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T he Primgraph goes to the Wild West 2 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 3 4 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 5 W editorial elcome to Issue 4 of the fascinating documentary record: Henry Primgraph - and we have a great Mayhew’s London Labour and the London treat for you! Poor, building up a enthralling picture of This month we are looking at the Victorian life in a great city... American West and some of its manifestations So jump into the Primgraph and find in Second Life. We visit the Tombstone sins in out all the goodies we have to share with the company of Ceejay Writer, while Therese you ... Carfagnus tells more about some of the people to be met there. Roberto Viking tells us something of the reality of the Wild West, while Saffia Widdershins confesses to a guilty pleasure of her youth - the Western novels of JT Edson. In addition, our historical archive, Clio's Mirror, focuses on the year 1883 and looks at events particularly concerning the American West. Editrix: Miss Saffia Widdershins But other sims are not neglected. Jvstiin Tomorrow gives a fascinating account of Rivet Town while Ceejay Writer brings us all the news of the events in Babbage where the sale of the sim was handled in an innovative way that gave residences a unique way in how they would be governed. Find out how it happened in Ceejay's article! Our fashion reports are a little curtailed in this issue as one of writers has been affected by the brushfires in Australia. Fortunately, she and her family have made it through safely ... and we expect her to to be back for our fashion reports in the next issue. We have more of our classic serial, The Mysteries of London, and details of new acquisitions from the library. There’s also information on the correct meaning of popular expressions in the Vintage and steampunk worlds from our Mistress of Propriety - as well as an extract from that 6 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 7 8 The Primgraph (CONTE Editorial.................................................................... Impressions of the New Babbage Airship R by Miss Riven Homewood, Mr Julian Beeswing and Edward Pearse, Duke of Argyll, Earl of Primbroke........ Sim of the Month: A Visit to Tombstone by 10 Meeting the People of Tombstone by Miss Th The Code of the West, and the Environmen by Mr Roberto Viking..................................................... The Election: A New Mayor for Babbage by A Tour of Rivet Town by Mr Jvstin Tomorrow..... Steam Poetry by Bronhudden......................................... With a Flick of the Wrist - the Language of Western Shopping in Winslow by Miss Eloisa Clio’s Mirror: 1883 by Miss Saffia Widdershins... The Mysteries of London by Mr George W.M.Re Book Review: The Westerns of JT Edson by Recent Acquisitions of the Libraries of Cal 20 Braun, OLA Presented by Sir JJ Drinkwater.................. London Labour & the London Poor by Mr He The Mistress of Propriety................................... Letters Received by the Editrix.............................. How to Read The Primgraph............................. How to Advertise in The Primgraph.............. List of Advertisers................................................. Contributors........................................................... 40 *The Table of Contents and advertisements in the PDF and Ca Number 4 - February 2009 9 ENTS) ..................................................................................5 Regatta ................................................................................10 50 y Miss Ceejay Writer................................................20 herese Carfagno......................................................40 nt that Gave Rise to It ................................................................................46 by Miss Ceejay Writer..............................................50 ................................................................................54 .......................................................................................................58 f the Fan by Miss Siri Woodget................................60 a Denimore...............................................................68 ................................................................................72 eynolds...................................................................80 by Miss Saffia Widdershins......................................92 ledon: Airship Collection, Curated by Miss Mica 60 ................................................................................94 enry Mayhew..........................................................96 .............................................................................104 .............................................................................108 .............................................................................110 .............................................................................111 COVER PHOTO .............................................................................113 .............................................................................113 Primgraph’s featured sim: Tombstone Photo by Miss Wren Carling [Page 20] s in Primgraph magazine are hyperlinked alaméo versions. The Primgraph Impressions of the Airship Regatta by Miss Riven Homewood, Mr Julian Beeswing and Mr Edward Pearse Number 4 - February 2009 e New Babbage Mr Kyle Oller Coordinator of the Airship Regatta Founder of the New Babbage Aethernautical Society 12 The Primgraph T benign, and it was removed without injury to persons or airship. We sighed in relief, and Comments from Miss Riven relaxed as we watched the third ship pass through the final ring. It was a classic oval- Homewood he sun had not yet risen, and it was shaped gasbag, bright red, bearing a crest very dark. Alone, I hovered over shaped like a spread-winged bird. the Vernian Sea, seeking the New Babbage Mr Beeswing's flying ship was in the Airship Regatta. I had come to watch my next round. She was a full-rigged sailing ship, friend Julian Beeswing set his new airship looking like she would be quite at home on loose in the sky to try her paces against the the water, yet magically soaring through the best machines New Babbage and the other air. I confess that I was so taken by the sight steampunk worlds could offer. As things of her white sails against the blue sky that I began to rez, I located the teleport link and had eyes for none of her competition. I was ascended to the viewing stand. There I found delighted to find that she placed second in Mr Beeswing, awaiting his chance to take the the race. air. As the next group of ships formed on the Not wishing to interrupt his starting line, I reluctantly took my leave and concentration, I stood to the side and watched moved on to my next appointment. It had been the preceding race between a small agile ship a wonderful morning, filled with beautiful and two huge gasbag airships. Each had to machinery and good sportsmanship. pass through a ring-shaped starting gate and navigate a marked course. The first ship to complete two rounds and pass back through the ring was declared the winner. Along the way, a clever armband device kept track of the time when each checkpoint was passed and thus allowed the aeronauts to calculate their time for the round. The rosy fingers of dawn and subsequent clear morning light gave me a crystal-clear view of the airships. Miss Darlingmonster Ember's speedy ship was the leader, and finished the course far ahead of the others. Next was a strange creation, shaped like a huge black jellyfish with immensely long dangling tentacles. Tentacles flapping in the wind, it passed through the final ring, completing the race. Suddenly, without warning it changed course and hovered over the grandstand, enveloping us in its tentacles as though we were being captured by an alien being. Fortunately its intentions proved Number 4 - February 2009 14 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 15 W Comments from Mr Julian Beeswing, Aeronaut hat stands out in my memory about the regatta is the excitement I felt. I love taking any chance I can to fly one of my vehicles, and this was my first time in an actual "judged" regatta. Windstream (the one I flew in the Regatta) is my largest, and personal favourite. She is the first vehicle (well, actually the first functioning vehicle) that I have ever built. I am not sure how long it took me to build her. I am always chatting while I build, so the time really flies by. I would say probably close to 20 hours, what with false starts, tweaking and testing. I came second in my race, only by dint of the fact that the Dr. either got lost, or crashed, or somesuch. I did end up winning the Spectators Choice Award, though. I was really happy, and rather surprised. All the other ships were so very cool. Did anything especially exciting happen? Well, between being attacked by a giant Octopus, the really quite large zeppelin getting stuck in the starting ring, various cigar ships wheeling about like dervishes, no, not really! There was a large steel coloured ship that was quite large in circumference. That was the one that got stuck in the ring. It was something . . . Echoes of the Hindenberg! It took about five minutes to get it out. Just needed to derezz and rerezz. It all taught me that smaller ships usually win in speed, due to their speed and maneuverability, but that a larger ship with many sails and pennants can gain the public's favour. I look forward to the next Airship Regatta, and any other such events in the future. 16 The Primgraph T Comment from Edward Pearse, Duke of Argylle & Earl of Primbroke he New Babbage airship regatta was a notable success. Vehicles ranged from the interesting to the impressive to the bizarre. One was a giant squid-like craft, another a sailing ship with additional masts at the bottom and sides (showing exactly the reason for the canvas shortage in Second Life), yet others a more traditional dirigible shape. Some craft showed amazing speed yet fell down with their maneouverability. It all boiled down to time. Each pilot wore an armband that held a tracking device. As the passed through the start ring it began and checked to see that they passed through the lap ring. The course was laid out with coloured weather balloons showing pilots the *intended* course they were supposed to travel. The lap ring was enticingly close to the sim border crossing and those who may have been travelling a little too fast discovered the joy of border crossings while desperately trying to turn their ship about. It was the final round that was the most memorable for me. After all the official heats were over and the officials were counting the crowd vote, those pilots still running on adrenaline (or possible other substances) all joined together in an impromptu heat using Munro Motors' "It" - a flying chair set upon a horizontal fan. With all contestants being equal and enthusiasm running high it still proved for some interesting displays of piloting skill! Sadly the Parsival came away without a trophy but I shall ensure I get in some practice before the next event! E Number 4 - February 2009 17 18 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 19 Sim of the Month: Tombs Part One: immerse yourself in the life of the Wild West, Preparing For Your Trip to this reporter believes you will find wealth T and riches beyond those that arrive on the Tombstone Wells Fargo Express! You will need to be well-prepared for he journey to Tombstone, Arizona your journey. The Tombstone visitor centre is an arduous one, and should not is open to the public and contains a wealth of be undertaken lightly. But, if you are amongst information, as well as the means to summon the truly adventurous and are longing to a guide. You should become as familiar as : A Visit to stonE possible with the rules of the land, and with by Miss Ceejay Writer make my way to the visitor centre, where I the HUD you will be required to wear. You met a well-behaved young man not quite should also be dressed in clothing appropriate old enough to shave, by the name of Dmitriy. for the American West, circa 1898. For your We spoke a bit, and Dmitriy decided that a convenience, the rules can be found here: Primgraph reporter was worth the honour [http://www.tombstonearizona-secondlife. of a special visit. To my delight, he agreed to com/tombstonerules.htm] personally escort me on a grand tour of the Yours truly, endeavouring to fulfill my eight sims that together comprise the world mission as an intrepid reporter, did indeed of Tombstone. Images of Tombstone (overleaf) 22 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 23 As we walked towards the portal that interesting character is a lot more fun.” would whisk us away to Tombstone, Dmitriy I gazed at scenes of Tombstone upon told me about classes that are available for the corridor walls displaying side-by-side newcomers, so that versions of the Second they may become Life re-creations I better role-players. was about to visit, “We give them ideas alongside paintings of how they can get the original buildings involved, and for the in the actual town of most part, people Tombstone. I began to are very friendly understand the care and want to help. with which this town We also have about had been re-created. 30 admins, so there We reached the portal is always someone point, and with a to help. Some people nervous smile cast think it’s just about in the direction of my shooting, but we like to suggest that shooting young guide . . . we stepped inside. is the easy part and building a good and T Part Two: Welcome to Tombstone! he world of Tombstone covers eight full sims – the West is a big land and needs a lot of space to spread out! Four of these sims are primarily for role- play, three are a combination of role-play and residential areas, and one is a shopping area which outsiders are welcome to visit. As Dmitriy and I paused to get our bearings, he explained that once you have participated in role-play for seven days, you can become a citizen of Tombstone. Once my eyes became accustomed to the light, I was told that we stood on Allen Street, the busiest thoroughfare in town. My guide generously offered to conduct my tour via his horse-draw buckboard, which sounded marvelous and would save quite a bit of wear and tear on my boots. Soon enough, a most handsome horse by the name of Chestnut was pulling us down Allen Street as we rode in comfort atop Dmitry’s simple yet sturdy buckboard. My guide seemed quite proud to point out the sights. “The main Sheriff’s office is here, doctor, undertaker, courthouse.” He rattled off this information with the ease that can only come when one has spent time getting to know a place well. We passed by Ed Scheffelin Hall, which is Number 4 - February 2009 26 The Primgraph named after the founder of Tombstone. alive. Well he made it successfully and named Dmitriy explained this as best he could. “The the place Tombstone.” story is, if I get it correctly, that he headed I took in the sights and noted clusters west to make his fortune, and his brother of folk standing in the street, seeming very told him if he comes out here it will be his absorbed in their interactions with each Tombstone - meaning he would never leave other. Dmitriy was quickly settling into his Number 4 - February 2009 27 own role as my tour-guide. He pointed out Thankfully, that famous gunfight had taken the Cosmopolitan Hotel, the Sheriff’s office, place seventeen years previous, and all was the undertakers (“for the not so lucky folk”), quiet in the corral on this fine afternoon. and the courthouse. And then I saw one Further down the road, Dmitriy stammered particular sign in front of a small open yard a bit as he attempted to explain a certain that sent a chill up my spine. *The OK Corral*. club’s purpose to me. “On the right . . . well I The Primgraph ain't allowed to go there. It’s umm, a dancing place where the men go and women who can't afford lots of clothin’ dance for them.” I could not suppress a chuckle as I listened to the dear child’s explanation. As the Birdcage Theater was pointed out to me, I learned that the plays performed there several times a year are quite marvelous. I was impressed by the various town activities Dmitriy mentioned, as well. “We have concerts here, and contests like horse and canoe races, and dances and auctions.” I smiled and commented, “Lots to do! Does it keep you kids out of trouble?” though I suspected I already knew the answer. “Well, sometimes, ma’am, I don't know if my name is Dmitriy or if it’s "get out of the street". I get confused ‘cause I'm always called the second one.” As we passed the bank, I was asked, “Remember I told you the outlaws like the bank?” Dmitriy had mentioned this earlier in the tour, so I nodded and he continued. “This is what happens when their withdrawin’ don’t go so well. On your right - the gallows.” The Crystal Palace, Big Nose Kate’s Saloon, the Wells Fargo office . . . and besides all these buildings to gawk at, there were townsfolk everywhere I looked. I witnessed the Sheriff, her junior deputy, and the Marshall breaking up a situation in the street. There was just so much to take in my brain was fairly spinning from the sights and sounds! Ah, but then it was time to leave the busy streets of Tombstone and cross over to the town of Bisbee. Chestnut trotted onward, pulling us past a lovely church where one could attend Sunday services. The cobbled streets here seemed a bit more upscale than those we’d just left, and as I spied the barber shop and was about to mention what a nice, sleepy little town this was, Dmitriy pointed 30 The Primgraph out the gypsy camp tents, where one could affluent area, wealthier landowners live in have one's fortune told. It was not so sleepy spectacular homes and on large ranches. But here after all! we still had quite a bit of ground to cover, so We took a shortcut down the railroad we did not linger – our next destination was tracks, crossing our fingers that the train Tortilla Flats, which featured places for weary wouldn’t come along, and safely found our travelers to eat and sleep. We passed through way into the region known as Canyon. In this that village fairly quickly, and proceeded on Number 4 - February 2009 31 to the ghost town of Black Diamond, where introduce you. She lives here. Hello, Matron!” I was cautioned to beware of real ghosts! As Dmitriy burst out laughing, I realized I’d Chestnut seemed nervous in this strangely been had. In the front yard of the house in beautiful yet sad question was an actual place, and I believe ass – of the donkey we were all glad to sort. Children, I swear. move onward. But I couldn’t help The Sonoran laughing along once I Desert is a peaceful, got the joke. scenic area, and I The next leg of our would have gladly journey would be no stopped to rest a spell joke, however. As we here. However, it passed by the Cavalry seems the matron of fort, I was told that the local orphanage they are often called lives in the vicinity, upon to defend the and Dmitriy wasn’t too fond of her. “I really area from the Apaches, who are always after don’t like her, and if you will excuse my people’s horses. I inquired about the number language I kinda think she is an ass, but I can of Apaches, and was told there were a lot The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 of them. We rode close to White Mountain, where the Apache live, and thankfully managed to pass by unharmed. But we weren’t out of danger yet, oh no! Next stop – Ghenna, home of the Devil’s Rejects, the most dangerous outlaws around. Dmitriy told me that kids weren’t allowed in Ghenna, but then he decided if we rode through really, really fast, it might be all right. I tried my best to look at everything quickly as we zoomed through outlaw territory. Beyond that sinister place, to my relief, we found signs of proper civilization - the orphanage, the schoolhouse, and Shucks Ballroom. Still, one must never relax too much in the Wild West, as the next sight I beheld was a derailed train. Dmitriy assured me some ‘train people’ would be along to set things to rights very soon. Onward we pressed. We passed the mines, where there would sometimes be collapses due to Apaches setting explosives. And then we entered the town of Benson, which is one of the areas that visitors can explore and enjoy. Beyond Benson lies Winslow, which is a shopping district, also open to visitors. These two public areas can be easily reached from the welcome area, and are well worth a shopping and sightseeing trip! You’ll find many free items as well as lovely period clothing and other goods for sale. 34 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 35 A little ways further and I began to introduced to Miss Roxie. She explained that recognize my surroundings. We were back on her title was “a fancy name for floor sweeper, Allen Street in Tombstone. I was a little sad get the mail and my most important job, ‘Hey to realize that my tour was near an end. As I the bank is being robbed’.” stepped down carefully from the buckboard, I thanked young Dmitriy for an the Junior Deputy approached us, and I was interesting afternoon’s exploration and for 36 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 37 38 The Primgraph being such a good guide. He politely asked, to pay a visit to Tombstone, and happen upon “Is there anything else you wanted to know a young boy chewing on a strand of hay, ask ma’am?” and I assured him I had enough for a him if he is the famous tour-guide, Dmitriy. It fine article, thanks to him. He wondered, “Oh should be worth it to hear his stammer and good. Am I gonna be famous?”, and I told him see him blush! that he just might be! That is up to you, dear reader. If you find yourself intrigued enough E Number 4 - February 2009 39 40 The Primgraph Meeting the People W of Tombstone by Miss Therese Carfagno elcome to Tombstone, Arizona. of course, often running barefoot, growing Considering both distance and up in this wild and rugged land that might way of life, we’re quite far away from the never be a fully integrated part of the United more civilized worlds of London, Paris, States. Boston and New York. This is Coyote Country, I travelled a long way with train and Indian Country, the Wild West, the Frontiers, stagecoach before I finally entered this and it’s quite an experience. dusty yet legendary place that lies almost in Here I found the strong, uncut men who Mexico. The name itself is a small story. In make a living from activities that make them the summer of 1877, a prospector named Ed wanted by the law, and the men who work Schieffelin worked the hills east of the San the silver and copper ores; the women who Pedro River, in the southeastern portion of take care of them, be they nurses, doctors the Arizona Territory, when he came across a or ladies of easy leisure; and the children, vein of a rich silver ore. When Schieffelin filed his mining claim he named it The Tombstone, after a warning given to him by his brother: "If you go back there, that place will be your tombstone." The town of Tombstone was founded in 1879, and even though that is only 20 years ago today, it’s already a town of respectable size. But its golden age seem to have passed. Late last decade, the silver mining industry began to decline as efforts to remove the seeping water that found its way into the mineshafts failed. Miners were disgruntled, and left to find new work in the neighbouring town of Bisbee and other new mining towns. But that doesn’t mean Tombstone today is a ghost town – far from it. It’s as lively as ever. So that is why we ask the question: What makes this city too tough to die? Stepping off the stagecoach at one end of Allen Street, one feels, despite the unfamiliar surroundings, very welcome. photos by Therese Carfagno Number 4 - February 2009 Our first meeting was doin’?" A small boy 41 with a woman given named Timmie the name Gigi by her greeted us this way. friends. ”Welcome The language in to Tombstone. We’re these parts of the a big family here,” country reflects the she quickly said. ”We simple way of living are good people, they lead. And I’d bad people, and ugly never before seen people.” such a small boy Ms Gigi likes it carry an axe. When I here, even though she asked what he used has a habit of getting it for, he answered: into bad situations by accident. On her way "Jes’ wood, no worries," as if I’d implied he here for the first time, she got held up by one planned to kill someone with it. Not far from of the notorius Dalton brothers and passed him a tall Indian, arms crossed, greeted us out at the sight of a gun. Later, she got hit with his "Dago te." Little Timmie greeted by a train, and had to use a wheel chair for him with the same words. The children of one and a half month. She even got shot once the West certainly get a different upbringing! while doing such a peaceful thing as playing From early on, they take part in the struggle her cello. to survive in these rough surroundings. Looking me up and down, she had no "All’s fine, jes’ lotsa werk, ’specially problems seeing I was new to the area, and since Roxie got shot and cain’t care fer her guided me to one of the shops they have for cows anymore," Timmie replied to how he proper women’s clothing in Tombstone. It’s a was doing. Now would you ever find a child style not unlike the one back East, although in Philadelphia giving such an answer? slightly simpler. I got myself a nice, dark In the middle of Allen Street, you find green dress, quite smart. a comfortable hotel. I brought my belongings The trousers mostly worn by the there and changed into my new dress. Ms men here are the so-called jeans. They’re Gigi met me down in the lobby, ready to show solid, made by me the town. Out on denim cotton, often the street, she was blue, and not too approached by some expensive. But what’s farmers. "There’s Gigi really new here is now. We got milk for the sight of women you. One can of milk actually wearing for ten dollars per our trousers, as well – a agreement." fashion somewhat Timmie giggled as unlikely to catch on Ms Gigi opened her elsewhere than in purse and got out the the West. money, and I heard "How’s y’all him whisper "Only an The Primgraph idiot’d pay ten dollars fer a few gallons of found it peculiar having a women for a doctor. 42 milk," which was not a nice thing to say. But "Well, I have run across a few that didn’t want when the farmer, the before mentioned Ms a woman doctor, but when they found out Roxie Marten, wanted to give him some for we didn’t have any men docs they seemed to helping her, he answered, "No Roxie ah don’ change their mind and let me treat them. Yes, want it, ah hep ya as a friend, don’ want no ma’am, I think I look a lot better to them than dang payment. We’s friends." death." Latte showed me her equipment; the As we continued, Ms Gigi pointed to bandages, the healing salves, and "the hated the bank, noting, "It gets robbed a lot. I think syringes." "These little things can make a the outlaws need to be more creative." grown man cry. Some have asked me just to A saloon is the natural meeting spot for let them die," Dr Latte said with a smile. all towns of the West. We stopped outside and Next to the sheriff’s office, the doctors’ had a nice chat with are the most busy some of the men and one of the town. She women standing there. admits that some While Ms Gigi stayed, patients can be a I walked on over to very tough challenge. the doctor’s office, "I do all I can, make interested seeing sure there is nothing the doctors were in more I can do, and fact two women. Dr then with God’s Soph Shepherd said help I hope they will she had a very busy recover. I’ve learned job: "Busier than I’d to accept I can only care for sometimes. do so much. What I usually mend bullet wounds, some pretty affects me most are the kids – the innocent nasty. I also look after animals that get hurt." ones." Dr Reb Latte added "a few broke limbs" to Asked what she likes to do when not that. "People fall of horses. I’ve also removed working, Dr Latte said, "Not working? I’ll let arrows." you know when that happens. Ya never know Dr Latte came to Tombstone one year when a doc will be needed around here." ago, while Dr Shepherd had come only a It’s no wonder being the doctor is month earlier. But it seems like years already. so busy. Tombstone and its surrounding "I learned a lot back East before I came here, countryside are known as one of the deadliest and I’m glad I can put it to use," she said, regions in the West. Gigi told me, "I’ve run adding that she came here looking for her out of things to wear at funerals." She’s quite husband, who went missing from home. "All familiar with guns, and even refers to one the clues pointed this way. Sadly, I haven’t simply as "steel". found him yet, and I’ve stayed in Tombstone "I have a pretty garter gun, she told because this is where the clues ran out. I’ve me," smiling, then pulled it up for me to see found a place and friends here." before we approached the shooting range. Dr Latte then took me inside to see It’s a place she sometimes come to blow off the office. I asked her if any of the townsmen some steam by shooting down bottles and Number 4 - February 2009 cans. When she gave me the gun and asked He intends to stay in Bisbee, describing it as 43 me to give it a try, my hand began to shake, "the place to make yer fortune." It will have but guided by her I actually managed to shoot to be seen for how long the town will let him down a few bottles. I’ll admit it was fun, but stay. After all, Ms Mercedes Mfume told me you’ll never get me to wear a gun like the on entering the city that there were "no riff people in this town do. raff here. If they try to settle, we run them The gunfighter is the image that often out of town." comes to mind when thinking about life in On my way back to Tombstone I met these parts of the country. So how real is he? yet another person that lived by the gun. What I eventually found out is that not only Ms Vor Torok had escaped from her earlier he, but also she, is a very real phenomena. settlement more than a year ago. "They Even for the relatively innocent Ms Gigi, wanted to hang me for killing my husband. showing me the place where people duel He was a very bad man." seemed to be a natural thing to do while Ms Torok fled before anyone had guiding me around the city. discovered the crime. For a year she lived in Ms Aili Kuhn, a nurse I met in the the deserts, where she had to learn how to neighbouring town of Bisbee, said it bluntly: use a gun. "The gun is my justice and defense. "On weekends the bandits are all over and I use it for protection only, and, well, when they shoot each other so we get a lot of work. perhaps I need to borrow things." She almost Last Sunday I had to treat 13 people." died out there in the desert, surviving thanks It was in to a doctor from the Bisbee I met Mr nearby city of Ghenna Apple Pevensey that found her. Now as well. "How do I she’s in Tombstone know yer not the to look for a new life. law," he replied Somewhere she can when I asked for an forget her past. interview. I gave him Has she succeeded? my word on being "Well, time will tell. an independent I’m still alive. Jobs journalist. Mr are hard to find, and Pevensey had come I’m not good with to the area only discipline." So her three months earlier. gun is still important Before that, he to her. "Don’t rightly lived in Sacramento, California. For reasons hold much respect for the law here. It ain’t unexplained, he had to leave. no friend to me," she said, and then felt she’d "How do I make a living? Well ma’am, said enough. I’m sort of self sufficient. Other people help There are signs life might get harder me make my living. I could tell ya exactly for the gunfighters. Tombstone’s mayor, Mr what I do, but then I’d have to sort of erase Adrian Wise, has decided to clean up the it from your memory." The cuts and bruises streets. He promoted Ms Kimee Babii from in his face he said came from the frying pan. sheriff to marshall, and in an effort to crack The Primgraph down on violent crime, heavier fines and other than Dutch Annie. Many a miner, broke 44 penalties will be applied on firearm usage and desperate, was grubstaked by this friend with criminal intent. to all. When she went to her eternal rest, I bought a copy of the town’s newspaper, more than 1,000 people followed the coffin, the Tombstone *Epitaph*, where the marshall paying tribute to Dutch Annie – Queen of the was made the Red Light District. following statement: Today, 17 years later, "We are on our her place is still one way to becoming a of the more popular state. Mayor Wise ones in Tombstone. means to shape It’s described as the up this town as an wildest, roughest, example of law and wickedest honky tonk, order in the future and the numerous state of Arizona." bullet holes in the They have a big job building lend credence waiting, according to this claim. Even if to the *Epitaph*: "As it’s not a place to be always, Tombstone seen for a respectable folk stick to their guns: when questioned woman, I ventured inside. There, I met Ms about complying with the ordinances, the Jadzia Nightfire. She’s part of the group of leaders of the outlaws in Ghenna merely women known as the Soiled Doves. laughed." A Soiled Dove is one WHO has undergone Maybe as an act of protest, two cowboys the initial training and has earned her wings, entered town, broke into the bank, shot down so to speak, said Ms Nightfire. She described a woman that tried to her work as simple intervene, shot down enough: They dance the deputy, and walked on stage, and flirt out of Tombstone, with the men and shouting, "Y’all know women that come the cowboys run this to see them. "They town." can tip us if they like One day, I walked what they see, and in out to the graveyard gratitude we show to see a grave that’s them more. If they already legendary. wish, we can take A mound is marked them on a private with a simple epitaph session." reading "Dutch Annie And even if so 1883". The words photos by Therese Carfagno many would find don’t reveal very much, but quite a story her occupation morally questionable, Ms lies beneath those rocks. As frequently is Nightfire felt proud of her work, offering the case, no one ever knew her by any name comfort and relief to men WHO might have Number 4 - February 2009 a hard time finding female companionship I asked Ms Gigi if I could visit the 45 in these harsh environments. But it might Apaches, but she said I better not. Not not come as a surprise to anyone that there because it would be dangerous, but she tends to be little dialogue between the Soiled wants to respect their wish for privacy. The Doves and the more respectable women of war wounds haven’t healed completely yet, it Tombstone. seems, and the Apaches are a proud people. Like most other towns of the West, I left Tombstone as I’d arrived, in a Tombstone too was affected by the Indian stagecoach. I left behind a city that I’d grown Wars. The town has its fort, the Fort Huachuca very fond of during the short time I was where 10th US Cavalry Regiment resides, and there. I now know why, despite the decline of an Apache village nearby. These are the lands the mining industry, people still stick to their where the tribes of Geronimo and Cochise lives there. What makes the city "too tough eagerly fought against the settlements of to die" is that the people there, despite all white people. Tombstone’s fort was the the gun-toting, the heat, the dust, the harsh headquarters for the Geronimo campaign. climate, also love their city above everything After the chief’s surrender in 1886, the else on God’s earth, and transfer this love into Apache threat was essentially extinguished, a love for each other. It’s a town that sticks but Fort Huachuca is kept open because of together, and for that it will survive. its strategic border position. E 46 The Primgraph The Code of T and the Environment his month's featured area, not to mention the Native Americans, who Tombstone, Arizona, is set in were defending their homelands from the the "Old West" of North America in the "invasion" of the people of European ancestry. late 1800s. It was a time of expansion and Indeed, much of the area was considered to settlement into a vast wilderness of rough be lawless, and dangerous. terrain, harsh climate, sparse vegetation, If this was such a foreboding place, then and insufficient water. Travel, except on the why would anyone come here? A fresh start, few railroads that crossed the area, was by where you could wipe out a past that you foot or horsepower, along rough and lonely no longer wanted, or the lures of adventure, trails. Distances between towns were often glory, or riches. Ah, the riches! So many men measured in days or weeks of travel. The went West to find a quick fortune, and a entire area of the "American West" was return to the more civilized East. Many came, equivalent in size, for the benefit of readers some found their riches and returned to the more familiar with Europe, to all of western East, a few stayed, either because they failed Europe (Germany, and westward). Much of and couldn't afford to return home, or they the terrain was harshly mountainous and/ found a comfortable niche in this raw world. or desert. It was lightly settled, and even Around the area of Tombstone, there were more lightly governed. The soil was poor and mineral riches, and little else. Gold, silver and the climate arid for farming, but some was copper ores of rich assay could be found and done, along with the raising of cattle, both harvested by a lucky and hardworking person for local consumption, and (via the railroads or small team. The luckiest could find a rich entering the area), for the cities back East. deposit, and make a life's fortune in just a few Forage being poor, large herds of cattle were years of backbreaking work. This, however, shepherded across thousands of square was something achieved only by very few. miles of open rangelands both for feeding, Along with the prospectors and miners came and for conveyance to the railheads where the support folks: the equipment suppliers, they were loaded off for processing in distant the shopkeepers, the bankers, the tavern cities. These shepherds, more commonly keepers, and, since women were scarce, the called cowboys, would be out on the ranges brothel keepers. And then there were the for weeks at a time, totally on their own parasites, those who did little work of their devices for finding food and water, and their own, but lived off the riches of those who own protection. did. They made their living at the fringes of There was little to protect law-abiding society by gambling, or by a life of crime. folk from predation by thieves and sociopaths, All this added up to an environment Number 4 - February 2009 47 f the West, That Gave Rise to It by Mr Roberto Viking where people were left to their own of literature dramatized by such authors as devices for protection from the parasitic or Zane Grey. One of the most famous of the sociopathic elements of society. So what did historically documented gunfights occurred they do? Local law enforcement was usually right in Tombstone in 1881, between the a sheriff, appointed or employed by the Earp brothers, with Doc Holliday, and the local businessmen to protect their business outlaw gang of the Clantons, a band of interests and their families. Usually this was cattle thieves who had been terrorizing the an honest man wanting to bring peace and Tombstone region for some time. For more order to a place. Sometimes, he was no better details of this event, this author suggests you than the criminals he protected the town visit Tombstone and find out more about this against, just operating with the blessing of event yourselves. the businessmen of the town. If additional resources were needed, There has been much written about citizens would volunteer or be conscripted the informal laws, or honor code of the for short periods to help catch a thief or old west, but one of the best compilations solve a short term problem. Almost all men is the following from the aethernet page were armed at all times, as there was never [http://www.legendsofamerica.com/WE- assurance that help would be available when CodeOfTheWest.html], which is reproduced needed. Certainly perpetrators were brought here: to justice, and shipped off to distant cities Ramon Adams, a Western historian, for trial, or held in local jails until traveling explained it best in his 1969 book, *The circuit judiciary came to town. Often though, Cowman and His Code of Ethics*, saying, in justice was enacted with the gun, or the part: noose, and done in short order, on the spot, "Back in the days when the cowman either by the officially deputized groups, or with his herds made a new frontier, there by vigilante groups. was no law on the range. Lack of written law Personal honor and integrity were held made it necessary for him to frame some of in high esteem, as there was little else to hold his own, thus developing a rule of behavior society together in that environment. Though which became known as the "Code of the there were few formal laws, there seemed to be a common Code of Honor that prevailed, West." These homespun laws, being merely and served in the stead of formal law. Disputes a gentleman’s agreement to certain rules of were often "honor disputes" , settled not in conduct for survival, were never written into a court of law since there were few, or by statutes, but were respected everywhere on mediation, but by the age old practice of the the range. duel. This gave rise to the fabled "gunfight" The Primgraph Though the Code of the West was always unwritten, here is a "loose" list of some of the guidelines: · Don't inquire into a person's past. Take the measure of a man for what he is today. · Never steal another man's horse. A horse thief pays with his life. · Defend yourself whenever necessary. · Look out for your own. · Remove your guns before sitting at the dining table. · Never order anything weaker than whiskey. · Don't make a threat without expecting dire consequences. · Never pass anyone on the trail without saying "Howdy". · When approaching someone from behind, give a loud greeting before you get within shooting range. · Don't wave at a man on a horse, as it might spook the horse. A nod is the proper greeting. · After you pass someone on the trail, don't look back at him. It implies you don't trust him. · Riding another man's horse without his permission is nearly as bad as making love to his wife. Never even bother another man's horse. · Always fill your whiskey glass to the brim. · A cowboy doesn't talk much; he saves his breath for breathing. · No matter how weary and hungry you are after a long day in the saddle, always tend to your horse's needs before your own, and get your horse some feed before you eat. · Cuss all you want, but only around men, horses and cows. · Complain about the cooking and you become the cook. · Always drink your whiskey with your gun hand, to show your friendly intentions. Number 4 - February 2009 · Do not practice ingratitude. · A cowboy is pleasant even when out of sorts. Complaining is what quitters do, and cowboys hate quitters. · Always be courageous. Cowards aren't tolerated in any outfit worth its salt. · A cowboy always helps someone in need, even a stranger or an enemy. · Never try on another man's hat. · Be hospitable to strangers. Anyone who wanders in, including an enemy, is welcome at the dinner table. The same was true for riders who joined cowboys on the range. · Give your enemy a fighting chance. · Never wake another man by shaking or touching him, as he might waken suddenly and shoot you. · Real cowboys are modest. A braggart who is "all gurgle and no guts" is not tolerated. · Be there for a friend when he needs you. · Drinking on duty is grounds for instant dismissal and blacklisting. · A cowboy is loyal to his "brand", to his friends, and those he rides with. · Never shoot an unarmed or unwarned enemy. This was also known as "the rattlesnake code": always warn before you strike. However, if a man was being stalked, this could be ignored. · Never shoot a woman no matter what. · Consideration for others is central to the code, such as: don't stir up dust around the chuckwagon, don't wake up the wrong man for herd duty, etc. · Respect the land and the environment by not smoking in hazardous fire areas, disfiguring rocks, trees, or other natural areas. · Honesty is absolute - your word is your bond, a handshake is more binding than a contract. · Live by the Golden Rule. E The Primgraph 50 The A New O Shaunathan n the fifth day of January, Mayor Sprocket about this upcoming change, but many took comfort in the Mayor's methods. “I want dropped a bombshell on to sell to someone who has the unsuspecting citizens of vision, someone who will not New Babbage. “It has been only maintain what we have, an exciting and challenging but strive to grow and evolve time running a city-state for it further. We have a unique the past 2 years. I see entirely situation.” And Mayor Sprocket why George Washington presented a unique solution set the 2 year term limit in for the town's unique situation. motion within the United “If you fancy yourself a mayor. States. After two years you If you think you can lead New feel exhausted in a way Babbage, I invite you to that's practically impossible post on a second thread I to describe. Even the will to have started 'New Babbage Baron Klaus Wulfenbach log in seems to not be there Election'. Please go there and for me. I want new make your case to the challenges, I want people of New Babbage. to move on. Also I Tell them what you will think New Babbage do as Mayor of New deserves better than Babbage.” my absence. It's time The townsfolk for a new mayor. I waited with bated hereby invoke a 2 breath, for a very long year precedent.” two days. And then, The news finally, the race was of the Mayor's on! Several interesting decision spread like candidates stepped out wildfire through of the shadows and into New Babbage. Naturally, the political limelight. The first the citizens were nervous Mister Aeolus Cleanslate to toss his battered little tophat Number 3 - November 2008 51 Election: Mayor For New Babbage by Miss Ceejay Writer into the ring was the town's most infamous i> New Babbage and encourage the growth street urchin, DreddPirateBob Streeter. He of this vital community.” The Baron also has since withdrawn from the race, but it stated his intent to see New Babbage reach was encouraging to see this colorful local out beyond its own borders. “I would also character taken very seriously in his bid for the encourage more diplomatic activity between Mayorship. New Babbage Next and other to step up lands, as a was Klaus country cannot Wulfenbach, exist either in Baron, or as a vacuum. Consulate This once of Europa again applies Wulfenbach. principles I While not have in action a resident at home of New -- standing Babbage, he together is was known much stronger to most of the than standing townsfolk alone. This will and had established Mayor Mosseveno Tenk encourage not only a flow a Consulate office in of ideas, but also bolster Babbage Palisade. He addressed this issue in land sales, retail and goodwill overall.” his intent of candidacy statement, thusly: “I As the townsfolk settled in to ponder do not seek to take and change New Babbage the Baron's words, Mister Aeolus Cleanslate into some other creature, to remake it in made public his intent to run. He described his the image of any other land. I am, however, business experience and creative endeavours concerned that a valuable portion of the at length, his thoughts on creating a Town steamlands, and a valuable cultural addition Council, and left us with these assurances: to the grid could possibly diminish or “The key to all this, from a Mayoral disappear. I seek election to <i>preserve</ perspective, is to be reliable and professional 52 The Primgraph Mr Shaunathan Sprocket overlooking New Babbage and committed to good governance, but in quietly but confidently out of the shadows! the end to let Babbage Be Babbage. This role The town's clock-winder, Mister Mosseveno is not about making huge money, and it's Tenk, proclaimed his intent in his own quiet not about driving things from the center, it's way: “It is not an easy thing for me to step out about facilitating and enhancing Residents' into the open. My goal is to organize the City ability to do what they enjoy doing, and the to ensure her survival into the future. You result will be valuable to all concerned. I'm have ideas, the talents, and passions to keep not really a politician, and I'll always be 'the New Babbage great. You need a mayor who new guy' compared to many of you, but I do will consider your visions, then authorize consider Babbage my home, and would love the tools you need bring it about. And that is to have the opportunity to invest my time and why I am standing for Mayor.” energy into such a Magnificent Experiment.” Finally, voting week arrived, and all Days passed. The townsfolk spent a waited on pins and needles for the final tally. great deal of time debating the merits of each On Saturday, January 31st, the results were candidate, while grilling them with every made public: 20 votes for Mister Tenk, 19 sort of question imaginable. They chattered votes for Mister Cleanslate, and 14 votes for excitedly amongst themselves and followed Baron Wulfenbach. The next Mayor of New every scrap of news avidly. And then, just Babbage would be Mosseveno Tenk! when everyone had thought it would be only Prior to voting week, this reporter a two man race, another candidate stepped spoke with each of the candidates, and asked Number 4 - February 2009 them each the same question. At the time 53 they gave their answers, it was not known who the next Mayor would be. And now, we shall see if Mayor-Elect Tenk finds any counsel in the answers. The question I put to each candidate was this: “The election is over, and New Babbage has its second Mayor. If you were only able to pass along one piece of advice to the new Mayor, what would it be?” Baron Klaus Wulfenbach replied to my question thusly. “I am reminded of the ancient Roman tradition to have a slave assigned to ride in the chariot of each conquering Proconsul as he enjoyed his Triumph. “Remember, all glory is fleeting,” the slave would whisper, “Remember thou art mortal!” For all the mighty powers assigned to a property owner, he is merely a first among equals, chosen by the people to serve as a leader. Paradoxical, somewhat; but service must be the first priority, and from that all will follow in good order.” Mister Aeolus Cleanslate offered up these words. “I've learned a lot during this campaign about what makes Babbage unique - it wants to be creative and passionate and wise, but could easily be dragged into being petty, vain, and ignorant. Don't let Babbage become the personal playground for a few - make it a great, seething, steam-belching city on a hill - open to the world, where imagination is the highest value and the only bad idea is that there are limits.” Mister Mosseveno Tenk took a bit of time to think over his reply. “Never believe your own hype. Life is a hoot, really it is, but once you start believing those stories you've crafted to entertain yourself and others . . . bad stuff starts happening. I've made this a rule of my life. Laugh at yourself, and people will laugh with you.” E 54 The Primgraph A Tour of Rivet Town O By Mr Jvstin Tomorrow n Boxing Day, last year, the Second Life Metaverse Explorers Club, led Rivet Town began to fade. by Miss Jade Lily, along with your humble A new element was introduced to their correspondent, were given a tour of the pristine city eventually in the form of the steampunk role-play world Rivet Town by its "blue collar worker." A factory was raised creator and designer, Miss Grace Loudon. in the north, much to the chagrin of the Rivet Town, we found, was really a sim citizens. Surely this was something Mordecai that illuminated two very different aspects never would have allowed! With the factory of Victorian society, thought and progress came imports of people to work in it, as no now living uncomfortably close together. A one with the calibre of breeding who were thumbnail history of Rivet Town provided citizens of Rivet Town would be caught dead to the group gave us a preview and an opportunity to understand what Grace had in a factory. And with this new breed of person in mind in the lines of her design: came all their nuances and vices: crime, prostitution, panhandling, smuggling and more unspeakable acts and "professions" . . . Rivet Town was once a bustling, even the consumption of spirits. For a time, the beautiful, progressive city that sat in the middle new element kept to their side of the bridge of the ocean. Finely crafted buildings, splendid and there remained a comfortable distance. air machines, well-dressed and well-behaved But it didn't last. Once the miscreants of Rivet citizens. Only the upper-crust of society made Town North learned of the wealth available their way to Rivet Town and stayed to call it to them on the east side, they began to make their home, under the ever-watchful eye of their way. Finally, the proper citizens of Rivet Mordecai Snodgrass. His motto: "Progression Town could stand no more. They must take Through Enlightenment and Science" was hold of their city before it was overrun and a evident everywhere you looked. Steam was shadow of its former glory. The time had come the main source of power and the citizens of to find a new leader. An election was held and Rivet Town never stopped trying to find new a new, forward thinking Mayor chosen. But and innovative ways to harness that power. not everyone agrees with her remedy . . . in But as they say, all good things must fact, there are a few who are making plans . come to an end. And it did the fateful day that . . and what of her contender's "remedy"? A Rivet Town's beloved Mordecai disappeared surgical procedure that will eliminate the urge Armed with this knowledge, the without a trace. To this day nobody, not even to commit a crime forever?? Can it be true? Metaverse Explorers were transported us his own daughter, knows of his whereabouts. While the town continued in his stead, it was by a series of teleports, culminating with the never able to recover from the shock of losing introduction of Grace Loudon at the Rivet their great leader and daily inspiration. Slowly and little by little, the once shining beacon of Number 4 - February 2009 Town Train Station, the jumping off point for of the upper class area felt authentic in an 55 exploring Rivet Town. uplifting manner, the dark side of Rivet Town Miss Grace Loudon explained that Rivet also felt very authentic, in the manner of Town was the third role-play community the Doctor Who story “The Talons of Weng that she had created and was intended as a Chiang.” The buildings were crooked, and the full immersion role-play community. Miss use of dark and light accents accentuated the Loudon explained that the sim (which aside feel of the lower reaches of an English city. We from some off-the-shelf purchases, she had were glad of the company of Miss Loudon as designed entirely on her own) was divided we traveled through a much more populated into upper class and lower class areas, with area of the sim. We began with the slums, a surprising number of residents preferring a rough and tumble bar, and the dangerous to take on roles in the lower class portion of docks area. The environmental conditions town. that evening gave a gloomy, atmospheric look Regardless of this fact, however, Miss as we prowled around, glad that we were a Loudon’s conducted tour proceeded first large enough group to not be molested. through the upper class portion of the town, After these initial entrees into the showing us sights such as the Loyal Order seamier side of Rivet Town, Miss Loudon of Steamfitters Hall, the Tesla Tower, the dared to show us the real underside of Rivet Library, and the Courthouse. Throughout the Town — the catacombs beneath the city. lines of the designs of the buildings, shops, While my fellow Explorers and myself came and neighborhoods showed a clear design to no harm while down there, Miss Loudon and hewing to a Victorian aesthetic. The explained that at least two bodies had already shops found here, mainly focused on the been found there in recent weeks. Clever fashions prevalent in the sim, may be a useful Explorers found a side passage that at the destination to those seeking a new look. end of which appeared to be living quarters, As we continued on our way through suggesting that some of the criminal element the upper class areas, Miss Loudon told us of Rivet Town may be literally lurking beneath a little more about the social nature of Rivet its surface. Town. “Rivet Town role-play focuses a lot on politics, the law, class struggles.” This became clear as she regaled us with the story of a foul murder which dominated the storylines in the sim recently. The story was the equal of any found in the pages of a penny dreadful. With that lurid tale, Miss Loudon then escorted us to the seamier side of Rivet Town. If the Tesla coils and elegant Victorian architecture photos by Perry Applemoor The Primgraph photos by Perry Applemoor Number 4 - February 2009 The final stop on the tour was the 57 Steamworks Metal Factory. Unlike the rest of the sim, the Steamworks Metal Factory was and is designed as a non-role-playing area, where the avatars can mingle and get to know each other beyond their character. This vision of steam pipes and a dance floor was without question the single most impressive building we encountered in the sim of Rivet Town, and it was a fine place to end our expedition to this Sim. Rivet Town is truly a stunning Sim, a tribute to Victorian steampunk design that I commend to all to see how a designer’s vision can not only be built but, thanks to the role-players within, come to fruition and full life. E 58 The Primgraph Steam P by Bron [We find that a correspondent of the Merthyr Guar Y way of postscript to the article on Steam, given in o History, Poetry, Literature, and the Fine Arts, Vol. 1, e lovers of being in motion, Of flying in air do not dream, Of wings, or balloons, form no notion, There's nothing like going by steam. The swiftness of racers surpasses A thought — on the course as they gleam, But, believe me, they sink to mere asses, Compared with the swiftness of steam. Philosophers tell us strange stories, Here the sun sends, to light us, his beam, But I 'll never believe but his glories Would travel much faster by steam. Steam furnishes washing and cooking, Saves all the expense of a team, Sews gloves, and makes shoes without looking, So clever and nimble is steam. It will soon have another appliance — Ye authors, get ready your theme, Rejoice, all ye lovers of science, For books will be written by steam. That poets should ask inspiration Of the Nine, is a fabulous dream, They will soar to a far higher station Than Ida — when lifted by steam. Number 4 - February 2009 59 Poetry nhudden rdian, has sent to the Editor the following lines by our llth number (that is, of The Parterre of Fiction, 1834).] Should metaphysicians be puzzled, Or statesmen bewildered, I deem, Whoever is pos'd or bamboozled, Will find every thing cleared up by steam. Rejoice, ye that love ease and pleasure, Who think bus'ness a wearisome theme, Sit still, and contemplate at leisure — Your work's all accomplished by steam. Ye ladies! so apt to be nervous, When driven o'er hill, or through stream, No tricks can gay horses now serve us, While we glide along swiftly by steam. What would ancient philosophers think on't, How strange to their notions 'twould seem, Could they from their graves have a blink on't, And see the world going by steam. Then haste, ye that fain would get money, And are always projecting some scheme, Make hay, while the weather is sunny, And seize the advantage of steam. E photos by Perry Applemoor W The Primgraph With a Flick of the Wrist – 60 T he advent of new technologies has brought us many conveniences, including those contributed by Mr. Tesla and Bennett writes in her book Unfolding Beauty: The Art of the Fan, “fans were used as memory aids, for parlour games, as masks, cryptic his Alternating Current motors. But these communicators, political propaganda, and, conveniences have encouraged society to of course, accessories in the oldest game, overlook some of our more elegant and when dalliance was a major preoccupation. charming inventions powered by the energy They reflected the goals and values of those of man himself (or, in this case, woman). Let’s who carried them, and in use they revealed turn our attention to a long overlooked object a temperament in motion.” Fans were used – the fan. Tesla’s motors and Dr. (Schuyler in Greek, Roman and Chinese cultures, Skaats) Wheeler’s electrical fan may have constructed at first with simple paddle and brought cool relief to an overdressed public, handle, into forms with more elaborate but the clunky dust-gathering mechanics decoration and moveable parts. The fan of these units are no match for the unique migrated to Europe from Japan, variety of hand-held fans that predate these first in the form machines. In fact, the hand-held fan, simply of made with a collection of sticks, guards, ribs and one little rivet, contained a world of purpose. At their zenith, hand-held fans were used both indoors and out, summer and winter. As Anna Gray the Number 4 - February 2009 61 – the Language of the Fan by Miss Siri Woodget a hiogi (a ceremonial fan made of slats of opened 160 degrees, other styles opened cypress wood threaded with silk) and later into a full circle. The large, mainly planar into the more familiar looking folding paper surface gave artists an opportunity for all structure, inspired, some say, by the folded sorts of experimentation in subject matter wing of a bat. including miniature scenes from the Old By 1709, the Worshipful Company of Testament, romantic illustrations of lovers, Fan Makers was formed in England and Fan and music of popular songs. The leaf of a fan Maker became a recognized occupation. The was also used to depict political agendas, French, however, were the true artisans who commemorate historical events, or left adapted the fan into the brisé design. Brisé blank for autographs. Materials included construction consisted of sticks that are ornate silks, soft leathers, Belgian lace, wider from the rivet to the top, forming one precious stones and metals. The use of fans solid surface covered with a leaf held together spread across the globe, and fans were as by a fabric band. While diverse as the cultures that produced them. certain fans By the 1700s, the fan was an essential daily accessory, and every woman, from the wealthy to the proletariat could purchase a fan for any need and occasion. The fan served many purposes, as in a crowded ballroom where it served as a dance card that could gracefully circulate air. The Primgraph While the surface of a fan illustrated until it died out some time in 62 stories through its painted surface, the way the last one hundred years. the fan was held offered another way to In 1711, essayist Joseph communicate. The ability to open and close a Addison offered a fantastic fan with the flick of the wrist offered women elaboration of how women an opportunity to express a mood at one worked this most alluring and touch, “. . . providing that essential element of lethal accessory. “Women are fashion – surprise.” Because a woman wasn’t armed with fans as men with always able to speak her mind - or flirt with swords and sometimes do a suitor - without breaking one of society’s more execution with them. To rigid codes of conduct, over time, a secret the end, therefore, that ladies language may have developed - one that may be entire mistresses of didn’t involve moving lips. This is known as the weapon which they bear, the language of fans. Though some historians I have erected an academy doubt it ever existed, what an intriguing for the training of young thought to imagine that this language was women in the exercise of the passed from woman to woman for centuries Fan, according to the most fashionable airs and motions that are now practiced at court . . .” One can feel the author’s excitation at this vision of his army of ladies armed with the brisé: “Upon my giving the word to Number 4 - February 2009 discharge their fans, they give 63 one general crack, that may be heard at a considerable Is this the language of the fan? distance when the wind sits fair . . . I have several ladies with me There are a few interpretations of the . . . who can now discharge a fan "language of the fan" but they're gener- in such a manner that it shall ally the same. Here is a selection: make a report like a pocket- pistol.”. With the fan acting To let slide it on the forehead. as a materialisation of her You have changed. mystique, the fan user finessed its action into a script of sorts. To move it with the left hand. Take a look at the selection of They are watching us. portraits of women holding a fan and wonder, what is she To change it to the right hand. trying to tell me? According You are imprudent. to some sources, there is a message in every angle. Each To throw the fan. flicker or gentle movement I hate you. sent a signal to the observer. If she held the fan with the right hand in front of her face, it To move it with the right hand. meant, “Follow me”. To hold it to the left ear I love another. meant “I want you to leave me alone”. To let slide it on the cheek. I want you. To hold it closed. Do you love me? To let slide it on the eyes. Go away, please. To touch the edge of the hand fan with the fingers. I want to talk to you. To hold it on the right cheek. Yes. To hold it on the left cheek. No. The Primgraph This humble author has not yet uncovered Fan language was perhaps passed along, in 64 any sources that would confirm whether or the salon or parlour, a secret code between not the language truly existed (this author, men and women, adapted and personal- admittedly, has her own language - that of ized as necessary. Whatever the case may the umbrella which she employs in crowded be, the exceptional Parisian firm of Duvel- tube trains). It could be that the fan was an leroy, which opened in the early 1800s, took extension of a typical gesture - a tool for it upon themselves to publish an “official” punctuation, if you will - an exclamation language, which was included in every box point, a comma, a question mark. housing their fans. According to the Place de l’Eventail, a website run by two French fan collectors, the supposed language was in fact a clever marketing tool invented by Du- (continued): To open and close it. velleroy. His version was an English transla- You are cruel. tion of a German version which had been translated from the Spanish. One must won- To leave it hanging. der, then, at the accuracy of Duvelleroy’s We will continue being friends. translation! Colored shoe laces, bandanas in pockets, a fan open or closed – a person will To fan slowly. find a way to convey a message, but admit- I am married. tedly, a fan is one of the most versatile and entertaining. It's a pity that its use is lost on To fan quickly. most of us. I leave you with this interesting I am engaged. quote from a contemporary Japanese fan artist: To hold the fan in the lips. Kiss me. “This is my hiogi. There are many like it, but this one is mine. Without me, my fan To open it slowly. is useless. Without my fan, I am useless. I Wait for me. must wield my fan more skillfully than any of the other ladies in this court . . . My fan is To open the hand fan with the left hand. human, even as I am human, because it is Come and talk to me. my life. Thus, I will learn it as a sister. I will learn its weaknesses, its strengths, its parts, To strike it, closed, on the left hand. its paintwork, its pivot, its balance. I will Write me. keep my fan with the care I keep myself. We will become part of each other......”. To semiclose it in the right and on the left. Now, who’d like to start a Joseph Addison I can’t. Academy of Fan Arts? To hold it opened, covering the mouth. I am single. E Number 4 - February 2009 65 66 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 67 68 The Primgraph Western Shopping in Winslow P by Miss Eloisa Denimore erhaps slurl.com/secondlife/ Tombstone%20 Tombstone is not Winslow/36/202/22]], the first place one but others offer good thinks of when specifically targeted for planning a shopping the Western market, and exppedition, but not available for sale that would be a elsewhere. shame, because it On our visit, one has a great market store centre offering a that took wealth of shopping opportunities on the our fancy was Victoria's Tombstone Winslow sim. Some are outlets [[http://slurl.com/ for major stores elsewhere - like a branch secondlife/Tombstone%20 of Fatima Ur's Antique Artistry [[http:// Winslow/100/56/21]]. Owned by Vicky Jayaram, the clothes she offers were created for use in Tombstone but, as she says, "I've also continued to adapt them so they can easily be used in other scenarios. It's a surprisingly short step from the 1890's to the 1990's!" Victoria explains, "When I Number 4 - February 2009 69 first took over La Posada hotel in Tombstone male Winslow, I had a problem. My clothes were way to fancy for the hard work of running a busy hotel! I wanted something pretty, practical, hard-wearing and flexible ... " The 'House Dress' was the result. It comprises 4 skirts, one of which has the apron, 4 tops which break down to square and round neck and with or without the belt, 2 blouses and - if you want the extra detail - fashion needs. Make sure that sculpt bow and sculpt collar. you check out the wonderful It is available in 8 different fabrics at present, range of boots that are available here! and can be paired with matching laced court, A little further into Wilmslow you'll ballet style or low heeled shoes if required. Also in the pipeline is a further set of tops, skirts and shoes which will allow you to further expand the ways you use the "House Dress". All outfits shown are L$300, matching laced court shoes are also $300 or two pairs of ballet shoes for $150. Just opposite Victoria's you will find MIA, Dusty´s, S.L. Fashion [[http:// slurl.com/secondlife/Tombstone%20 Winslow/102/67/21]], catering more for The Primgraph find the amazing 67 And just across 70 Angels [[http://slurl. the street from com/secondlife/ 67 Angels, Tombstone%20 you will find Winslow/33/174/21]]. Deadwool This is a store which [[http:// has the most glorious slurl.com/ supply of cowboy hats in secondlife/ a multiplicity of shapes Tombstone%20 and shades with a range of decorative bands. But that's not all that 67 Winslow/49/189/22]] (which I think it a very Angels has funny pun!). to offer. If Essentially a gentlemans's outfitter, you want to be a routin' toutin' cow girl - this could be the store from you. There are accessories for the discerning - richly tooled rider's belts, wallets, medicine bags and holsters, all reasonably priced. A Riders Wallet, Medicine Bag & Belt (Black - Python) there are a few dark and sombre dresses for costs L$340, for ladies. But essentially Deadwool offers a range example. of stylish male outfits of the kind that would And there are delight noted dandies with a dark sartorial jewels here too, like the onyx set that has ethic. This is definitely a store worth a second pendant, bangle, ring and ar-ring, all in Native glance! Americam style. and priced at L$320 for the set. photos by Saffia Widdershins and business owners E Number 4 - February 2009 71 72 The Primgraph Clio’s Mirror : 1883 A Compendium of One Year’s Interesting Facts & Events by Miss Saffia Widdershins T result in the near destruction of Native A Year in the New West: American culture have the ending of the Old West? he Northern Pacific Railroad, the been dismissed. second transcontinental railroad, Buffalo hunters which connects the northwestern states have gathered on the to points east, has finally been completed, northern Plains for the after a 19-year struggle against treacherous last large buffalo kill, terrain and intermittent financing. Along among them a Harvard- the line, crews blasted a 3,850-foot tunnel educated New York through solid granite and constructed a assemblyman named 1,800-foot trestle. As a result, the round Theodore Roosevelt, trip to the Columbia River that took Lewis who hopes to bag and Clark two-and-a-half years in 1803 now a trophy before the takes just nine days. species disappears. The power of the railroads has also Hunters have already destroyed the southern been shown this year when they divided the herd, and it is believed that by next year, USA into four time zones to standardize their except for small domestic herds kept by schedules. sentimental ranchers, there will only be A delegation of U.S. Senators has met scattered remnants of the animal that more with bitter resistance from Sitting Bull when than any other symbolizes the American they proposed opening part of the Lakota's West. reservation to white settlers. Despite the "Buffalo Bill" Cody staged his first old chief's objections, the land transfer is Wild West Show at the Omaha fairgrounds, proceeding as planned. featuring a herd of buffalo and a troupe of A group of clergymen, government cowboys, Indians and vaqueros who re-enact officials and social reformers calling itself a cattle round-up, a stagecoach hold-up and “The Friends of the Indian” has met in upstate other scenes drawn from Cody's own life on New York to develop a strategy for bringing the frontier. Native Americans into the mainstream of An interesting new device, named American life. It is anticipated that their ‘the machine gun’ has been invented by decisions will set the course for U.S. policy an enterprising individual named Hiram toward Native Americans over the next Maxim. He says that he was inspired to do generation. Suggestions that this might so: "In 1882 I was in Vienna, where I met Number 4 - February 2009 Mr and Mrs Fay. At the end of 73 an American whom I had known in the States. He said: the show an announcement 'Hang your chemistry and was made that children with electricity! If you want to certain numbered tickets make a pile of money, invent would be presented with a something that will enable prize upon exit. At the same these Europeans to cut each time entertainers began others' throats with greater distributing gifts from the facility'." stage to the children in the Texas has purchased stalls. Worried about missing The Alamo – the scene of the out on the treats, many of heroic fight in 1836 - from the the estimated 1,100 children Catholic Church to preserve in the gallery stampeded it as an historic shrine. toward the staircase leading Also in Texas, on 4th downstairs. At the bottom July, in Pecos a new type of the staircase, the door had of event has been held been opened inward and to celebrate the holiday. bolted in such a way as to Originally conceived as a contest between leave only a gap wide enough for one child Trav Windham and Morg Livingston, the to pass at a time. It is believed this was to ‘Rodeo’ as it was called, mushroomed into a ensure orderly checking of tickets. With large event held on the flat land west of the few accompanying adults to maintain order, eponymous river. A couple of dozen cowboys the children surged down the stairs toward were awarded honors in what it is hoped will the door. Those at the front became trapped, become an annual 4th of July event. It remains to be seen whether it will ‘take’ with the public! T A Year of Disasters his year has seen two appalling disasters – one, which saw the death of 183 children died, occurred in Sunderland, England on June 16, 1883 when a children's variety show was presented by travelling entertainers The Primgraph and were crushed by the weight of the crowd until the 25th, when eruptions further 74 behind them. intensified. At about 1 pm (local time) on 26 With the compressive asphyxia of 183 August, the volcano went into its paroxysmal children between 3 and 14 years old, we are phase, and by 2 pm observers could see a sure that the disaster will prove the worst black cloud of ash 17 miles high. At this point, of its kind in British history. Queen Victoria the eruption was virtually continuous and sent a message of condolence to the grieving explosions could be heard every ten minutes families. Donations have been sent from all or so. Ships within 11 nautical miles of the over Britain, totalling £5,000, which has been used for the children's funerals and for the creation of a memorial in Mowbray Park. But, of course, the disaster that has had the most stunning impact upon the entire world has been the eruption of the Krakatoa volcano, located to the west of Java in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. There were some warning signs. Over the past few years, seismic activity around the volcano has been intense, with some earthquakes felt as far distant as Australia. Beginning 20 May 1883, three months before the final explosion, steam venting began to occur regularly from Perboewatan, the northernmost of the island's three cones. Eruptions of ash reached an altitude 20,000 ft and explosions could be heard in Batavia (Jakarta) 100 miles away. Activity died down by the end of May, with no records of activity until mid June when eruptions started again, for loud explosions were heard and a thick black cloud covered the islands for five days. On 24 June an east wind blew this cloud away and two ash columns were seen issuing from Krakatoa. The violence of the eruption caused tides in the vicinity to be unusually high, and volcano reported heavy ash fall, with pieces ships at anchor had to be moored with chains of hot pumice up to four inches in diameter as a result. Earthquake shocks began to be landing on their decks. A small tsunami hit felt at Anjer (Java), and large pumice masses the shores of Java and Sumatra some 28 started to be reported by ships in the Indian miles away between the time of 18:00 and Ocean to the west. 19:00 hours. Activity continued through mid August On 27 August four enormous Number 4 - February 2009 explosions took place at 05:30, 06:44, 10:02, of 50 miles. 75 and 10:41 local time. The third explosion It is said that the explosion generated was the loudest. Each was accompanied by the loudest sound historically reported: the very large tsunamis, which are believed to cataclysmic explosion was distinctly heard have been over 100 ft high in places. A large as far away as Perth in Australia approx. area of the Sunda Strait and a number of 1,930 miles, and the island of Rodrigues places on the Sumatran coast were affected near Mauritius approx. 3,000 miles distant. by pyroclastic flows from the volcano. Near Krakatoa, according to official records, 165 villages and towns have been destroyed and 132 seriously damaged, at least 36,417 (official toll) people have died, and many thousands were injured by the eruption, mostly from the tsunamis that followed the explosion. The eruption destroyed two- thirds of the island of Krakatoa. A smaller but still poignant tragedy that occurred this year was when the last quagga died on August 12th in Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam. Once found in great numbers in South Africa's Cape Province and the southern part of the Orange Free State, it was distinguished from other zebras by having the usual vivid marks on the front part of the body only. In the mid-section, the stripes faded and the dark, inter-stripe spaces became wider, and the rear parts were a plain brown. The name comes from a Khoikhoi word for zebra and is onomatopoeic, being said to resemble the quagga's call. The only quagga to have ever been photographed alive was a mare at the Zoological Society of London's Zoo in Regent's Park in 1870. On October 30th, two Clan na Gael dynamite bombs exploded in the London underground, injuring several people. As a The pressure wave from the final explosion result of this, he next day, Home Secretary was recorded on barographs around the Vernon Harcourt drafted 300 policemen to world, which continued to register it up to guard the underground and introduces the 5 days after the explosion. The recordings Explosives Bill. show that the shockwave from the final The Clan na Gael (family of the explosion reverberated around the globe 7 Gaels) is an Irish republican organization times in total. Ash was propelled to a height in the United States. Last year, in 1882 76 The Primgraph two "action men", Alexander Sullivan and States, "Polly Wolly Doodle (All The Day)". Michael Boland took over the reins of this Somewhat symbolically, the first organisation and are said to be running the vaudeville theater has opened, in Boston, clan as a dictatorship. This new leadership Massachusetts (on February 28 – following has ignored the Revolutionary Council set on from the traditional English music hall. up by Carroll to coordinate between the IRB We are sure that it is a form of entertainment and the Clan and has begun to operate in total secrecy from even the membership of the Clan. Together with a third man named feeley, they call themselves the "Triangle" and have begun making bombing runs into England in what has been called the "Dynamite War". This infuriated the Irish Republican Brotherhood in Ireland which has cut ties with the Irish-Americans. The attack on the London underground is only one iof their recent outrages. “T A Year of Popular Culture wo nations divided by a common language” – that was the verdict of the Anglos Irish dramatist Oscar Wilde as his much lauded tour of America continues. We wonder what he can possibly mean ... On February 13. the German composer Richard Wagner died of a heart attack in Venice, Italy. Somehow it seems fitting in a year when popular music has proved dominant. Serious compositions have been set before the public - such as the Third Symphony of Johannes Brahms. But even in classical music, a lighter that will catch on rapidly! note has crept in, with a Spanish influence And as if to assert the dominance – as we see with the España, rapsodie pour of popular muisic, the Gretsch Company, orchestre by Emmanuel Chabrier and the manufacturers of drums, banjos and guitars, Barcarola for piano No. 1 by Isaac Albéniz. has opened in Brooklyn, New York. In popular music, we have seen the Among noted literary offerings publication of two traditional pieces that made to the public thios year,one that has have seized the imagination of the masses: proved extremely popular is Robert Louis in Great Britain, a piece called: "There Is Stevenson’s latest work - Treasure Island. A Tavern In The Town", and in the United And Mr Mark Twain has delighted his friends Number 4 - February 2009 77 and followers with an account of Life on the death of God, will prove an influential work in the years to come. A forgotten German political In architecture, designed by John- Mississippi. philosopher died in London on March 13th Augustus Roebling, and completed by his son, of this year, and was buried in Highgate the Brooklyn Bridge was inaugurated in New Cemetery. Clio’s Mirror is confident that York City, the longest suspension bridge in the world. opened with great fanfare by Chester A. Arthur and Governor Grover Cleveland on May 24th. New Yorkers are convinced that it is the eighth wonder of the world. On May 30th, things took a slightly darker turn when a rumour that the Brooklyn Bridge was going to collapse caused a stampede which crushed 12 people. And finally, a piece of sporting news. The Scottish team Raith Rovers Football Club has been founded. But no-one was danciing in the streets of Raith. (For the reason why not see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raith_ Rovers.) T Fashion: The Year of the Bustle – Redux! he slim dresses that have lasted until this year have been swiftly replaced with a totally new style when the bustle reappeared in Great Britain, at style formely seen thirteen years ago in 1870. The new style – which some are calling the ‘hard bustle’ was introduced in Paris 3 years ago, but failed to take off. Now it seems to be back we have heard the last of Karl Marx and his with vengeance! ideas! And this bustle should not be confused But another German philosopher has with the style our mamas wore. This is a new begin to publish what he calls, "the deepest bustle in a much more exaggerated shape. [work] ever written”. The author, one The bustle consists of a straw filled cushion Friedrich Nietzsche, has entitled the work sewn into the skirt with a series of steel half Also sprach Zarathustra which we might hoops inserted in the skirt lining down to the translate as Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Clio’s ground which has the effect of throwing the mirror confidently predicts that this most skirt out almost horizontally from waist level unusual work, which loudly proclaims the behind. Some unkind critics have declared 78 The Primgraph photos by Kembri Tomsen Number 4 - February 2009 79 that women wearing it appear to have the hind legs of a horse – but what do we care? There is much less drapery with this silhouette. Drapery moves to the sides or to the front panel of the skirt, although ball dresses remain more draped. For best Th effect, it should be worn with a very tailored or quite is structured square shouldered bodice. The choice of material we employ may, sadly, is a be affected by the ongoing economic depression, shown by the use of fabrics such as velveteen, new plushette, and sateen. The wealthy are still dressing well, but using a different, wider range of materials which, sadly, has been critiques as often giving an effect like steel bu s armour. The fashion for neater hairstyles tle in a continues, with ringlets banished to memory! Hair should be swept up, ladies, into a elegant, stylish coiffure. One new fashion has been started by Alexandria, the Princess of Wales, for wearing hair cut much mo short across the forehead as a fringe (our American cousins, for some reason, call it ‘bangs’). This is a delightful style for ladies of fashion – but many servants are now aping their betters and cutting their hair accordingly. This is quite outrageous, and any maid so doing should be peremptorily re ex dismissed. One delightful effect of the new American railroads is that fashion magazines such as the new publication, The Ladies Home ag g Journal (launched this year) and Godey’s Lady’s Book will swiftly bring the latest haut couture to era ladies who may find themselves in conditions that have hitherto been regarded as primitive, to say the least! ted Visit the Creative Seamstress at: http://slurl. com/secondlife/Babbage%20Canals/195/151/105 s ha E pe 80 The Primgraph Number 4 - February 2009 as possible. 81 The ancient abode of the family of Markham was a spacious and commodious building but of heavy and sombre appearance. CHAPTER V. This gloomy aspect of the architecture was increased by the venerable trees that formed F ELIGIBLE a dense rampart of verdure around the ACQUAINTANCES. edifice. The grounds belong big to the house were not extensive, but were tastefully laid OUR years passed away. out; and within the enclosure over which the dominion of Richard Markham extended, During that interval no tidings of the was the green hill surmounted by the two discarded son reached the disconsolate ash trees. From the summit of that eminence father and unhappy brother; and all the the mighty metropolis might be seen in all its exertions of the former to discover some vastitude - that metropolis whose one single trace of the fugitive were fruitless. Vainly did heart was agitated with so many myriads of he lavish considerable sums upon that object: conflicting passions, warring interests, and uselessly did he despatch emissaries to all opposite feelings. the great manufacturing towns of England, Perhaps a dozen pages of laboured as well as to the principal capitals of Europe, description will not afford the reader a better to endeavour to procure some information idea of the characters and dispositions of the of him whom he would have received as the two brothers than that which has already prodigal son, and to welcome whose return been conveyed by their conversation and he would have "killed the fatted calf:" - all his conduct detailed in the preceding chapter. measures to discover his son's retreat were Eugene was all selfishness and egotism, unavailing. Richard all generosity and frankness: the At length, after a lapse of four years, he former deceitful, astute, and crafty, the latter sank into the tomb - the victim of a broken honourable even to a fault. heart! With Eugene, for the present, we have A few days previous to his death, he little to do; the course of our narrative follows made a will in favour of his remaining son, the the fortunes of Richard Markham. guardianship of whom he intrusted to a Mr. The disposition of this young man Monroe, who was an opulent City merchant, was some what reserved, although by no and an old and sincere friend. means misanthropical nor melancholy. Thus, at the age of nineteen, Richard That characteristic resulted only from the found himself his own master, with a domesticated nature of his habits. He was handsome allowance to meet his present attached to literary pursuits, and frequently wants, and with a large fortune in the passed entire hours together in his study, perspective of two years more. Mr. Monroe, feeling the utmost confidence in the young poring over works of a scientific and man's discretion and steadiness, permitted instructive nature. When he stirred abroad him to reside in the old family mansion, and for the purpose of air and exercise, he interfered with him and his pursuits as little preferred a long ramble upon foot, amongst 82 The Primgraph the fields in the vicinity of his dwelling, to manners, and prepossessing in appearance. a parade of himself and his fine horse amid Under this superficial tegument of gentility a the busy haunts of wealth and fashion at the quicker eye than Richard Markham's would West End of London. have detected a certain swagger in his gait It was, nevertheless, upon a beautiful and a kind of dashing recklessness about him after noon in the month of August, 1835, that which produced an admirable effect upon Richard appeared amongst the loungers in the vulgar or the inexperienced, but which Hyde Park. He was on foot and attired in deep were not calculated to inspire immediate mourning; but his handsome countenance, symmetrical form, and thoroughly genteel confidence in the thorough man of the and unassuming air attracted attention. world. Richard was, however, all frankness Parliament had been prorogued a and honour himself, and he did not scruple fortnight before; and all London was said to return such an answer to the stranger's to be "out of town." Albeit, it was evident remark as was calculated to encourage that a considerable portion of London was farther conversation. "in town," for there were many gorgeous "I see the count is abroad again," equipages rolling along "the drive," and the observed the stranger, following with his enclosure was pretty well sprinkled with eyes one of the horsemen in "the drive." "Poor well-dressed groups and dotted with solitary fellow! he has been playing at hide-and-seek fashionable gentlemen upon foot. for a long time." From the carriages that rolled past "Indeed! and wherefore?" exclaimed many bright eyes were for a moment turned Richard. upon Richard; and in these equipages there "What! are you a stranger in London, were not wanting young female bosoms sir?" cried the well-dressed gentleman, which heaved at the contrast afforded by transferring his eyes from the horseman that tall and elegant youth, so full of vigour to Markham's countenance, on which they and health, and whose countenance beamed were fixed with an expression of surprise with intelligence, and the old, emaciated, and interest. and semi-childish husbands [-12-] seated by "Very nearly so, although a resident their sides, and whose wealth had purchased in its immediate vicinity all my life;" and, their hands, but never succeeded in obtaining with the natural ingenuousness of youth, their hearts. Richard immediately communicated his Richard, wearied with his walk, seated entire history, from beginning to end, to his himself upon a bench, and contemplated with new acquaintance. Of a surety there was not much to relate; but the stranger succeeded some interest the moving pageantry before in finding out who the young man was, under him. He was thus occupied when he was what circumstances he was now living, suddenly accosted by a stranger, who seated and the amount of his present and future himself by his side in an easy manner, and resources. addressed some common-place observation "Of course you mean to see life?" said to him. the stranger. This individual was a man of about two- "Certainly. I have already studied the and-thirty, elegantly attired, agreeable in his great world by the means of books." Number 4 - February 2009 "But of course you know that there is of honour," he continued, laying particular 83 nothing like experience." stress upon a word which is only so frequently "I can understand how experience is used to be abused, "such communications, necessary to a man who is anxious to make a you know, are necessary. I do not like fortune, but not to him who has already got that system of familiarity based upon no one." tenable grounds, which is now becoming so "Oh, decidedly! It is frequently more prevalent in London. For instance, nothing difficult to keep a fortune than it was to is more common than for one gentleman to obtain one." meet another in Bond-street, or the Park, "How - if I do not speculate?" or in Burlington Arcade, for example's sake, "No; but others will speculate upon and for the one to say to the other - 'My dear you." friend, how are you?' - 'Quite well, old fellow, "I really cannot comprehend you. As thank you; but, by-the-by, I really forget your I do not wish to increase my means, having name!' However," added the fashionable enough, I shall neither speculate with my gentleman with a smile, "here is my card. My own nor allow people to speculate with it for town-quarters are Long's Hotel, my country me; and thus I can run no risk of losing what seat is in Berkshire, and my shooting-box is I possess." in Scotland, at all of which I shall be most The stranger gazed half incredulously happy to see you." upon Markham for a minute; and then his Richard, who was not only highly countenance expressed a species of sneer. satisfied with the candour and openness of "You have never played?" his new friend, but also very much pleased "Played! at —?" and amused with him, returned suitable "At cards; for money, I mean." acknowledgments for this kind invitation; "Oh! never!" and, glancing his ekes over the card which "So much the better: never do. Unless," had been placed in his hands, perceived that added the stranger, "it is entirely amongst he was conversing with the HONOURABLE friends and men of honour. But will you avail ARTHUR CHICHESTER. yourself of my humble vehicle, and take one As they were moving towards the turn round the Drive?" phaeton, a gentleman, elegantly attired, The stranger pointed as he spoke to a of about the middle age, and particularly very handsome phaeton and pair at a little fascinating in his manners, accosted Mr. distance, and attended by a dapper-looking Chichester. servant in light blue livery with silver lace. "Ah! who would have thought of "Might I have the honour of being meeting you here - when London is actually acquainted with the name of a gentleman empty, and am ashamed of being yet left in who exhibits so much kindness —" it? Our mutual friend the duke assured me "My dear sir, I must really apologise that you were gone to Italy!" for my sin of omission. You confided your "The duke always has some joke at my own circumstances so frankly to me that I expense," returned Mr. Chichester. "He was cannot do otherwise then show you equal once the cause of a very lovely girl committing confidence in return. Besides, amongst men suicide. She was the only one I ever loved; 84 The Primgraph and he one day declared in her presence that complacently stroking his chin with his I had just embarked for America. Poor thing! elegantly-gloved hand. "But, by the way, if she went straight up to her room, and —" you will honour me and Diana with your "And!' echoed Richard. company this evening - and if Mr. Markham "Took poison!" added Mr. Chichester, will also condescend —" turning away his head for a moment, and "With much pleasure," said Mr. drawing an elegant cambric handkerchief Cbichester; "and I am sure that my friend across his eyes. Mr. Markham will avail himself of this "Good heavens!" ejaculated Markham. opportunity of forming the acquaintance of "Let me not trouble you with my private the most beautiful and fascinating woman in afflictions. Sir Rupert, allow me to introduce England." my friend Mr. Markham:- Mr. Markham, Sir Richard bowed: he dared not attempt Rupert Harborough." an excuse. He had heard himself dubbed The two gentlemen bowed, and the the friend of the Honourable Mr. Arthur introduction was effected. Chichester; his ears had caught an intimation "Whither are you bound?" inquired Sir of a dinner at Long's, which he knew by report Rupert. to be the head-quarters of that section of "We were thinking of an hour's drive," the fashionable world that consists of single leisurely replied Mr. Chichester; "and it was young gentlemen; and he now found himself then my intention to have asked my friend suddenly engaged to pass the evening with Mr. Markham to dine with me at Long's. Will Sir Rupert Harborough and a lady of whom you join us, Sir Rupert ?" all he knew was that her name was Diana, "Upon my honour, nothing would give and that she was the most beautiful and me [-13-] greater pleasure; but I am engaged fascinating creature in England. to meet the duke at Tattersall's; and I am then Truly, all this was enough to dazzle him; under a solemn promise to dine and pass the and he accordingly resigned himself to Mr. evening with Diana." Arthur Chichester's good will and pleasure. "Always gallant - always attentive to Sir Rupert Harborough now the ladies!" exclaimed Mr. Chichester. remembered "that he must not keep the duke "You know, my dear fellow, that Diana waiting;" and having kissed the tip of his is so amiable, so talented, so fascinating, so lemon-coloured glove to Mr. Chichester, and accomplished, and so bewitching, that I can made a semi-ceremonious, semi-gracious refuse her nothing. It is true her wants and bow to Markham - that kind of bow whose whims are somewhat expensive at times; but formality is attempered by the blandness —" of the smile accompanying it - he hastened "Harborough, I am surprised at you! away. What! complain of the fantasies of the most It may be, however, mentioned as a beautiful woman in London - if not in England singular circumstance, and as a proof of - you a man of seven thousand a year, and how little he cared about keeping "the duke" who at the death of an uncle —" waiting, that, instead of proceeding towards "Upon my honour I begrudge Tattersall's, he departed in the direction of her nothing!" interrupted Sir Rupert, Oxford-street. Number 4 - February 2009 This little incident was, however, it would, indeed, be the height of depravity!" 85 unnoticed by Richard - for the simple reason, "Since it is the fashion, and you assure that at this epoch of his life he did not know me that there is nothing wrong in this where Tattersall's was. connexion between the baronet and Mrs. "What do you think of my friend the Arlington - at least, that the usages of high baronet?" inquired Mr. Chichester, as they life admit it - I will not advance any farther scruples," said Richard; although he had a rolled leisurely along "the Drive" in the slight suspicion, like the ringing of far-distant elegant phaeton. bells in the ears, that the doctrine which his "I am quite delighted with him," companion had just propounded was not answered Richard; "and if her ladyship be based upon the most tenable grounds. only as agreeable as her husband —" It was now half-past six o'clock in the "Excuse me, but you must not call her evening; and, one after the other, the splendid 'her ladyship.' Address her and speak of her equipages and gay horsemen withdrew in simply as Mrs. Arlington." somewhat rapid succession. The weather "I am really at a loss to comprehend was nevertheless still exquisitely fine; indeed, —-" it was the most enchanting portion of the "My dear friend," said Chichester, entire day. The sky was of a soft and serene sinking his voice, although there was no azure, upon which appeared here and there danger of being overheard, "Diana is not the thin vapours of snowy white, motionless and wife of Sir Rupert Harborough. The baronet still; for not a breath of wind stirred the leaf is unmarried; and this lady-" upon the tree. Never did Naples, nor Albano, "Is his mistress," added Markham nor Sorrentum, boast a more beautiful hastily. "In that case I most certainly shall horizon; and as the sun sank towards the not accept the kind invitation I received for western verge, he bathed all that the eye this evening." could embrace - earth and shy, dwelling and "Nonsense, my dear friend! You must grove, garden and field - in a glorious flood of adapt your behaviour to the customs of the golden light. sphere in which you move. You belong to the At seven o'clock Mr. Chichester and his aristocracy - like me - and like the baronet! new acquaintance sat down to dinner in the In the upper class, even supposing you have coffee-room at Long's Hotel. The turtle was a wife, she is only an encumbrance. Nothing unexceptionable; the iced punch faultless. is so characteristic of want of gentility as to Then came the succulent neck of venison, marry early; and as for children, pah! they are and the prime Madeira. The dinner passed the very essence of vulgarity! Then, of course, off pleasantly enough; and Richard was more every man of fashion m London has his and more captivated with bin friend. He was, mistress, even though he only keeps her for however, somewhat astonished at the vast the sake of his friends. This is quite allowable quantities of wine which the Honourable Mr. amongst the aristocracy. Remember, I am not Chichester swallowed, apparently without advocating the cause of immorality: I would the slightest inconvenience to himself. not have every butcher, and tea-dealer, and Mr. Chichester diverted him with linen-draper do the same. God forbid! Then amusing anecdotes, lively sallies, and 86 The Primgraph extraordinary narratives; and Richard found to form a heaven of promises and bliss to that his new friend had not only travelled gladden the beholder. all over Europe, but was actually the bosom She was not above the middle height friend of some of the most powerful of its of woman; but her form was modelled to the sovereigns. These statements, moreover, most exquisite and voluptuous symmetry. rather appeared to slip forth in the course of Her figure reminded the spectator of the conversation, than to be made purposely; and body of the wasp, so taper was the waist, and thus they were stamped with an additional so exuberant was the swell of the bust. air of truth and importance. Her mouth was small and pouting; but, At about half-past nine the Honourable when she smiled, the parting roses of the lips Mr. Chichester proposed to adjourn to the displayed a set of teeth white as the pearls of lodgings of Mrs. Arlington. Richard, who had the East. been induced by the example of his friend Her hand would have made the and by the excitement of an interesting envy of a queen. And yet, above all these conversation, to imbibe more wine than he charms, a certain something which could was accustomed to [-14-] take, was now not be exactly denominated boldness nor delighted with the prospect of passing an effrontery, but which was the very reverse of agreeable evening; and he readily acceded to extreme reserve, immediately struck Richard Mr. Chichester’s proposal. Markham. Mrs. Arlington occupied splendidly He could not define the fault he had to furnished apartments on the first and second find with this beautiful woman; and still there floors over a music-shop in Bond-street: was something in her manners which seemed thither, therefore, did the two gentlemen to proclaim that she did not possess the repair on foot; and in a short time they were tranquillity and ease of a wife. She appeared introduced into the drawing-room where to be constantly aiming at the display of the baronet and his fair companion were the accomplishments of her mind, or the seated. graces of her attitudes. She seemed to court admiration by every word and every motion; and to keep alive in the mind of the baronet the passion with which she had inspired T CHAPTER VI. him. She possessed not that confidence and contented reliance upon the idea of unalienable affections which characterise MRS. ARLINGTON. HE Honourable Mr. Arthur the wife. She seemed to be well aware that Chichester had not exaggerated his no legal nor religious ties connected the description of the beauty of the Enchantress baronet to her; and she, therefore, kept her - for so she was called by the male portion imagination perpetually upon the rack to of her admirers. Indeed, she was of exquisite weave new artificial bonds to cast around loveliness. Her dark-brown hair was arranged him. And, as if each action or each word of en bandeaux, and parted over a forehead the baronet severed those bonds of silk and polished as marble. Her eyes were large, and wreathed flowers, she found, Penelope-like, of that soft dark melting blue which seems that at short intervals her labours were to be Number 4 - February 2009 achieved over again. 87 another guest. This constant state of mental anxiety A short, stout, vulgar-looking man, and excitement imparted a corresponding about forty years of age, with a blue coat restlessness to her body; and those frequent and brass buttons, buff waistcoat, and grey changes of attitude, which were originally trousers, entered the room. intended to develop the graces of her person, “Holloa, old chap, how are you?” he or allow her lover’s eye to catch short glimpses exclaimed m a tone of most ineffable vulgarity. of her heaving bosom of snow, became now a “Harborough, how are you? Chichester, my settled habit. tulip, how goes it?” Nevertheless, she was a lovely and The baronet hastened to receive this fascinating woman, and one for whom a extraordinary visitor, and, as he shook hands young heart would undertake a thousand with him, whispered something in his ear. sacrifices. The stranger immediately turned towards By accident Richard was seated Richard, to whom he was introduced by the next to Mrs. Arlington upon the sofa. He name of Mr. Augustus Talbot. soon perceived that she was, indeed, as This gentleman and the baronet then accomplished as the baronet had represented conversed together for a few moments; and her to be; and her critical opinions upon the Chichester, drawing near Markham, seized current literature, dramatic novelties, and the opportunity of observing, “Talbot is an new music of the day were delivered with excellent fellow - a regular John Bull - not judgment and good taste. over polished, but enormously rich and well Richard could not help glancing from connected. You will see that he is not more time to time in admiration at her beautiful cultivated in mind than in manners; but he countenance, animated as it now was with would go to the devil to do any one a service; the excitement of the topics of discourse; and, somehow or another, you can’t help and whenever her large blue eyes met his, a liking the fellow when once you know him.” deep blush suffused his countenance, and he “Any friend of yours or of the baronet’s knew not what he said or did. will be agreeable to me,” said Richard; “and, “Well, what shall we do to amuse provided he is a man of honour, a little ourselves?” said Chichester, at the expiration roughness of manner should be readily of about an hour, during which coffee had overlooked.” been handed round “You speak like a man of the world, “Upon my honour,” exclaimed the and as a man of honour yourself,” said Mr. baronet, “I am perfectly indifferent. What Chichester. say you to a game of whist or écarté?” Meantime the baronet and Mr. Talbot “Just as you choose,” said Chichester had seated themselves, and the Honourable carelessly. Mr. Chichester returned to his own chair. At this moment the door opened, and The conversation then became general. a roguish-looking little tiger - a lad of about “I didn’t know that you were in town, Talbot,” fourteen, in a chocolate-coloured livery, with said Mr. Chichester. three rows of bright-crested buttons down “And I forgot to mention it,” observed his Prussian jacket - entered to announce the baronet. 88 The Primgraph “Or rather,” said the lady, “you said this individual: then turning towards meditated a little surprise for your friend Mr. Diana, he added, “I will tell you the rest of the Chichester.” adventure about the soft corn another time, “I hope you’ve been well, ma’am, since I ma’am.” saw you last - that is the day before yesterday,” “What a nuisance this is!” whispered said Mr. Talbot. “You was complaining then of Chichester to the baronet. “The young fellow a slight cold, and I recommended a treacle- does stare so.” posset and a stocking tied round the throat.” “You must give him some explanation “My dear Talbot, take some liqueur,” or another,” hastily replied the baronet; “or cried the baronet, rising hastily, and I’ll tell Diana to say something presently that purposely knocking down his chair to drown will smooth down matters.” the remainder of Mr. Talbot’s observation. The cards were produced, and Mr. [-15-] “But I dare say you didn’t follow Talbot and the Honourable Mr. Chichester my advice, ma’am,” pursued M. Talbot, with sat down to play. the most imperturbable gravity. “For my part Rupert backed the former, and I am suffering dreadful with a bad foot. I’ll considerable sums in gold and notes were tell you how it were, ma’am. I’ve got a nasty placed upon the table. Presently the lady soft corn on my little toe; and so what must turned towards Richard, and said with a I do, but yesterday morning I takes my razor, smile, “Are you fond of écarté? I must venture sharpens it upon the paytent strap, and goes a guinea upon Mr. Chichester. Sir Rupert is for to cut off master corn. But instead of betting against him; and I love to oppose Sir cutting the corn, I nearly sliced my toe off; Rupert at cards. You will see how I shall tease and —” him presently.” “ By the way, Diana, has the young With these words the Enchantress gentleman called yet, whom we met the other rose and seated herself near Mr. Chichester. evening at ·the Opera?” said the baronet, Of course Markham did the same; and in a abruptly interrupting this vulgar tirade. very short time he was induced by the lady “Do you mean the effeminate youth to follow her and back the same side which whom we dubbed the Handsome Unknown?”’ she supported. said the Enchantress. Mr. Chichester, however, had a continued “Yes: he who was so very mysterious, run of ill luck, and lost every rubber. Richard but who seemed so excessively anxious to was thus the loser of about thirty sovereigns; form our acquaintance.” but he was somewhat consoled by having “He promised to call some evening this so fair a companion in his bad fortune. He week,” answered Diana, “and play a game of would have suffered himself to be persuaded écarté. He told me that he was invincible at by her to persist in backing Mr. Chichester, écarté.” as she positively assured him that the luck “Talking of écarté, let us play a game,” must change, had not that gentleman himself ejacu1ated Mr. Chichester, who was sitting suddenly risen, thrown down the cards, and upon thorns lest Mr. Talbot should commence declared that he would play no more. his vulgarities again. “Would you, ma’am, like to take Mr. “Well, I’ll take a hand with pleasure,” Chichester’s place ?” said Mr. Talbot. Number 4 - February 2009 Mr. Chichester shook his head to the and Sir Rupert Harborough - and I perceive 89 baronet, and the baronet did the same to that you have company —” Diana, and Diana accordingly declined. The He stammered - became confounded card-table was therefore abandoned; and with excuses - and then glanced at his attire, Mrs. Arlington, at the request of Sir Rupert, as much as to intimate that he was in a seated herself at the piano. Without any walking dress. affectation she sang and accompanied herself Both the baronet and Diana hastened upon the instrument in a manner that quite to welcome him in such a manner as to ravished the heart of Richard Markham. speedily place him upon comfortable terms Suddenly the entire house echoed with himself once more; and he was then with the din of the front-door knocker, and introduced to Mr Chichester, Mr. Talbot, and almost simultaneously the bell was rung Mr. Markham. with violence. The moment the name of Markham In a few moments the young tiger was mentioned, the youthful visitor started announced Mr. Walter Sydney. perceptibly, and then fixed his intelligent He was a youth apparently not more hazel eyes upon the countenance of Richard than nineteen or twenty, of middle height, with an expression of the most profound and very slim. He wore a tight blue military interest mingled with surprise. frock coat buttoned up to the throat; ample Mr. Chichester made an observation at black kerseymere trousers, which did not, the same moment, and Sydney immediately however, conceal the fact that he was the least afterwards entered with ease and apparent thing knock-kneed, and a hat with tolerably pleasure into a conversation which turned broad brims. His feet and hands were small upon the most popular topics of the day. to a fault. His long light chestnut hair flowed Richard was astonished at the extreme in luxuriant undulations over the collar of modesty, propriety, and good sense with his coat, even upon his shoulders, and gave which that effeminate and bashful youth him a peculiarly feminine appearance. His expressed himself; and even the baronet, delicate complexion, upon the pure red and who was in reality well informed, listened white of which the dark dyes of no beard to his interesting visitor with attention had yet infringed, wore a deep blush as he and admiration. Still there was a species of entered the room. extreme delicacy in his tastes, as evidenced “Mr. Sydney, you are welcome,” said by his remarks, which bordered at times Mrs. Arlington, in a manner calculated to upon a fastidiousness, if not an inexperience reassure the bashful youth. “It was but an actually puerile or feminine. hour ago that we were talking of you, and At half-past eleven supper was served wondering why we had not received the up, and the party sat down to that most pleasure of a visit.” welcome and sociable of all meals. “Madam, you are too kind,” replied Mr. It was truly diverting to behold the Sydney, in a tone which sounded upon the ear manner in which Mr. Talbot fell, tooth and like a silver bell - so soft and beautiful was its nail, upon the delicacies which he heaped cadence. “I am afraid that I am intruding: I upon his plate; and his applications to the had hoped to find you alone - I mean yourself wine-bottle were to correspond. At one time The Primgraph ha expressed his regret that it was too vulgar 90 to disfigure his character. Otherwise, he is an to drink half-and-half; and on another he excellent fellow, end immensely rich!” vented his national prejudices against those At this moment the eyes of Richard who maintained that Perigord pies were [-16- caught those of Walter Sydney. An ill- ] preferable to rump steaks, or that claret was concealed expression of superlative contempt more exquisite than port or sherry. Once, and ineffable disgust was visible upon the when, it would appear, Mr. Chichester kicked handsome countenance of the latter; and the him under the table, he roared out a request proud curl of his lip manifested his opinion that his soft corn might be remembered; and of the scene he had just witnessed. In a few as his friends were by no means anxious for moments he rose to depart. To Diana he was only coldly polite; to the baronet and a second edition of that interesting narrative Chichester superbly distant and constrained; - especially before Mr. Walter Sydney - they but towards Markham, as he took leave of adopted the prudent alternative of conveying him, there was a cordiality in his manner, and their remonstrances to him by means of a sincerity in the desire which he expressed winks instead of kicks. “that they should meet again,” which formed After supper Mr. Talbot insisted upon a remarkable contrast with his behaviour making a huge bowl of punch in his own towards the others. fashion; but he found that Mr. Chichester That night slumber seemed to evade would alone aid him in disposing of it. As for the eyes of Richard Markham. The image Mr. Welter Sydney, he never appeared to do of Mrs. Arlington, and all that she had said, more than touch the brim of the wine-glass and the various graceful and voluptuous with his lips. attitudes into which she had thrown herself, In a short time Mr. Talbot insisted occupied his imagination. At times, however, upon practising his vocal powers by singing his thoughts wandered to that charming a hunting song, and was deeply indignant youth - that mere boy - who seemed to court with his friends because they would not his friendship, and who was so delicate join in the very impressive but somewhat and so fragile to encounter the storms and common chorus of “Fal de lal lal, fal de lal la.” vicissitudes of that world in whose dizzy It is impossible to say what Mr. Talbot would vortex he was already found. Nor less have done next; but, much to the honor of did Richard ever and anon experience a the baronet, Mr. Chichester, and Diana - and sentiment of profound surprise that the equally to the surprise of Richard Markham elegant and wealthy Sir Rupert Harborough, and Walter Sydney - he suddenly lost his the accomplished and lovely Diana, and the balance, and fell heavily up in the floor and fastidious Mr. Arthur Chichester, should into a sound sleep simultaneously. tolerate the society of such an unmitigated “What a pity,” said Mr. Chichester, vulgarian as Mr. Talbot. shaking his head mournfully, and glancing down upon the prostate gentleman, as if he were pronouncing a funeral oration over E his remains; “this is his only fault - and, as it happens every night, it begins materially Number 4 - February 2009 91 92 The Primgraph The Primgraph Book Review W The WesTerns of JT edson by Saffia Widdershins hen I was just entering my teens, with interlinked characters all playing their I became addicted to Westerns. parts in different eras. Ole Devil Hardin, Or rather, I became addicted to the one of the founders of Texas gives way to his Westerns of one particular writer. They grandson Dusty Fgg of the Floating Outfit were exciting reads, with carefully described stories, and then his grandson, Alvin Fog, and vividly realised accounts of such notable who appears in a series set some forty years Western events as later. gunfights, cattle drives Of course, things and saloons. He had a weren’t written in series of remarkable chronological order. and well-delineated The Floating Outfit characters, whose stories are the core adventures the eager of the series – set in reader could track the aftermath of the from novel to novel. Civil War (and leaning He wrote with a certain strongly to the Southern humour – and one of side of that event). The the things he frequently Floating Outfit had, as poked fun at was the errors fallen into by the its core, three contrasting male heroes - , the Eastern journalists who glorified the West tall and Greek-god handsome Mark Counter, without ever leaving the Eastern sea-board. the baby faced but highly dangerous, black Which was particularly ironic when dressed, rifle and bowie knife toting Ysabel you realise that the writer of these Westerns, Kid, and their leader, Dusty (Dustin) Fog. a man named JT Edson, was born and bred Dusty was small, unassuming and mediocre in Whitwell, a mining village in Derbyshire, in looks. Indeed, he was so described at England. If his life has taken him well beyond the start of most of the novels, perceived as the confines of the county, he never had any insignificant, especially by the villains. desire to embrace the life of the Old West – Then would come that moment, eagerly indeed, he has frequently said that no desire anticipated by regular readers, where Dusty to have lived in the Wild West, and, “I've never Fog suddenly appeared to become a giant even been on a horse. I've seen those things when villains he faced down felt the full force and they look highly dangerous at both ends of his personality. and bloody uncomfortable in the middle." One thing that appealed to me was that Edson’s novels cover a long period of real historical personages appeared in the Western history, from the 1830s to the 1970s, novels. The gunfighter John Wesley Hardin Number 4 - February 2009 (portrayed unexpectedly sympathetically) 93 characters. These were not the meek and turned out to be Dusty Fog’s cousin, and biddable characters we saw on the TV or Wyatt Earp also makes an appearance, as cinema Westerns, divided rigorously into does Calamity Jane (in several of the novels). Good Girls (wives and mothers, or virginal I loved to find out who was real and who was girls clearly headed the same way as soon not and track the real history of the places as The Right Man showed up) and Bad Girls and people mentioned. What I was less aware (who worked in saloons and, it was hinted, of then was that J T Edson delighted in using even more dubious places ...) who tended real-life and fictional characters as crossover to be shot or sent away to start a new life as "guest stars" in his works and often used Good Girls. the relatives/descendants of his characters JT Edson suggested there was rather to create spin-off series. He backed the more to things than that. Some of his existence of these guest stars with frequent female characters were real women of the references to "fictionist-genealogist" Philip West like Calamity Jane and Belle Starr, the José Farmer's Wold Newton family [[http:// female outlaw. Others, like the Honourable en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wold_Newton_ Freddie Woods, the British saloon owner in family]]. a town that the Floating Outfit cleaned up, For a thirteen year old, the novels or Pauline, the saloon girl running from a offered excitement and strong plotting, as poverty-stricken past and (more recently) well as a rich variety of characterisation. His the corrupt associates of a rancher) were historical detailing was meticulous, and not fictional, but nonetheless entrancing for that. only convincing in context but the result of These were tough, feisty women, who held careful research, delivered with easy skill. their own in a man’s world, and frequently Even then, however, I was aware of some of bested the villains without male aid. the weaknesses. Although American Indian Of course, the women did have a culture was praised and several major bewildering tendency (to the young female characters had connections with Native mind, at least) to get into fights with each Americans (the Ysabel Kid, for example, is other – fights that would move beyond half Comanche, and several plot twists occur hair-pulling to involve rending of the upper when a party of so-called ‘hostiles’ turn garments, all described over a dozen pages out to be his cousins), as a whole, Western in what seemed to twelve-year-old me to be civilisation was praised at the expense of quite unnecessary detail. But as soon as that Native American culture, and the few Black was out of the way, they went back to being Americans who appear in the story are feisyty, intelligent and very, very glamorous. shown negatively. The support for the South I think, even at that age, I realised that in the Civil War went along with some pretty it must be fantasy. reactionary views which grated on me even You can read more about JT Edson at then. His novels encouraged me to read [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JT_Edson]] more widely, and when I read more widely, Many of his novels are available online his prejudices became more blatant. at stores such as amazon.com and amazon. But one thing that made the novels co.uk shine for me was their use of strong female E 94 The Primgraph Recent Acquisitions of the Libraries of Caledon: Airship Collection, Curated by Miss Mica Braun, OLA Presented by Sir JJ Drinkwater Fifty Years of Travel by Land, Water, and Air Flying Machines Today by William D. Ennis by Frank Butler The Romance of Modern Invention by Aerial Navigation by Frederick Walker Archibald Williams Botts' Air-ship: the problem of aerial navigation Zeppelin; the story of a great achievement by Harry Vissering D'Orcy's Airship Manual by Ladislas d'Orcy The Aerial Age by Walter Wellman :: :: :: To the Poles by Airship by Allen Kendrick Selected Poems of Edna St. Vincent Millay Wright The Mysteries of Udolpho by Ann Radcliffe The Airship Almanac by Lewis Allen Browne The Balloon Travels of Robert Merry and his The Three Mulla-Mulgars by Walter De la Young Friends Mare Andree's Balloon Expedition in Search of the The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne North Pole The Princess and the Goblin by George Flying Men and Their Machines by Clarence MacDonald Winchester Silas Marner OR the Weaver of Raveloe by Keely and his Discoveries: aerial navigation George Eliot by Clara Jessup Moore and John Ernest Keely She by H. Rider Haggard Flying Machines: practice and design by Byron's Poems, translated into French by Rankin Kennedy Mme. Swanton- Belloc Selected Poems of Lord Byron, ed. Matthew A Voyage in a Balloon by Jules Verne Arnold Number 4 - February 2009 Selected Short Poems of Lord Byron Poems of the Light Brigade by Tenyson & 95 Kipling Islands of Mystery by Jules Verne & The Journeyers :: :: :: The Rubaiyat By Omar Khayyam (Fitzgerald A Child's Christmas in Wales by Dylan fifth translation) Thomas The Rubaiyat By Omar Khayyam (Fitzgerald Alice's Adventures Under Ground by Lewis first translation) Carroll The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane :: :: :: Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T.S. Beaumarchais & his times by Louis de Eliot (2) Lomenie Moby-Dick, or The Whale by Herman Melville Beaumarchais & Plautus by Florence (Aetheric Edition) Nightingale Jones The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling Centenaire du Mariage de Figaro de Caron (Aetheric ed) de Beaumarchais, 1784-1884. Recueil des extraits des principales correspondances The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling de l'époque, précédé d'un avant-propos par (notecard ed) Aug. Paër Ivanhoe, by Sir Walter Scott Le mariage de Figaro; avec etude par Auguste Vitu Hard Times by Mr. Charles Dickens The follies of a day by Beaumarchais, trans Sir Gawain and the Green Knight A prose Thos. Holcroft translation by Jessie Weston (1898) Figaro; the life of Beaumarchais by John Alice's Adventures in Wonderland/Through Rivers the Looking-glass The Marriage of Figaro by Pierre Scenes de la vie de Boheme by Henry Beaumarchais Murger Figaro English & Italian Libretti side by side A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens Don Juan by Lord Byron The Island of Doctor Moreau by H.G. Wells E 96 The Primgraph London Labour & the London Poor by Mr Henry Mayhew ignorance, and boasting that they live by their intellect. The public, they say, do not expect to receive from them an equivalent for their money -- they pay to hear them talk. Compared with the costermongers, the patterers are generally an educated class, and among them are some classical scholars, one clergyman, and many sons of gentlemen. They appear to be the counterparts of the old mountebanks or street-doctors. As a body they seem far less improvable than the costers, being more “knowing” and less impulsive. The street-performers differ again from those; these appear to possess A many of the characteristics of the lower Of the Varieties of Street-Folk in class of actors, viz., a strong desire to excite General, and Costermongers in admiration, an indisposition to pursue any Particular. mong the street-folk there are settled occupation, a love of the tap-room, many distinct characters of people- though more for the society and display -people differing as widely from each in tastes, than for the drink connected with it, a great habits, thoughts and creed, as one nation fondness for finery and predilection for the from another. Of these the costermongers performance of dexterous or dangerous form by far the largest and certainly the feats. Then there are the street mechanics, or mostly broadly marked class. They appear artizans-- quiet, melancholy, struggling men, to be a distinct race--perhaps, originally, of who, unable to find any regular employment Irish extraction--seldom associating with any at their own trade, have made up a few things, other of the street-folks, and being all known and taken to hawk them in the streets, as the to each other. The “patterers,” or the men last shift of independence. Another distinct who cry the last dyingspeeches, &c. in the class of streetfolk are the blind people street, and those who help off their wares by (mostly musicians in a rude way), who, after long harrangues in the public thoroughfares, the loss of their eyesight, have sought to keep are again a separate class. These, to use themselves from the workhouse by some their own term, are “the aristocracy of the little excuse for alms-seeking. These, so far as street-sellers,” despising the costers for their my experience goes, appear to be a far more Number 4 - February 2009 deserving class than is usually supposed-- these carry their wares to any part in 97 their affliction, in most cases, seems to have which they hope to find customers. The chastened them and to have given a peculiar costermongers, moreover, diversify their religious cast to their thoughts. labours by occasionally going on a country Such are the several varieties of street- round, travelling on these excursions, in all folk, intellectually considered--looked at directions, from thirty to ninety and even a in a national point of view, they likewise hundred miles from the metropolis. Some, include many distinct people. Among them again, confine their callings chiefly to the are to be found the Irish fruit-sellers; the Jew neighbouring races and fairs. clothesmen; the Italian organ boys, French Of all the characteristics attending singing women, the German brass bands, these diversities of traders, I shall treat the Dutch buya- broom girls, the Highland severally. I may here premise, that the bagpipe players, and the Indian crossing- regular or “thorough- bred costermongers,” sweepers--all of whom I here shall treat of in repudiate the numerous persons who sell due order. only nuts or oranges in the streets, whether The costermongering class or order at a fixed stall, or any given locality, or who has also its many varieties. These appear hawk them through the thoroughfares or to be in the following proportions:--One- parks. They repudiate also a number of Jews, half of the entire class are costermongers who confine their streettrading to the sale of proper, that is to say, the calling with them “coker-nuts” on Sundays, vended from large is hereditary, and perhaps has been so for barrows. Nor do they rank with themselves many generations; while the other half is the individuals who sell tea and coffee in the composed of three-eighths Irish, and one- streets, or such condiments as peas-soup, eighth mechanics, tradesmen, and Jews. sweetmeats, spice-cakes, and the like; those Under the term “costermonger” is articles not being purchased at the markets. here included only such “street-sellers” as I often heard all such classes called “the deal in fish, fruit, and vegetables, purchasing illegitimates.” their goods at the wholesale “green” and P fish markets. Of these some carry on their business at the same stationary stall or Of the Costermongers “Economically” “standing” in the street, while others go on Considered. “rounds.” The itinerant costermongers, as olitical economy teaches us that, contradistinguished from the stationary between the two great classes street-fishmongers and greengrocers, have of producers and consumers, stand the in many instances regular rounds, which distributors--or dealers-- saving time, they go daily, and which extend from two trouble, and inconvenience to, the one in to ten miles. The longest are those which disposing of, and to the other in purchasing, embrace a suburban part; the shortest their commodities. are through streets thickly peopled by the But the distributor was not always a part poor, where duly to “work” a single street and parcel of the economical arrangements consumes, in some instances, an hour. There of the State. In olden times, the producer are also “chance” rounds. Men “working” and consumer were brought into immediate 98 The Primgraph contact, at markets and fairs, holden at certain intervals. The inconvenience of this mode of operation, however, was soon felt; and the pedlar, or wandering distributor, sprang up as a means of carrying the commodities to those who were unable to attend the public markets at the appointed time. Still the pedlar or wandering distributor was not without his disadvantages. He only came at certain periods, and commodities were occasionally required in the interim. Hence the shopkeeper, or stationary distributor, was called into existence, so that the consumer might obtain any commodity of the producer at any time he pleased. Hence we see that the pedlar is the primitive tradesman, and that the one is contradistinguished from the other by the fact, that the pedlar carries the goods to the consumer, whereas, in the case of the shopkeeper, the consumer goes after the goods. In country districts, remote from towns and villages, the pedlar is not yet wholly superseded; “but a dealer who has a fixed abode, and fixed customers, is so much more to be depended on,” says Mr. Stewart Mill, “that consumers prefer resorting to him if he is conveniently accessible, and dealers, therefore, find their advantage in establishing themselves in every locality where there are sufficient customers near at hand to afford the water-cresses, the shrimps, the pies and them a remuneration.” Hence the pedlar is puddings, the sweetmeats, the pine-apples, now chiefly confined to the poorer districts, the stationery, the linendrapery, and the and is consequently distinguished from the jewellery, such as it is, to the very door of stationary tradesman by the character and the working classes; indeed, the poor man‘s means of his customers, as well as by the food and clothing are mainly supplied to him amount of capital and extent of his dealings. in this manner. Hence the class of travelling The shopkeeper supplies principally the tradesmen are important, not only as forming noblemen and gentry with the necessaries a large portion of the poor themselves, but and luxuries of life, but the pedlar or hawker as being the persons through whom the is the purveyor in general to the poor. He working people obtain a considerable part brings the greengrocery, the fruit, the fish, of their provisions and raiment. Number 4 - February 2009 99 the spirited shopkeeper has a column of advertisements in the morning newspapers. They are but different means of attaining the same end. T The London Street Markets on A Saturday Night. HE street sellers are to be seen in the greatest numbers at the London street markets on a Saturday night. Here, and in the shops immediately adjoining, the working-classes generally purchase their Sunday‘s dinner; and after pay-time on Saturday night, or early on Sunday morning, the crowd in the New-cut, and the Brill in particular, is almost impassable. Indeed, the scene in these parts has more of the character of a fair than a market. There are hundreds of stalls, and every stall has its one or two lights; either it is illuminated by the intense white light of the new self-generating gas-lamp, or else it is brightened up by the red smoky flame of the oldfashioned grease lamp. One man shows off his yellow haddock with a candle stuck in a bundle of firewood; his neighbour makes a candlestick of a huge turnip, and the tallow gutters over its sides; whilst the boy But the itinerant tradesman or street- shouting “Eight a penny, stunning pears!” has seller is still further distinguished from rolled his dip in a thick coat of brown paper, the regular fixed dealer--the stallkeeper that flares away with the candle. Some stalls from the shopkeeper-- the street-wareman are crimson with the fire shining through from the warehouseman, by the arts they the holes beneath the baked chestnut stove; respectively employ to attract custom. The others have handsome octohedral lamps, street-seller cries his goods aloud at the head while a few have a candle shining through a of his barrow; the enterprising tradesman sieve: these, with the sparkling ground-glass distributes bills at the door of his shop. The globes of the tea-dealers’ shops, and the one appeals to the ear, the other to the eye. butchers’ gaslights streaming and fluttering The cutting costermonger has a drum and in the wind, like flags of flame, pour forth two boys to excite attention to his stock; such a flood of light, that at a distance the 100 The Primgraph atmosphere immediately above the spot is as to show only “the whites,” and mumbling as lurid as if the street were on fire. some begging rhymes, that are drowned in The pavement and the road are the shrill notes of the bamboo-flute-player crowded with purchasers and street-sellers. next to him. The boy‘s sharp cry, the woman‘s The housewife in her thick shawl, with the cracked voice, the gruff, hoarse shout of the market-basket on her arm, walks slowly on, man, are all mingled together. Sometimes an stopping now to look at the stall of caps, Irish-man is heard with his “fine ating apples;” and now to cheapen a bunch of greens. or else the jingling music of an unseen organ Little boys, holding three or four onions breaks out, as the trio of street singers rest in their hand, creep between the people, between the verses. wriggling their way through every interstice, Then the sights, as you elbow your way and asking for custom in whining tones, as through the crowd, are equally multifarious. if seeking charity. Then the tumult of the Here is a stall glittering with new tin thousand different cries of the eager dealers, saucepans; there another, bright with its all shouting at the top of their voices, at one blue and yellow crockery, and sparkling with and the same time, is almost bewildering. white glass. Now you come to a row of old “So-old again,” roars one. “Chestnuts all‘ot, a shoes arranged along the pavement; now penny a score,” bawls another. “An ‘aypenny to a stand of gaudy tea-trays; then to a shop a skin, blacking,” squeaks a boy. “Buy, buy, with red handkerchiefs and blue checked buy, buy, buy-- bu-u-uy!” cries the butcher. shirts, fluttering backwards and forwards, “Half-quire of paper for a penny,” bellows the and a counter built up outside on the kerb, street stationer. “An ‘aypenny a lot ing-uns.” behind which are boys beseeching custom. “Twopence a pound grapes.” “Three a penny At the door of a tea-shop, with its hundred Yarmouth bloaters.” “Who‘ll buy a bonnet white globes of light, stands a man delivering for fourpence?” “Pick ‘em out cheap here! bills, thanking the public for past favours, three pair for a halfpenny, bootlaces.” “Now‘s and “defying competition.” Here, alongside your time! beautiful whelks, a penny a lot.” the road, are some half-dozen headless “Here‘s ha‘p‘orths,” shouts the perambulating tailors’ dummies, dressed in Chesterfields confectioner. “Come and look at ‘em! here‘s and fustian jackets, each labelled, “Look at toasters!” bellows one with a Yarmouth the prices,” or “Observe the quality.” After bloater stuck on a toasting-fork. “Penny a lot, this is a butcher‘s shop, crimson and white fine russets,” calls the apple woman: and so with meat piled up to the first-floor, in front the Babel goes on. of which the butcher himself, in his blue coat, One man stands with his red-edged walks up and down, sharpening his knife mats hanging over his back and chest, like a on the steel that hangs to his waist. A little herald‘s coat; and the girl with her basket of further on stands the clean family, begging; walnuts lifts her brown-stained fingers to her the father with his head down as if in shame, mouth, as she screams, “Fine warnuts! sixteen and a box of lucifers held forth in his hand-- a penny, fine war-r-nuts.” A bootmaker, to the boys in newly-washed pinafores, and the “ensure custom,” has illuminated his shop- tidily got-up mother with a child at her breast. front with a line of gas, and in its full glare This stall is green and white with bunches of stands a blind beggar, his eyes turned up so turnips--that red with apples, the next yellow Number 4 - February 2009 101 with onions, and another purple with pickling their utmost, with their “Ho! ho! hi-i-i! What cabbages. One minute you pass a man with an do you think of this here? A penny a bunch- umbrella turned inside up and full of prints; -hurrah for free trade! Here‘s your turnips!” the next, you hear one with a peepshow Until it is seen and heard, we have no sense of Mazeppa, and Paul Jones the pirate, of the scramble that is going on throughout describing the pictures to the boys looking London for a living. The same scene takes in at the little round windows. Then is heard place at the Brill--the same in Leather-lane- the sharp snap of the percussion-cap from -the same in Tottenham-court-road--the the crowd of lads firing at the target for nuts; same in Whitecrossstreet; go to whatever and the moment afterwards, you see either a corner of the metropolis you please, either black man half-clad in white, and shivering on a Saturday night or a Sunday morning, in the cold with tracts in his hand, or else and there is the same shouting and the same you hear the sounds of music from “Frazier‘s struggling to get the penny profit out of the Circus,” on the other side of the road, and the poor man‘s Sunday‘s dinner. man outside the door of the penny concert, Since the above description was beseeching you written, the to “Be in time- New Cut has -be in time!” as lost much Mr. Somebody of its noisy is just about and brilliant to sing his glory. In favourite song consequence of the “Knife of a New Grinder.” Such, Police indeed, is regulation, the riot, the “stands” or struggle, and “pitches” the scramble have been for a living, that forbidden, the confusion and each and uproar of coster, on the Newcut a market on Saturday night, is now night have a obliged, under bewildering and saddening effect upon the pain of the lock--up house, to carry his tray, or thoughtful mind. keep moving with his barrow. The gay stalls Each salesman tries his utmost to sell have been replaced by deal boards, some his wares, tempting the passers-by with his sodden with wet fish, others stained purple bargains. The boy with his stock of herbs with blackberries, or brown with walnut- offers “a double ‘andful of fine parsley for a peel; and the bright lamps are almost totally penny;” the man with the donkey-cart filled superseded by the dim, guttering candle. with turnips has three lads to shout for him to Even if the pole under the tray or “shallow” The Primgraph is seen resting on the ground, the policeman confusion of a thousand voices bellowing at 102 on duty is obliged to interfere. once again fill the air. The road and footpath The mob of purchasers has diminished are crowded, as on the over-night; the men onehalf; and instead of the road being filled are standing in groups, smoking and talking; with customers and trucks, the pavement whilst the women run to and fro, some with and kerbstones are scarcely crowded. the white round turnips showing out of their filled aprons, others with cabbages under their arms, and a piece of red meat dangling from their hands. Only a few of the shops are closed, but the butcher‘s and the coal-shed The Sunday Morning Markets. Nearly every poor man‘s market does its Sunday trade. For a few hours on the are filled with customers, and from the door Sabbath morning, the noise, bustle, and of the shut--up baker‘s, the women come scramble of the Saturday night are repeated, streaming forth with bags of flour in their and but for this opportunity many a poor hands, while men sally from the halfpenny family would pass a dinnerless Sunday. The barber‘s smoothing their clean-shaved chins. system of paying the mechanic late on the Walnuts, blacking, apples, onions, braces, Saturday night--and more particularly of combs, turnips, herrings, pens, and corn- paying a man his wages in a public-house-- plaster, are all bellowed out at the same time. when he is tired with his day‘s work lures him Labourers and mechanics, still unshorn and to the tavern, and there the hours fly quickly undressed, hang about with their hands in enough beside the warm taproom fire, so that their pockets, some with their pet terriers by the time the wife comes for her husband‘s under their arms. The pavement is green with wages, she finds a large portion of them the refuse leaves of vegetables, and round a gone in drink, and the streets half cleared, so cabbage--barrow the women stand turning that the Sunday market is the only chance of over the bunches, as the man shouts, “Where getting the Sunday‘s dinner. you like, only a penny.” Boys are running home Of all these Sunday-morning markets, with the breakfast herring held in a piece the Brill, perhaps, furnishes the busiest of paper, and the side-pocket of the apple- scene; so that it may be taken as a type of the man‘s stuff coat hangs down with the weight whole. of the halfpence stored within it. Presently The streets in the neighbourhood are the tolling of the neighbouring church bells quiet and empty. The shops are closed with breaks forth. Then the bustle doubles itself, their different-coloured shutters, and the the cries grow louder, the confusion greater. people round about are dressed in the shiney Women run about and push their way cloth of the holiday suit. There are no “cabs,” through the throng, scolding the saunterers, and but few omnibuses to disturb the rest, for in half an hour the market will close. In a and men walk in the road as safely as on the little time the butcher puts up his shutters, footpath. and leaves the door still open; the policemen As you enter the Brill the market in their clean gloves come round and drive sounds are scarcely heard. But at each step the streetsellers before them, and as the the low hum grows gradually into the noisy clock strikes eleven the market finishes, and shouting, until at last the different cries the Sunday‘s rest begins. become distinct, and the hubbub, din, and Number 4 - February 2009 103 The following is a list of the street-markets, and the number of costers usually attending: MARKETS ON THE SURREY SIDE New-cut, Lambeth 300 Bermondsey 107 Lambeth-walk 104 Union-street, Borough 29 Walworth-road 22 Great Suffolk-street 46 Camberwell 15 Blackfriars-road 58 Newington 45 — Kent-street, Borough 38 764 MARKETS ON THE MIDDLESEX SIDE Brill and Chapel, street, 300 St. John’s-street 47 Somers’ Town Camden Town 50 Old-street (St. Luke’s) 46 Hampstead-road and Whitecross-street, 333 150 Tottenham-city-road Cripplegate St. George’s Market, 177 City-road 49 Oxford-street Marylebone 37 Shoreditch 100 Edgeware-road 78 Bethnal-green 100 Crawford-street 145 Whitechapel 258 Knightsbride 46 Mile End 105 Commercial-road Pimlico 32 114 (East) Tothill-street and Broadway, Westmin- 119 Ratcliffe Highway 122 ster Drury-lane 22 Rosemary-lane 119 Clare-street 139 — Exmouth-street and Aylesbury-street, 142 — Clerkenwell E 104 The Primgraph The Mistress of Propriety Advises More often than not, words have different meanings depending on place, date, and Words. W A Glossary from the Mistress of cultural background. The phrase 'Civil War' to an American conjures up images of soldiers clothed in drab blue or grey. To an Englishman it evokes men in part armour, Propriety ords, Dear Readers, are the and men on horseback wearing 'lobster tools we use to describe things. pots'. To a Spaniard it involves the conflict after Napoleon’s defeat (though by the 20th century another Civil War will take its place). There are many who have heard some words tossed about who may be unsure or unaware of their meaning. This instalment of the Lady of Propriety hopes to bring you some of the words whose definition may have been the cause of some confusion. Sources have been many and various. Abagail – A lady’s maid. Acceptance – The act of putting one’s name on a bill of exchange and writing 'accepted' across it, which then made one liable to pay it. A Bill of Acceptance was originally used only by merchants and was not unlike a cheque. Merchant A instructs Merchant B to whom they have sent goods to pay C Number 4 - February 2009 an amount equal to the value of the good on instances beef suet and bear’s grease. 105 such and such a date. B agreed by writing "accepted" across this written instruction Area - The below-ground servant’s entrance from A; the result being a Bill of Exchange. in the front of many London town-houses. From merchants it spread into wider use for individuals short on cash. Area Diving – A method of theft that necessitates sneaking down area steps, and Act – A piece of legislation that has passed stealing from the lower rooms of houses. both Houses of Parliament, been signed by the Monarch and became law; before that, it Barrister – A lawyer who would argue a is called a 'bill'. case in court as opposed to a Solicitor who would arrange contracts and wills and speak Advocate – The name given to the lawyers with clients face to face. As the clients paid (counterparts of the serjeants in the the Solicitor and the Solicitor would 'gift' common law courts and barristers in the this money to the Barrister, they also fulfilled Court of Chancery) who argued cases in the the legal requirement for a Gentleman to not old courts of ecclesiastical law and admiralty earn an income from trade. law in the Doctor’s Commons. The protectors, corresponding to the solicitors in the other Bedlam – A contraction of the Hospital of St. courts, assisted the advocates. Mary of Bethlehem, an insane asylum that was run by the city of London. The Imperial Ague – Basically, malaria and the chills that War Museum in London now occupies the went with it. Later generalized to include any building. similar fevers or chills. Beef, beer, and lust - What British civilians Almshouse – Lodgings for the poor thought British soldiers were too full of. supported by private rather than public charity. Publicly funded lodgings were called Beer, bum, and bacca - Pleasures of the poorhouses or workhouses.in the front of sailor's life, circa 1870, 'bacca' being tobacco. many London town-houses. 'Rum, sodomy and the lash' no longer applied with flogging having been abolished in Antimacassar – The Victorian gentleman 1868. often applied macassar oil to his hair. To prevent it from coming off all over Blue jacket - British sailor. the furniture, Victorian ladies pinned antimacassars – little white doilies – Bluestocking - a disparaging term for an on their armchairs and sofas where a educated, intellectual woman. From the gentleman’s head would be. Considering the Bluestocking Society founded in 1750 as a other hair-control substances that it might women's literary discussion group. have come in contact with the nineteenth century sofa, macassar oil might not have Brolly - Umbrella, circa 1873. been so bad – David Copperfield also The Primgraph Buckaroo - A cowboy. Someone who works Fishing Fleet - Unmarried British women 106 with cattle. (From a badly mispronounced sent to India each year by their parents version of the Spanish vaquero). during the cool weather to find husbands. Cad – Specifically a man who seduces a Fossick - To search for gold or gemstones young woman and then leaves, often to her typically by picking over abandoned workings social or financial ruin. More generally this (Australian and New Zealand). has become a man who acts dishonourably. Galloper - Officer used by commanders to Cinematrograph - Early motion pictures c. carry messages. 1900. Also known as viagraph or bioscope. Gunslinger - A made-up word from Western Cheroot - Cigar (from Tamil, curuttu, roll. fiction . [About 1679]). Havelock - Cloth cap cover that hung on Clobber - Uniform, clothing. the back to protect the neck from sunlight (named after Sir Henry Havelock). Coal oil - Kerosene. Used as a lamp or stove fuel and both internally and externally as a Heliograph - Communication device using treatment for many diseases . mirrors to flash sunlight. Consumption - Pulmonary tuberculosis Hornswoggle - The way wild cattle dodge or any other wasting-away disease that being roped or can shake a rope loose. 'consumed' its victims. Therefore, to trick or fool someone. Cottoneye - A human or animal with cataracts Malaria - A disease transmitted by mosquitoes (milky covering over eye) caused by over- that causes periodic severe attacks of chills exposure to ultraviolet light. and fever, thought at one time to be caused by miasma (Italian , from mala aria, Cowpuncher - Cowboy, also cowpoke bad air). [1870s]. Maverick - Unbranded cattle; especially a Donkey walloper - Infantry disparaging motherless calf (from Samuel A. Maverick term for cavalry. who did not brand his calves ). Dude - A dandy, a fop, a city dweller unfamiliar Miasma - A heavy vapour emanation or with life on the range (origin unknown atmosphere believed to cause malaria or ). other diseases common in swampy areas (Greek, defilement, from miainein to pollute Dyspepsia - Indigestion (Latin, from Greek, ). from dys- + pepsis digestion). P. & O. - Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company. The main line for British travellers Number 4 - February 2009 to India and the East. much of tropical Africa. Sleeping sickness 107 saved parts of Africa from being settled by Pith helmet - Sun helmet originally made Europeans in the 19th century because it from pith, but later made of cloth-covered killed their cattle and horses. cork. Snotty - Midshipman [Royal Navy]. Poodle-faker - A man who spent too much time in the society of women, engaging in Vapours - A Victorian belief that emanations such activities as tea parties, balls, etc. from bodily organs (such as the stomach) could affect the physical and mental condition Pukka - Genuine, authentic, first-class (Hindi of people, especially women. Vapours were pakka cooked, ripe, solid, from Sanskrit often blamed for women fainting, although pakva). fashions which included binding women's bodies so tight that they could barely breathe Punk - Inferior, as in 'played a punk game', would seem to be a more likely cause. 'feeling punk' (ill) (1896). Queen's shilling, the - Bounty paid to a new recruit for joining the British Army. E Rake – A person (usually male) of immoral character. Rascal – A rogue or villain. The term originally meant a lean shabby deer and often, if uttered by a woman to a man, was to impugn the man’s virility. Redcoat – British soldier. The term existed for some years but did not enter the popular vernacular until the 1870s. Road agent - A robber who preyed on stage routes in between towns. Also called a Highwayman (England) or Bushranger (Australian). Shindig - A cowboy dance or ball (probably alteration of shindy ). Sleeping sickness - A serious disease transmitted by tsetse flies, common in 108 The Primgraph Letters Recieved by the Editrix Dear Miss Widdershins based on pre-eminent citizens within Caldeon that I defy any reader to persue the Dear Madame chapters without a sensation of shock and You may be aware of my earlier indignation. exposulations with your previous editor, Miss It is not yet too late. I urge you to draw Markstein, concerning the publication, within back, to cancel the story. your pages, of that most thinly disguised of satires - The Mysteries of London. For now I remain, This tale purports to be a one of the new Your most obedient servent, so-called 'sensationalist' novels. Well, all I can say to that, Madame Editor, is harumph! GK Gallworth Esq. New characters are being introduced all the time - and some are so obviously E Number 4 - February 2009 109 110 The Primgraph T How to Read The Primgraph? he Primgraph can be obtained blog ([http://primperfectblog.wordpress. either in the form of a Thinc book com)] and in the Connolly Telegraph [[http:// for inworld reading, or as a downloadable theconnollytelegraph.blogspot.com/]] – as pdf, or in a special web format called Calaméo, will a link to a standard pdf for downloading which allows you to move smoothly through and printing, if you like to download and print the pages, giving you the feeling of reading a out your magazines to read as you commute real magazine. to work, or in the bath, or wherever! 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