T he Primgraph goes to the Wild West
2 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
4 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
elcome to Issue 4 of the fascinating documentary record: Henry
Primgraph - and we have a great Mayhew’s London Labour and the London
treat for you! Poor, building up a enthralling picture of
This month we are looking at the Victorian life in a great city...
American West and some of its manifestations So jump into the Primgraph and find
in Second Life. We visit the Tombstone sins in out all the goodies we have to share with
the company of Ceejay Writer, while Therese you ...
Carfagnus tells more about some of the
people to be met there. Roberto Viking tells
us something of the reality of the Wild West,
while Saffia Widdershins confesses to a guilty
pleasure of her youth - the Western novels of
JT Edson. In addition, our historical archive,
Clio's Mirror, focuses on the year 1883 and
looks at events particularly concerning the
American West. Editrix: Miss Saffia Widdershins
But other sims are not neglected. Jvstiin
Tomorrow gives a fascinating account of
Rivet Town while Ceejay Writer brings us all
the news of the events in Babbage where the
sale of the sim was handled in an innovative
way that gave residences a unique way in
how they would be governed. Find out how
it happened in Ceejay's article!
Our fashion reports are a little
curtailed in this issue as one of writers has
been affected by the brushfires in Australia.
Fortunately, she and her family have made
it through safely ... and we expect her to to
be back for our fashion reports in the next
We have more of our classic serial,
The Mysteries of London, and details of
new acquisitions from the library. There’s
also information on the correct meaning
of popular expressions in the Vintage and
steampunk worlds from our Mistress of
Propriety - as well as an extract from that
6 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
8 The Primgraph
Impressions of the New Babbage Airship R
by Miss Riven Homewood, Mr Julian Beeswing and
Edward Pearse, Duke of Argyll, Earl of Primbroke........
Sim of the Month: A Visit to Tombstone by
Meeting the People of Tombstone by Miss Th
The Code of the West, and the Environmen
by Mr Roberto Viking.....................................................
The Election: A New Mayor for Babbage by
A Tour of Rivet Town by Mr Jvstin Tomorrow.....
Steam Poetry by Bronhudden.........................................
With a Flick of the Wrist - the Language of
Western Shopping in Winslow by Miss Eloisa
Clio’s Mirror: 1883 by Miss Saffia Widdershins...
The Mysteries of London by Mr George W.M.Re
Book Review: The Westerns of JT Edson by
Recent Acquisitions of the Libraries of Cal
Braun, OLA Presented by Sir JJ Drinkwater..................
London Labour & the London Poor by Mr He
The Mistress of Propriety...................................
Letters Received by the Editrix..............................
How to Read The Primgraph.............................
How to Advertise in The Primgraph..............
List of Advertisers.................................................
*The Table of Contents and advertisements
in the PDF and Ca
Number 4 - February 2009
y Miss Ceejay Writer................................................20
nt that Gave Rise to It
by Miss Ceejay Writer..............................................50
f the Fan by Miss Siri Woodget................................60
by Miss Saffia Widdershins......................................92
ledon: Airship Collection, Curated by Miss Mica
Primgraph’s featured sim: Tombstone
Photo by Miss Wren Carling [Page 20]
s in Primgraph magazine are hyperlinked
Impressions of the
by Miss Riven Homewood, Mr Julian Beeswing and Mr Edward Pearse
Number 4 - February 2009
e New Babbage
Mr Kyle Oller
Coordinator of the Airship Regatta
Founder of the New Babbage Aethernautical Society
12 The Primgraph
benign, and it was removed without injury to
persons or airship. We sighed in relief, and
Comments from Miss Riven
relaxed as we watched the third ship pass
through the final ring. It was a classic oval-
he sun had not yet risen, and it was
shaped gasbag, bright red, bearing a crest
very dark. Alone, I hovered over
shaped like a spread-winged bird.
the Vernian Sea, seeking the New Babbage
Mr Beeswing's flying ship was in the
Airship Regatta. I had come to watch my
next round. She was a full-rigged sailing ship,
friend Julian Beeswing set his new airship
looking like she would be quite at home on
loose in the sky to try her paces against the
the water, yet magically soaring through the
best machines New Babbage and the other
air. I confess that I was so taken by the sight
steampunk worlds could offer. As things
of her white sails against the blue sky that I
began to rez, I located the teleport link and
had eyes for none of her competition. I was
ascended to the viewing stand. There I found
delighted to find that she placed second in
Mr Beeswing, awaiting his chance to take the
As the next group of ships formed on the
Not wishing to interrupt his
starting line, I reluctantly took my leave and
concentration, I stood to the side and watched
moved on to my next appointment. It had been
the preceding race between a small agile ship
a wonderful morning, filled with beautiful
and two huge gasbag airships. Each had to
machinery and good sportsmanship.
pass through a ring-shaped starting gate and
navigate a marked course. The first ship to
complete two rounds and pass back through
the ring was declared the winner. Along the
way, a clever armband device kept track of
the time when each checkpoint was passed
and thus allowed the aeronauts to calculate
their time for the round.
The rosy fingers of dawn and
subsequent clear morning light gave me
a crystal-clear view of the airships. Miss
Darlingmonster Ember's speedy ship was the
leader, and finished the course far ahead of the
others. Next was a strange creation, shaped
like a huge black jellyfish with immensely
long dangling tentacles. Tentacles flapping
in the wind, it passed through the final ring,
completing the race. Suddenly, without
warning it changed course and hovered over
the grandstand, enveloping us in its tentacles
as though we were being captured by an
alien being. Fortunately its intentions proved
Number 4 - February 2009
14 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
Comments from Mr Julian
hat stands out in my memory
about the regatta is the
excitement I felt. I love taking any chance I
can to fly one of my vehicles, and this was my
first time in an actual "judged" regatta.
Windstream (the one I flew in the
Regatta) is my largest, and personal favourite.
She is the first vehicle (well, actually the first
functioning vehicle) that I have ever built. I
am not sure how long it took me to build her.
I am always chatting while I build, so the time
really flies by. I would say probably close to
20 hours, what with false starts, tweaking
I came second in my race, only by
dint of the fact that the Dr. either got lost, or
crashed, or somesuch. I did end up winning
the Spectators Choice Award, though. I was
really happy, and rather surprised. All the
other ships were so very cool.
Did anything especially exciting
happen? Well, between being attacked by a
giant Octopus, the really quite large zeppelin
getting stuck in the starting ring, various
cigar ships wheeling about like dervishes,
no, not really!
There was a large steel coloured ship
that was quite large in circumference. That
was the one that got stuck in the ring. It was
something . . . Echoes of the Hindenberg! It
took about five minutes to get it out. Just
needed to derezz and rerezz.
It all taught me that smaller ships
usually win in speed, due to their speed
and maneuverability, but that a larger ship
with many sails and pennants can gain the
public's favour. I look forward to the next
Airship Regatta, and any other such events
in the future.
16 The Primgraph
Comment from Edward Pearse,
Duke of Argylle & Earl of
he New Babbage airship regatta
was a notable success. Vehicles
ranged from the interesting to the impressive
to the bizarre. One was a giant squid-like craft,
another a sailing ship with additional masts
at the bottom and sides (showing exactly the
reason for the canvas shortage in Second
Life), yet others a more traditional dirigible
shape. Some craft showed amazing speed yet
fell down with their maneouverability. It all
boiled down to time.
Each pilot wore an armband that held
a tracking device. As the passed through the
start ring it began and checked to see that
they passed through the lap ring. The course
was laid out with coloured weather balloons
showing pilots the *intended* course they
were supposed to travel. The lap ring was
enticingly close to the sim border crossing
and those who may have been travelling a
little too fast discovered the joy of border
crossings while desperately trying to turn
their ship about.
It was the final round that was the most
memorable for me. After all the official heats
were over and the officials were counting
the crowd vote, those pilots still running on
adrenaline (or possible other substances)
all joined together in an impromptu heat
using Munro Motors' "It" - a flying chair set
upon a horizontal fan. With all contestants
being equal and enthusiasm running high it
still proved for some interesting displays of
Sadly the Parsival came away without
a trophy but I shall ensure I get in some
practice before the next event!
Number 4 - February 2009
18 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
Sim of the Month:
Part One: immerse yourself in the life of the Wild West,
Preparing For Your Trip to this reporter believes you will find wealth
and riches beyond those that arrive on the
Tombstone Wells Fargo Express!
You will need to be well-prepared for
he journey to Tombstone, Arizona your journey. The Tombstone visitor centre
is an arduous one, and should not is open to the public and contains a wealth of
be undertaken lightly. But, if you are amongst information, as well as the means to summon
the truly adventurous and are longing to a guide. You should become as familiar as
: A Visit to
possible with the rules of the land, and with
by Miss Ceejay Writer
make my way to the visitor centre, where I
the HUD you will be required to wear. You met a well-behaved young man not quite
should also be dressed in clothing appropriate old enough to shave, by the name of Dmitriy.
for the American West, circa 1898. For your We spoke a bit, and Dmitriy decided that a
convenience, the rules can be found here: Primgraph reporter was worth the honour
[http://www.tombstonearizona-secondlife. of a special visit. To my delight, he agreed to
com/tombstonerules.htm] personally escort me on a grand tour of the
Yours truly, endeavouring to fulfill my eight sims that together comprise the world
mission as an intrepid reporter, did indeed of Tombstone.
Images of Tombstone (overleaf)
22 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
As we walked towards the portal that interesting character is a lot more fun.”
would whisk us away to Tombstone, Dmitriy I gazed at scenes of Tombstone upon
told me about classes that are available for the corridor walls displaying side-by-side
newcomers, so that versions of the Second
they may become Life re-creations I
better role-players. was about to visit,
“We give them ideas alongside paintings of
how they can get the original buildings
involved, and for the in the actual town of
most part, people Tombstone. I began to
are very friendly understand the care
and want to help. with which this town
We also have about had been re-created.
30 admins, so there We reached the portal
is always someone point, and with a
to help. Some people nervous smile cast
think it’s just about in the direction of my
shooting, but we like to suggest that shooting young guide . . . we stepped inside.
is the easy part and building a good and
Part Two: Welcome to
he world of Tombstone covers
eight full sims – the West is a big
land and needs a lot of space to spread out!
Four of these sims are primarily for role-
play, three are a combination of role-play
and residential areas, and one is a shopping
area which outsiders are welcome to visit. As
Dmitriy and I paused to get our bearings, he
explained that once you have participated in
role-play for seven days, you can become a
citizen of Tombstone.
Once my eyes became accustomed to
the light, I was told that we stood on Allen
Street, the busiest thoroughfare in town.
My guide generously offered to conduct my
tour via his horse-draw buckboard, which
sounded marvelous and would save quite
a bit of wear and tear on my boots. Soon
enough, a most handsome horse by the name
of Chestnut was pulling us down Allen Street
as we rode in comfort atop Dmitry’s simple
yet sturdy buckboard. My guide seemed
quite proud to point out the sights. “The main
Sheriff’s office is here, doctor, undertaker,
courthouse.” He rattled off this information
with the ease that can only come when one
has spent time getting to know a place well.
We passed by Ed Scheffelin Hall, which is
Number 4 - February 2009
26 The Primgraph
named after the founder of Tombstone. alive. Well he made it successfully and named
Dmitriy explained this as best he could. “The the place Tombstone.”
story is, if I get it correctly, that he headed I took in the sights and noted clusters
west to make his fortune, and his brother of folk standing in the street, seeming very
told him if he comes out here it will be his absorbed in their interactions with each
Tombstone - meaning he would never leave other. Dmitriy was quickly settling into his
Number 4 - February 2009
own role as my tour-guide. He pointed out Thankfully, that famous gunfight had taken
the Cosmopolitan Hotel, the Sheriff’s office, place seventeen years previous, and all was
the undertakers (“for the not so lucky folk”), quiet in the corral on this fine afternoon.
and the courthouse. And then I saw one Further down the road, Dmitriy stammered
particular sign in front of a small open yard a bit as he attempted to explain a certain
that sent a chill up my spine. *The OK Corral*. club’s purpose to me. “On the right . . . well I
ain't allowed to go there. It’s umm, a dancing
place where the men go and women who
can't afford lots of clothin’ dance for them.” I
could not suppress a chuckle as I listened to
the dear child’s explanation.
As the Birdcage Theater was pointed
out to me, I learned that the plays performed
there several times a year are quite marvelous.
I was impressed by the various town
activities Dmitriy mentioned, as well. “We
have concerts here, and contests like horse
and canoe races, and dances and auctions.”
I smiled and commented, “Lots to do! Does
it keep you kids out of trouble?” though I
suspected I already knew the answer. “Well,
sometimes, ma’am, I don't know if my name
is Dmitriy or if it’s "get out of the street". I get
confused ‘cause I'm always called the second
As we passed the bank, I was asked,
“Remember I told you the outlaws like the
bank?” Dmitriy had mentioned this earlier in
the tour, so I nodded and he continued. “This is
what happens when their withdrawin’ don’t
go so well. On your right - the gallows.”
The Crystal Palace, Big Nose Kate’s
Saloon, the Wells Fargo office . . . and besides
all these buildings to gawk at, there were
townsfolk everywhere I looked. I witnessed
the Sheriff, her junior deputy, and the
Marshall breaking up a situation in the
street. There was just so much to take in my
brain was fairly spinning from the sights and
Ah, but then it was time to leave the
busy streets of Tombstone and cross over to
the town of Bisbee. Chestnut trotted onward,
pulling us past a lovely church where one
could attend Sunday services. The cobbled
streets here seemed a bit more upscale than
those we’d just left, and as I spied the barber
shop and was about to mention what a nice,
sleepy little town this was, Dmitriy pointed
30 The Primgraph
out the gypsy camp tents, where one could affluent area, wealthier landowners live in
have one's fortune told. It was not so sleepy spectacular homes and on large ranches. But
here after all! we still had quite a bit of ground to cover, so
We took a shortcut down the railroad we did not linger – our next destination was
tracks, crossing our fingers that the train Tortilla Flats, which featured places for weary
wouldn’t come along, and safely found our travelers to eat and sleep. We passed through
way into the region known as Canyon. In this that village fairly quickly, and proceeded on
Number 4 - February 2009
to the ghost town of Black Diamond, where introduce you. She lives here. Hello, Matron!”
I was cautioned to beware of real ghosts! As Dmitriy burst out laughing, I realized I’d
Chestnut seemed nervous in this strangely been had. In the front yard of the house in
beautiful yet sad question was an actual
place, and I believe ass – of the donkey
we were all glad to sort. Children, I swear.
move onward. But I couldn’t help
The Sonoran laughing along once I
Desert is a peaceful, got the joke.
scenic area, and I The next leg of our
would have gladly journey would be no
stopped to rest a spell joke, however. As we
here. However, it passed by the Cavalry
seems the matron of fort, I was told that
the local orphanage they are often called
lives in the vicinity, upon to defend the
and Dmitriy wasn’t too fond of her. “I really area from the Apaches, who are always after
don’t like her, and if you will excuse my people’s horses. I inquired about the number
language I kinda think she is an ass, but I can of Apaches, and was told there were a lot
Number 4 - February 2009
of them. We rode close to White Mountain,
where the Apache live, and thankfully
managed to pass by unharmed. But we
weren’t out of danger yet, oh no! Next stop
– Ghenna, home of the Devil’s Rejects, the
most dangerous outlaws around. Dmitriy
told me that kids weren’t allowed in Ghenna,
but then he decided if we rode through really,
really fast, it might be all right. I tried my best
to look at everything quickly as we zoomed
through outlaw territory. Beyond that sinister
place, to my relief, we found signs of proper
civilization - the orphanage, the schoolhouse,
and Shucks Ballroom. Still, one must never
relax too much in the Wild West, as the next
sight I beheld was a derailed train. Dmitriy
assured me some ‘train people’ would be
along to set things to rights very soon.
Onward we pressed. We passed the
mines, where there would sometimes be
collapses due to Apaches setting explosives.
And then we entered the town of Benson,
which is one of the areas that visitors can
explore and enjoy. Beyond Benson lies
Winslow, which is a shopping district, also
open to visitors. These two public areas can
be easily reached from the welcome area, and
are well worth a shopping and sightseeing
trip! You’ll find many free items as well as
lovely period clothing and other goods for
34 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
A little ways further and I began to introduced to Miss Roxie. She explained that
recognize my surroundings. We were back on her title was “a fancy name for floor sweeper,
Allen Street in Tombstone. I was a little sad get the mail and my most important job, ‘Hey
to realize that my tour was near an end. As I the bank is being robbed’.”
stepped down carefully from the buckboard, I thanked young Dmitriy for an
the Junior Deputy approached us, and I was interesting afternoon’s exploration and for
36 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
38 The Primgraph
being such a good guide. He politely asked, to pay a visit to Tombstone, and happen upon
“Is there anything else you wanted to know a young boy chewing on a strand of hay, ask
ma’am?” and I assured him I had enough for a him if he is the famous tour-guide, Dmitriy. It
fine article, thanks to him. He wondered, “Oh should be worth it to hear his stammer and
good. Am I gonna be famous?”, and I told him see him blush!
that he just might be! That is up to you, dear
reader. If you find yourself intrigued enough E
Number 4 - February 2009
40 The Primgraph
Meeting the People
of Tombstone by Miss Therese Carfagno
elcome to Tombstone, Arizona. of course, often running barefoot, growing
Considering both distance and up in this wild and rugged land that might
way of life, we’re quite far away from the never be a fully integrated part of the United
more civilized worlds of London, Paris, States.
Boston and New York. This is Coyote Country, I travelled a long way with train and
Indian Country, the Wild West, the Frontiers, stagecoach before I finally entered this
and it’s quite an experience. dusty yet legendary place that lies almost in
Here I found the strong, uncut men who Mexico. The name itself is a small story. In
make a living from activities that make them the summer of 1877, a prospector named Ed
wanted by the law, and the men who work Schieffelin worked the hills east of the San
the silver and copper ores; the women who Pedro River, in the southeastern portion of
take care of them, be they nurses, doctors the Arizona Territory, when he came across a
or ladies of easy leisure; and the children, vein of a rich silver ore. When Schieffelin filed
his mining claim he named it The Tombstone,
after a warning given to him by his brother:
"If you go back there, that place will be your
The town of Tombstone was founded in
1879, and even though that is only 20 years
ago today, it’s already a town of respectable
size. But its golden age seem to have passed.
Late last decade, the silver mining industry
began to decline as efforts to remove the
seeping water that found its way into the
mineshafts failed. Miners were disgruntled,
and left to find new work in the neighbouring
town of Bisbee and other new mining towns.
But that doesn’t mean Tombstone today is a
ghost town – far from it. It’s as lively as ever.
So that is why we ask the question: What
makes this city too tough to die?
Stepping off the stagecoach at one
end of Allen Street, one feels, despite the
unfamiliar surroundings, very welcome.
photos by Therese Carfagno
Number 4 - February 2009
Our first meeting was doin’?" A small boy
with a woman given named Timmie
the name Gigi by her greeted us this way.
friends. ”Welcome The language in
to Tombstone. We’re these parts of the
a big family here,” country reflects the
she quickly said. ”We simple way of living
are good people, they lead. And I’d
bad people, and ugly never before seen
people.” such a small boy
Ms Gigi likes it carry an axe. When I
here, even though she asked what he used
has a habit of getting it for, he answered:
into bad situations by accident. On her way "Jes’ wood, no worries," as if I’d implied he
here for the first time, she got held up by one planned to kill someone with it. Not far from
of the notorius Dalton brothers and passed him a tall Indian, arms crossed, greeted us
out at the sight of a gun. Later, she got hit with his "Dago te." Little Timmie greeted
by a train, and had to use a wheel chair for him with the same words. The children of
one and a half month. She even got shot once the West certainly get a different upbringing!
while doing such a peaceful thing as playing From early on, they take part in the struggle
her cello. to survive in these rough surroundings.
Looking me up and down, she had no "All’s fine, jes’ lotsa werk, ’specially
problems seeing I was new to the area, and since Roxie got shot and cain’t care fer her
guided me to one of the shops they have for cows anymore," Timmie replied to how he
proper women’s clothing in Tombstone. It’s a was doing. Now would you ever find a child
style not unlike the one back East, although in Philadelphia giving such an answer?
slightly simpler. I got myself a nice, dark In the middle of Allen Street, you find
green dress, quite smart. a comfortable hotel. I brought my belongings
The trousers mostly worn by the there and changed into my new dress. Ms
men here are the so-called jeans. They’re Gigi met me down in the lobby, ready to show
solid, made by me the town. Out on
denim cotton, often the street, she was
blue, and not too approached by some
expensive. But what’s farmers. "There’s Gigi
really new here is now. We got milk for
the sight of women you. One can of milk
actually wearing for ten dollars per our
trousers, as well – a agreement."
fashion somewhat Timmie giggled as
unlikely to catch on Ms Gigi opened her
elsewhere than in purse and got out the
the West. money, and I heard
"How’s y’all him whisper "Only an
idiot’d pay ten dollars fer a few gallons of found it peculiar having a women for a doctor.
milk," which was not a nice thing to say. But "Well, I have run across a few that didn’t want
when the farmer, the before mentioned Ms a woman doctor, but when they found out
Roxie Marten, wanted to give him some for we didn’t have any men docs they seemed to
helping her, he answered, "No Roxie ah don’ change their mind and let me treat them. Yes,
want it, ah hep ya as a friend, don’ want no ma’am, I think I look a lot better to them than
dang payment. We’s friends." death." Latte showed me her equipment; the
As we continued, Ms Gigi pointed to bandages, the healing salves, and "the hated
the bank, noting, "It gets robbed a lot. I think syringes." "These little things can make a
the outlaws need to be more creative." grown man cry. Some have asked me just to
A saloon is the natural meeting spot for let them die," Dr Latte said with a smile.
all towns of the West. We stopped outside and Next to the sheriff’s office, the doctors’
had a nice chat with are the most busy
some of the men and one of the town. She
women standing there. admits that some
While Ms Gigi stayed, patients can be a
I walked on over to very tough challenge.
the doctor’s office, "I do all I can, make
interested seeing sure there is nothing
the doctors were in more I can do, and
fact two women. Dr then with God’s
Soph Shepherd said help I hope they will
she had a very busy recover. I’ve learned
job: "Busier than I’d to accept I can only
care for sometimes. do so much. What
I usually mend bullet wounds, some pretty affects me most are the kids – the innocent
nasty. I also look after animals that get hurt." ones."
Dr Reb Latte added "a few broke limbs" to Asked what she likes to do when not
that. "People fall of horses. I’ve also removed working, Dr Latte said, "Not working? I’ll let
arrows." you know when that happens. Ya never know
Dr Latte came to Tombstone one year when a doc will be needed around here."
ago, while Dr Shepherd had come only a It’s no wonder being the doctor is
month earlier. But it seems like years already. so busy. Tombstone and its surrounding
"I learned a lot back East before I came here, countryside are known as one of the deadliest
and I’m glad I can put it to use," she said, regions in the West. Gigi told me, "I’ve run
adding that she came here looking for her out of things to wear at funerals." She’s quite
husband, who went missing from home. "All familiar with guns, and even refers to one
the clues pointed this way. Sadly, I haven’t simply as "steel".
found him yet, and I’ve stayed in Tombstone "I have a pretty garter gun, she told
because this is where the clues ran out. I’ve me," smiling, then pulled it up for me to see
found a place and friends here." before we approached the shooting range.
Dr Latte then took me inside to see It’s a place she sometimes come to blow off
the office. I asked her if any of the townsmen some steam by shooting down bottles and
Number 4 - February 2009
cans. When she gave me the gun and asked He intends to stay in Bisbee, describing it as
me to give it a try, my hand began to shake, "the place to make yer fortune." It will have
but guided by her I actually managed to shoot to be seen for how long the town will let him
down a few bottles. I’ll admit it was fun, but stay. After all, Ms Mercedes Mfume told me
you’ll never get me to wear a gun like the on entering the city that there were "no riff
people in this town do. raff here. If they try to settle, we run them
The gunfighter is the image that often out of town."
comes to mind when thinking about life in On my way back to Tombstone I met
these parts of the country. So how real is he? yet another person that lived by the gun.
What I eventually found out is that not only Ms Vor Torok had escaped from her earlier
he, but also she, is a very real phenomena. settlement more than a year ago. "They
Even for the relatively innocent Ms Gigi, wanted to hang me for killing my husband.
showing me the place where people duel He was a very bad man."
seemed to be a natural thing to do while Ms Torok fled before anyone had
guiding me around the city. discovered the crime. For a year she lived in
Ms Aili Kuhn, a nurse I met in the the deserts, where she had to learn how to
neighbouring town of Bisbee, said it bluntly: use a gun. "The gun is my justice and defense.
"On weekends the bandits are all over and I use it for protection only, and, well, when
they shoot each other so we get a lot of work. perhaps I need to borrow things." She almost
Last Sunday I had to treat 13 people." died out there in the desert, surviving thanks
It was in to a doctor from the
Bisbee I met Mr nearby city of Ghenna
Apple Pevensey that found her. Now
as well. "How do I she’s in Tombstone
know yer not the to look for a new life.
law," he replied Somewhere she can
when I asked for an forget her past.
interview. I gave him Has she succeeded?
my word on being "Well, time will tell.
an independent I’m still alive. Jobs
journalist. Mr are hard to find, and
Pevensey had come I’m not good with
to the area only discipline." So her
three months earlier. gun is still important
Before that, he to her. "Don’t rightly
lived in Sacramento, California. For reasons hold much respect for the law here. It ain’t
unexplained, he had to leave. no friend to me," she said, and then felt she’d
"How do I make a living? Well ma’am, said enough.
I’m sort of self sufficient. Other people help There are signs life might get harder
me make my living. I could tell ya exactly for the gunfighters. Tombstone’s mayor, Mr
what I do, but then I’d have to sort of erase Adrian Wise, has decided to clean up the
it from your memory." The cuts and bruises streets. He promoted Ms Kimee Babii from
in his face he said came from the frying pan. sheriff to marshall, and in an effort to crack
down on violent crime, heavier fines and other than Dutch Annie. Many a miner, broke
penalties will be applied on firearm usage and desperate, was grubstaked by this friend
with criminal intent. to all. When she went to her eternal rest,
I bought a copy of the town’s newspaper, more than 1,000 people followed the coffin,
the Tombstone *Epitaph*, where the marshall paying tribute to Dutch Annie – Queen of the
was made the Red Light District.
following statement: Today, 17 years later,
"We are on our her place is still one
way to becoming a of the more popular
state. Mayor Wise ones in Tombstone.
means to shape It’s described as the
up this town as an wildest, roughest,
example of law and wickedest honky tonk,
order in the future and the numerous
state of Arizona." bullet holes in the
They have a big job building lend credence
waiting, according to this claim. Even if
to the *Epitaph*: "As it’s not a place to be
always, Tombstone seen for a respectable
folk stick to their guns: when questioned woman, I ventured inside. There, I met Ms
about complying with the ordinances, the Jadzia Nightfire. She’s part of the group of
leaders of the outlaws in Ghenna merely women known as the Soiled Doves.
laughed." A Soiled Dove is one WHO has undergone
Maybe as an act of protest, two cowboys the initial training and has earned her wings,
entered town, broke into the bank, shot down so to speak, said Ms Nightfire. She described
a woman that tried to her work as simple
intervene, shot down enough: They dance
the deputy, and walked on stage, and flirt
out of Tombstone, with the men and
shouting, "Y’all know women that come
the cowboys run this to see them. "They
town." can tip us if they like
One day, I walked what they see, and in
out to the graveyard gratitude we show
to see a grave that’s them more. If they
already legendary. wish, we can take
A mound is marked them on a private
with a simple epitaph session."
reading "Dutch Annie And even if so
1883". The words photos by Therese Carfagno many would find
don’t reveal very much, but quite a story her occupation morally questionable, Ms
lies beneath those rocks. As frequently is Nightfire felt proud of her work, offering
the case, no one ever knew her by any name comfort and relief to men WHO might have
Number 4 - February 2009
a hard time finding female companionship I asked Ms Gigi if I could visit the
in these harsh environments. But it might Apaches, but she said I better not. Not
not come as a surprise to anyone that there because it would be dangerous, but she
tends to be little dialogue between the Soiled wants to respect their wish for privacy. The
Doves and the more respectable women of war wounds haven’t healed completely yet, it
Tombstone. seems, and the Apaches are a proud people.
Like most other towns of the West, I left Tombstone as I’d arrived, in a
Tombstone too was affected by the Indian stagecoach. I left behind a city that I’d grown
Wars. The town has its fort, the Fort Huachuca very fond of during the short time I was
where 10th US Cavalry Regiment resides, and there. I now know why, despite the decline of
an Apache village nearby. These are the lands the mining industry, people still stick to their
where the tribes of Geronimo and Cochise lives there. What makes the city "too tough
eagerly fought against the settlements of to die" is that the people there, despite all
white people. Tombstone’s fort was the the gun-toting, the heat, the dust, the harsh
headquarters for the Geronimo campaign. climate, also love their city above everything
After the chief’s surrender in 1886, the else on God’s earth, and transfer this love into
Apache threat was essentially extinguished, a love for each other. It’s a town that sticks
but Fort Huachuca is kept open because of together, and for that it will survive.
its strategic border position.
46 The Primgraph
The Code of
and the Environment
his month's featured area, not to mention the Native Americans, who
Tombstone, Arizona, is set in were defending their homelands from the
the "Old West" of North America in the "invasion" of the people of European ancestry.
late 1800s. It was a time of expansion and Indeed, much of the area was considered to
settlement into a vast wilderness of rough be lawless, and dangerous.
terrain, harsh climate, sparse vegetation, If this was such a foreboding place, then
and insufficient water. Travel, except on the why would anyone come here? A fresh start,
few railroads that crossed the area, was by where you could wipe out a past that you
foot or horsepower, along rough and lonely no longer wanted, or the lures of adventure,
trails. Distances between towns were often glory, or riches. Ah, the riches! So many men
measured in days or weeks of travel. The went West to find a quick fortune, and a
entire area of the "American West" was return to the more civilized East. Many came,
equivalent in size, for the benefit of readers some found their riches and returned to the
more familiar with Europe, to all of western East, a few stayed, either because they failed
Europe (Germany, and westward). Much of and couldn't afford to return home, or they
the terrain was harshly mountainous and/ found a comfortable niche in this raw world.
or desert. It was lightly settled, and even Around the area of Tombstone, there were
more lightly governed. The soil was poor and mineral riches, and little else. Gold, silver and
the climate arid for farming, but some was copper ores of rich assay could be found and
done, along with the raising of cattle, both harvested by a lucky and hardworking person
for local consumption, and (via the railroads or small team. The luckiest could find a rich
entering the area), for the cities back East. deposit, and make a life's fortune in just a few
Forage being poor, large herds of cattle were years of backbreaking work. This, however,
shepherded across thousands of square was something achieved only by very few.
miles of open rangelands both for feeding, Along with the prospectors and miners came
and for conveyance to the railheads where the support folks: the equipment suppliers,
they were loaded off for processing in distant the shopkeepers, the bankers, the tavern
cities. These shepherds, more commonly keepers, and, since women were scarce, the
called cowboys, would be out on the ranges brothel keepers. And then there were the
for weeks at a time, totally on their own parasites, those who did little work of their
devices for finding food and water, and their own, but lived off the riches of those who
own protection. did. They made their living at the fringes of
There was little to protect law-abiding society by gambling, or by a life of crime.
folk from predation by thieves and sociopaths, All this added up to an environment
Number 4 - February 2009
f the West,
That Gave Rise to It by Mr Roberto Viking
where people were left to their own of literature dramatized by such authors as
devices for protection from the parasitic or Zane Grey. One of the most famous of the
sociopathic elements of society. So what did historically documented gunfights occurred
they do? Local law enforcement was usually right in Tombstone in 1881, between the
a sheriff, appointed or employed by the Earp brothers, with Doc Holliday, and the
local businessmen to protect their business outlaw gang of the Clantons, a band of
interests and their families. Usually this was cattle thieves who had been terrorizing the
an honest man wanting to bring peace and Tombstone region for some time. For more
order to a place. Sometimes, he was no better
details of this event, this author suggests you
than the criminals he protected the town
visit Tombstone and find out more about this
against, just operating with the blessing of
the businessmen of the town.
If additional resources were needed, There has been much written about
citizens would volunteer or be conscripted the informal laws, or honor code of the
for short periods to help catch a thief or old west, but one of the best compilations
solve a short term problem. Almost all men is the following from the aethernet page
were armed at all times, as there was never [http://www.legendsofamerica.com/WE-
assurance that help would be available when CodeOfTheWest.html], which is reproduced
needed. Certainly perpetrators were brought here:
to justice, and shipped off to distant cities Ramon Adams, a Western historian,
for trial, or held in local jails until traveling explained it best in his 1969 book, *The
circuit judiciary came to town. Often though, Cowman and His Code of Ethics*, saying, in
justice was enacted with the gun, or the part:
noose, and done in short order, on the spot, "Back in the days when the cowman
either by the officially deputized groups, or with his herds made a new frontier, there
by vigilante groups. was no law on the range. Lack of written law
Personal honor and integrity were held made it necessary for him to frame some of
in high esteem, as there was little else to hold
his own, thus developing a rule of behavior
society together in that environment. Though
which became known as the "Code of the
there were few formal laws, there seemed to
be a common Code of Honor that prevailed, West." These homespun laws, being merely
and served in the stead of formal law. Disputes a gentleman’s agreement to certain rules of
were often "honor disputes" , settled not in conduct for survival, were never written into
a court of law since there were few, or by statutes, but were respected everywhere on
mediation, but by the age old practice of the the range.
duel. This gave rise to the fabled "gunfight"
Though the Code of the West was always unwritten, here is a "loose" list of some of the
· Don't inquire into a person's past. Take the measure of a man for what he is today.
· Never steal another man's horse. A horse thief pays with his life.
· Defend yourself whenever necessary.
· Look out for your own.
· Remove your guns before sitting at the dining table.
· Never order anything weaker than whiskey.
· Don't make a threat without expecting dire consequences.
· Never pass anyone on the trail without saying "Howdy".
· When approaching someone from behind, give a loud greeting before you get within
· Don't wave at a man on a horse, as it might spook the horse. A nod is the proper
· After you pass someone on the trail, don't look back at him. It implies you don't trust
· Riding another man's horse without his permission is nearly as bad as making love to
his wife. Never even bother another man's horse.
· Always fill your whiskey glass to the brim.
· A cowboy doesn't talk much; he saves his breath for breathing.
· No matter how weary and hungry you are after a long day in the saddle, always tend
to your horse's needs before your own, and get your horse some feed before you eat.
· Cuss all you want, but only around men, horses and cows.
· Complain about the cooking and you become the cook.
· Always drink your whiskey with your gun hand, to show your friendly intentions.
Number 4 - February 2009
· Do not practice ingratitude.
· A cowboy is pleasant even when out of sorts. Complaining is what quitters do, and
cowboys hate quitters.
· Always be courageous. Cowards aren't tolerated in any outfit worth its salt.
· A cowboy always helps someone in need, even a stranger or an enemy.
· Never try on another man's hat.
· Be hospitable to strangers. Anyone who wanders in, including an enemy, is welcome at
the dinner table. The same was true for riders who joined cowboys on the range.
· Give your enemy a fighting chance.
· Never wake another man by shaking or touching him, as he might waken suddenly and
· Real cowboys are modest. A braggart who is "all gurgle and no guts" is not tolerated.
· Be there for a friend when he needs you.
· Drinking on duty is grounds for instant dismissal and blacklisting.
· A cowboy is loyal to his "brand", to his friends, and those he rides with.
· Never shoot an unarmed or unwarned enemy. This was also known as "the rattlesnake
code": always warn before you strike. However, if a man was being stalked, this could be
· Never shoot a woman no matter what.
· Consideration for others is central to the code, such as: don't stir up dust around the
chuckwagon, don't wake up the wrong man for herd duty, etc.
· Respect the land and the environment by not smoking in hazardous fire areas, disfiguring
rocks, trees, or other natural areas.
· Honesty is absolute - your word is your bond, a handshake is more binding than a
· Live by the Golden Rule. E
n the fifth day of
about this upcoming change,
but many took comfort in the
Mayor's methods. “I want
dropped a bombshell on to sell to someone who has
the unsuspecting citizens of vision, someone who will not
New Babbage. “It has been only maintain what we have,
an exciting and challenging but strive to grow and evolve
time running a city-state for it further. We have a unique
the past 2 years. I see entirely situation.” And Mayor Sprocket
why George Washington presented a unique solution
set the 2 year term limit in for the town's unique situation.
motion within the United “If you fancy yourself a mayor.
States. After two years you If you think you can lead New
feel exhausted in a way Babbage, I invite you to
that's practically impossible post on a second thread I
to describe. Even the will to have started 'New Babbage
Baron Klaus Wulfenbach
log in seems to not be there Election'. Please go there and
for me. I want new make your case to the
challenges, I want people of New Babbage.
to move on. Also I Tell them what you will
think New Babbage do as Mayor of New
deserves better than Babbage.”
my absence. It's time The townsfolk
for a new mayor. I waited with bated
hereby invoke a 2 breath, for a very long
year precedent.” two days. And then,
The news finally, the race was
of the Mayor's on! Several interesting
decision spread like candidates stepped out
wildfire through of the shadows and into
New Babbage. Naturally, the political limelight. The first
the citizens were nervous
Mister Aeolus Cleanslate
to toss his battered little tophat
Number 3 - November 2008
Mayor For New Babbage
by Miss Ceejay Writer
into the ring was the town's most infamous i> New Babbage and encourage the growth
street urchin, DreddPirateBob Streeter. He of this vital community.” The Baron also
has since withdrawn from the race, but it stated his intent to see New Babbage reach
was encouraging to see this colorful local out beyond its own borders. “I would also
character taken very seriously in his bid for the encourage more diplomatic activity between
Mayorship. New Babbage
Next and other
to step up lands, as a
was Klaus country cannot
Wulfenbach, exist either in
Baron, or as a vacuum.
Consulate This once
of Europa again applies
Wulfenbach. principles I
While not have in action
a resident at home
of New -- standing
Babbage, he together is
was known much stronger
to most of the than standing
townsfolk alone. This will
and had established Mayor Mosseveno Tenk encourage not only a flow
a Consulate office in of ideas, but also bolster
Babbage Palisade. He addressed this issue in land sales, retail and goodwill overall.”
his intent of candidacy statement, thusly: “I As the townsfolk settled in to ponder
do not seek to take and change New Babbage the Baron's words, Mister Aeolus Cleanslate
into some other creature, to remake it in made public his intent to run. He described his
the image of any other land. I am, however, business experience and creative endeavours
concerned that a valuable portion of the at length, his thoughts on creating a Town
steamlands, and a valuable cultural addition Council, and left us with these assurances:
to the grid could possibly diminish or “The key to all this, from a Mayoral
disappear. I seek election to <i>preserve</ perspective, is to be reliable and professional
52 The Primgraph
Mr Shaunathan Sprocket overlooking New Babbage
and committed to good governance, but in quietly but confidently out of the shadows!
the end to let Babbage Be Babbage. This role The town's clock-winder, Mister Mosseveno
is not about making huge money, and it's Tenk, proclaimed his intent in his own quiet
not about driving things from the center, it's way: “It is not an easy thing for me to step out
about facilitating and enhancing Residents' into the open. My goal is to organize the City
ability to do what they enjoy doing, and the to ensure her survival into the future. You
result will be valuable to all concerned. I'm have ideas, the talents, and passions to keep
not really a politician, and I'll always be 'the New Babbage great. You need a mayor who
new guy' compared to many of you, but I do will consider your visions, then authorize
consider Babbage my home, and would love the tools you need bring it about. And that is
to have the opportunity to invest my time and why I am standing for Mayor.”
energy into such a Magnificent Experiment.” Finally, voting week arrived, and all
Days passed. The townsfolk spent a waited on pins and needles for the final tally.
great deal of time debating the merits of each On Saturday, January 31st, the results were
candidate, while grilling them with every made public: 20 votes for Mister Tenk, 19
sort of question imaginable. They chattered votes for Mister Cleanslate, and 14 votes for
excitedly amongst themselves and followed Baron Wulfenbach. The next Mayor of New
every scrap of news avidly. And then, just Babbage would be Mosseveno Tenk!
when everyone had thought it would be only Prior to voting week, this reporter
a two man race, another candidate stepped spoke with each of the candidates, and asked
Number 4 - February 2009
them each the same question. At the time
they gave their answers, it was not known
who the next Mayor would be. And now,
we shall see if Mayor-Elect Tenk finds any
counsel in the answers. The question I put
to each candidate was this: “The election is
over, and New Babbage has its second Mayor.
If you were only able to pass along one piece
of advice to the new Mayor, what would it
Baron Klaus Wulfenbach replied to
my question thusly. “I am reminded of the
ancient Roman tradition to have a slave
assigned to ride in the chariot of each
conquering Proconsul as he enjoyed his
Triumph. “Remember, all glory is fleeting,”
the slave would whisper, “Remember thou
art mortal!” For all the mighty powers
assigned to a property owner, he is merely a
first among equals, chosen by the people to
serve as a leader. Paradoxical, somewhat; but
service must be the first priority, and from
that all will follow in good order.”
Mister Aeolus Cleanslate offered up
these words. “I've learned a lot during this
campaign about what makes Babbage unique
- it wants to be creative and passionate and
wise, but could easily be dragged into being
petty, vain, and ignorant. Don't let Babbage
become the personal playground for a few
- make it a great, seething, steam-belching
city on a hill - open to the world, where
imagination is the highest value and the only
bad idea is that there are limits.”
Mister Mosseveno Tenk took a bit of
time to think over his reply. “Never believe
your own hype. Life is a hoot, really it is, but
once you start believing those stories you've
crafted to entertain yourself and others . . .
bad stuff starts happening. I've made this a
rule of my life. Laugh at yourself, and people
will laugh with you.”
54 The Primgraph
A Tour of Rivet Town
By Mr Jvstin Tomorrow
n Boxing Day, last year, the Second
Life Metaverse Explorers Club, led
Rivet Town began to fade.
by Miss Jade Lily, along with your humble
A new element was introduced to their
correspondent, were given a tour of the
pristine city eventually in the form of the
steampunk role-play world Rivet Town by its
"blue collar worker." A factory was raised
creator and designer, Miss Grace Loudon.
in the north, much to the chagrin of the
Rivet Town, we found, was really a sim
citizens. Surely this was something Mordecai
that illuminated two very different aspects
never would have allowed! With the factory
of Victorian society, thought and progress
came imports of people to work in it, as no
now living uncomfortably close together. A
one with the calibre of breeding who were
thumbnail history of Rivet Town provided
citizens of Rivet Town would be caught dead
to the group gave us a preview and an
opportunity to understand what Grace had
in a factory. And with this new breed of person
in mind in the lines of her design:
came all their nuances and vices: crime,
prostitution, panhandling, smuggling and
more unspeakable acts and "professions" . . .
Rivet Town was once a bustling, even the consumption of spirits. For a time, the
beautiful, progressive city that sat in the middle new element kept to their side of the bridge
of the ocean. Finely crafted buildings, splendid and there remained a comfortable distance.
air machines, well-dressed and well-behaved But it didn't last. Once the miscreants of Rivet
citizens. Only the upper-crust of society made Town North learned of the wealth available
their way to Rivet Town and stayed to call it to them on the east side, they began to make
their home, under the ever-watchful eye of their way. Finally, the proper citizens of Rivet
Mordecai Snodgrass. His motto: "Progression Town could stand no more. They must take
Through Enlightenment and Science" was hold of their city before it was overrun and a
evident everywhere you looked. Steam was shadow of its former glory. The time had come
the main source of power and the citizens of to find a new leader. An election was held and
Rivet Town never stopped trying to find new a new, forward thinking Mayor chosen. But
and innovative ways to harness that power. not everyone agrees with her remedy . . . in
But as they say, all good things must
fact, there are a few who are making plans .
come to an end. And it did the fateful day that
. . and what of her contender's "remedy"? A
Rivet Town's beloved Mordecai disappeared
surgical procedure that will eliminate the urge
Armed with this knowledge, the
without a trace. To this day nobody, not even
to commit a crime forever?? Can it be true?
Metaverse Explorers were transported us
his own daughter, knows of his whereabouts.
While the town continued in his stead, it was
by a series of teleports, culminating with the
never able to recover from the shock of losing
introduction of Grace Loudon at the Rivet
their great leader and daily inspiration. Slowly
and little by little, the once shining beacon of
Number 4 - February 2009
Town Train Station, the jumping off point for of the upper class area felt authentic in an
exploring Rivet Town. uplifting manner, the dark side of Rivet Town
Miss Grace Loudon explained that Rivet also felt very authentic, in the manner of
Town was the third role-play community the Doctor Who story “The Talons of Weng
that she had created and was intended as a Chiang.” The buildings were crooked, and the
full immersion role-play community. Miss use of dark and light accents accentuated the
Loudon explained that the sim (which aside feel of the lower reaches of an English city. We
from some off-the-shelf purchases, she had were glad of the company of Miss Loudon as
designed entirely on her own) was divided we traveled through a much more populated
into upper class and lower class areas, with area of the sim. We began with the slums,
a surprising number of residents preferring a rough and tumble bar, and the dangerous
to take on roles in the lower class portion of docks area. The environmental conditions
town. that evening gave a gloomy, atmospheric look
Regardless of this fact, however, Miss as we prowled around, glad that we were a
Loudon’s conducted tour proceeded first large enough group to not be molested.
through the upper class portion of the town, After these initial entrees into the
showing us sights such as the Loyal Order seamier side of Rivet Town, Miss Loudon
of Steamfitters Hall, the Tesla Tower, the dared to show us the real underside of Rivet
Library, and the Courthouse. Throughout the Town — the catacombs beneath the city.
lines of the designs of the buildings, shops, While my fellow Explorers and myself came
and neighborhoods showed a clear design to no harm while down there, Miss Loudon
and hewing to a Victorian aesthetic. The explained that at least two bodies had already
shops found here, mainly focused on the been found there in recent weeks. Clever
fashions prevalent in the sim, may be a useful Explorers found a side passage that at the
destination to those seeking a new look. end of which appeared to be living quarters,
As we continued on our way through suggesting that some of the criminal element
the upper class areas, Miss Loudon told us of Rivet Town may be literally lurking beneath
a little more about the social nature of Rivet its surface.
Town. “Rivet Town role-play
focuses a lot on politics, the
law, class struggles.” This
became clear as she regaled
us with the story of a foul
murder which dominated the
storylines in the sim recently.
The story was the equal of
any found in the pages of a
With that lurid tale,
Miss Loudon then escorted
us to the seamier side of Rivet
Town. If the Tesla coils and
elegant Victorian architecture
photos by Perry Applemoor
photos by Perry Applemoor
Number 4 - February 2009
The final stop on the tour was the
Steamworks Metal Factory. Unlike the rest of
the sim, the Steamworks Metal Factory was
and is designed as a non-role-playing area,
where the avatars can mingle and get to
know each other beyond their character. This
vision of steam pipes and a dance floor was
without question the single most impressive
building we encountered in the sim of Rivet
Town, and it was a fine place to end our
expedition to this Sim.
Rivet Town is truly a stunning Sim, a
tribute to Victorian steampunk design that
I commend to all to see how a designer’s
vision can not only be built but, thanks to the
role-players within, come to fruition and full
58 The Primgraph
[We find that a correspondent of the Merthyr Guar
way of postscript to the article on Steam, given in o
History, Poetry, Literature, and the Fine Arts, Vol. 1,
e lovers of being in motion,
Of flying in air do not dream,
Of wings, or balloons, form no notion,
There's nothing like going by steam.
The swiftness of racers surpasses
A thought — on the course as they gleam,
But, believe me, they sink to mere asses,
Compared with the swiftness of steam.
Philosophers tell us strange stories,
Here the sun sends, to light us, his beam,
But I 'll never believe but his glories
Would travel much faster by steam.
Steam furnishes washing and cooking,
Saves all the expense of a team,
Sews gloves, and makes shoes without
So clever and nimble is steam.
It will soon have another appliance —
Ye authors, get ready your theme,
Rejoice, all ye lovers of science,
For books will be written by steam.
That poets should ask inspiration
Of the Nine, is a fabulous dream,
They will soar to a far higher station
Than Ida — when lifted by steam.
Number 4 - February 2009
rdian, has sent to the Editor the following lines by
our llth number (that is, of The Parterre of Fiction,
Should metaphysicians be puzzled,
Or statesmen bewildered, I deem,
Whoever is pos'd or bamboozled,
Will find every thing cleared up by steam.
Rejoice, ye that love ease and pleasure,
Who think bus'ness a wearisome theme,
Sit still, and contemplate at leisure —
Your work's all accomplished by steam.
Ye ladies! so apt to be nervous,
When driven o'er hill, or through stream,
No tricks can gay horses now serve us,
While we glide along swiftly by steam.
What would ancient philosophers think
How strange to their notions 'twould
Could they from their graves have a blink
And see the world going by steam.
Then haste, ye that fain would get money,
And are always projecting some scheme,
Make hay, while the weather is sunny,
And seize the advantage of steam.
photos by Perry Applemoor
With a Flick of the Wrist –
T he advent of new technologies has
brought us many conveniences,
including those contributed by Mr. Tesla and
Bennett writes in her book Unfolding Beauty:
The Art of the Fan, “fans were used as memory
aids, for parlour games, as masks, cryptic
his Alternating Current motors. But these communicators, political propaganda, and,
conveniences have encouraged society to of course, accessories in the oldest game,
overlook some of our more elegant and when dalliance was a major preoccupation.
charming inventions powered by the energy They reflected the goals and values of those
of man himself (or, in this case, woman). Let’s who carried them, and in use they revealed
turn our attention to a long overlooked object a temperament in motion.” Fans were used
– the fan. Tesla’s motors and Dr. (Schuyler in Greek, Roman and Chinese cultures,
Skaats) Wheeler’s electrical fan may have constructed at first with simple paddle and
brought cool relief to an overdressed public, handle, into forms with more elaborate
but the clunky dust-gathering mechanics decoration and moveable parts. The fan
of these units are no match for the unique migrated to Europe from Japan,
variety of hand-held fans that predate these first in the form
machines. In fact, the hand-held fan, simply of
made with a collection of sticks, guards, ribs
and one little rivet, contained a world
of purpose. At their zenith,
hand-held fans were used
both indoors and
out, summer and
Number 4 - February 2009
– the Language of the Fan by Miss Siri Woodget
a hiogi (a ceremonial fan made of slats of opened 160 degrees, other styles opened
cypress wood threaded with silk) and later into a full circle. The large, mainly planar
into the more familiar looking folding paper surface gave artists an opportunity for all
structure, inspired, some say, by the folded sorts of experimentation in subject matter
wing of a bat. including miniature scenes from the Old
By 1709, the Worshipful Company of Testament, romantic illustrations of lovers,
Fan Makers was formed in England and Fan and music of popular songs. The leaf of a fan
Maker became a recognized occupation. The was also used to depict political agendas,
French, however, were the true artisans who commemorate historical events, or left
adapted the fan into the brisé design. Brisé blank for autographs. Materials included
construction consisted of sticks that are ornate silks, soft leathers, Belgian lace,
wider from the rivet to the top, forming one precious stones and metals. The use of fans
solid surface covered with a leaf held together spread across the globe, and fans were as
by a fabric band. While diverse as the cultures that produced them.
certain fans By the 1700s, the fan was an essential daily
accessory, and every woman, from the
wealthy to the proletariat could purchase
a fan for any need and occasion. The
fan served many purposes, as in
a crowded ballroom where
it served as a dance
card that could
While the surface of a fan illustrated until it died out some time in
stories through its painted surface, the way the last one hundred years.
the fan was held offered another way to In 1711, essayist Joseph
communicate. The ability to open and close a Addison offered a fantastic
fan with the flick of the wrist offered women elaboration of how women
an opportunity to express a mood at one worked this most alluring and
touch, “. . . providing that essential element of lethal accessory. “Women are
fashion – surprise.” Because a woman wasn’t armed with fans as men with
always able to speak her mind - or flirt with swords and sometimes do
a suitor - without breaking one of society’s more execution with them. To
rigid codes of conduct, over time, a secret the end, therefore, that ladies
language may have developed - one that may be entire mistresses of
didn’t involve moving lips. This is known as the weapon which they bear,
the language of fans. Though some historians I have erected an academy
doubt it ever existed, what an intriguing for the training of young
thought to imagine that this language was women in the exercise of the
passed from woman to woman for centuries Fan, according to the most
fashionable airs and
motions that are now
practiced at court . . .” One can feel
the author’s excitation at this vision
of his army of ladies armed with the
brisé: “Upon my giving the word to
Number 4 - February 2009
discharge their fans, they give
one general crack, that may
be heard at a considerable Is this the language of the fan?
distance when the wind sits fair
. . . I have several ladies with me There are a few interpretations of the
. . . who can now discharge a fan "language of the fan" but they're gener-
in such a manner that it shall ally the same. Here is a selection:
make a report like a pocket-
pistol.”. With the fan acting To let slide it on the forehead.
as a materialisation of her You have changed.
mystique, the fan user finessed
its action into a script of sorts. To move it with the left hand.
Take a look at the selection of They are watching us.
portraits of women holding a
fan and wonder, what is she To change it to the right hand.
trying to tell me? According You are imprudent.
to some sources, there is a
message in every angle. Each To throw the fan.
flicker or gentle movement I hate you.
sent a signal to the observer. If she held the
fan with the right hand in front of her face, it To move it with the right hand.
meant, “Follow me”. To hold it to the left ear I love another.
meant “I want you to leave me alone”.
To let slide it on the cheek.
I want you.
To hold it closed.
Do you love me?
To let slide it on the eyes.
Go away, please.
To touch the edge of the hand fan with
I want to talk to you.
To hold it on the right cheek.
To hold it on the left cheek.
This humble author has not yet uncovered Fan language was perhaps passed along, in
any sources that would confirm whether or the salon or parlour, a secret code between
not the language truly existed (this author, men and women, adapted and personal-
admittedly, has her own language - that of ized as necessary. Whatever the case may
the umbrella which she employs in crowded be, the exceptional Parisian firm of Duvel-
tube trains). It could be that the fan was an leroy, which opened in the early 1800s, took
extension of a typical gesture - a tool for it upon themselves to publish an “official”
punctuation, if you will - an exclamation language, which was included in every box
point, a comma, a question mark. housing their fans. According to the Place
de l’Eventail, a website run by two French
fan collectors, the supposed language was in
fact a clever marketing tool invented by Du-
To open and close it. velleroy. His version was an English transla-
You are cruel. tion of a German version which had been
translated from the Spanish. One must won-
To leave it hanging. der, then, at the accuracy of Duvelleroy’s
We will continue being friends. translation! Colored shoe laces, bandanas in
pockets, a fan open or closed – a person will
To fan slowly. find a way to convey a message, but admit-
I am married. tedly, a fan is one of the most versatile and
entertaining. It's a pity that its use is lost on
To fan quickly. most of us. I leave you with this interesting
I am engaged. quote from a contemporary Japanese fan
To hold the fan in the lips.
Kiss me. “This is my hiogi. There are many like it,
but this one is mine. Without me, my fan
To open it slowly. is useless. Without my fan, I am useless. I
Wait for me. must wield my fan more skillfully than any
of the other ladies in this court . . . My fan is
To open the hand fan with the left hand. human, even as I am human, because it is
Come and talk to me. my life. Thus, I will learn it as a sister. I will
learn its weaknesses, its strengths, its parts,
To strike it, closed, on the left hand. its paintwork, its pivot, its balance. I will
Write me. keep my fan with the care I keep myself. We
will become part of each other......”.
To semiclose it in the right and on the
left. Now, who’d like to start a Joseph Addison
I can’t. Academy of Fan Arts?
To hold it opened, covering the mouth.
I am single. E
Number 4 - February 2009
66 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
68 The Primgraph
by Miss Eloisa Denimore
Tombstone is not Winslow/36/202/22]],
the first place one but others offer good
thinks of when specifically targeted for
planning a shopping the Western market, and
exppedition, but not available for sale
that would be a elsewhere.
shame, because it On our visit, one
has a great market store
centre offering a that took
wealth of shopping opportunities on the our fancy was Victoria's
Tombstone Winslow sim. Some are outlets [[http://slurl.com/
for major stores elsewhere - like a branch secondlife/Tombstone%20
of Fatima Ur's Antique Artistry [[http:// Winslow/100/56/21]].
the clothes she
created for use in
as she says, "I've
to adapt them so
they can easily
be used in other
scenarios. It's a surprisingly
short step from the 1890's to
Victoria explains, "When I
Number 4 - February 2009
first took over La Posada hotel in Tombstone male
Winslow, I had a problem.
My clothes were way to
fancy for the hard work
of running a busy hotel! I
wanted something pretty,
practical, hard-wearing and
flexible ... "
The 'House Dress'
was the result. It comprises
4 skirts, one of which has
the apron, 4 tops which
break down to square and
round neck and with or
without the belt, 2 blouses
and - if you want the extra
detail - fashion needs. Make sure that
sculpt bow and sculpt collar. you check out the wonderful
It is available in 8 different fabrics at present, range of boots that are available here!
and can be paired with matching laced court, A little further into Wilmslow you'll
ballet style or low
heeled shoes if
Also in the
pipeline is a
further set of tops,
skirts and shoes
which will allow
you to further
expand the ways
you use the
"House Dress". All
outfits shown are
laced court shoes
are also $300 or
two pairs of ballet
shoes for $150.
Just opposite Victoria's you will
find MIA, Dusty´s, S.L. Fashion [[http://
Winslow/102/67/21]], catering more for
find the amazing 67 And just across
Angels [[http://slurl. the street from
com/secondlife/ 67 Angels,
Tombstone%20 you will find
This is a store which [[http://
has the most glorious slurl.com/
supply of cowboy hats in secondlife/
a multiplicity of shapes Tombstone%20
and shades with a range
of decorative bands. But
all that 67
Winslow/49/189/22]] (which I think it a very
to offer. If
Essentially a gentlemans's outfitter,
you want to
be a routin'
girl - this
- richly tooled
bags and holsters,
priced. A Riders
Bag & Belt
(Black - Python)
there are a few dark and sombre dresses for
costs L$340, for
ladies. But essentially Deadwool offers a range
of stylish male outfits of the kind that would
And there are
delight noted dandies with a dark sartorial
jewels here too, like the onyx set that has
ethic. This is definitely a store worth a second
pendant, bangle, ring and ar-ring, all in Native
Americam style. and priced at L$320 for the
photos by Saffia Widdershins and business owners
Number 4 - February 2009
72 The Primgraph
Clio’s Mirror : 1883
A Compendium of One Year’s Interesting Facts & Events
by Miss Saffia Widdershins
result in the near
destruction of Native
A Year in the New West:
American culture have
the ending of the Old West?
he Northern Pacific Railroad, the been dismissed.
second transcontinental railroad, Buffalo hunters
which connects the northwestern states have gathered on the
to points east, has finally been completed, northern Plains for the
after a 19-year struggle against treacherous last large buffalo kill,
terrain and intermittent financing. Along among them a Harvard-
the line, crews blasted a 3,850-foot tunnel educated New York
through solid granite and constructed a assemblyman named
1,800-foot trestle. As a result, the round Theodore Roosevelt,
trip to the Columbia River that took Lewis who hopes to bag
and Clark two-and-a-half years in 1803 now a trophy before the
takes just nine days. species disappears.
The power of the railroads has also Hunters have already destroyed the southern
been shown this year when they divided the herd, and it is believed that by next year,
USA into four time zones to standardize their except for small domestic herds kept by
schedules. sentimental ranchers, there will only be
A delegation of U.S. Senators has met scattered remnants of the animal that more
with bitter resistance from Sitting Bull when than any other symbolizes the American
they proposed opening part of the Lakota's West.
reservation to white settlers. Despite the "Buffalo Bill" Cody staged his first
old chief's objections, the land transfer is Wild West Show at the Omaha fairgrounds,
proceeding as planned. featuring a herd of buffalo and a troupe of
A group of clergymen, government cowboys, Indians and vaqueros who re-enact
officials and social reformers calling itself a cattle round-up, a stagecoach hold-up and
“The Friends of the Indian” has met in upstate other scenes drawn from Cody's own life on
New York to develop a strategy for bringing the frontier.
Native Americans into the mainstream of An interesting new device, named
American life. It is anticipated that their ‘the machine gun’ has been invented by
decisions will set the course for U.S. policy an enterprising individual named Hiram
toward Native Americans over the next Maxim. He says that he was inspired to do
generation. Suggestions that this might so: "In 1882 I was in Vienna, where I met
Number 4 - February 2009
Mr and Mrs Fay. At the end of
an American whom I had
known in the States. He said: the show an announcement
'Hang your chemistry and was made that children with
electricity! If you want to certain numbered tickets
make a pile of money, invent would be presented with a
something that will enable prize upon exit. At the same
these Europeans to cut each time entertainers began
others' throats with greater distributing gifts from the
facility'." stage to the children in the
Texas has purchased stalls. Worried about missing
The Alamo – the scene of the out on the treats, many of
heroic fight in 1836 - from the the estimated 1,100 children
Catholic Church to preserve in the gallery stampeded
it as an historic shrine. toward the staircase leading
Also in Texas, on 4th downstairs. At the bottom
July, in Pecos a new type of the staircase, the door had
of event has been held been opened inward and
to celebrate the holiday. bolted in such a way as to
Originally conceived as a contest between leave only a gap wide enough for one child
Trav Windham and Morg Livingston, the to pass at a time. It is believed this was to
‘Rodeo’ as it was called, mushroomed into a ensure orderly checking of tickets. With
large event held on the flat land west of the few accompanying adults to maintain order,
eponymous river. A couple of dozen cowboys the children surged down the stairs toward
were awarded honors in what it is hoped will the door. Those at the front became trapped,
become an annual 4th of
July event. It remains to
be seen whether it will
‘take’ with the public!
A Year of Disasters
his year has
appalling disasters –
one, which saw the death
of 183 children died,
occurred in Sunderland,
England on June 16, 1883
when a children's variety
show was presented by
and were crushed by the weight of the crowd until the 25th, when eruptions further
behind them. intensified. At about 1 pm (local time) on 26
With the compressive asphyxia of 183 August, the volcano went into its paroxysmal
children between 3 and 14 years old, we are phase, and by 2 pm observers could see a
sure that the disaster will prove the worst black cloud of ash 17 miles high. At this point,
of its kind in British history. Queen Victoria the eruption was virtually continuous and
sent a message of condolence to the grieving explosions could be heard every ten minutes
families. Donations have been sent from all or so. Ships within 11 nautical miles of the
over Britain, totalling £5,000, which has been
used for the children's funerals and for the
creation of a memorial in Mowbray Park.
But, of course, the disaster that has had
the most stunning impact upon the entire
world has been the eruption of the Krakatoa
volcano, located to the west of Java in the
Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and
Sumatra in Indonesia.
There were some warning signs. Over
the past few years, seismic activity around
the volcano has been intense, with some
earthquakes felt as far distant as Australia.
Beginning 20 May 1883, three months
before the final explosion, steam venting
began to occur regularly from Perboewatan,
the northernmost of the island's three cones.
Eruptions of ash reached an altitude 20,000
ft and explosions could be heard in Batavia
(Jakarta) 100 miles away. Activity died down
by the end of May, with no records of activity
until mid June when eruptions started again,
for loud explosions were heard and a thick
black cloud covered the islands for five days.
On 24 June an east wind blew this cloud away
and two ash columns were seen issuing from
Krakatoa. The violence of the eruption caused
tides in the vicinity to be unusually high, and volcano reported heavy ash fall, with pieces
ships at anchor had to be moored with chains of hot pumice up to four inches in diameter
as a result. Earthquake shocks began to be landing on their decks. A small tsunami hit
felt at Anjer (Java), and large pumice masses the shores of Java and Sumatra some 28
started to be reported by ships in the Indian miles away between the time of 18:00 and
Ocean to the west. 19:00 hours.
Activity continued through mid August On 27 August four enormous
Number 4 - February 2009
explosions took place at 05:30, 06:44, 10:02, of 50 miles.
and 10:41 local time. The third explosion It is said that the explosion generated
was the loudest. Each was accompanied by the loudest sound historically reported: the
very large tsunamis, which are believed to cataclysmic explosion was distinctly heard
have been over 100 ft high in places. A large as far away as Perth in Australia approx.
area of the Sunda Strait and a number of 1,930 miles, and the island of Rodrigues
places on the Sumatran coast were affected near Mauritius approx. 3,000 miles distant.
by pyroclastic flows from the volcano. Near Krakatoa, according to official records,
165 villages and towns have been destroyed
and 132 seriously damaged, at least 36,417
(official toll) people have died, and many
thousands were injured by the eruption,
mostly from the tsunamis that followed the
explosion. The eruption destroyed two-
thirds of the island of Krakatoa.
A smaller but still poignant tragedy
that occurred this year was when the last
quagga died on August 12th in Artis Magistra
zoo in Amsterdam. Once found in great
numbers in South Africa's Cape Province and
the southern part of the Orange Free State,
it was distinguished from other zebras by
having the usual vivid marks on the front
part of the body only. In the mid-section,
the stripes faded and the dark, inter-stripe
spaces became wider, and the rear parts
were a plain brown. The name comes from a
Khoikhoi word for zebra and is onomatopoeic,
being said to resemble the quagga's call. The
only quagga to have ever been photographed
alive was a mare at the Zoological Society of
London's Zoo in Regent's Park in 1870.
On October 30th, two Clan na Gael
dynamite bombs exploded in the London
underground, injuring several people. As a
The pressure wave from the final explosion result of this, he next day, Home Secretary
was recorded on barographs around the Vernon Harcourt drafted 300 policemen to
world, which continued to register it up to guard the underground and introduces the
5 days after the explosion. The recordings Explosives Bill.
show that the shockwave from the final The Clan na Gael (family of the
explosion reverberated around the globe 7 Gaels) is an Irish republican organization
times in total. Ash was propelled to a height in the United States. Last year, in 1882
76 The Primgraph
two "action men", Alexander Sullivan and States, "Polly Wolly Doodle (All The Day)".
Michael Boland took over the reins of this Somewhat symbolically, the first
organisation and are said to be running the vaudeville theater has opened, in Boston,
clan as a dictatorship. This new leadership Massachusetts (on February 28 – following
has ignored the Revolutionary Council set on from the traditional English music hall.
up by Carroll to coordinate between the IRB We are sure that it is a form of entertainment
and the Clan and has begun to operate in
total secrecy from even the membership of
the Clan. Together with a third man named
feeley, they call themselves the "Triangle"
and have begun making bombing runs
into England in what has been called the
"Dynamite War". This infuriated the Irish
Republican Brotherhood in Ireland which
has cut ties with the Irish-Americans. The
attack on the London underground is only
one iof their recent outrages.
A Year of Popular Culture
wo nations divided by a common
language” – that was the verdict
of the Anglos Irish dramatist Oscar Wilde as
his much lauded tour of America continues.
We wonder what he can possibly mean ...
On February 13. the German composer
Richard Wagner died of a heart attack in
Venice, Italy. Somehow it seems fitting in
a year when popular music has proved
dominant. Serious compositions have been
set before the public - such as the Third
Symphony of Johannes Brahms.
But even in classical music, a lighter that will catch on rapidly!
note has crept in, with a Spanish influence And as if to assert the dominance
– as we see with the España, rapsodie pour of popular muisic, the Gretsch Company,
orchestre by Emmanuel Chabrier and the manufacturers of drums, banjos and guitars,
Barcarola for piano No. 1 by Isaac Albéniz. has opened in Brooklyn, New York.
In popular music, we have seen the Among noted literary offerings
publication of two traditional pieces that made to the public thios year,one that has
have seized the imagination of the masses: proved extremely popular is Robert Louis
in Great Britain, a piece called: "There Is Stevenson’s latest work - Treasure Island.
A Tavern In The Town", and in the United And Mr Mark Twain has delighted his friends
Number 4 - February 2009
and followers with an account of Life on the death of God, will prove an influential work in
the years to come.
A forgotten German political In architecture, designed by John-
philosopher died in London on March 13th Augustus Roebling, and completed by his son,
of this year, and was buried in Highgate the Brooklyn Bridge was inaugurated in New
Cemetery. Clio’s Mirror is confident that York City, the longest suspension bridge in the
world. opened with great fanfare by Chester
A. Arthur and Governor Grover Cleveland on
May 24th. New Yorkers are convinced that it
is the eighth wonder of the world.
On May 30th, things took a slightly
darker turn when a rumour that the Brooklyn
Bridge was going to collapse caused a
stampede which crushed 12 people.
And finally, a piece of sporting news.
The Scottish team Raith Rovers Football Club
has been founded. But no-one was danciing
in the streets of Raith. (For the reason why
not see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raith_
The Year of the Bustle – Redux!
he slim dresses that have lasted
until this year have been swiftly
replaced with a totally new style when the
bustle reappeared in Great Britain, at style
formely seen thirteen years ago in 1870. The
new style – which some are calling the ‘hard
bustle’ was introduced in Paris 3 years ago,
but failed to take off. Now it seems to be back
we have heard the last of Karl Marx and his with vengeance!
ideas! And this bustle should not be confused
But another German philosopher has with the style our mamas wore. This is a new
begin to publish what he calls, "the deepest bustle in a much more exaggerated shape.
[work] ever written”. The author, one The bustle consists of a straw filled cushion
Friedrich Nietzsche, has entitled the work sewn into the skirt with a series of steel half
Also sprach Zarathustra which we might hoops inserted in the skirt lining down to the
translate as Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Clio’s ground which has the effect of throwing the
mirror confidently predicts that this most skirt out almost horizontally from waist level
unusual work, which loudly proclaims the behind. Some unkind critics have declared
78 The Primgraph
photos by Kembri Tomsen
Number 4 - February 2009
that women wearing it appear to have the hind legs of a horse
– but what do we care?
There is much less drapery with this silhouette. Drapery
moves to the sides or to the front panel of the skirt,
although ball dresses remain more draped. For best
effect, it should be worn with a very tailored or quite
structured square shouldered bodice.
The choice of material we employ may, sadly,
is a be affected by the ongoing economic depression,
shown by the use of fabrics such as velveteen,
new plushette, and sateen. The wealthy are still
dressing well, but using a different, wider
range of materials which, sadly, has been
critiques as often giving an effect like steel
The fashion for neater hairstyles
tle in a
continues, with ringlets banished to
memory! Hair should be swept up, ladies,
into a elegant, stylish coiffure. One new
fashion has been started by Alexandria,
the Princess of Wales, for wearing hair cut
short across the forehead as a fringe (our
American cousins, for some reason, call it
‘bangs’). This is a delightful style for ladies
of fashion – but many servants are now
aping their betters and cutting their hair
accordingly. This is quite outrageous, and
any maid so doing should be peremptorily
One delightful effect of the new
American railroads is that fashion magazines
such as the new publication, The Ladies Home
Journal (launched this year) and Godey’s Lady’s
Book will swiftly bring the latest haut couture to
ladies who may find themselves in conditions that
have hitherto been regarded as primitive, to say the
Visit the Creative Seamstress at: http://slurl.
80 The Primgraph
Number 4 - February 2009
The ancient abode of the family of
Markham was a spacious and commodious
building but of heavy and sombre appearance.
This gloomy aspect of the architecture was
increased by the venerable trees that formed
a dense rampart of verdure around the
edifice. The grounds belong big to the house
were not extensive, but were tastefully laid
OUR years passed away. out; and within the enclosure over which the
dominion of Richard Markham extended,
During that interval no tidings of the was the green hill surmounted by the two
discarded son reached the disconsolate ash trees. From the summit of that eminence
father and unhappy brother; and all the the mighty metropolis might be seen in all its
exertions of the former to discover some vastitude - that metropolis whose one single
trace of the fugitive were fruitless. Vainly did heart was agitated with so many myriads of
he lavish considerable sums upon that object: conflicting passions, warring interests, and
uselessly did he despatch emissaries to all opposite feelings.
the great manufacturing towns of England, Perhaps a dozen pages of laboured
as well as to the principal capitals of Europe, description will not afford the reader a better
to endeavour to procure some information idea of the characters and dispositions of the
of him whom he would have received as the two brothers than that which has already
prodigal son, and to welcome whose return been conveyed by their conversation and
he would have "killed the fatted calf:" - all his conduct detailed in the preceding chapter.
measures to discover his son's retreat were Eugene was all selfishness and egotism,
unavailing. Richard all generosity and frankness: the
At length, after a lapse of four years, he former deceitful, astute, and crafty, the latter
sank into the tomb - the victim of a broken honourable even to a fault.
heart! With Eugene, for the present, we have
A few days previous to his death, he little to do; the course of our narrative follows
made a will in favour of his remaining son, the the fortunes of Richard Markham.
guardianship of whom he intrusted to a Mr. The disposition of this young man
Monroe, who was an opulent City merchant, was some what reserved, although by no
and an old and sincere friend. means misanthropical nor melancholy.
Thus, at the age of nineteen, Richard That characteristic resulted only from the
found himself his own master, with a domesticated nature of his habits. He was
handsome allowance to meet his present attached to literary pursuits, and frequently
wants, and with a large fortune in the
passed entire hours together in his study,
perspective of two years more. Mr. Monroe,
feeling the utmost confidence in the young poring over works of a scientific and
man's discretion and steadiness, permitted instructive nature. When he stirred abroad
him to reside in the old family mansion, and for the purpose of air and exercise, he
interfered with him and his pursuits as little preferred a long ramble upon foot, amongst
82 The Primgraph
the fields in the vicinity of his dwelling, to manners, and prepossessing in appearance.
a parade of himself and his fine horse amid Under this superficial tegument of gentility a
the busy haunts of wealth and fashion at the quicker eye than Richard Markham's would
West End of London. have detected a certain swagger in his gait
It was, nevertheless, upon a beautiful and a kind of dashing recklessness about him
after noon in the month of August, 1835, that which produced an admirable effect upon
Richard appeared amongst the loungers in
the vulgar or the inexperienced, but which
Hyde Park. He was on foot and attired in deep
were not calculated to inspire immediate
mourning; but his handsome countenance,
symmetrical form, and thoroughly genteel confidence in the thorough man of the
and unassuming air attracted attention. world. Richard was, however, all frankness
Parliament had been prorogued a and honour himself, and he did not scruple
fortnight before; and all London was said to return such an answer to the stranger's
to be "out of town." Albeit, it was evident remark as was calculated to encourage
that a considerable portion of London was farther conversation.
"in town," for there were many gorgeous "I see the count is abroad again,"
equipages rolling along "the drive," and the observed the stranger, following with his
enclosure was pretty well sprinkled with eyes one of the horsemen in "the drive." "Poor
well-dressed groups and dotted with solitary fellow! he has been playing at hide-and-seek
fashionable gentlemen upon foot. for a long time."
From the carriages that rolled past "Indeed! and wherefore?" exclaimed
many bright eyes were for a moment turned Richard.
upon Richard; and in these equipages there "What! are you a stranger in London,
were not wanting young female bosoms sir?" cried the well-dressed gentleman,
which heaved at the contrast afforded by transferring his eyes from the horseman
that tall and elegant youth, so full of vigour to Markham's countenance, on which they
and health, and whose countenance beamed were fixed with an expression of surprise
with intelligence, and the old, emaciated, and interest.
and semi-childish husbands [-12-] seated by "Very nearly so, although a resident
their sides, and whose wealth had purchased in its immediate vicinity all my life;" and,
their hands, but never succeeded in obtaining with the natural ingenuousness of youth,
their hearts. Richard immediately communicated his
Richard, wearied with his walk, seated entire history, from beginning to end, to his
himself upon a bench, and contemplated with new acquaintance. Of a surety there was not
much to relate; but the stranger succeeded
some interest the moving pageantry before
in finding out who the young man was, under
him. He was thus occupied when he was
what circumstances he was now living,
suddenly accosted by a stranger, who seated
and the amount of his present and future
himself by his side in an easy manner, and resources.
addressed some common-place observation "Of course you mean to see life?" said
to him. the stranger.
This individual was a man of about two- "Certainly. I have already studied the
and-thirty, elegantly attired, agreeable in his great world by the means of books."
Number 4 - February 2009
"But of course you know that there is of honour," he continued, laying particular
nothing like experience." stress upon a word which is only so frequently
"I can understand how experience is used to be abused, "such communications,
necessary to a man who is anxious to make a you know, are necessary. I do not like
fortune, but not to him who has already got that system of familiarity based upon no
one." tenable grounds, which is now becoming so
"Oh, decidedly! It is frequently more prevalent in London. For instance, nothing
difficult to keep a fortune than it was to is more common than for one gentleman to
obtain one." meet another in Bond-street, or the Park,
"How - if I do not speculate?" or in Burlington Arcade, for example's sake,
"No; but others will speculate upon and for the one to say to the other - 'My dear
you." friend, how are you?' - 'Quite well, old fellow,
"I really cannot comprehend you. As thank you; but, by-the-by, I really forget your
I do not wish to increase my means, having name!' However," added the fashionable
enough, I shall neither speculate with my gentleman with a smile, "here is my card. My
own nor allow people to speculate with it for town-quarters are Long's Hotel, my country
me; and thus I can run no risk of losing what seat is in Berkshire, and my shooting-box is
I possess." in Scotland, at all of which I shall be most
The stranger gazed half incredulously happy to see you."
upon Markham for a minute; and then his Richard, who was not only highly
countenance expressed a species of sneer. satisfied with the candour and openness of
"You have never played?" his new friend, but also very much pleased
"Played! at —?" and amused with him, returned suitable
"At cards; for money, I mean." acknowledgments for this kind invitation;
"Oh! never!" and, glancing his ekes over the card which
"So much the better: never do. Unless," had been placed in his hands, perceived that
added the stranger, "it is entirely amongst he was conversing with the HONOURABLE
friends and men of honour. But will you avail ARTHUR CHICHESTER.
yourself of my humble vehicle, and take one As they were moving towards the
turn round the Drive?" phaeton, a gentleman, elegantly attired,
The stranger pointed as he spoke to a of about the middle age, and particularly
very handsome phaeton and pair at a little fascinating in his manners, accosted Mr.
distance, and attended by a dapper-looking Chichester.
servant in light blue livery with silver lace. "Ah! who would have thought of
"Might I have the honour of being meeting you here - when London is actually
acquainted with the name of a gentleman empty, and am ashamed of being yet left in
who exhibits so much kindness —" it? Our mutual friend the duke assured me
"My dear sir, I must really apologise that you were gone to Italy!"
for my sin of omission. You confided your "The duke always has some joke at my
own circumstances so frankly to me that I expense," returned Mr. Chichester. "He was
cannot do otherwise then show you equal once the cause of a very lovely girl committing
confidence in return. Besides, amongst men suicide. She was the only one I ever loved;
84 The Primgraph
and he one day declared in her presence that complacently stroking his chin with his
I had just embarked for America. Poor thing! elegantly-gloved hand. "But, by the way, if
she went straight up to her room, and —" you will honour me and Diana with your
"And!' echoed Richard. company this evening - and if Mr. Markham
"Took poison!" added Mr. Chichester, will also condescend —"
turning away his head for a moment, and "With much pleasure," said Mr.
drawing an elegant cambric handkerchief Cbichester; "and I am sure that my friend
across his eyes. Mr. Markham will avail himself of this
"Good heavens!" ejaculated Markham. opportunity of forming the acquaintance of
"Let me not trouble you with my private the most beautiful and fascinating woman in
afflictions. Sir Rupert, allow me to introduce England."
my friend Mr. Markham:- Mr. Markham, Sir Richard bowed: he dared not attempt
Rupert Harborough." an excuse. He had heard himself dubbed
The two gentlemen bowed, and the the friend of the Honourable Mr. Arthur
introduction was effected. Chichester; his ears had caught an intimation
"Whither are you bound?" inquired Sir of a dinner at Long's, which he knew by report
Rupert. to be the head-quarters of that section of
"We were thinking of an hour's drive," the fashionable world that consists of single
leisurely replied Mr. Chichester; "and it was young gentlemen; and he now found himself
then my intention to have asked my friend suddenly engaged to pass the evening with
Mr. Markham to dine with me at Long's. Will Sir Rupert Harborough and a lady of whom
you join us, Sir Rupert ?" all he knew was that her name was Diana,
"Upon my honour, nothing would give and that she was the most beautiful and
me [-13-] greater pleasure; but I am engaged fascinating creature in England.
to meet the duke at Tattersall's; and I am then Truly, all this was enough to dazzle him;
under a solemn promise to dine and pass the and he accordingly resigned himself to Mr.
evening with Diana." Arthur Chichester's good will and pleasure.
"Always gallant - always attentive to Sir Rupert Harborough now
the ladies!" exclaimed Mr. Chichester. remembered "that he must not keep the duke
"You know, my dear fellow, that Diana waiting;" and having kissed the tip of his
is so amiable, so talented, so fascinating, so lemon-coloured glove to Mr. Chichester, and
accomplished, and so bewitching, that I can made a semi-ceremonious, semi-gracious
refuse her nothing. It is true her wants and bow to Markham - that kind of bow whose
whims are somewhat expensive at times; but formality is attempered by the blandness
—" of the smile accompanying it - he hastened
"Harborough, I am surprised at you! away.
What! complain of the fantasies of the most It may be, however, mentioned as a
beautiful woman in London - if not in England singular circumstance, and as a proof of
- you a man of seven thousand a year, and how little he cared about keeping "the duke"
who at the death of an uncle —" waiting, that, instead of proceeding towards
"Upon my honour I begrudge Tattersall's, he departed in the direction of
her nothing!" interrupted Sir Rupert, Oxford-street.
Number 4 - February 2009
This little incident was, however, it would, indeed, be the height of depravity!"
unnoticed by Richard - for the simple reason, "Since it is the fashion, and you assure
that at this epoch of his life he did not know me that there is nothing wrong in this
where Tattersall's was. connexion between the baronet and Mrs.
"What do you think of my friend the Arlington - at least, that the usages of high
baronet?" inquired Mr. Chichester, as they life admit it - I will not advance any farther
scruples," said Richard; although he had a
rolled leisurely along "the Drive" in the
slight suspicion, like the ringing of far-distant
bells in the ears, that the doctrine which his
"I am quite delighted with him," companion had just propounded was not
answered Richard; "and if her ladyship be based upon the most tenable grounds.
only as agreeable as her husband —"
It was now half-past six o'clock in the
"Excuse me, but you must not call her
evening; and, one after the other, the splendid
'her ladyship.' Address her and speak of her
equipages and gay horsemen withdrew in
simply as Mrs. Arlington."
somewhat rapid succession. The weather
"I am really at a loss to comprehend
was nevertheless still exquisitely fine; indeed,
it was the most enchanting portion of the
"My dear friend," said Chichester, entire day. The sky was of a soft and serene
sinking his voice, although there was no azure, upon which appeared here and there
danger of being overheard, "Diana is not the thin vapours of snowy white, motionless and
wife of Sir Rupert Harborough. The baronet still; for not a breath of wind stirred the leaf
is unmarried; and this lady-" upon the tree. Never did Naples, nor Albano,
"Is his mistress," added Markham nor Sorrentum, boast a more beautiful
hastily. "In that case I most certainly shall horizon; and as the sun sank towards the
not accept the kind invitation I received for western verge, he bathed all that the eye
this evening." could embrace - earth and shy, dwelling and
"Nonsense, my dear friend! You must grove, garden and field - in a glorious flood of
adapt your behaviour to the customs of the golden light.
sphere in which you move. You belong to the At seven o'clock Mr. Chichester and his
aristocracy - like me - and like the baronet! new acquaintance sat down to dinner in the
In the upper class, even supposing you have coffee-room at Long's Hotel. The turtle was
a wife, she is only an encumbrance. Nothing unexceptionable; the iced punch faultless.
is so characteristic of want of gentility as to Then came the succulent neck of venison,
marry early; and as for children, pah! they are and the prime Madeira. The dinner passed
the very essence of vulgarity! Then, of course, off pleasantly enough; and Richard was more
every man of fashion m London has his and more captivated with bin friend. He was,
mistress, even though he only keeps her for however, somewhat astonished at the vast
the sake of his friends. This is quite allowable quantities of wine which the Honourable Mr.
amongst the aristocracy. Remember, I am not Chichester swallowed, apparently without
advocating the cause of immorality: I would the slightest inconvenience to himself.
not have every butcher, and tea-dealer, and Mr. Chichester diverted him with
linen-draper do the same. God forbid! Then amusing anecdotes, lively sallies, and
86 The Primgraph
extraordinary narratives; and Richard found to form a heaven of promises and bliss to
that his new friend had not only travelled gladden the beholder.
all over Europe, but was actually the bosom She was not above the middle height
friend of some of the most powerful of its of woman; but her form was modelled to the
sovereigns. These statements, moreover, most exquisite and voluptuous symmetry.
rather appeared to slip forth in the course of Her figure reminded the spectator of the
conversation, than to be made purposely; and body of the wasp, so taper was the waist, and
thus they were stamped with an additional so exuberant was the swell of the bust.
air of truth and importance. Her mouth was small and pouting; but,
At about half-past nine the Honourable when she smiled, the parting roses of the lips
Mr. Chichester proposed to adjourn to the displayed a set of teeth white as the pearls of
lodgings of Mrs. Arlington. Richard, who had the East.
been induced by the example of his friend Her hand would have made the
and by the excitement of an interesting envy of a queen. And yet, above all these
conversation, to imbibe more wine than he charms, a certain something which could
was accustomed to [-14-] take, was now not be exactly denominated boldness nor
delighted with the prospect of passing an effrontery, but which was the very reverse of
agreeable evening; and he readily acceded to extreme reserve, immediately struck Richard
Mr. Chichester’s proposal. Markham.
Mrs. Arlington occupied splendidly He could not define the fault he had to
furnished apartments on the first and second find with this beautiful woman; and still there
floors over a music-shop in Bond-street: was something in her manners which seemed
thither, therefore, did the two gentlemen to proclaim that she did not possess the
repair on foot; and in a short time they were tranquillity and ease of a wife. She appeared
introduced into the drawing-room where to be constantly aiming at the display of
the baronet and his fair companion were the accomplishments of her mind, or the
seated. graces of her attitudes. She seemed to court
admiration by every word and every motion;
and to keep alive in the mind of the baronet
the passion with which she had inspired
him. She possessed not that confidence
and contented reliance upon the idea of
unalienable affections which characterise
HE Honourable Mr. Arthur the wife. She seemed to be well aware that
Chichester had not exaggerated his no legal nor religious ties connected the
description of the beauty of the Enchantress baronet to her; and she, therefore, kept her
- for so she was called by the male portion imagination perpetually upon the rack to
of her admirers. Indeed, she was of exquisite weave new artificial bonds to cast around
loveliness. Her dark-brown hair was arranged him. And, as if each action or each word of
en bandeaux, and parted over a forehead the baronet severed those bonds of silk and
polished as marble. Her eyes were large, and wreathed flowers, she found, Penelope-like,
of that soft dark melting blue which seems that at short intervals her labours were to be
Number 4 - February 2009
achieved over again.
This constant state of mental anxiety A short, stout, vulgar-looking man,
and excitement imparted a corresponding about forty years of age, with a blue coat
restlessness to her body; and those frequent and brass buttons, buff waistcoat, and grey
changes of attitude, which were originally trousers, entered the room.
intended to develop the graces of her person, “Holloa, old chap, how are you?” he
or allow her lover’s eye to catch short glimpses exclaimed m a tone of most ineffable vulgarity.
of her heaving bosom of snow, became now a “Harborough, how are you? Chichester, my
settled habit. tulip, how goes it?”
Nevertheless, she was a lovely and The baronet hastened to receive this
fascinating woman, and one for whom a extraordinary visitor, and, as he shook hands
young heart would undertake a thousand with him, whispered something in his ear.
sacrifices. The stranger immediately turned towards
By accident Richard was seated Richard, to whom he was introduced by the
next to Mrs. Arlington upon the sofa. He name of Mr. Augustus Talbot.
soon perceived that she was, indeed, as This gentleman and the baronet then
accomplished as the baronet had represented conversed together for a few moments; and
her to be; and her critical opinions upon the Chichester, drawing near Markham, seized
current literature, dramatic novelties, and the opportunity of observing, “Talbot is an
new music of the day were delivered with excellent fellow - a regular John Bull - not
judgment and good taste. over polished, but enormously rich and well
Richard could not help glancing from connected. You will see that he is not more
time to time in admiration at her beautiful cultivated in mind than in manners; but he
countenance, animated as it now was with would go to the devil to do any one a service;
the excitement of the topics of discourse; and, somehow or another, you can’t help
and whenever her large blue eyes met his, a liking the fellow when once you know him.”
deep blush suffused his countenance, and he “Any friend of yours or of the baronet’s
knew not what he said or did. will be agreeable to me,” said Richard; “and,
“Well, what shall we do to amuse provided he is a man of honour, a little
ourselves?” said Chichester, at the expiration roughness of manner should be readily
of about an hour, during which coffee had overlooked.”
been handed round “You speak like a man of the world,
“Upon my honour,” exclaimed the and as a man of honour yourself,” said Mr.
baronet, “I am perfectly indifferent. What Chichester.
say you to a game of whist or écarté?” Meantime the baronet and Mr. Talbot
“Just as you choose,” said Chichester had seated themselves, and the Honourable
carelessly. Mr. Chichester returned to his own chair.
At this moment the door opened, and The conversation then became general.
a roguish-looking little tiger - a lad of about “I didn’t know that you were in town, Talbot,”
fourteen, in a chocolate-coloured livery, with said Mr. Chichester.
three rows of bright-crested buttons down “And I forgot to mention it,” observed
his Prussian jacket - entered to announce the baronet.
88 The Primgraph
“Or rather,” said the lady, “you said this individual: then turning towards
meditated a little surprise for your friend Mr. Diana, he added, “I will tell you the rest of the
Chichester.” adventure about the soft corn another time,
“I hope you’ve been well, ma’am, since I ma’am.”
saw you last - that is the day before yesterday,” “What a nuisance this is!” whispered
said Mr. Talbot. “You was complaining then of Chichester to the baronet. “The young fellow
a slight cold, and I recommended a treacle- does stare so.”
posset and a stocking tied round the throat.” “You must give him some explanation
“My dear Talbot, take some liqueur,” or another,” hastily replied the baronet; “or
cried the baronet, rising hastily, and I’ll tell Diana to say something presently that
purposely knocking down his chair to drown will smooth down matters.”
the remainder of Mr. Talbot’s observation. The cards were produced, and Mr.
[-15-] “But I dare say you didn’t follow Talbot and the Honourable Mr. Chichester
my advice, ma’am,” pursued M. Talbot, with sat down to play.
the most imperturbable gravity. “For my part Rupert backed the former, and
I am suffering dreadful with a bad foot. I’ll considerable sums in gold and notes were
tell you how it were, ma’am. I’ve got a nasty placed upon the table. Presently the lady
soft corn on my little toe; and so what must turned towards Richard, and said with a
I do, but yesterday morning I takes my razor, smile, “Are you fond of écarté? I must venture
sharpens it upon the paytent strap, and goes a guinea upon Mr. Chichester. Sir Rupert is
for to cut off master corn. But instead of betting against him; and I love to oppose Sir
cutting the corn, I nearly sliced my toe off; Rupert at cards. You will see how I shall tease
and —” him presently.”
“ By the way, Diana, has the young With these words the Enchantress
gentleman called yet, whom we met the other rose and seated herself near Mr. Chichester.
evening at ·the Opera?” said the baronet, Of course Markham did the same; and in a
abruptly interrupting this vulgar tirade. very short time he was induced by the lady
“Do you mean the effeminate youth to follow her and back the same side which
whom we dubbed the Handsome Unknown?”’ she supported.
said the Enchantress. Mr. Chichester, however, had a continued
“Yes: he who was so very mysterious, run of ill luck, and lost every rubber. Richard
but who seemed so excessively anxious to was thus the loser of about thirty sovereigns;
form our acquaintance.” but he was somewhat consoled by having
“He promised to call some evening this so fair a companion in his bad fortune. He
week,” answered Diana, “and play a game of would have suffered himself to be persuaded
écarté. He told me that he was invincible at by her to persist in backing Mr. Chichester,
écarté.” as she positively assured him that the luck
“Talking of écarté, let us play a game,” must change, had not that gentleman himself
ejacu1ated Mr. Chichester, who was sitting suddenly risen, thrown down the cards, and
upon thorns lest Mr. Talbot should commence declared that he would play no more.
his vulgarities again. “Would you, ma’am, like to take Mr.
“Well, I’ll take a hand with pleasure,” Chichester’s place ?” said Mr. Talbot.
Number 4 - February 2009
Mr. Chichester shook his head to the and Sir Rupert Harborough - and I perceive
baronet, and the baronet did the same to that you have company —”
Diana, and Diana accordingly declined. The He stammered - became confounded
card-table was therefore abandoned; and with excuses - and then glanced at his attire,
Mrs. Arlington, at the request of Sir Rupert, as much as to intimate that he was in a
seated herself at the piano. Without any walking dress.
affectation she sang and accompanied herself Both the baronet and Diana hastened
upon the instrument in a manner that quite to welcome him in such a manner as to
ravished the heart of Richard Markham. speedily place him upon comfortable terms
Suddenly the entire house echoed with himself once more; and he was then
with the din of the front-door knocker, and introduced to Mr Chichester, Mr. Talbot, and
almost simultaneously the bell was rung Mr. Markham.
with violence. The moment the name of Markham
In a few moments the young tiger was mentioned, the youthful visitor started
announced Mr. Walter Sydney. perceptibly, and then fixed his intelligent
He was a youth apparently not more hazel eyes upon the countenance of Richard
than nineteen or twenty, of middle height, with an expression of the most profound
and very slim. He wore a tight blue military interest mingled with surprise.
frock coat buttoned up to the throat; ample Mr. Chichester made an observation at
black kerseymere trousers, which did not, the same moment, and Sydney immediately
however, conceal the fact that he was the least afterwards entered with ease and apparent
thing knock-kneed, and a hat with tolerably pleasure into a conversation which turned
broad brims. His feet and hands were small upon the most popular topics of the day.
to a fault. His long light chestnut hair flowed Richard was astonished at the extreme
in luxuriant undulations over the collar of modesty, propriety, and good sense with
his coat, even upon his shoulders, and gave which that effeminate and bashful youth
him a peculiarly feminine appearance. His expressed himself; and even the baronet,
delicate complexion, upon the pure red and who was in reality well informed, listened
white of which the dark dyes of no beard to his interesting visitor with attention
had yet infringed, wore a deep blush as he and admiration. Still there was a species of
entered the room. extreme delicacy in his tastes, as evidenced
“Mr. Sydney, you are welcome,” said by his remarks, which bordered at times
Mrs. Arlington, in a manner calculated to upon a fastidiousness, if not an inexperience
reassure the bashful youth. “It was but an actually puerile or feminine.
hour ago that we were talking of you, and At half-past eleven supper was served
wondering why we had not received the up, and the party sat down to that most
pleasure of a visit.” welcome and sociable of all meals.
“Madam, you are too kind,” replied Mr. It was truly diverting to behold the
Sydney, in a tone which sounded upon the ear manner in which Mr. Talbot fell, tooth and
like a silver bell - so soft and beautiful was its nail, upon the delicacies which he heaped
cadence. “I am afraid that I am intruding: I upon his plate; and his applications to the
had hoped to find you alone - I mean yourself wine-bottle were to correspond. At one time
ha expressed his regret that it was too vulgar
to disfigure his character. Otherwise, he is an
to drink half-and-half; and on another he excellent fellow, end immensely rich!”
vented his national prejudices against those At this moment the eyes of Richard
who maintained that Perigord pies were [-16- caught those of Walter Sydney. An ill-
] preferable to rump steaks, or that claret was concealed expression of superlative contempt
more exquisite than port or sherry. Once, and ineffable disgust was visible upon the
when, it would appear, Mr. Chichester kicked handsome countenance of the latter; and the
him under the table, he roared out a request proud curl of his lip manifested his opinion
that his soft corn might be remembered; and of the scene he had just witnessed. In a few
as his friends were by no means anxious for moments he rose to depart. To Diana he
was only coldly polite; to the baronet and
a second edition of that interesting narrative
Chichester superbly distant and constrained;
- especially before Mr. Walter Sydney - they
but towards Markham, as he took leave of
adopted the prudent alternative of conveying him, there was a cordiality in his manner, and
their remonstrances to him by means of a sincerity in the desire which he expressed
winks instead of kicks. “that they should meet again,” which formed
After supper Mr. Talbot insisted upon a remarkable contrast with his behaviour
making a huge bowl of punch in his own towards the others.
fashion; but he found that Mr. Chichester That night slumber seemed to evade
would alone aid him in disposing of it. As for the eyes of Richard Markham. The image
Mr. Welter Sydney, he never appeared to do of Mrs. Arlington, and all that she had said,
more than touch the brim of the wine-glass and the various graceful and voluptuous
with his lips. attitudes into which she had thrown herself,
In a short time Mr. Talbot insisted occupied his imagination. At times, however,
upon practising his vocal powers by singing his thoughts wandered to that charming
a hunting song, and was deeply indignant youth - that mere boy - who seemed to court
with his friends because they would not his friendship, and who was so delicate
join in the very impressive but somewhat and so fragile to encounter the storms and
common chorus of “Fal de lal lal, fal de lal la.” vicissitudes of that world in whose dizzy
It is impossible to say what Mr. Talbot would vortex he was already found. Nor less
have done next; but, much to the honor of did Richard ever and anon experience a
the baronet, Mr. Chichester, and Diana - and sentiment of profound surprise that the
equally to the surprise of Richard Markham elegant and wealthy Sir Rupert Harborough,
and Walter Sydney - he suddenly lost his the accomplished and lovely Diana, and the
balance, and fell heavily up in the floor and fastidious Mr. Arthur Chichester, should
into a sound sleep simultaneously. tolerate the society of such an unmitigated
“What a pity,” said Mr. Chichester, vulgarian as Mr. Talbot.
shaking his head mournfully, and glancing
down upon the prostate gentleman, as if he
were pronouncing a funeral oration over
his remains; “this is his only fault - and, as
it happens every night, it begins materially
Number 4 - February 2009
92 The Primgraph
The Primgraph Book Review
The WesTerns of JT edson
by Saffia Widdershins
hen I was just entering my teens, with interlinked characters all playing their
I became addicted to Westerns. parts in different eras. Ole Devil Hardin,
Or rather, I became addicted to the one of the founders of Texas gives way to his
Westerns of one particular writer. They grandson Dusty Fgg of the Floating Outfit
were exciting reads, with carefully described stories, and then his grandson, Alvin Fog,
and vividly realised accounts of such notable who appears in a series set some forty years
Western events as later.
gunfights, cattle drives Of course, things
and saloons. He had a weren’t written in
series of remarkable chronological order.
and well-delineated The Floating Outfit
characters, whose stories are the core
adventures the eager of the series – set in
reader could track the aftermath of the
from novel to novel. Civil War (and leaning
He wrote with a certain strongly to the Southern
humour – and one of side of that event). The
the things he frequently Floating Outfit had, as
poked fun at was the errors fallen into by the its core, three contrasting male heroes - , the
Eastern journalists who glorified the West tall and Greek-god handsome Mark Counter,
without ever leaving the Eastern sea-board. the baby faced but highly dangerous, black
Which was particularly ironic when dressed, rifle and bowie knife toting Ysabel
you realise that the writer of these Westerns, Kid, and their leader, Dusty (Dustin) Fog.
a man named JT Edson, was born and bred Dusty was small, unassuming and mediocre
in Whitwell, a mining village in Derbyshire, in looks. Indeed, he was so described at
England. If his life has taken him well beyond the start of most of the novels, perceived as
the confines of the county, he never had any insignificant, especially by the villains.
desire to embrace the life of the Old West – Then would come that moment, eagerly
indeed, he has frequently said that no desire anticipated by regular readers, where Dusty
to have lived in the Wild West, and, “I've never Fog suddenly appeared to become a giant
even been on a horse. I've seen those things when villains he faced down felt the full force
and they look highly dangerous at both ends of his personality.
and bloody uncomfortable in the middle." One thing that appealed to me was that
Edson’s novels cover a long period of real historical personages appeared in the
Western history, from the 1830s to the 1970s, novels. The gunfighter John Wesley Hardin
Number 4 - February 2009
(portrayed unexpectedly sympathetically)
characters. These were not the meek and
turned out to be Dusty Fog’s cousin, and biddable characters we saw on the TV or
Wyatt Earp also makes an appearance, as cinema Westerns, divided rigorously into
does Calamity Jane (in several of the novels). Good Girls (wives and mothers, or virginal
I loved to find out who was real and who was girls clearly headed the same way as soon
not and track the real history of the places as The Right Man showed up) and Bad Girls
and people mentioned. What I was less aware (who worked in saloons and, it was hinted,
of then was that J T Edson delighted in using even more dubious places ...) who tended
real-life and fictional characters as crossover to be shot or sent away to start a new life as
"guest stars" in his works and often used Good Girls.
the relatives/descendants of his characters JT Edson suggested there was rather
to create spin-off series. He backed the more to things than that. Some of his
existence of these guest stars with frequent female characters were real women of the
references to "fictionist-genealogist" Philip West like Calamity Jane and Belle Starr, the
José Farmer's Wold Newton family [[http:// female outlaw. Others, like the Honourable
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wold_Newton_ Freddie Woods, the British saloon owner in
family]]. a town that the Floating Outfit cleaned up,
For a thirteen year old, the novels or Pauline, the saloon girl running from a
offered excitement and strong plotting, as poverty-stricken past and (more recently)
well as a rich variety of characterisation. His the corrupt associates of a rancher) were
historical detailing was meticulous, and not fictional, but nonetheless entrancing for that.
only convincing in context but the result of These were tough, feisty women, who held
careful research, delivered with easy skill. their own in a man’s world, and frequently
Even then, however, I was aware of some of bested the villains without male aid.
the weaknesses. Although American Indian Of course, the women did have a
culture was praised and several major bewildering tendency (to the young female
characters had connections with Native mind, at least) to get into fights with each
Americans (the Ysabel Kid, for example, is other – fights that would move beyond
half Comanche, and several plot twists occur hair-pulling to involve rending of the upper
when a party of so-called ‘hostiles’ turn garments, all described over a dozen pages
out to be his cousins), as a whole, Western in what seemed to twelve-year-old me to be
civilisation was praised at the expense of quite unnecessary detail. But as soon as that
Native American culture, and the few Black was out of the way, they went back to being
Americans who appear in the story are feisyty, intelligent and very, very glamorous.
shown negatively. The support for the South I think, even at that age, I realised that
in the Civil War went along with some pretty it must be fantasy.
reactionary views which grated on me even You can read more about JT Edson at
then. His novels encouraged me to read [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JT_Edson]]
more widely, and when I read more widely, Many of his novels are available online
his prejudices became more blatant. at stores such as amazon.com and amazon.
But one thing that made the novels co.uk
shine for me was their use of strong female E
94 The Primgraph
Recent Acquisitions of the
Libraries of Caledon:
Airship Collection, Curated by Miss Mica Braun, OLA
Presented by Sir JJ Drinkwater
Fifty Years of Travel by Land, Water, and Air Flying Machines Today by William D. Ennis
by Frank Butler
The Romance of Modern Invention by
Aerial Navigation by Frederick Walker Archibald Williams
Botts' Air-ship: the problem of aerial
navigation Zeppelin; the story of a great achievement by
D'Orcy's Airship Manual by Ladislas d'Orcy
The Aerial Age by Walter Wellman :: :: ::
To the Poles by Airship by Allen Kendrick Selected Poems of Edna St. Vincent Millay
The Mysteries of Udolpho by Ann Radcliffe
The Airship Almanac by Lewis Allen Browne
The Balloon Travels of Robert Merry and his The Three Mulla-Mulgars by Walter De la
Young Friends Mare
Andree's Balloon Expedition in Search of the The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Princess and the Goblin by George
Flying Men and Their Machines by Clarence MacDonald
Silas Marner OR the Weaver of Raveloe by
Keely and his Discoveries: aerial navigation George Eliot
by Clara Jessup Moore and John Ernest
Keely She by H. Rider Haggard
Flying Machines: practice and design by Byron's Poems, translated into French by
Rankin Kennedy Mme. Swanton- Belloc
Selected Poems of Lord Byron, ed. Matthew
A Voyage in a Balloon by Jules Verne Arnold
Number 4 - February 2009
Selected Short Poems of Lord Byron Poems of the Light Brigade by Tenyson &
Islands of Mystery by Jules Verne & The
Journeyers :: :: ::
The Rubaiyat By Omar Khayyam (Fitzgerald A Child's Christmas in Wales by Dylan
fifth translation) Thomas
The Rubaiyat By Omar Khayyam (Fitzgerald Alice's Adventures Under Ground by Lewis
first translation) Carroll
The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane :: :: ::
Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T.S. Beaumarchais & his times by Louis de
Eliot (2) Lomenie
Moby-Dick, or The Whale by Herman Melville Beaumarchais & Plautus by Florence
(Aetheric Edition) Nightingale Jones
The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling Centenaire du Mariage de Figaro de Caron
(Aetheric ed) de Beaumarchais, 1784-1884. Recueil des
extraits des principales correspondances
The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling de l'époque, précédé d'un avant-propos par
(notecard ed) Aug. Paër
Ivanhoe, by Sir Walter Scott Le mariage de Figaro; avec etude par
Hard Times by Mr. Charles Dickens
The follies of a day by Beaumarchais, trans
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight A prose Thos. Holcroft
translation by Jessie Weston (1898)
Figaro; the life of Beaumarchais by John
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland/Through Rivers
The Marriage of Figaro by Pierre
Scenes de la vie de Boheme by Henry Beaumarchais
Figaro English & Italian Libretti side by side
A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens
Don Juan by Lord Byron
The Island of Doctor Moreau by H.G. Wells E
96 The Primgraph
London Labour & the London Poor
by Mr Henry Mayhew
ignorance, and boasting that they live by
their intellect. The public, they say, do not
expect to receive from them an equivalent
for their money -- they pay to hear them
talk. Compared with the costermongers, the
patterers are generally an educated class,
and among them are some classical scholars,
one clergyman, and many sons of gentlemen.
They appear to be the counterparts of the
old mountebanks or street-doctors. As a
body they seem far less improvable than
the costers, being more “knowing” and less
impulsive. The street-performers differ
again from those; these appear to possess
many of the characteristics of the lower
Of the Varieties of Street-Folk in
class of actors, viz., a strong desire to excite
General, and Costermongers in
admiration, an indisposition to pursue any
mong the street-folk there are settled occupation, a love of the tap-room,
many distinct characters of people- though more for the society and display
-people differing as widely from each in tastes, than for the drink connected with it, a great
habits, thoughts and creed, as one nation fondness for finery and predilection for the
from another. Of these the costermongers performance of dexterous or dangerous
form by far the largest and certainly the feats. Then there are the street mechanics, or
mostly broadly marked class. They appear artizans-- quiet, melancholy, struggling men,
to be a distinct race--perhaps, originally, of who, unable to find any regular employment
Irish extraction--seldom associating with any at their own trade, have made up a few things,
other of the street-folks, and being all known and taken to hawk them in the streets, as the
to each other. The “patterers,” or the men last shift of independence. Another distinct
who cry the last dyingspeeches, &c. in the class of streetfolk are the blind people
street, and those who help off their wares by (mostly musicians in a rude way), who, after
long harrangues in the public thoroughfares, the loss of their eyesight, have sought to keep
are again a separate class. These, to use themselves from the workhouse by some
their own term, are “the aristocracy of the little excuse for alms-seeking. These, so far as
street-sellers,” despising the costers for their my experience goes, appear to be a far more
Number 4 - February 2009
deserving class than is usually supposed-- these carry their wares to any part in
their affliction, in most cases, seems to have which they hope to find customers. The
chastened them and to have given a peculiar costermongers, moreover, diversify their
religious cast to their thoughts. labours by occasionally going on a country
Such are the several varieties of street- round, travelling on these excursions, in all
folk, intellectually considered--looked at directions, from thirty to ninety and even a
in a national point of view, they likewise hundred miles from the metropolis. Some,
include many distinct people. Among them again, confine their callings chiefly to the
are to be found the Irish fruit-sellers; the Jew neighbouring races and fairs.
clothesmen; the Italian organ boys, French Of all the characteristics attending
singing women, the German brass bands, these diversities of traders, I shall treat
the Dutch buya- broom girls, the Highland severally. I may here premise, that the
bagpipe players, and the Indian crossing- regular or “thorough- bred costermongers,”
sweepers--all of whom I here shall treat of in repudiate the numerous persons who sell
due order. only nuts or oranges in the streets, whether
The costermongering class or order at a fixed stall, or any given locality, or who
has also its many varieties. These appear hawk them through the thoroughfares or
to be in the following proportions:--One- parks. They repudiate also a number of Jews,
half of the entire class are costermongers who confine their streettrading to the sale of
proper, that is to say, the calling with them “coker-nuts” on Sundays, vended from large
is hereditary, and perhaps has been so for barrows. Nor do they rank with themselves
many generations; while the other half is the individuals who sell tea and coffee in the
composed of three-eighths Irish, and one- streets, or such condiments as peas-soup,
eighth mechanics, tradesmen, and Jews. sweetmeats, spice-cakes, and the like; those
Under the term “costermonger” is articles not being purchased at the markets.
here included only such “street-sellers” as I often heard all such classes called “the
deal in fish, fruit, and vegetables, purchasing illegitimates.”
their goods at the wholesale “green” and
fish markets. Of these some carry on their
business at the same stationary stall or
Of the Costermongers “Economically”
“standing” in the street, while others go on
“rounds.” The itinerant costermongers, as olitical economy teaches us that,
contradistinguished from the stationary between the two great classes
street-fishmongers and greengrocers, have of producers and consumers, stand the
in many instances regular rounds, which distributors--or dealers-- saving time,
they go daily, and which extend from two trouble, and inconvenience to, the one in
to ten miles. The longest are those which disposing of, and to the other in purchasing,
embrace a suburban part; the shortest their commodities.
are through streets thickly peopled by the But the distributor was not always a part
poor, where duly to “work” a single street and parcel of the economical arrangements
consumes, in some instances, an hour. There of the State. In olden times, the producer
are also “chance” rounds. Men “working” and consumer were brought into immediate
98 The Primgraph
contact, at markets and fairs, holden at certain
intervals. The inconvenience of this mode of
operation, however, was soon felt; and the
pedlar, or wandering distributor, sprang up
as a means of carrying the commodities to
those who were unable to attend the public
markets at the appointed time. Still the
pedlar or wandering distributor was not
without his disadvantages. He only came
at certain periods, and commodities were
occasionally required in the interim. Hence
the shopkeeper, or stationary distributor, was
called into existence, so that the consumer
might obtain any commodity of the producer
at any time he pleased. Hence we see that
the pedlar is the primitive tradesman, and
that the one is contradistinguished from the
other by the fact, that the pedlar carries the
goods to the consumer, whereas, in the case
of the shopkeeper, the consumer goes after
the goods. In country districts, remote from
towns and villages, the pedlar is not yet
wholly superseded; “but a dealer who has a
fixed abode, and fixed customers, is so much
more to be depended on,” says Mr. Stewart
Mill, “that consumers prefer resorting to him
if he is conveniently accessible, and dealers,
therefore, find their advantage in establishing
themselves in every locality where there are
sufficient customers near at hand to afford the water-cresses, the shrimps, the pies and
them a remuneration.” Hence the pedlar is puddings, the sweetmeats, the pine-apples,
now chiefly confined to the poorer districts, the stationery, the linendrapery, and the
and is consequently distinguished from the jewellery, such as it is, to the very door of
stationary tradesman by the character and the working classes; indeed, the poor man‘s
means of his customers, as well as by the food and clothing are mainly supplied to him
amount of capital and extent of his dealings. in this manner. Hence the class of travelling
The shopkeeper supplies principally the tradesmen are important, not only as forming
noblemen and gentry with the necessaries a large portion of the poor themselves, but
and luxuries of life, but the pedlar or hawker as being the persons through whom the
is the purveyor in general to the poor. He working people obtain a considerable part
brings the greengrocery, the fruit, the fish, of their provisions and raiment.
Number 4 - February 2009
the spirited shopkeeper has a column of
advertisements in the morning newspapers.
They are but different means of attaining the
The London Street Markets on A
HE street sellers are to be seen in
the greatest numbers at the London
street markets on a Saturday night. Here,
and in the shops immediately adjoining, the
working-classes generally purchase their
Sunday‘s dinner; and after pay-time on
Saturday night, or early on Sunday morning,
the crowd in the New-cut, and the Brill in
particular, is almost impassable. Indeed, the
scene in these parts has more of the character
of a fair than a market. There are hundreds of
stalls, and every stall has its one or two lights;
either it is illuminated by the intense white
light of the new self-generating gas-lamp, or
else it is brightened up by the red smoky flame
of the oldfashioned grease lamp. One man
shows off his yellow haddock with a candle
stuck in a bundle of firewood; his neighbour
makes a candlestick of a huge turnip, and the
tallow gutters over its sides; whilst the boy
But the itinerant tradesman or street- shouting “Eight a penny, stunning pears!” has
seller is still further distinguished from rolled his dip in a thick coat of brown paper,
the regular fixed dealer--the stallkeeper that flares away with the candle. Some stalls
from the shopkeeper-- the street-wareman are crimson with the fire shining through
from the warehouseman, by the arts they the holes beneath the baked chestnut stove;
respectively employ to attract custom. The others have handsome octohedral lamps,
street-seller cries his goods aloud at the head while a few have a candle shining through a
of his barrow; the enterprising tradesman sieve: these, with the sparkling ground-glass
distributes bills at the door of his shop. The globes of the tea-dealers’ shops, and the
one appeals to the ear, the other to the eye. butchers’ gaslights streaming and fluttering
The cutting costermonger has a drum and in the wind, like flags of flame, pour forth
two boys to excite attention to his stock; such a flood of light, that at a distance the
100 The Primgraph
atmosphere immediately above the spot is as to show only “the whites,” and mumbling
as lurid as if the street were on fire. some begging rhymes, that are drowned in
The pavement and the road are the shrill notes of the bamboo-flute-player
crowded with purchasers and street-sellers. next to him. The boy‘s sharp cry, the woman‘s
The housewife in her thick shawl, with the cracked voice, the gruff, hoarse shout of the
market-basket on her arm, walks slowly on, man, are all mingled together. Sometimes an
stopping now to look at the stall of caps, Irish-man is heard with his “fine ating apples;”
and now to cheapen a bunch of greens. or else the jingling music of an unseen organ
Little boys, holding three or four onions breaks out, as the trio of street singers rest
in their hand, creep between the people, between the verses.
wriggling their way through every interstice, Then the sights, as you elbow your way
and asking for custom in whining tones, as through the crowd, are equally multifarious.
if seeking charity. Then the tumult of the Here is a stall glittering with new tin
thousand different cries of the eager dealers, saucepans; there another, bright with its
all shouting at the top of their voices, at one blue and yellow crockery, and sparkling with
and the same time, is almost bewildering. white glass. Now you come to a row of old
“So-old again,” roars one. “Chestnuts all‘ot, a shoes arranged along the pavement; now
penny a score,” bawls another. “An ‘aypenny to a stand of gaudy tea-trays; then to a shop
a skin, blacking,” squeaks a boy. “Buy, buy, with red handkerchiefs and blue checked
buy, buy, buy-- bu-u-uy!” cries the butcher. shirts, fluttering backwards and forwards,
“Half-quire of paper for a penny,” bellows the and a counter built up outside on the kerb,
street stationer. “An ‘aypenny a lot ing-uns.” behind which are boys beseeching custom.
“Twopence a pound grapes.” “Three a penny At the door of a tea-shop, with its hundred
Yarmouth bloaters.” “Who‘ll buy a bonnet white globes of light, stands a man delivering
for fourpence?” “Pick ‘em out cheap here! bills, thanking the public for past favours,
three pair for a halfpenny, bootlaces.” “Now‘s and “defying competition.” Here, alongside
your time! beautiful whelks, a penny a lot.” the road, are some half-dozen headless
“Here‘s ha‘p‘orths,” shouts the perambulating tailors’ dummies, dressed in Chesterfields
confectioner. “Come and look at ‘em! here‘s and fustian jackets, each labelled, “Look at
toasters!” bellows one with a Yarmouth the prices,” or “Observe the quality.” After
bloater stuck on a toasting-fork. “Penny a lot, this is a butcher‘s shop, crimson and white
fine russets,” calls the apple woman: and so with meat piled up to the first-floor, in front
the Babel goes on. of which the butcher himself, in his blue coat,
One man stands with his red-edged walks up and down, sharpening his knife
mats hanging over his back and chest, like a on the steel that hangs to his waist. A little
herald‘s coat; and the girl with her basket of further on stands the clean family, begging;
walnuts lifts her brown-stained fingers to her the father with his head down as if in shame,
mouth, as she screams, “Fine warnuts! sixteen and a box of lucifers held forth in his hand--
a penny, fine war-r-nuts.” A bootmaker, to the boys in newly-washed pinafores, and the
“ensure custom,” has illuminated his shop- tidily got-up mother with a child at her breast.
front with a line of gas, and in its full glare This stall is green and white with bunches of
stands a blind beggar, his eyes turned up so turnips--that red with apples, the next yellow
Number 4 - February 2009
with onions, and another purple with pickling their utmost, with their “Ho! ho! hi-i-i! What
cabbages. One minute you pass a man with an do you think of this here? A penny a bunch-
umbrella turned inside up and full of prints; -hurrah for free trade! Here‘s your turnips!”
the next, you hear one with a peepshow Until it is seen and heard, we have no sense
of Mazeppa, and Paul Jones the pirate, of the scramble that is going on throughout
describing the pictures to the boys looking London for a living. The same scene takes
in at the little round windows. Then is heard place at the Brill--the same in Leather-lane-
the sharp snap of the percussion-cap from -the same in Tottenham-court-road--the
the crowd of lads firing at the target for nuts; same in Whitecrossstreet; go to whatever
and the moment afterwards, you see either a corner of the metropolis you please, either
black man half-clad in white, and shivering on a Saturday night or a Sunday morning,
in the cold with tracts in his hand, or else and there is the same shouting and the same
you hear the sounds of music from “Frazier‘s struggling to get the penny profit out of the
Circus,” on the other side of the road, and the poor man‘s Sunday‘s dinner.
man outside the door of the penny concert, Since the above description was
beseeching you written, the
to “Be in time- New Cut has
-be in time!” as lost much
Mr. Somebody of its noisy
is just about and brilliant
to sing his glory. In
favourite song consequence
of the “Knife of a New
Grinder.” Such, Police
indeed, is regulation,
the riot, the “stands” or
struggle, and “pitches”
the scramble have been
for a living, that forbidden,
the confusion and each
and uproar of coster, on
the Newcut a market
on Saturday night, is now
night have a obliged, under
bewildering and saddening effect upon the pain of the lock--up house, to carry his tray, or
thoughtful mind. keep moving with his barrow. The gay stalls
Each salesman tries his utmost to sell have been replaced by deal boards, some
his wares, tempting the passers-by with his sodden with wet fish, others stained purple
bargains. The boy with his stock of herbs with blackberries, or brown with walnut-
offers “a double ‘andful of fine parsley for a peel; and the bright lamps are almost totally
penny;” the man with the donkey-cart filled superseded by the dim, guttering candle.
with turnips has three lads to shout for him to Even if the pole under the tray or “shallow”
is seen resting on the ground, the policeman confusion of a thousand voices bellowing at
on duty is obliged to interfere. once again fill the air. The road and footpath
The mob of purchasers has diminished are crowded, as on the over-night; the men
onehalf; and instead of the road being filled are standing in groups, smoking and talking;
with customers and trucks, the pavement whilst the women run to and fro, some with
and kerbstones are scarcely crowded. the white round turnips showing out of their
filled aprons, others with cabbages under
their arms, and a piece of red meat dangling
from their hands. Only a few of the shops are
closed, but the butcher‘s and the coal-shed
The Sunday Morning Markets.
Nearly every poor man‘s market does
its Sunday trade. For a few hours on the are filled with customers, and from the door
Sabbath morning, the noise, bustle, and of the shut--up baker‘s, the women come
scramble of the Saturday night are repeated, streaming forth with bags of flour in their
and but for this opportunity many a poor hands, while men sally from the halfpenny
family would pass a dinnerless Sunday. The barber‘s smoothing their clean-shaved chins.
system of paying the mechanic late on the Walnuts, blacking, apples, onions, braces,
Saturday night--and more particularly of combs, turnips, herrings, pens, and corn-
paying a man his wages in a public-house-- plaster, are all bellowed out at the same time.
when he is tired with his day‘s work lures him Labourers and mechanics, still unshorn and
to the tavern, and there the hours fly quickly undressed, hang about with their hands in
enough beside the warm taproom fire, so that their pockets, some with their pet terriers
by the time the wife comes for her husband‘s under their arms. The pavement is green with
wages, she finds a large portion of them the refuse leaves of vegetables, and round a
gone in drink, and the streets half cleared, so cabbage--barrow the women stand turning
that the Sunday market is the only chance of over the bunches, as the man shouts, “Where
getting the Sunday‘s dinner. you like, only a penny.” Boys are running home
Of all these Sunday-morning markets, with the breakfast herring held in a piece
the Brill, perhaps, furnishes the busiest of paper, and the side-pocket of the apple-
scene; so that it may be taken as a type of the man‘s stuff coat hangs down with the weight
whole. of the halfpence stored within it. Presently
The streets in the neighbourhood are the tolling of the neighbouring church bells
quiet and empty. The shops are closed with breaks forth. Then the bustle doubles itself,
their different-coloured shutters, and the the cries grow louder, the confusion greater.
people round about are dressed in the shiney Women run about and push their way
cloth of the holiday suit. There are no “cabs,” through the throng, scolding the saunterers,
and but few omnibuses to disturb the rest, for in half an hour the market will close. In a
and men walk in the road as safely as on the little time the butcher puts up his shutters,
footpath. and leaves the door still open; the policemen
As you enter the Brill the market in their clean gloves come round and drive
sounds are scarcely heard. But at each step the streetsellers before them, and as the
the low hum grows gradually into the noisy clock strikes eleven the market finishes, and
shouting, until at last the different cries the Sunday‘s rest begins.
become distinct, and the hubbub, din, and
Number 4 - February 2009
The following is a list of the street-markets, and the number of costers usually attending:
MARKETS ON THE SURREY SIDE
New-cut, Lambeth 300 Bermondsey 107
Lambeth-walk 104 Union-street, Borough 29
Walworth-road 22 Great Suffolk-street 46
Camberwell 15 Blackfriars-road 58
Newington 45 —
Kent-street, Borough 38 764
MARKETS ON THE MIDDLESEX SIDE
Brill and Chapel, street,
300 St. John’s-street 47
Camden Town 50 Old-street (St. Luke’s) 46
Hampstead-road and Whitecross-street,
St. George’s Market,
177 City-road 49
Marylebone 37 Shoreditch 100
Edgeware-road 78 Bethnal-green 100
Crawford-street 145 Whitechapel 258
Knightsbride 46 Mile End 105
Pimlico 32 114
Broadway, Westmin- 119 Ratcliffe Highway 122
Drury-lane 22 Rosemary-lane 119
Clare-street 139 —
Aylesbury-street, 142 —
104 The Primgraph
The Mistress of
More often than not, words have different
meanings depending on place, date, and
A Glossary from the Mistress of cultural background. The phrase 'Civil
War' to an American conjures up images of
soldiers clothed in drab blue or grey. To an
Englishman it evokes men in part armour,
ords, Dear Readers, are the
and men on horseback wearing 'lobster
tools we use to describe things.
pots'. To a Spaniard it involves the conflict
after Napoleon’s defeat (though by the
20th century another Civil War will take
its place). There are many who have heard
some words tossed about who may be
unsure or unaware of their meaning. This
instalment of the Lady of Propriety hopes
to bring you some of the words whose
definition may have been the cause of some
Sources have been many and various.
Abagail – A lady’s maid.
Acceptance – The act of putting one’s name
on a bill of exchange and writing 'accepted'
across it, which then made one liable to
pay it. A Bill of Acceptance was originally
used only by merchants and was not unlike
a cheque. Merchant A instructs Merchant
B to whom they have sent goods to pay C
Number 4 - February 2009
an amount equal to the value of the good on instances beef suet and bear’s grease.
such and such a date. B agreed by writing
"accepted" across this written instruction Area - The below-ground servant’s entrance
from A; the result being a Bill of Exchange. in the front of many London town-houses.
From merchants it spread into wider use for
individuals short on cash. Area Diving – A method of theft that
necessitates sneaking down area steps, and
Act – A piece of legislation that has passed stealing from the lower rooms of houses.
both Houses of Parliament, been signed by
the Monarch and became law; before that, it Barrister – A lawyer who would argue a
is called a 'bill'. case in court as opposed to a Solicitor who
would arrange contracts and wills and speak
Advocate – The name given to the lawyers with clients face to face. As the clients paid
(counterparts of the serjeants in the the Solicitor and the Solicitor would 'gift'
common law courts and barristers in the this money to the Barrister, they also fulfilled
Court of Chancery) who argued cases in the the legal requirement for a Gentleman to not
old courts of ecclesiastical law and admiralty earn an income from trade.
law in the Doctor’s Commons. The protectors,
corresponding to the solicitors in the other Bedlam – A contraction of the Hospital of St.
courts, assisted the advocates. Mary of Bethlehem, an insane asylum that
was run by the city of London. The Imperial
Ague – Basically, malaria and the chills that War Museum in London now occupies the
went with it. Later generalized to include any building.
similar fevers or chills.
Beef, beer, and lust - What British civilians
Almshouse – Lodgings for the poor thought British soldiers were too full of.
supported by private rather than public
charity. Publicly funded lodgings were called Beer, bum, and bacca - Pleasures of the
poorhouses or workhouses.in the front of sailor's life, circa 1870, 'bacca' being tobacco.
many London town-houses. 'Rum, sodomy and the lash' no longer applied
with flogging having been abolished in
Antimacassar – The Victorian gentleman 1868.
often applied macassar oil to his hair.
To prevent it from coming off all over Blue jacket - British sailor.
the furniture, Victorian ladies pinned
antimacassars – little white doilies – Bluestocking - a disparaging term for an
on their armchairs and sofas where a educated, intellectual woman. From the
gentleman’s head would be. Considering the Bluestocking Society founded in 1750 as a
other hair-control substances that it might women's literary discussion group.
have come in contact with the nineteenth
century sofa, macassar oil might not have Brolly - Umbrella, circa 1873.
been so bad – David Copperfield also
Buckaroo - A cowboy. Someone who works Fishing Fleet - Unmarried British women
with cattle. (From a badly mispronounced sent to India each year by their parents
version of the Spanish vaquero). during the cool weather to find husbands.
Cad – Specifically a man who seduces a Fossick - To search for gold or gemstones
young woman and then leaves, often to her typically by picking over abandoned workings
social or financial ruin. More generally this (Australian and New Zealand).
has become a man who acts dishonourably.
Galloper - Officer used by commanders to
Cinematrograph - Early motion pictures c. carry messages.
1900. Also known as viagraph or bioscope.
Gunslinger - A made-up word from Western
Cheroot - Cigar (from Tamil, curuttu, roll. fiction .
Havelock - Cloth cap cover that hung on
Clobber - Uniform, clothing. the back to protect the neck from sunlight
(named after Sir Henry Havelock).
Coal oil - Kerosene. Used as a lamp or stove
fuel and both internally and externally as a Heliograph - Communication device using
treatment for many diseases . mirrors to flash sunlight.
Consumption - Pulmonary tuberculosis Hornswoggle - The way wild cattle dodge
or any other wasting-away disease that being roped or can shake a rope loose.
'consumed' its victims. Therefore, to trick or fool someone.
Cottoneye - A human or animal with cataracts Malaria - A disease transmitted by mosquitoes
(milky covering over eye) caused by over- that causes periodic severe attacks of chills
exposure to ultraviolet light. and fever, thought at one time to be caused
by miasma (Italian , from mala aria,
Cowpuncher - Cowboy, also cowpoke bad air).
Maverick - Unbranded cattle; especially a
Donkey walloper - Infantry disparaging motherless calf (from Samuel A. Maverick
term for cavalry. who did not brand his calves ).
Dude - A dandy, a fop, a city dweller unfamiliar Miasma - A heavy vapour emanation or
with life on the range (origin unknown atmosphere believed to cause malaria or
). other diseases common in swampy areas
(Greek, defilement, from miainein to pollute
Dyspepsia - Indigestion (Latin, from Greek, ).
from dys- + pepsis digestion). P. & O. - Peninsular and Oriental Steamship
Company. The main line for British travellers
Number 4 - February 2009
to India and the East. much of tropical Africa. Sleeping sickness
saved parts of Africa from being settled by
Pith helmet - Sun helmet originally made Europeans in the 19th century because it
from pith, but later made of cloth-covered killed their cattle and horses.
Snotty - Midshipman [Royal Navy].
Poodle-faker - A man who spent too much
time in the society of women, engaging in Vapours - A Victorian belief that emanations
such activities as tea parties, balls, etc. from bodily organs (such as the stomach)
could affect the physical and mental condition
Pukka - Genuine, authentic, first-class (Hindi of people, especially women. Vapours were
pakka cooked, ripe, solid, from Sanskrit often blamed for women fainting, although
pakva). fashions which included binding women's
bodies so tight that they could barely breathe
Punk - Inferior, as in 'played a punk game', would seem to be a more likely cause.
'feeling punk' (ill) (1896).
Queen's shilling, the - Bounty paid to a new
recruit for joining the British Army.
Rake – A person (usually male) of immoral
Rascal – A rogue or villain. The term
originally meant a lean shabby deer and
often, if uttered by a woman to a man, was to
impugn the man’s virility.
Redcoat – British soldier. The term existed
for some years but did not enter the popular
vernacular until the 1870s.
Road agent - A robber who preyed on
stage routes in between towns. Also called
a Highwayman (England) or Bushranger
Shindig - A cowboy dance or ball (probably
alteration of shindy ).
Sleeping sickness - A serious disease
transmitted by tsetse flies, common in
108 The Primgraph
Letters Recieved by the Editrix
Dear Miss Widdershins based on pre-eminent citizens within
Caldeon that I defy any reader to persue the
Dear Madame chapters without a sensation of shock and
You may be aware of my earlier indignation.
exposulations with your previous editor, Miss It is not yet too late. I urge you to draw
Markstein, concerning the publication, within back, to cancel the story.
your pages, of that most thinly disguised of
satires - The Mysteries of London. For now I remain,
This tale purports to be a one of the new Your most obedient servent,
so-called 'sensationalist' novels. Well, all I
can say to that, Madame Editor, is harumph! GK Gallworth Esq.
New characters are being introduced
all the time - and some are so obviously E
Number 4 - February 2009
110 The Primgraph
How to Read The Primgraph?
he Primgraph can be obtained blog ([http://primperfectblog.wordpress.
either in the form of a Thinc book com)] and in the Connolly Telegraph [[http://
for inworld reading, or as a downloadable theconnollytelegraph.blogspot.com/]] – as
pdf, or in a special web format called Calaméo, will a link to a standard pdf for downloading
which allows you to move smoothly through and printing, if you like to download and print
the pages, giving you the feeling of reading a out your magazines to read as you commute
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You’ll find The Primgraph magazines If you prefer to read the magazine
On the web Inworld
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en.calameo.com/accounts/4234] – and you o-matic kiosks** throughout the grid, but
can also see copies of our other publication, especially in Vintage and steampunk sims,
Prim Perfect – the magazine for homes and so you can just click to subscribe and get an
gardens across the grid. issue regularly! When you click a kiosk, you
Details of the exact link for the latest will be given a copy of the latest magazine
edition will appear on the Prim Perfect bog and from then on, you will receive your copy
Number 4 - February 2009
of the magazine on the day of publication Archive copies:
(technology permitting)! **Subscribe-o- On the web.
matic kiosks** are also located at our offices All of our previous issues are archived at our
on Oliveto [http://slurl.com/secondlife/ Calaméo site.
Oliveto/217/204/22], on Venice Island
Island/131/132/32] and at Northpoint at You can obtain any back copy you
the Meta Makeover studios [http://slurl. may have missed from the wall display in
com/secondlife/Northpoint/124/62/33]. our offices on Oliveto [http://slurl.com/
The magazine is also available through secondlife/Oliveto/199/208/22]. In
Xstreet SL [http://www.xstreetsl.com/] (just addition, all our back copies are available via
search on either site for The Primgraph). This Xstreet SL.
will deliver you a copy in the form of a Thinc So … enjoy! And let us know what you
book that you can rez and read inworld. think of our new edition!
How to Advertise in The
hy don't you join the growing Eighth Page: L$2000
number of contented advertisers
who appear in The Primgraph?
Our circulation is rapidly growing, Looking for increased promotional
** PREMIUM PLACEMENT **
and includes readers who are among the impact? The following special premium
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Second Life world, and we are committed to
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In order to offer you the highest quality 2-page spread (1 available): $L15,000
service, we commit to offering a high-quality Full page (2 available): $L9,500
publication that will enhance your in-world Guaranteed placement in first 30 pages
brand. (depending on editorial requirements):
Here is the information you need to Ad price + 20%
join our community of satisfied partners.
AD RATES: Kiosk discount: 15%, plus
2-3 issue bundle: 5%, or
2 Page Spread: L$12,000 4-6 issue bundle: 10%
** STANDARD RATES **:
Full Page: L$7500
Half Page: L$5000
** Ask about special discounted rates
Quarter Page: L$3000
for combined advertising in this publication
combined with Prim Perfect magazine or the
112 The Primgraph
be in coordinate format, i.e. "SimName
Full payment is due at the time of (xxx,xxx,xxx)" to make it easier for in-world
Meta Makeover television program.**
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agreement with our design department to
design or co-design your ad.
• Double-check your ad size, quality and
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Please pay close attention to the • Provide your desired SLURL for the PDF
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submitted one for a previous ad. If you have
moved your store location in the interim, Design:
be sure to notify us. (We recommend that Wren Carling
location information within the ad text
Number 4 - February 2009
List of Advertisers
Antiques Artistry 6,65 Incwell Textures 7
Black Opal Designs 107 Metaversal Arts 66
Cherished 2-3 Sophia’s 71
Castles by Q 19,45,57,110 Steelhead Sim 19
Deadwood Winter Carnival 39 Pearse’d & Cut 109
Doc’s Men’s Wear 53 Port Amaranthine Gardens 66
Gansey Designs 53 Prim Perfect Magazine 114
Girl Genius 18 Winterfell 67
Editrix: Miss Saffia Widdershins Proof reading and
copy editing: Myfanwy Davies
Writers: Mr. Rascal Blanco
Miss Therese Carfagno Bloggers: Miss Alesia Markstein
Sir JJ Drinkwater Mr Jvstin Tomorrow
Mr. Jvstin Tomorrow
Mr Roberto Viking Layout & Design: Miss Wren Carling
Miss Saffia Widdershins
Miss Siri Woodget Design
Miss Ceejay Writer Consultant: Miss Perry Applemoor
Miss Eloisa Denimore
Production: Miss Saffia Widdershins
Additional information from Miss Riven
Homewood, Mr Julian Beeswing & His Grace Advertising &
the Duke of Argylle, Edward Pearse Client Relations: Miss Saffia Widdershins
Miss Wren Carling
Photographers: Miss Wren Carling
Miss Perry Applemoor
Please direct inquiries reguarding editorial matters to Miss Saffia Widdershins or saffia.
firstname.lastname@example.org. Inquiries reguarding advertising rates, etc., may be directed to
Miss Saffia Widdershins or Miss Wren Carling (email@example.com).