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                   Frederick T. Simon, Clemson University

Introduction Color is the common denominator in the process industries but it is
accomplished in somewhat different ways. There are distinctions among the
industries in the manner in which color is applied to the products that are
manufactured. Furthermore the relation of the creative aspect of how colors are
selected varies; on one hand, art work is used to establish colors and designs
and on the other the ultimate consumer selects a color from a display of paint
chips. One of the main differences among the industries is the colorants that
they use. Textiles for the most part uses water soluble dyes rather than
pigments that are not soluble in water. The printing industry (Graphic Arts)
consumes a variety of pigments that are not common to either paint or plastics.
Further differences come about on how colors are selected by an artist who is
the creator of designs, patterns and colored objects.\

Dependence of color by industry The choice of color of dyed and printed textiles
is different than other process industries because it is defined by the materials
(fibers) used to make the particular textile fabric or yarn. Chemical differences
among the fibers will define the type of dye that can be used. The pigments that
are used by other process industries generally do not interact with the carrier or
matrix in which they are used. In paint and plastics, a major criterion for pigment
selection is color fastness. Additionally, the molding temperature of plastic
materials limits pigments and thus the color that can be achieved. Color in
graphic arts can be thought of being divided into two types: process colors and
spot colors. Process colors are used to make printed images by (light) additivity
through the half-tone process where the individual dots of Cyan, Magenta, Yellow
and Black are mixed in the eye of the observer. Reds are achieved by dots of
magenta and yellow; greens are accomplished with cyan and yellow; blues are
with cyan and magenta. Spot colors that are used in logos and special effects
are mixtures of several colored inks to match the desired color and in this sense
are similar to paints and plastics..

Role of the designer The artist or designer is an important to the choice of colors
in graphic arts and textiles but is not as crucial in paint and plastics. Printed
advertising originates with the graphic artist who conceives the ideas and is
frequently involved with an advertising agency. Packaging of products depend
on the graphic artist who creates a design as well as the mechanics of the
package itself. Textiles are divided into two categories as far as design is
concerned: woven or printed.fabrics. Colored patterns are achieved by the
designer who selects dyed yarns and arranges them in a fabric in many different
and varied patterns. Printed textiles originate with an artist’s design which is
ultimately transferred to a fabric through the printing process. Except for
automotive paint colors and other industrial applications, the household
consumer is the one who determines the choice of color from the palette that the
paint manufacturer has to offer. Plastics color is intimately tied with the design of
the object whether it be molded or extruded.

Color determined by process Some of the brightest colors known to man are
obtained in certain dyed textiles. Despite the fact that some dyes are not
applicable to all fibers, dyes in general notwithstanding fastness requirements
can be brighter than pigments. Automotive paints and plastics together with
spatial effect pigments achieve some overall startling results that are not
common to other segments of the process world. Printed paper and film have
been known to use special effect inks such as metallics or fluorescent pigments
but that is not common for most graphic arts.

Color control Process industries by their very nature are mindful of the
responsibility to produce the same color throughout a run or between runs. The
obvious answer to control is color measurement. Paint, plastics and textiles were
early adopters of instrumental control and match prediction. Most of their effort
was centered in the laboratory for color matching and later in the production
environment. Graphic arts was slower to recognize the opportunity until the
computer became the means to convert art work into the printed piece.
Although it is not unknown to other industries, the mechanics to realize an artists
rendition into its final form, the printing process must go through several steps to
accomplish this. The overall term that is used to describe this is “pre-press”. An
image is brought into the system with a scanner and is displayed on a computer
monitor. After adjusting the image that is now in digital form, it is converted to
the printing primaries and put through an image setter to produce photographic
films from which printing plates are made and the image is printed on a press.
The requirement of the graphic arts for measuring very small areas led
instrument manufacturers to provide small and hand-held instruments which aid
in process control of printing.

 Conclusion The kinship among the process industries is especially close since
developments in one segment frequently find their way into others. When a new
method of affecting the appearance of marketable materials is found in one
industry, it frequently is imitated in others. It is believed that the leader in color is
the fashion industry which sets a trend that is soon found in other commodities.
Thus color is the common language that speaks to the consumer in many forms
in an effort to satisfy his needs.

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