation of new galaxies.

Some caution is required in describing structures on a cosmic scale
because things are not always as they appear to be. Bending of light by
gravitation (gravitational lensing) can result in images which appear to
originate in a different direction from their real source. This is caused by
foreground objects (such as galaxies) curving the space around
themselves (as predicted by general relativity), deflecting light rays that
pass nearby. Rather usefully, strong gravitational lensing can sometimes
magnify distant galaxies, making them easier to detect. Weak lensing
(gravitational shear) by the intervening universe in general also subtly
changes the observed large-scale structure. In 2004, measurements of this
subtle shear show considerable promise as a test of cosmological models.

The large-scale structure of the Universe also looks different if one only
uses redshift to measure distances to galaxies. For example, galaxies
behind a galaxy cluster will be attracted to it, and so fall towards it, and
so be slightly blueshifted (compared to how they would be if there were
no cluster); on the near side, things are slightly redshifted. Thus, the
environment of the cluster looks a bit squashed if using redshifts to
measure distance. An opposite effect works on the galaxies already
within the cluster: the galaxies have some random motion around the
cluster centre, and when these random motions are converted to redshifts,
the cluster will appear elongated. This creates what is known as a finger
of God: the illusion of a long chain of galaxies pointed at the Earth.

Cosmography of our neighborhood

At the centre of the Hydra supercluster there is a gravitational anomaly,
known as the Great Attractor, which affects the motion of galaxies over a
region hundreds of millions of light-years across. These galaxies are all
redshifted, in accordance with Hubble's law, indicating that they are
receding from us and from each other, but the variations in their redshift
are sufficient to reveal the existence of a concentration of mass equivalent
to tens of thousands of galaxies.

The Great Attractor, discovered in 1986, lies at a distance of between 150
million and 250 million light-years (250 million is the most recent
estimate), in the direction of the Hydra and Centaurus constellations. In
its vicinity there is a preponderance of large old galaxies, many of which
are colliding with their neighbours, and/or radiating large amounts of
radio waves.

In 1987 Astronomer R. Brent Tully of the University of Hawaii’s Institute
of Astronomy identified what he called the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster
Complex, a structure one billion light years long and 150 million light
years across in which, he claimed, the Local Supercluster was
embedded.[20][21]
Matter content

The observable universe contains about 3 to 7 × 1022 stars (30 to 70
sextillion stars),[22] organized in more than 80 billion galaxies, which
themselves form clusters and superclusters.[23]

Two approximate calculations give the number of atoms in the observable
universe to be a minimum of 1080.

    1. Observations of the cosmic microwave background from the
         Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe suggest that the spatial
         curvature of the Universe is very close to zero, which in current
         cosmological models implies that the value of the density
         parameter must be very close to a certain critical value. This works
         out to 9.9×10−27 kg/m3,[24] which would be equal to about 5.9
         hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. Analysis of the WMAP results
         suggests that only about 4.6% of the critical density is in the form
         of normal atoms, while 23% is thought to be made of cold dark
         matter and 72% is thought to be dark energy,[24] so this leaves 0.27
         hydrogen atoms/m3. Multiplying this by the volume of the visible
         universe, you get about 8×1079 hydrogen atoms.

Dark matter (one of the meanings of the Arabic word Ardh) is
referred to many times by Qur-an, and Hadiths. Also dark energy is
referred to by Qur-an:

‫- (َالغمبء ثَىَٕىَبٌَب ثِإَٔٔذ َإِوَّاب لَمُعا ُُنَ * َاَسض فَشَلْاىَبٌَب فَاىِ ْ م المبٌاذَُنَ * َااهْ راَ َلَآء‬
‫َ ِ ُ ِّ ْ م‬             ِ َْ َ                    َ َ ْ َ           ِ ُ          َ ‫ْ م‬           ْ َ َ َّ َ
                                                              ّ                      ُ َّ َ ْ ُ ِ ْ َ ْ
                                                       .[‫خنَمىَب صَ َإه لَ َنَّكم رَزرشَنَ ) ] 74-94 الزاسٔبد‬ ْ َ

" We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, We indeed
Have vast power; to create the vastness of Space and continue to
expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - Ground; interior or
lower part of the Universe; the dark matter holding the galaxies -:
How excellently We do spread out * And of everything We have
created pairs: that ye may receive instruction " (Surah No. 51, verse
47- 49).

Examples of such pairs are: Dark matter (Sama – Firmament -, and
Ardh - Ground; interior or lower part of the Universe; the dark
matter holding the galaxies) and Matter.                   Another pair is Dark
energy and energy.

          ّ
:‫ِزٛعػ سلُ ا٢٠ز١ٓ (5.74) ٠غبٚٞ اٌم١ّخ اٌؾبٌ١ّخ ٌّزٛعػ ٔغت اٌطبلخ اٌّمٍّخ ٚاٌّبدح اٌّمٍّخ‬
The average value for the numbers of these two verses, 47.5, is equal to
the present value of the average percentages of dark matter and dark
energy:
(23% + 72%)/2= 47.5%
[9] "Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the Ardh (lower -
interior - part of the early Universe; large scale structure of dark
matter) in two Days (periods)? and do ye join equals with Him? He is
the Lord of (all) the Worlds." [10] He set on the (Ardh). Like
Mountains standing firm, above it, and bestowed blessings on the
Ardh, and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in
due proportion, in precisely four Days (periods) for those who seek
knowledge, and also in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek
(sustenance). " (Surah 41, Verses 9-10).

                )38-39 ْ‫(فَ َ وُلغم ثِمب رُجصشَنَ * َاب ََل رُجصشَنَ ) (اٌؾبلخ ط 96، ا٢٠زب‬
                                                 ُ ِ ْ      َ َ     ُ ِ ْ َ ُ ِ ْ

"Furthermore I swear by what ye see * And what ye see not." (S. 69
V 38-39)
ُ‫- (عجْؾبَْ اٌَّكزٞ خَ ٍَكك األَصٚاط وٍََّٙكب ِّكب رُٕجِكذ األَسْ ضُ ِٚكٓ أَٔفُغكُٙ ِّٚكب ال ٠َعٍَّكَْٛ * ٚآ٠َكخٌ ٌَُٙك‬
ُ            َ       ُ ْ َ َّ ِ َ ْ ِ ِ ْ ْ ِ َ            ْ ُ ْ َّ ِ             ُ َ َ ْ ْ َ         ِ         َ ُ
                                                                            ُ ْ ُ ْ َ َ
                                                    ]36-37 ‫اٌٍَّ١ً َٔغٍَخ ُِٕٗ إٌََّٙبس ـَئِرا ُُ٘ ِمٍَِّْٛ ) [ٔظ‬
                                                                                                        ِْ ُ ْ ُ ْ
(Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth
produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of
which they have no knowledge. * And a Sign for them is the Night:
We withdraw therefrom the Day, and behold they are plunged in
darkness.) (S. 36, V. 36-37)
                                                                ]12 ‫- (ٚاٌَّزٞ خَ ٍَك األَصٚاط وٍََّٙب) [الضخشف‬
                                                                       ّ           ُ َ َ ْ ْ َ        ِ
[12] That has created pairs in all things, and has made for you ships and
cattle on which ye ride,) (S. 43, V. 12)
                                                   ّ
                                         .]49 ‫- (ِٚٓ وًِّ شٟء خَ ٍَمَٕب صَ ْٚ ع١ْٓ ٌَعٍَّىُ رَزوشَُْٚ ) [الزاسٔبد‬
                                                               َّ َ ْ ُ َ ِ َ              ْ ٍ ْ َ ُ ْ ِ َ
[49] And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive
instruction. ) (S. 51, V. 49)
                                                                      ) َ‫(َالغمبء ثَىَٕىَبٌَب ثِإَٔٔذ َإِوَّب لَمُع ُُن‬
                                                                             ِ ُ         َ ‫ْ م‬           ْ َ َ َّ َ

                         ]27-28 ‫(وَوَوزُم وََلذ خنماب وَم الغمبء ثَىَبٌَب * سفَع عمكٍب فَغُاٌَب) [إٌّبصعبد‬
                                                َّ َ َ َ ْ َ َ َ           ُ َ َّ ْ ْ َ ُّ َ ْ ْ

[27] What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Samaa
(Firmaments) (above)? (Allah) hath constructed it: [28] On high hath
He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. ) (S.
79, V. 27)
                                                             )7 ‫(َالغمبء سفَ ٍَب ََضع المٕضَ انَ ) (الش مه‬
                                                                                 ِ ْ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َّ َ
(And the Firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the
Balance (of Justice),) (S. 55, V. 7)
َ‫(َّللاُ الَّزْ سفَع الغمبَاد ثِغٕش ًمذ رَشَوٍَب صُم اعزَُِ ًنَّ ال َشػ َعاخش الشَّامظ َالمَماش را‬
  ُ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ       َ َّ َ َ ِ ْ ْ  َ َ ْ َّ َ ْ َ ‫َّ ِ َ َ َّ َ َ ِ َ ْ ِ َ َ م‬
                  )2 ‫َٔجشْ ََِاَ اغماّ ُٔذثِّش ا ََْاش ُٔفَصَ أَٖبد لَ َنَّكم ثِنِمَبء سثِّكم رُُلِىُُنَ ) (اٌشعذ‬
                                         ُْ َ ِ          ْ ُ ِ ْ ُ ِّ            َ ْ ُ َ ّ َ ُ ‫َ م‬            ِ ْ
(Allah is He Who raised the Samawat – Firmaments - without any
pillars that ye can see; then He established Himself on the Throne (of
Authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His Law)!
Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all
affairs, explaining the Signs in detail, that ye may believe with
certainty in the meeting with your Lord.) (S. 13, V. 2)

                    َ َ َّ َ َ ْ َ ِ ْ                             ْ
ًْ‫٠ُخجِش ف رَعبٌَٝ عَٓ وّبي لُذسرٗ ٚعَم١ُ عٍُطَبٔٗ أََُّٔٗ اٌَّزٞ ثِئِرِٔٗ ٚأَِشٖ سـَع اٌغّٛاد ثِؽ١ْش عّكذ ثَك‬
        ََ ِ َ                                  ِ                        ِ َ َ ْ ِ ََ ْ           َ َّ     ْ
                                                                                           ِ َ ْ َ ِ ْ
                                  .)‫ثِئِرِٔٗ ٚأَِشٖ ٚرَغْخ١شٖ سـَعَٙب عَٓ األَسْ ض ثُعذًا ال رَُٕبي (ثٓ وض١ش‬
                                                              َ ْ           ْ ْ     َ َ

‫(خنَك الغمبَاد ثِغٕش ًمذ رَشَوٍَب َوَلمَّ فِٓ اََسض سَاعٓ وَنْ رَمٕذ ثِكم َثَش فٍِٕب اهْ راَ دَاثَّاخ‬
‫م‬        ِّ ُ ِ َ َّ َ ْ ُ َ ِ              َ ِ َ َ ِ ْ ْ          ْ َ َ ْ َ ‫َ َ َّ َ َ ِ َ ْ ِ َ َ م‬
                                   )10 ْ‫َوَوضَ لىَب اهَ الغمبء ابء فَأَوجَزىَب فٍِٕب اهْ رَ صَ َج رشٔم) (ٌمّب‬
                                                    ‫َ ِ ُ ِّ ْ م َ ِ م‬      ْ ْ ‫َّ َ ِ َ ا‬       ِ ْ ْ َ

(He created the Samawat – Firmaments - without any pillars that ye
can see; He set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should
shake with you; and He scattered through it beasts of all kinds. We
send down rain from the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of
noble creature, in pairs.) (S. 31, V. 10)

                                                                      َ َ ِ َْ َ ْ َ
" ٌَٝ‫٠ُجَ١ِّٓ عجْؾبٔٗ ثَِٙزا لُذسرٗ اٌعم١ّخ عٍَٝ خَ ٍْك اٌغّبٚاد ٚاألَسْ ض ِٚب ـِ١ّٙب ِٚب ثَ١ّْٕٙب ـَمَبي رَعب‬
      َ َ         َ        َ َ َِ َ َ          ْ َ   َ َ َّ                                      َ ُ
       َ َ                َ     َ ََ            َ ََ          َ               َ َ َ ْ َ
ٓ‫خَ ٍَك اٌغّبٚاد ثِؽ١ْش عّذ " لَكبي اٌؾغكٓ ٚلَزَكبدَح ٌَك١ْظ ٌََٙكب عّكذ ِشْ ئِ١َّكخ ٚال ؼ١ْكش ِشْ ئِ١َّكخ . ٚلَكبي اِثْك‬
                                                                                                ََ ِ َ      َ َ َّ َ
                                                                                          ِ َ ُ َ َِ ْ ِ َ
                                                     .)‫عجَّبط ٚعىشِخ ِٚغب٘ذ ٌََٙب عّذ ال رَشْٚ ََٔٙب (ثٓ وض١ش‬
                                                                        َ َ ََ                              َ

‫٠ٛعّع ف عجؾبٔٗ ٚرعبٌٝ ثٕبء اٌغّّبء، ـ١زعبظُ اٌفشاغ ـٟ اٌىكْٛ، ٚركضداد اٌطبلكخ اٌّمٍّكخ. ـ١ٕكزظ‬
                                                             ّ
‫عٕٗ ـشػ ِٚٙبد األسظ١ٓ (اٌّبدح اٌّمٍّخ اٌزٟ رؾعٓ عبرث١ّب ِغشّاد اٌىكْٛ). ٚثبٌزكبٌٟ رزجبعكذ‬
                                                                                          .‫اٌّغبـبد ث١ٓ اٌّغشّاد‬
ALLAH (GOD) have built The Sama - Firmament - with might, He
indeed Have vast power; to create its vastness and continue to expand it,
and on high hath He raised its canopy. This gives rise to the so called
negative pressure (Dark energy); since Sama is a solid construction (roof)
with no cracks, and completely covers and surrounds the universe. This
is clearly indicated by the verses:

     2. A typical star has a mass of about 2×1030 kg, which is about 1×1057
          atoms of hydrogen per star. A typical galaxy has about 400 billion
       stars so that means each galaxy has 1×10 57 × 4×1011 = 4×1068
       hydrogen atoms. There are possibly 80 billion galaxies in the
       Universe, so that means that there are about 4×10 68 × 8×1010 =
       3×1079 hydrogen atoms in the observable universe. But this is
       definitely a lower limit calculation, and it ignores many possible
       atom sources such as intergalactic gas.[25]

Mass

The mass of the matter in the observable universe can be estimated based
on density and size.[26]

Estimation based on the measured stellar density

One way to calculate the mass of the visible matter which makes up the
observable universe is to assume a mean stellar mass and to multiply that
by an estimate of the number of stars in the observable universe. The
estimate of the number of stars in the Universe is derived from the
volume of the observable universe




and a stellar density calculated from observations by the Hubble Space
Telescope




One star per cube, 1000 ly to a side (x,y,z), yielding an estimate of the
number of stars in the observable universe of 9 × 1021 stars (9 billion
trillion stars).
Taking the mass of Sol (2 × 1030 kg) as the mean stellar mass (on the
basis that the large population of dwarf stars balances out the population
of stars whose mass is greater than Sol) and rounding the estimate of the
number of stars up to 1022 yields a total mass for all the stars in the
observable universe of 3 × 1052 kg.[27] However, as noted in the "matter
content" section, the WMAP results in combination with the Lambda-
CDM model predict that less than 5% of the total mass of the observable
universe is made up of visible matter such as stars, the rest being made up
of dark matter and dark energy.

Sir Fred Hoyle calculated the mass of an observable steady-state universe
using the formula:[28]




which can also be stated as




or approximately 8 × 1052 kg.

Here H = Hubble constant, ρ = Hoyle's value for the density, G =
gravitational constant and c = speed of light.

Most distant objects

The most distant astronomical object observed as of 2009 is a gamma ray
burst, most likely caused by a star which collapsed when the universe was
approximately 600 million years old.[29]

Cosmological horizon
The cosmological horizon, (also known as the particle horizon) is the
maximum distance from which particles could have traveled to the
observer in the age of the universe. It represents the boundary between
the observable and the unobservable regions of the universe. [30] The
existence, properties, and significance of a cosmological horizon depend
on the particular cosmological model being discussed.

In terms of comoving distance, the particle horizon is equal to the
conformal time η0 that has passed since the Big Bang, times the speed of
light c. The quantity η0 is given by,




where a(t) is the scale factor of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-
Walker metric, and we have taken the Big Bang to be at t = 0. In other
words, the particle horizon recedes constantly as time passes, and the
observed fraction of the universe always increases.[30][31]

َ‫(عىُشٍٔم آَٔبرِىَب فِٓ اٖفَبق َفِٓ وَوفُغٍم َ زَّّ َٔزَجََّٕهَ لٍَام وَوَّاًُ الحاك وََلَام َٔكاف ثِشثِّاكَ وَوَّاًُ ًنَاّ را‬
ِّ ُ    َ                َ ِ ْ ْ َ ُّ َ ْ                 ْ ُ                      ِْ ِ ْ      َ ِ ْ                  ِْ ِ َ
                                                                           )53 ‫َلَٓء َلٍٕذ) (فصنذ ط 14، آٔخ‬
                                                                                                ٌ ِ َ ‫ْ م‬

(Soon will We show them Our Signs in the horizons, and in their own
souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not
enough that thy Lord doth witness all things?) (S. 41, V. 53)

The particle horizon differs from the event horizon in that the particle
horizon represents the largest comoving distance from which light could
have reached the observer by a specific time, while the event horizon is
the largest comoving distance from which light emitted now can ever
reach the observer.[32]
             Speculative image of the observable universe

The Neighbouring Superclusters

References

  1. ^ http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmology_faq.html#DN
  2. ^ Using Tiny Particles To Answer Giant Questions. Science
     Friday, 3 Apr 2009.
  3. ^ See also Faster than light#Universal_expansion.
       a b
4. ^         Neil J. Cornish, David N. Spergel, Glenn D. Starkman, and
   Eiichiro Komatsu, Constraining the Topology of the Universe.
   Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 201302 (2004). astro-ph/0310233
5. ^ Lineweaver, Charles; Tamara M. Davis (2005). "Misconceptions
   about          the     Big     Bang".      Scientific     American.
   http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=misconceptions-about-the-
   2005-03&page=5. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
6. ^ Abbott, Brian (May 30, 2007). "Microwave (WMAP) All-Sky
   Survey".                      Hayden                    Planetarium.
   http://www.haydenplanetarium.org/universe/duguide/exgg_wmap.
   php. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
7. ^ Ned Wright, "Why the Light Travel Time Distance should not be
   used in Press Releases".
8. ^ SPACE.com - Universe Might be Bigger and Older than
   Expected
9. ^ Big bang pushed back two billion years - space - 04 August 2006
   - New Scientist Space
10.^ 2 billion years added to age of Universe
11.^ Edward L. Wright, "An Older but Larger Universe?".
12.^ Bob Gardner's "Topology, Cosmology and Shape of Space"
   Talk, Section 7
13.^ SPACE.com - Universe Measured: We're 156 Billion Light-years
   Wide!
14.^ New study super-sizes the Universe - Space.com - MSNBC.com
15.^ "Astronomers size up the Universe". BBC News. 2004-05-28.
   http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3753115.stm. Retrieved
   2010-05-20.
16.^ Space.com - Universe Might be Bigger and Older than Expected
17.^ Biggest void in space is 1 billion light years across - space - 24
   August 2007 - New Scientist Space
18.^ Robert P Kirshner (2002). The Extravagant Universe: Exploding
   Stars, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Cosmos. Princeton
   University         Press.         p. 71.         ISBN 0691058628.
   http://books.google.com/?id=qQ_mV2prqNYC&pg=PA71.
19.^ "Large Scale Structure in the Local Universe: The 2MASS
   Galaxy Catalog", Jarrett, T.H. 2004, PASA, 21, 396
20.^ Massive Clusters of Galaxies Defy Concepts of the Universe
   N.Y. Times Tue. November 10, 1987:
21.^ Map of the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex:
22.^ "Astronomers count the stars". BBC News. July 22, 2003.
   http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3085885.stm. Retrieved
   2006-07-18.
23.^ How many galaxies in the Universe? says "the Hubble telescope
   is capable of detecting about 80 billion galaxies. In fact, there must
   be many more than this, even within the observable universe, since
   the most common kind of galaxy in our own neighborhood is the
   faint dwarfs which are difficult enough to see nearby, much less at
   large cosmological distances."
24.^ a b WMAP- Content of the Universe
25.^ Matthew Champion, "Re: How many atoms make up the
   universe?", 1998
26.^ McPherson, Kristine (2006). "Mass of the Universe". The
   Physics                                                    Factbook.
   http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2006/KristineMcPherson.shtml.
27.^ (PDF) On the expansion of the Universe. NASA Glenn Research
   Centre.                          http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-
      12/Numbers/Math/documents/ON_the_EXPANSION_of_the_UNI
      VERSE.pdf.
  28.^ Helge Kragh (1999-02-22). Cosmology and Controversy: The
      Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe. Princeton
      University Press. p. 212, Chapter 5. ISBN 0-691-00546-X.
      http://books.google.com/?id=GhVkQwv9ZesC&pg=PA212.
  29.^
      http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=114246224
                                      a                                b
  30.^
      http://books.google.com/books?id=kNxeHD2cbLYC&pg=PA447
      &dq=%22Particle+horizon%22&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=%22Par
      ticle%20horizon%22&f=false Cosmology: the science of the
      universe By Edward Robert Harrison, p. 447
  31.^
      http://books.google.com/books?id=xma1QuTJphYC&pg=PA418&
      dq=%22Particle+horizon%22&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=%22Parti
      cle%20horizon%22&f=false General relativity: an introduction for
      physicists By Michael Paul Hobson, George Efstathiou, Anthony
      N. Lasenby, p. 419
  32.^ Lars Bergström and Ariel Goobar: "Cosmology and Particle
      Physics", WILEY (1999), page 65. ISBN 0-471-97041-7

Further reading

     Vicent J. Martínez, Jean-Luc Starck, Enn Saar, David L. Donoho,
      Simon Reynolds, Pablo de la Cruz, and Silvestre Paredes (nov
      2005). "Morphology Of The Galaxy Distribution From Wavelet
      Denoising".   The     Astrophysical   Journal   634:   744–755.
      doi:10.1086/497125.                      arXiv:astro-ph/0508326.
      http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApJ...634..744M.          Retrieved
      2009-12-22.
     J. R. Mureika and C. C. Dyer (2005-05-17). "Multifractal Analysis
      of Packed Swiss Cheese Cosmologies". Classical and Quantum
      Gravity.     v1.     arXiv:gr-qc/0505083.      http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-
      qc/0505083/. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
     Mureika, J. R. and Dyer, C. C. (jan 2004). "Review: Multifractal
      Analysis of Packed Swiss Cheese Cosmologies". General
      Relativity         and       Gravitation         36:         151–184.
      doi:10.1023/B:GERG.0000006699.45969.49.                      arXiv:gr-
      qc/0505083. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GReGr..36..151M.
      Retrieved 2009-12-22.
     Gott, III, J. R. et al. (may 2005). "A Map of the Universe". The
      Astrophysical      Journal   624:   463–484.    doi:10.1086/428890.
      arXiv:astro-ph/0310571.
      http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApJ...624..463G.          Retrieved
      2009-12-22.
     F. Sylos Labini, M. Montuori and L. Pietronero (1998). "Scale-
      invariance of galaxy clustering". Physics Reports 293: 61–226.
      doi:10.1023/B:GERG.0000006699.45969.49.                   arXiv:astro-
      ph/9711073v1. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhR...293...61S.
      Retrieved 2009-12-22.

External links

     "Millennium Simulation" of structure forming Max Planck Institute
      of Astrophysics, Garching, Germany
     The Sloan Great Wall: Largest Known Structure? on APOD
     Hubble, VLT and Spitzer Capture Galaxy Formation in the Early
      Universe.
      Cosmology FAQ
      Hubble, VLT and Spitzer Capture Galaxy Formation in the Early
       Universe
      Star Survey reaches 70 sextillion
      Inflation and the Cosmic Microwave Background, Lineweaver
       2003
      Animation of the cosmic light horizon
      Logarithmic Maps of the Universe
      List of publications of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey
      List of publications of the 6dF Galaxy Redshift and peculiar
       velocity survey




Our           location      in       the       Local        Supercluster
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Universe_Reference_Map_(Location)_
001.jpeg)



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