Slide 1 - Anglia Ruskin University Cambridge and Chelmsford_ UK

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 Serious Games on The Move
         24 June 2008
        Robert Davies
      MDR Partners, UK
   EC IST FP6, Call 4, October 2005-March 2008
   e-Learning, New Member States
       8 countries, 17 schools
       European Schoolnet, Manchester Metropolitan University
       SMEs: Cross Czech, MDR, Ciberespacio
   Age group 9-12
   Games + mobile technologies
   New, enriching experiences for children
   Creativity in the classroom and outside
   Good practice for new teaching
   Targeting policy makers, teachers, parents, children
               Country co-ordinators

   Czech Republic – CELN
   Estonia – Tiger Leap Foundation
   Hungary – Berzsenyi College
   Latvia – Mezzazile
   Lithuania – Imotec
   Poland – ICIMMS
   Slovakia – Elfa
   Slovenia – UL

                                       3 strategic objectives

   Significant impact on validating new learning
    paradigms in both school and informal settings

   Contribute to strategic thinking about school and
    curriculum reform process in NMS and Europe

                 eMapps games concept

   Real environment/any location
       Indoor/outdoor
   Real time
   Using mobile devices and Internet technologies
   Wide possibilities for communication, social
    networking and creation of multimedia content
   Played (competitively) in teams
   Elementary and secondary schools

              eMapps game characteristics
   Different from regular computer games
       Affordable to create
       Take the players outside their classrooms
       Involve real world and real people
       Blurring with alternate reality, defined in game story
       Players can create and upload their own content
   ‘Game Masters’ (and designers) are usually teachers
       Freedom to experiment/adapt within platform constraints
       Levels, tasks, clues, challenges
       Game master interventions
   PC + mobile devices
   Web 2.0, Chat, blogs and casts, map-based technologies
                        Expected results

   Web-based game learning platform
   A Children’s Living Map of Europe
   Competent teachers able to disseminate results
       Summer schools
       Handbook/toolkit
       Conferences
       Evaluation: public results
   Exploitation: open platform available

         Kids are different today (Prensky, 2001)

   Operate at ‘twitch speed‘
   Parallel processors rather than linear processors
   Conduct multiple ‘conversations’ using technology
   Choose graphics and animation over text
   Random accessors of information
   Active not passive
   Expect reward for effort
   See play as work and work as play
   Expect fantasy and reality in equal measure
   View technology as life, not a separate activity

    Games and mobile technology in learning

   People learn best when they are motivated and
       games provide a ‘flow’ experience
       playful experimentation to develop understanding of the
        world and our place in it
   Equip learners with powerful, mobile tools for access,
    creation and use of content
   Use location to trigger events

             Mobile learning characteristics
   Ubiquitous
       Western Europe: one per person since 2006
       Sophisticated mobile devices enable rich learning content
       Costs for learner (nb NMS)?
   On demand
       Flexibility to access learning in best time and place
       Teacher can feed back
   Typically ‘blended’
       Used as part of a wider set of learning interventions
       Not e-learning on a phone
       ‘Bite sized’ learning
        Short segments, simple, structured, easy access, task-based
                Digital games and learning

   Nearly 60% of UK teachers willing to use games in class
    (NESTA Futurelabs, 2006)
   Potential remains largely unrealized
       false starts and misunderstandings: learn from past
   Need to align principles of games with educational
    theory and learning outcomes
       possible to create effective blended game-based learning

    Games and learning: simplifying the argument?

   Increase in IQ across all cultures with standardised
       attributable to education, nutrition etc?
       cognitive complexity of mass entertainment e.g. video games?
   Children are not the problem
       90% of children surveyed play computer/video games
   Widespread criticism of school education systems in
    many parts of Europe
       If schools are failing and games are effective learning tools and
        students like games…..
            Why are games good for learning?
   Successful games can help people learn large amounts of
   Games use established learning theories and principles
       play is an effective learning paradigm: ‘hard fun’
       players resolve challenges and problems: learner autonomy
       help is only hints, not answers: constructivist not didactic
       scientific method: gather data, hypothesis, test, revise
   Not all games have the same learning outcomes
       Card games - matching numbers, platforms
       Jeopardy-style games - information, facts, concepts
       Arcade style ‘twitch’ games – speed, visual processing
       Adventure – hypothesis testing, problem solving
         Approaches to learning game design

   eMapps approach: ‘bottom-up’
       eMapps: teachers (and students) take on game designer role
        within platform constraints
       Templates and portfolios
   Commercial games integrated into school- based
       More cost-effective than building from scratch
       Quality maximised (game play or ‘flow’)
       Can match course content (history, geography, civil
        engineering, physics, maths, economics)
       But limited topics, content incomplete/ inaccurate


   Manageability of games in the school curriculum and
       Or is this an extracurricular activity?
   What is learned?
     ‘Higher order’ skills or curriculum-oriented knowledge (e.g.
        history)…or both?
       Assessment framework
   Can policy makers be convinced?
       Reform of curriculum frameworks

                        Challenges (2)

   Can teachers adapt to changed role?
       knowledge and authority status
       skills in ICT/game management

   What IT integration and support do schools need?
       access to computers, phones/handhelds etc
       how does the platform function in a school

                        Challenges (3)

   How does partnership actually work with informal
    settings and institutions

   What role do parents/carers/community play?

   How important are specific content access structures?
       Multi-school or international game play
       Learning content repositories etc
       Google
       DIY

                    Is it worthwhile?

   eMapps games can easily take 100+ hours to design and
    20-30 hours to play
   Manageable through saved games, transitions but…
   Is the amount of potential learning justified by the work
    and time needed to implement the game?
   Dissemination across Europe: policy makers and
   Convince parents and teachers

    Theories of learning: where fits

   Informal Learning
   Constructivism (vs objectivism)
   Discovery/experiential Learning
        wonder, surprise, feelings, peer/personal responses, fun and pleasure
   Situated Learning
   Collaborative Learning
   Independent Learning
   Visual Cognition and creative thinking
   Inclusive Learning

               Informal learning: what is it?

   Happens outside formal education institutions
       e.g. libraries, museums, cultural institutions
       USA is ahead
       EC projects such as AITMES and Il Greco
   Not about things which are learned in formal education
   Happens in a different way
       ‘casual’ or ‘accidental’ rather than ‘organised’
   Has a different purpose
       participation in leisure
       not related to passing examinations?
     Some learning outcomes that eMapps. com

   Investigation of ‘real world’
       Through access, analysis, interpretation of information
       Improved achievement and depth of learning
   Problem-solving, goal-related behaviour
   Increased technology capability and skill
   Communicative skills
   Collaborative skills
   Softer skills: e.g. resilience and persistence
   Emergence of mentoring and teaching skills
      school survey
                  Ownership and use

   Most common games platforms owned
       PCs (boys 83%; girls 75%)
       mobile phones (boys 60%; girls 77%)
   Proprietary platforms (consoles) owned
       Sony Playstation, Game Boy owned by significant %: <20%
       Xbox, PSP etc still at a low level of use
   90% of children use one or more game platforms
       60% used PCs for playing games
       mobile phones used for gaming by 43% of children who
        owned them

Games platforms used by boys

      school survey
                    Games played
   Over 150 game titles cited
       Average 2.8 per boy; 2.0 per girl)
       Peer emulation and/or access to specific titles
       Fewer attractive games available for girls
       Boys: action, military strategy and sports games dominant
        Girls play them too: but mobile phone games more popular
        and sports games less popular
   53% of boys played games every day: 27% girls
   55% of children had Internet connection at home
       80%+ of these had broadband
   50%+ children see games at school as part of learning
       more girls than boys
Favourite games: boys and girls

      eMapps games using initial prototype

   Looked like this…….

                                       The Rep Game
                                 Used by teachers for
                                 creating content to be
                                 uploaded to each level of the
                                 desk game

Teachers create multimedia
content, video, audio, text,
photos (normally part of their
curriculum that will become
part of the game)

                                     The Desk Game
                                 Teams of players look for clues and
                                  create content in order to pass to a
                                  higher game level
                                 Children upload their multimedia work
                                  produced during the game play.

Teacher plays a role of Game
Master and can see at anytime
any of team desks and promote
players to the next level.

                                                         GIS map

Each game is played in a
territory based on vector
map and ortophoto.

Teachers and children can pin any position in the territory based on UTM
Pin based on UTM
coordinates from GPS,
routes & tracks

     What effect do the games have: what we

   Evaluation of the impact of the games
   Pedagogy
   Impact on school
   Cost and budgeting
   Technology
   Cultural issues

                 Evaluation methods

   Teachers
       Observation
       Questionnaires

   Children (and parents)
       Focus groups
       Structured class discussion
       Small group discussion
       One to one feedback
       Children’s stories or diaries about their experiences

                     Is this trainable…?

   After first summer school June 2006
       8/21 teachers confident they could create a game
       13/21 quite confident
   Back at school
       21/21 found both school managers and colleagues interested
        in what they were doing
       16/21 thought easy to integrate into school curriculum
       13/21 thought easy to integrate into school timetable
       15/21 thought purchasing equipment from school budget
        would be a problem

    What the children learned..according to teachers

   New facts across a range of curriculum subjects
       game can be cross-curricular
       geography, history, local studies, folklore/myths
   New technology skills with handhelds, platform, ICT
   Improved generic skills, especially:
       teamwork and cooperation,
       analytical appraisal
       collaborative decision-making, negotiating
       independent decision-making
       planning
       navigating
   Self confidence and self-reliance
                Big issues for resolution

   Time
   Cost
   Safety
   Usability

   …more in workshops

            eMapps – main outcomes (1)

   The children had fun: wanted to play the
    game again
   The teachers enjoyed the experience
     Curriculum, cross-curricular fits were identified
     Positive learning outcomes were identified

   Positive feedback from parents

                     Main outcomes (2)

   Difficult to mainstream immediately
       Need for extended ‘multiplier’ pilots
       Need to validate business and implementation models
   Evaluation of first prototype and its implementation
    raised specific issues
   Addressed in a re-engineered platform now available
    from University of Ljubljana

Exploitation partners at national and European level

   Ministries and Local/regional education and cultural
   Education service agencies
   Education research and innovation institutes
   Commercial suppliers to education and culture sectors

                Service based exploitation?

   TELCO or mobile service supplier?
   Exploit children’s familiarity with/access to mobile
   Service suppliers looking for education oriented
    content and services
   How will they see potential of eMapps style ‘mixed
    reality’ games: GPS, location based?

           Workshops this afternoon

   Theme 2 - embedding games into school life and
    into curriculum

   Theme 3 – platform and tools

                 For latest information

   Availability updates on eMapps website
   Contact national partner (see website)
   Contact eMapps co-ordinator