Add Earth, moon, and sun,
then mix in the ocean.
Tides and how
By: Bianca Maddox
What are Tides?
• Tides are the rise and fall of the ocean.
The force of tides affect objects on
Earth, the atmosphere, and Earth itself.
Tides are caused by the difference in
strength of gravitational forces at
different points on Earth. This involves
the Earth, moon
and the sun.
How Tides Work
• Tides are
caused by the
to bulge on
both sides of
• The gravitational forces are the
strongest for areas directly below
the moon and on the opposite side
of the Earth. The moons
gravitational force causes the
water to bulge on those sides of
Lunar and Solar Tides
• The sun has smaller tides than a lunar one.
The moon and sun together will create
spring and neap tides. Spring tides are
very high and low tides, which occur when
the Sun and Moon are on opposite sides of
the Earth. Neap
tides are the
opposite. They are
very low high tides
and low low tides.
Diagram of Spring and Neap
Bay of Fundy
• The Bay of Fundy is a place were the
highest tides occurs. The tides can raise
up to 50 ft. The time between high and
low tides is 6 hrs. and 13 min. There are
different phenomenon's for which the
tides occur: tidal bores, rapids, and
horizontal tidal effects.
Tidal Bores at Fundy
• Tidal bores are
when tides meet.
three high waves
and wild rapids.
The tides can
rapids, and tidal
Horizontal tidal effects
• Horizontal tidal
effects cause the
tide to sink back
three miles. Since
the bay is
narrower near the
upper part, the
Importance of measuring sea
• The importance of
measuring sea level is
to measure the
height of everything
on land. Mt. Everest
is an example. It is
because you know
when the ocean is
rising or falling, like
Measuring Sea Level
• The sea level is
measured by time
gauges, which is a 1
ft. in diameter pipe
with a small hole
Satellites are used
Difficulty with measuring sea level
• The difficulty with measuring sea level is
the the sea is always moving. The water
level is changed every second by waves,
hours by tide, week by the change in orbit
of the Earth and other planets, then by
year because the ocean rises 2 mil per
• Global warming is causing the temperature to
rise. The temperature has risen 1/2 degrees C
in the past 100 years. That is not the only
thing that has risen, the sea level has rose 6
to 8 inches in the last century.It is predicted
that in 2100, the ocean will rise 50 cm.
Melting of Polar ice caps
• The temperature
rise is causing the
icebergs to melt.
• Icebergs are chunks
of glaciers that have
• The higher
temperature is what
is weakening the
• Antarctica carries 90%
of the World’s ice. If
all the ice melted,
ocean would rise 200
• If North Pole melted,
no change in sea level.
• If Greenland melted,
there would be a 20 ft
increase in sea level.
• Tidal waves are very high ocean waves that
are caused by the sudden movement of
water. Such as an underwater earthquake,
undersea landslide, and a meteor or
asteroid strike. Tidal wave is not a good
expression since tides are caused by the
moon and tsunami’ are caused by the
sudden movements of the ocean. It is
called tidal because it looks like tide that
crashes as a large wave. Tsunamis can
cause major damage and kill people.
Interest in tsunamis
• Scientists interest: measuring the large
waves help understand structure and
nature of the ocean.
• Culture interest: it has an impact on life
for a long period of time.
• Technology interest: warning sensors
systems help provide notice to when one
Indonesian Tsunami 2004
On December 31, 2004 a
tsunami was caused by an
undersea earthquake. This
was the fourth largest
earthquake in the world that
measured a 9 on the Richter
scale. The earthquake was
caused by a tectonic plate
sliding under another. The
wave was 1200-1300 km in
length and 100 km in width.
Picture of Tidal Wave Travel
My name is Bianca Maddox,
otherwise known as Tonka. I love the
roller coasters at Six Flags like
Batman, Superman and Ninja! I’d
ride them forever!! And I like the
1980 Michael Jackson! HEEHEE!
Flick, E. Reinhard. World Book Encyclopedia.
Hill, Alison. www.sfgate.com/getoutside/1996/