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  Section III
                 Historical Context: Post-
                  Revolutionary France
•   Napoleon
     –   Used art to portray him as a
         caring, sympathetic leader.
     –   Turned failure into success
         (propaganda campaign)
     –   Appealed to the emotions
         /the psychology of warfare
     –   Jean-Jacques David led the
         Royal Academy of Art
•   The Restoration
     –   After the exile of Napoleon
         to St. Helena, Louis XVIII
         and Charles X ruled
     –   Romanticism flourished
           •   A new revolution against
               the government put a new
               king on the throne –       Antoine-Jean Gross Battle of
               Louis-Philippe (July
               Revolution).               Eylau
                                          Battle between France,
                                          Russia, and Prussia in 1807
     Artistic Education During the
• Out with David, in
  with Romanticism
• Gericault, Horace
  Vernet, Delacroix,
  – Academie des Beaux-
     • Historical scenes from
       the medieval period.
     • Religious paintings
     • Landscape
     • Naked women
                                William Blake’s The Great Red
                 Artistic Criticism
• Germaine de Stael – She was
  an enemy of Napoleon, spent
  a great deal of time in
  Germany, and brought back
  German Romantic ideas to
   – Daughter of Necker
   – Wrote De l”allemagne
• Fredrich von Schlegel – used
  the term Romantic as an art
  form that challenged the
  Classical ideal
• Edmund Burke – wrote about
  the Sublime in A
  Philosophical Enquiry into the
  Origin of our Ideas of the
  Sublime and the Beautiful.
        Themes and Paintings
• Medieval Europe
  (religious fervor)
• Religious Paintings
• Irrational v.
• The Orient (Middle
  East and Northern
• History Paintings
• Exotic
• Stupid horses
                        The Death of Sardanapalus by
                        Eugene Delacroix
At the Salon of 1804, Gros debuted his painting Bonaparte Visiting the
Plague House at Jaffa. The painting launched his career as a
successful painter. It depicts Napoleon as he visits his own men in Jaffa
(part of present-day Israel and Syria). He had just massacred the
countries after losing an attempt to conquer Egypt and his men caught
the plague
Eugene Delacroix Massacre at Chios – Greek Independence
              Theodore Gericault
• Born in Rouen
• Trained secretly under Carle
• Vernet differed from David with
  his emphasis on stupid horses.
• Focus on the natural world
• Worked in the studio of Pierre-
  Narcisse Guerin.
• Most representative of the
  Romantic artists
• Died young at 32
• Charging Chasseur and
  Wounded Cuirassier leaving
  the Field of Battle (Salon 1814)
                                                              The Raft of the
                                                              Medusa was his
                                                              last completed
                                                              piece to the
                                                              Salon in 1819.

                                                              Medusa was a
                                                              frigate heading
                                                              to Senegal. The
                                                              ship wrecked,
                                                              the captain
                                                              saved himself
                                                              and the rich, and
                                                              left the poor to

                                                              This resulted in
                                                              a scandal for the
Dramatic contrast of light and dark, diagonal thrust of the
composition, and the sublime.
   Selected Art Work: Evening:
Landscape with an Aqueduct, 1818
                     One of four pieces
                     Allegory to the passage of time.
                     Gold, dark blue, gray
                     River, sun, trees, rocky
                     landscape, stone and brick
                     buildings, Roman Aqueduct,
                     modeled after Spoleto
                     Naked men
                     Partially clothed traveler
                     No message, not didactic,
                     biblical, or historical
                     Morning: landscape with
                     Noon: Landscape with a
                     Roman Tomb
                     Night: seascape (lost or never
 Selected Work: the Start of the
Race of the Riderless Horses 1820
   Emile-Jean Horace Vernet
                   Son of Carle Vernet
                   Born in Paris to a rich family,
                   studied at the Ecole des Beaux
                   Arts of the French Academy
                   under Francois-Andre Vincent
                   Paintings of Revolutionary
                   Napoleon Battle (even though
                   they were banned)
                   Paintings were journalistic
                   Served as the director of the
                   academy and his patrons
                   included the nobility, and kings.
                   Liked stupid horses.
• Barb horses from
  Northern Africa
• Rome’s Via del Corsco
    – Piazza del popolo
    – Piazza di Venezia.
• Spectators in
• Wild spirit of the horse
  represents freedom,
  while man is enslaved
  by civilization
• Coloristic
• Captured frozen
  moment in time
Annoying Art Historian We have to
   remember – Lorenz Eitner
• In regards to Horace      • In regards to The
  Vernet’s Stupid horse       Stormy Coast Scene
  painting – he said          he said
  Vernet’s painting           – The vulnerability of
  looked like Garicault’s       humans in contrast to
  sketch – both chose           the vastness and
                                unpredictability of the
  to create a piece
                                sea is one of the key
  based on the START            themes of Romantic
  of the race.                  Art.
 Selected Work: Emile-Jean Horace
Vernet’s Stormy Coast Scene After a
                      •   Vulnerability of humans to
                          the powerful forces of
                      •   Permanence of the sea
                          serves as a contrast to
                      •   Transitions in tone to
                          create a sense of mass in
                          the rocks
                      •   Sublime (Burke)
                      •   May have been inspired
                          by Gericault’s Raft of the
                      •   Ambiguous! Is everyone
                          else dead?
                      •   Imagination/emotional
                  Eugene Delacroix
•   Born in Paris, wealthy, daddy was
    a government official (1798).
•   Worked under Pierre-Narcisse
    Guerin (also Gericault’s teacher)
•   Delacroix liked medieval stuff,
    horses, and Lord Byron 
•   Modeled for the Raft of the
•   Liked literature and themes that
    appealed to the imagination
     – Dante and Virgil in Hell
     – Scenes from the Massacres at
     – The Death of Sardanapalus

                                        Crack is
Delacroix and Contemporary
           History  Liberty is an
                         allegorical figure
                         French tri-color flag
                         Revolution of 1830
                         Went to the Orient
                         and sketched a lot
                         The Women of
                         Algiers in their
                         Prolific! He
                         produced oil,
                         drawings and
    Selected Work: Delacroix’s Royal
              Tiger 1829
•   Lithograph (Greek for stone
    and mark)
•   Spontaneous work method.
•   Dramatic contrasts and
    evocative moods
•   Tigers at Jardin des Plants in
•   Hippolyte Taine said he liked
    tigers – whatever.
•   Tiger was dead
•   Eyes create a sense of drama
    so that the scene is not static
•   Psychological drama of
    confrontation with a tiger
•   Painting lions as well.
•   People liked the exotic animals
    and their taste for flesh
•   Liked the idea of seeing the
    world through the eyes of a
           Theodore Chasseriau
• Born in Saint Dominique
• Worked in the studio of jean-
  Auguste-Dominique Ingres
  (former student of David)
• Gifted draughtsman
• Worked for Delacroix (who
  didn’t like Ingres)
• Liked to travel in the Orient.
• Died young at 38

• He emerged towards the end
  of Romanticism and the
  beginning of Realism – most of
  his work was unknown.
                                   He completed nude portraits,
                                   historical paintings, literary,
                                   religious, and oriental themes.
Selected Work: Young Jewish
Woman of Algeria Seated 1846
              • Small (notebook paper),
                watercolor and graphite
              • Notations written by the side.
              • Face treated with great detail.
              • Exotic clothing
              • Creepy! (looks like the viewer
                is looking at her through a
                  – Voyeuristic
                  – Primitive (she’s on the floor
                    rather than in a chair)
                  – Animalistic
              • Delacroix did one too called
                the Women of Algiers

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