S5 Service Portfolio Specifications by chenmeixiu

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									Respond Service Portfolio Specifications




   Service Consolidation Actions of the EarthWatch
          GMES Services Element, Phase 2




        S5 Service Portfolio Specifications




Dossier Lead:         ITUK
Contributors:         AlertNet, DLR, Gamma, Geoid, Jena-Optronik, JRC, KeyObs
                      MapAction, Metria, Sertit, Telespazio, UNOSAT
Respond Service Portfolio Specifications




                      DOCUMENT RELEASE SHEET




                                                      Sign               Date
Coordination/Dossier      ITUK
Lead
                                                      Sign               Date
Reviewer (Strategy
group)
                                                      Sign               Date
Project manager           Helen Stannard (ITUK)
                                                      Sign               Date
Quality Assurance         Nick Veck (ITUK)
                                                      Sign               Date
Approval                        (ESA-ESRIN)
Distribution              Consortium                  Contributors       AlertNet,
                          ESA                                            Metria,
                                                                         Sertit
                                                                         DLR,
                                                                         UNOSAT,
                                                                         KeyObs,
                                                                         MapAction,
                                                                         JRC
                                                                         Geoid,
                                                                         Telespazio,
                                                                         Jena
                                                                         Gamma


                                   CHANGE RECORD

Issue/Rev      Date              Page(s)      Description           of   Release
                                              change
I0.01          4/8/07            All          Initial Phase 1 update     Consortium
I0.02          27/08/07          Few          Updates            from    Consortium
                                              Consortium
I0.03          14/09/07          Many         Updates            from    Consortium
                                              Consortium
I0.04                            Not used
I0 05_tobe     31/10/2007        35-40, 87-   Including RM Supply        Consortium
formatted                        116          Chain      descriptions.
tables                                        Adding standards from
                                              stage 1 C5 to the
                                              Appendix.
I0.06          1/11/07           Few          QA Changes                 Consortium
I1.00          02/11/07          All          Headers and footers        ESA
                                              for formal release
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence




                             DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION

Title             S5 Service Portfolio Specifications
Dossier           Infoterra Ltd.
Lead
Document          This document, in conjunction with dossiers D2 and C5, forms
Synopsis          the technical reference for the portfolio of services offered by the
                  Respond GMES action in Humanitarian Aid.             As such it is
                  recognised as one of the cornerstones of the Respond project
                  and contains a wealth of information regarding the technical
                  specifications of each of the designated products and services.




Key words         Themes, Products, Services, Categories
Reference         Document    Edition:      Date:                      02/11/2007
                  S5          I1.00
Language:         Pages       114           Appendices                 13
English
File Name         S5-ITUK-S2-P1-                    Format:            MS-Word
                  I1.00.doc                                            2003




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Document No: S5-ITUK-S2-P1-I1.00
Version: I1.00                                                          Date: 02.11.2007
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



                      GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS

ACE          Altimeter-Corrected Elevation model
AOI          Area of Interest
DEM          Digital Elevation Model
DMA          Disaster Mapping Archive
DRK          Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (German Red Cross)
DTM          Digital Terrain Model
ECHO         European Community Humanitarian Office
EO           Earth Observation
EOLI         Earthnet Online Interactive
EOWEB        Earth Observation on the Web
FEWS         Famine Early Warning System
GIS          Geographic Information System
GPS          Global Positioning System
HDF          Hierarchical Data Format
IDP          Internally-Displaced Person
IODD         Input Output Data Definition
IPR          Intellectual Property Rights
ISFEREA      Information Support For Effective and Rapid External Aid
ISPs         In-Sector Providers
JOG          Joint Operation Graphic
JPL          Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JRC          Joint Research Centre
NGO          Non-Governmental Organisation
ONC          Operational Navigation Chart
SAR          Synthetic Aperture Radar
SRTM         Shuttle Radar Topography Mission
THW          Technisches Hilfswerk
TPC          Tactical Pilotage Chart
TSR          Tropical Storm Risk
UN           United Nations
UNDPKO       United Nations Department of Peace-Keeping Operations
UNHCR        United Nations High Commission for Refugees
UNHIC        United Nations Humanitarian Information Centre
UNITAR       United Nations Institute for Training and Research
UNOCHA       United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
UNOSAT       UNITAR Operational Satellite Applications Programme
USGS         United States Geological Survey
VACs         Value-Added Companies
VMAP         Vector Smart Map




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Document No: S5-ITUK-S2-P1-I1.00
Version: I1.00                                                          Date: 02.11.2007
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                  Commercial-in-Confidence




CONTENTS
1.   Introduction                                                                             10
Background                                                                                    10
Objectives                                                                                    11
Requirements of the Statement of Work                                                         11
Scope/Structure                                                                               11
2.   Selection of Products and Services                                                       13
2.1 Rationale for selection of products and services                                          13
     2.1.1     Categorisation                                                                 14
2.2 Difference between products and services                                                  14
2.3 Service Delivery                                                                          15
     2.3.1 Category 1 – Online service [user interaction with EO Data and GIS Layers]         16
     2.3.2 Category 2 - Pro-active service delivery [advance hot spot mapping]                16
     2.3.3 Category 3 Reactive service delivery                                               17
     2.3.4 Category 4 Alerting services                                                       17
3.   Summary Overview of Respond Services and Products                                        19
4.   Basic Mapping                                                                            21
     4.1.1     Service Defintion                                                              21
     4.1.2     Service Users                                                                  21
     4.1.3     Geographic Scope                                                               22
     4.1.4     Product Format and Input Data                                                  23
     4.1.5     Software Tools                                                                 27
     4.1.6     Service Delivery                                                               27
     4.1.7     Existing Services                                                              28
     4.1.8     Added Value                                                                    29
     4.1.9     Cost and Production                                                            29
5.   Crisis and Damage Mapping                                                                30
     5.1.1     Service Definition                                                             30
     5.1.2     Service Users                                                                  30
     5.1.3     Geographic Scope                                                               31
     5.1.4     Product Format and Input Data                                                  31
     5.1.5     Software Tools                                                                 35
     5.1.6     Service Delivery                                                               35
     5.1.7     Existing Services and Added Value                                              35
     5.1.8     RM Supply Chain description SERTIT                                             36
     5.1.9     RM Supply Chain description DLR                                                39
     5.1.10    Cost and Production                                                            41
6.   Situation Mapping                                                                        43
     6.1.1     Service Definition                                                             43
     6.1.2     Service Users                                                                  43
     6.1.3     Geographic Scope                                                               44
     6.1.4     Product Format and Input Data                                                  44
     6.1.5     Software Tools                                                                 46
     6.1.6     Service Delivery                                                               46
     6.1.7     Existing Services and Added Value                                              47
     6.1.8     Cost and Production                                                            47
7.   Refugee/IDP Support Mapping                                                              47
     7.1.1     Service Definition                                                             47
     7.1.2     Service Users                                                                  47
     7.1.3     Geographic Scope                                                               48
     7.1.4     Product Format and Input Data                                                  49
     7.1.5     Software Tools                                                                 50
     7.1.6     Service Delivery                                                               51
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Document No: S5-ITUK-S2-P1-I1.00
Version: I1.00                                                             Date: 02.11.2007
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



    7.1.7   Existing Services and Added Value                                               51
    7.1.8   Cost and Production                                                             51
8.  Thematic Mapping services                                                               52
    8.1.1   Service Definition                                                              52
Thematic Mapping – Vulnerability Mapping                                                    52
    8.1.2   Geographic Scope                                                                52
    8.1.3   Product Format and Input Data                                                   53
    8.1.4   Service Delivery                                                                54
    8.1.5   Existing Services and Added Value                                               54
    8.1.6   Cost and Production                                                             54
Thematic Mapping – Reconstruction / Rehabilitation                                          55
    8.1.7   Service Users                                                                   55
    8.1.8   Geographic Scope                                                                55
    8.1.9   Product Format and Input Data                                                   56
    8.1.10  Software Tools                                                                  57
    8.1.11  Service Delivery                                                                58
    8.1.12  Existing Services and Added Value                                               58
    8.1.13  Cost and Production                                                             58
Thematic Mapping – Health Mapping/Online Health Mapping                                     59
    8.1.14  Geographic Scope                                                                59
    8.1.15  Product Format and Input Data                                                   60
    8.1.16  Software Tools                                                                  62
    8.1.17  Service Delivery                                                                62
    8.1.18  Existing Services and Added Value                                               63
    8.1.19  Cost and Production                                                             63
Thematic Mapping – Environmental MappinG                                                    64
    8.1.20  Service Users                                                                   64
    8.1.21  Geographic Scope                                                                64
    8.1.22  Product Format and Input Data                                                   64
    8.1.23  Service Delivery                                                                66
    8.1.24  Existing Services and Added Value                                               66
    8.1.25  Cost and Production                                                             66
Thematic Mapping – Agricultural monitoring                                                  67
    8.1.26  Service Users                                                                   67
    8.1.27  Geographic Scope                                                                67
    8.1.28  Product Format and Input Data                                                   67
    8.1.29  Software Tools                                                                  68
    8.1.30  Service Delivery                                                                69
    8.1.31  Existing Services and Added Value                                               69
    8.1.32  Cost and Production                                                             69
9.  Alert Services                                                                          70
    9.1.1   Service Definition                                                              70
    9.1.2   Service Users                                                                   70
    9.1.3   Geographic Scope                                                                71
    9.1.4   Product Format and Input Data                                                   71
    9.1.5   Software Tools                                                                  72
    9.1.6   Service Delivery                                                                73
    9.1.7   Existing Services and Added Value                                               73
    9.1.8   Cost and Production                                                             74
10.   Communication / Reporting Resources                                                   75
    10.1.1  Service Definition                                                              75
    10.1.2  Service Users                                                                   75
    10.1.3  Geographic Scope                                                                76
    10.1.4  Product Format and Input Data                                                   76
    10.1.5  Software Tools                                                                  79
    10.1.6  Service Delivery                                                                80
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Document No: S5-ITUK-S2-P1-I1.00
Version: I1.00                                                          Date: 02.11.2007
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



    10.1.7   Existing Services and Added Value                                                81
    10.1.8   Cost and Production                                                              81
11.   Field Mapping Service                                                                   83
    11.1.1   Service Definition                                                               83
    11.1.2   Service Users                                                                    83
    11.1.3   Geographic Scope                                                                 83
    11.1.4   Product Format and Input Data                                                    84
    11.1.5   Service Delivery                                                                 85
    11.1.6   Existing Services and Added Value                                                86
    11.1.7   Cost and Production                                                              86
12.   Appendices:                                                                             87
Appendix 1 Respond Map Templates                                                              87
Appendix 2 Summary of User Requirements                                                       89
Appendix 3 Summary of Software Tools                                                          90
Appendix 4 Summary of Service Delivery                                                        91
Appendix 5 Summary of Existing Services and Added Value                                       92
Appendix 6 Summary of Cost and Production                                                     94
Appendix 7 Coverage of SRTM Elevation Data                                                    95
Appendix 8 VMAP Level 1 Coverage                                                              99
Appendix 9 Raster and Vector Formats                                                         100
Appendix 10 Scanned Topographic Map Coverage                                                 101
Appendix 11 VMAP Level 0 Data Sources                                                        102
Appendix 12 Examples of Metadata Formats                                                     103
Appendix 13 Data Sources                                                                     113




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Document No: S5-ITUK-S2-P1-I1.00
Version: I1.00                                                          Date: 02.11.2007
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



Executive Summary
This document, in conjunction with the new Stage 2 D2 dossier and revised C5
dossier, forms the definitive technical reference for the portfolio of services
offered by the Respond GMES action in Humanitarian Aid.         As such, it is
recognised as one of the cornerstones of the Respond project and contains a
wealth of information regarding the technical specifications of each of the
designated products and services.

The geospatial information requirements of the Humanitarian Aid Community are
as varied as the operations and functions it performs. Initially, with the help of
the Core User Group, Respond produced a list of 7 different types of Content or
Product type. With time, this list has now evolved into the 12 themes listed
below: which reflect the diversity of need. Many of these products require similar
data and techniques, but serve a different audience. It is expected that this
portfolio (or parts there of) will also be transferred into the emerging EC
humanitarian projects, such as FP7 SAFER.


Theme

1: Basic mapping service

2: Crisis & Damage mapping service.

3. Situation mapping.
4: Refugee/IDP Support mapping service.

5.1: Thematic mapping service – Vulnerability mapping

5.2: Thematic mapping service – Reconstruction/Rehabilitation.

5.3: Thematic mapping service – Health mapping/Online Health mapping.

5.4: Thematic mapping service – Environmental mapping.

5.5: Thematic mapping service – Agricultural monitoring

6: Alert Services.

7. Communication / reporting resources.

8. Field mapping service.


Additionally, four different types of service have been defined. These line up with
the different operational requirements for timeliness and delivery methods. Many
of the products will be suitable for delivery via more than one service delivery
method.

The four methods of service delivery can be summarised thus:

  •   Category 1 – online delivery of a range of datasets.


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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



  •   Category 2 – delivery of products created proactively, i.e. targeted at slow-
      onset situations. Non-emergency, usual production times apply.
  •   Category 3 – emergency delivery of products in reaction to humanitarian
      crises. As this category is purely reactive it can provide products of
      anywhere in the world at any time, this category is provided reactively.
  •   Category 4 – alert services. This category has global coverage already via
      AlertNet and the JRC; however the inputs to it are limited at this stage to
      tropical storms, volcanic and earthquake alerts, but are planned to be
      upgraded with other disaster monitoring information.

This two dimensional approach continues to evolve throughout the lifespan of
Respond, which started with the establishment of some key products chosen for
their relevance to the core user group of Respond. These products are described
in detail within this document.




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Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



1. Introduction

BACKGROUND

The S5 document is fundamental to an understanding of the Respond service. It
contains a list of key themes determined from discussions with all consortium and
core user group members. The Respond consortium has identified 12 different
product themes that are currently available and will expand further as Respond
develops, and is utilised in greater numbers by humanitarian users. The table below
summarises these as themes. The explanation for the grouping of themes listed as
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 is based on a unified idea of thematic mapping across
each separate theme.


Theme                                           Typical Content Type

                                                Core baseline maps providing
                                                topographic mapping for the area of
                                                interest coupled with infrastructure,
1: Basic maps                                   logistics, gazetteers,
                                                political/administrative boundaries etc.
                                                Can be used as the basis for other
                                                mapping themes
                                                Near real time damage maps. Ideally
2: Crisis & Damage Mapping
                                                showing pre and post crisis event.
                                                Provides up to date but very dynamic
                                                situation information such as security
3. Situation Maps                               zones, climatic conditions, location of
                                                field operatives etc. Involves close one
                                                to one inputs with field staff.
                                                Specific high resolution mapping of
4: Refugee/IDP support maps                     refugee camps and inclusion of camp
                                                data collected from the relief agencies.
5.1: Thematic mapping service –
                                                Specialised themed maps
Vulnerability mapping.
5.2: Thematic mapping service –
                                                Specialised themed maps
Reconstruction/Rehabilitation.
5.3: Thematic mapping service – Health
                                                Specialised themed maps
mapping/Online health mapping
5.4 Thematic mapping service –
                                                Specialised themed maps
Environmental mapping
5.5 Thematic mapping service –
                                                Specialised themed maps
Agricultural mapping
                                                Global communication services with
6: Alert Services                               specialised feeds for conflict, famine,
                                                health and natural disasters
                                                Ad-Hoc mapping and graphics and
7. Communication / reporting resources          tools to enable end users to create
                                                their own bespoke mapping.
8. Field mapping services                       In situ Maps and GIS


                        Table 1.1 Key Themes and Content Type.


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Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence




OBJECTIVES

The aim of this document is to set out the rationale and specification for each
theme, and associated product and/or service.

This is an ongoing process and a definitive technical specification will be achieved
through a procedure of reviewing comprehensive answers to the service definition
template.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE STATEMENT OF WORK

The Statement of Work (SoW) is a list of generic requirements that cannot be
entirely fulfilled given the very diverse nature of the source data needed for
Respond products and services. Topics of particular relevance are those to do with
the service aspect of Respond, i.e., the specification of the service package and
available service level.

The SoW specifies a requirement for comprehensive technical information
regarding products. In light of the new D2 dossier, and revised C5 dossier, for
Stage 2, certain aspects of the SOW will be transferred to the new D2 and C5
dossiers that are considered more appropriate to house than the S5 dossier.

To clarify:

It is supported by the C5 dossier which
     • Identifies Quality, calibration and validation procedures applicable for each
        product
     • Identifies subsidiary spec, design and test document for all production
        systems

And supported by the D2 dossier which
   • Lists all the hardware operated by the service network
   • Lists all the software in operation with Respond
   • Outlines the service supply chains that are used to create the portfolio of
      Respond products.

SCOPE/STRUCTURE

This document is structured as follows:

Section 1 is the introduction to the document and looks at the requirements of the
statement of work.

Section 2 looks at the following:

   1. The rationale for the selection of products and services.
   2. The difference between products and services.
   3. How the service is delivered and discusses the four levels of services

Section 3 provides an summary overview of the products and services that are
discussed in the later sections of this document




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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



Sections 4 to 10 look at products and services in greater detail based upon the
response from selected in-sector providers (ISPs) and value-adding companies
(VACs).




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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence




2. Selection of Products and Services
2.1 RATIONALE FOR SELECTION OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

The 12 key themes were chosen since these were observed to adequately address
the requirements received from the core users and give substantial benefits to
them. Once the Respond service matures into the later phases of Stage 2, other
products and services (many are slight variations upon the primary examples) will
be developed and consequently be featured in this document.

The Respond service providers providing the various themes are listed below:

Theme          Stage 2 Users                     Primary service providers

1: Basic       EC,OCHA,UNHCR,WFP,UNJLC,          Infoterra / KeyObs / Telespazio/GMV
maps           ISDR,FAO,UNDSS, Aeci,
               Spanish RC, InterSOS, IFRC,
2: Crisis &    OCHA,WFP,UNDP, THW,DRK,           SERTIT / DLR /
Damage         EC
Mapping
3: Situation   WHO, IFRC,THW,DRK, EC             DLR/Keyobs/Metria
Maps
4:             UNHCR, INTERSOS,IFRC,THW          DLR/Metria/Telespazio/Keyobs/
Refugee/ID
P support
maps
5.1:                                             DLR/
Thematic                                         ITUK/Keyobs/Telespazio/Geoid/Gamma
Maps for
Vulnerabilit
y Mapping
5.2:                                             DLR/
Thematic                                         ITUK/Keyobs/Telespazio/Geoid/Gamma
maps for
Prevention
/
Reconstruct
ion
                   WHO, ISDR,UNEP,SDC,
Planning
5.3:                                             Jena-optronik
                     CERMES, CARITAS,
Thematic
                   Doctors of the World,
maps for
                 INTERSOS, IFRC,THW,DRK
Health
mapping
5.4:                                             DLR/
Thematic                                         ITUK/Keyobs/Telespazio/Geoid/Gamma
maps for
Environmen
tal Mapping
5.5                                              GeoiD
Thematic
maps for
Agricultural
Mapping

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6: Alert       The Alertnet Community,           Alertnet
Services       NGOs
7.             ISDR,UNEP, DFID                   Infoterra / Keyobs
Communica
tion /
reporting
resources
8. Field       UN                                MapAction
Mapping
Services
             Table 2.1 Responsibility of Service Definition for Key Themes.


2.1.1   Categorisation

The product themes adopted by Respond can be seen above. However these
products can be delivered via a number of service mechanisms. Within Respond
there is a potential for structuring services according to content (topographic,
field data, themed map etc) or by target use (e.g. head office, decision makers,
logistical planning, fieldworkers etc). The portfolio within Respond must take into
account both of these dimensions and yet not preclude any thematic types or
uses.

Within Respond it was decided that products should be provided via four service
categories (see 2.3). Each product within the themes defined above could
theoretically be provided via any service category.

It should be noted that the service categories described in section 2.3 are
methods of product delivery only and not descriptions of the products themselves.
Potentially it may be possible eventually for users to order information via a
service category, via thematic content, via use, or via geographic area.


2.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Respond is a service that is primarily concerned with the delivery of humanitarian
products. The products can be delivered as hard copies or digital maps (on media
such as CD-ROM, DVD). During the service evolution, digital maps created online
and downloaded as digital GIS layers (via internet, intranet, ftp, email) will be
available. The latter type of product can be more appropriately described as an
online service.

Several themes will feature an online service whereby users will be able to
combine different datasets to create a customised map and print it or save it as
an image file. Other themes may provide online access to GIS datasets for users
to download and manipulate themselves.

Table 2.2 below shows which theme will have products and online services.




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Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                   Commercial-in-Confidence




 Theme                                         Product             Service          Service
                                               (Output:           (Online Map      (Online Map
                                           Hardcopy/Digital)        Access)         Creation)

 1: Basic maps


 2: Crisis & Damage Mapping

 3. Situation Maps
 4: Refugee/IDP support maps

 5.1: Thematic Mapping Service –
 Vulnerability mapping.

 5.2: Thematic Mapping Service –
 Reconstruction/Rehabilitation.
 5.3: Health Mapping/Online Health
 Mapping

 5.4 Environmental Mapping

 6: Alert Services
 7. Communication / Reporting
 Resources
 8. Field Mapping Services


                       Table 2.2 Themes: Products and Services.


2.3 SERVICE DELIVERY

There are four methods of service delivery – online, pro-active, reactive, and alert
services.

Each service delivery method can be applied to a wide variety of products and a
wide range of thematic information and the particular service is to help users
interact with the Respond products.




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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence




                                       Category 1

                                         Online
                                        Mapping




                                                                            Category 4
             Retrieval of               User Engagement and
             Respond                         Interaction                     Crisis
             Products                                                       Alerting




        Cat 2                  Cat 3
        Proactive              Reactive

        Hot spot               Rapid
        mapping                access




2.3.1 Category 1 – Online service [user interaction with EO Data and GIS Layers]

This covers the provision of existing Respond mapping that that can be accessed
and downloaded online via the Respond web-catalogue.

In addition, it was originally planned that users could draw down from an archive
of EO data built by Respond, which could be coupled with topographic GIS vector
data layers, thus enabling the user to select and create their own bespoke
mapping. This however, has been modified in order take account of the revolution
of Google Earth. The principle remains the same, but the user will be able to take
advantage of the readily accessible worldwide EO data online and Google Earth
mapping tools, matched with the GIS layers that will become available via the
Respond web catalogue. This application also allows the users to incorporate
their own graphics and implement edits to the base layers. Products within this
category are likely to have a coarse resolution and may not be created using the
most up-to-date information. However the value of having an instantly available
map of an area in a rapid onset crisis cannot be underestimated.

2.3.2 Category 2 - Pro-active service delivery [advance hot spot mapping]

Pro-active delivery will cover those products that require updating on a regular
basis, in advance to a disaster. These products are likely to cover geographic
priority areas or ‘hotspots’ such as those areas where natural disasters are more
likely such as areas where an active volcano is known to exist or where tropical
storms are likely to occur. Other priority areas may be defined if political
instability leads to large numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs) or
refugees requiring aid. Product delivery for urgent items will be expected to be
within 72 hours (dependent upon quantities and complexity of product) and would
be based on archived data sources. Regular delivery would be subject to usual
non-urgent production times. These products may become part of the archive
(subject to access permissions) and therefore deliverable by online methods.


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2.3.3 Category 3 Reactive service delivery

These products will be ordered for a specific crisis and are more likely to be
integrated with field data (if available). These products will be provided over a
shorter time scale in response to usually urgent requests from user organisations.
Delivery times will be less than 12 hours after EO data reception (crisis and
archive). The potential for products that have a more focused application may
lead to less potential for multiplicity.

2.3.4 Category 4 Alerting services

This category has global coverage already via AlertNet and GDACS, however the
inputs to it are limited at this stage to tropical storms and earthquake and
volcanic eruptions. Over time the inputs to this category will expanded to include
other types of crisis alerting. Eventually this service delivery method will include
sending e-mail or SMS alerts to those who sign up for the service which will
contain links to appropriate mapping resources on the Internet and within
Respond.

Table 2.3 shows the proposed level of service by theme and the proposed
geographic scope.

                     Access to GIS layers in KML format
                     e.g. gazetteers /boundaries as
                     created by Respond partners. Links
                     will be provided to access other          Africa, Asia & parts of Central
                     non-Respond vector data                   America
                     Access to overview online satellite
                     imagery (Google Earth) in context
                     with existing Respond mapping             Worldwide
 1 Basic Mapping                                               Central Asia, Africa, South and
     Service         Delivery of large area image maps         Central America. To include
                     (RBM-S)                                   'forgotten crises'
                                                               Localised and specific target
                                                               areas. Primary focus on rapid
                                                               onset         seismic      events
                                                               (earthquake, volcano) sever
                                                               flooding events, and urban /
                                                               industrial / technological related
                     Delivery of small area image maps         crises and conflict zones. To
                     (RBM-L)                                   include 'forgotten crises'
                     Rapid     mapping    response  to
   2 Crisis and
                     emergencies                               Crisis dependent
 damage mapping
     service         Service provisions to Charter
                     activations                               Crisis dependent
                                                               Coverage will range from
                                                               regional through national to local
                     Delivery of enhanced small area           levels, to include 'forgotten
                     image maps                                crises'.
                                                               Coverage will range from
   3 Situation
                                                               regional through national to local
 mapping service
                     Secure peer-to-peer delivery of map       levels, to include 'forgotten
                     sheets and other digital files            crises'.
                                                               Geographic scope is crisis
                     Delivery of field activity coordination   dependent, to include forgotten
                     maps (Who-What-Where)                     'crises'.

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                                                              Geographic scope is crisis
                                                              dependent, sub-national and
  4 Refugee/IDP       Delivery of small area detailed         local coverage, to include
 support mapping      IDP/Refugee camp image maps             'forgotten crises'.
     service          Delivery of context maps in status of   Sub-national,       national and
                      IDP/Refugee       situations     and    regional coverage, to include
                      operations                              'forgotten crises'.
                                                              Central Asia, Africa, South and
                                                              Central America. To include
                      5.1 Vulnerability mapping               'forgotten crises'
                                                              Central Asia, Africa, South and
    5 Thematic
                      5.2        Reconstruction        and    Central America. To include
  environmental
                      Rehabilitation Mapping                  'forgotten crises'
    mapping for
                                                              Central Asia, Africa, South and
    Prevention,
                      5.3 Health Mapping (including online    Central America. To include
  reconstruction,
                      health mapping                          'forgotten crises'
planning purposes
                                                              Central Asia, Africa, South and
    and health
                                                              Central America. To include
                      5.4 Environment Status Mapping          'forgotten crises'
                                                              Central Asia, Africa, South and
                      5.5Agricultural Status Mapping          Central America.
6 Alert Services      Respond Alerting / Forecast System      Global
7 Communication /     Online mapping via Google Earth.        Global, to include 'forgotten
 reporting resource   GIS layers in KML format                crises'.
       service                                                Global
8 Field Mapping       Field mapping and field mapping
Service               support                                 Crisis dependent


Table 2.3 Proposed levels of service and geographic coverage proposed for Respond in
Stage Two




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3. Summary Overview of Respond Services and Products
Whilst the list of products intended for production within the Respond portfolio is
extensive it is not fixed. There may be occasions when modifications are required
and products are removed / combined / added. The list of products in Table 3.1 is
derived from the twelve Respond themes (see Table 1.1) with associated content
type.




Theme                         Product
                               1. 1 Core information - Standard topgrapghic mapping, socio
                               economic, Infrastructure, Logistics - from Conventional and EO,
                               Gazetteers, political/administrative bondaries and population
1: Basic maps (digital, paper, densities
EO, non-EO)                     1.2 In field data collection of roads / settlements etc. (non-
                                rapid)
                                1.3 Production/updating of maps (High Res) in crisis
                                situations (Hazards, Conflict)
                                2.1: International Charter "Space and Major Disasters" value
                                added products: Emergency mapping and general damage
2: Crisis & Damage Mapping assessment (including conflict issues)
                                2.2: Post disaster recovery using data from 6.1
                               3.1 Peacekeeping GIS and maps
                               3.2 Security Maps
3. Situation Maps
                               3.3 Operations coordination
                               3.4 Atlas of forgotten crises
                               4.1: Refugee camp positioning.
4: Refugee/IDP Support
Maps                           4.2:Refugee camp GIS and maps (with UNHCR)
                               4.3: Monitoring population movements
                               5.1.1: Vulnerability mapping, General coping capacity,
5.1: Thematic mapping          resilience, agricultural
service – Vulnerability
mapping.
                               5.1.2: National and Local hazards
                               5.2.1: Reconstruction planning maps
5.2: Thematic mapping
service –                      5.2.2: Strategic planning maps
Reconstruction/Rehabilitation.
                               5.2.3: Natural and Man made Crisis (UNDP) Planning Maps
5.3: Thematic Health           5.3.1: Health GIS and maps
mapping/Online health
mapping                        5.3.2: Epidemic Vector Control Mapping
                               5.4.1: Identification of hydro-geological water resources and
5.4 Thematic -Environmental    other resources
mapping
                               5.4.2: Environmental assessments (post-conflict)
5.5 Thematic Agricultural
                               5.5.1 Agricultural classification and field delineation
Mapping
                               6.1 Hazard Forecast
6: Alert Services
                               6.2 The Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System

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7: Communication / Reporting 7.1 Geographic information for reporting and communication -
Resources                    post crises and graphics to illustrate the situation and context
                             8.1: Pre-deployment mapping (more specific than 1.3 - maps
8. Field mapping services    current situation with respect to field operations)
                             8.2: In-field mapping (MapAction)
Table 3.1 Themes and associated products (and services).




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4. Basic Mapping
4.1.1   Service Defintion

Basic mapping underpins almost all the other services provided in Respond. It
provides the base layer information that the users can utilise in order to
determine key geographical attributes of a given area.

The basic maps include as a minimum, information relating to the distribution of
roads, rivers, and highly populated urban areas. The inclusion of height
information is provided as an option and is usually offered specifically as contour
lines and spot heights from SRTM data – please refer to Appendix 7 for coverage
details.

Basic maps should also include information such as administrative boundaries
(second to third level). Suggested datasets include those generated by the UN
Geographic Information Working Group (UNGIWG) and Second Administrative
level Boundary (SALB) project. In addition, a supplementary detailed gazetteer
may also be provided as users have expressed that this is a useful resource to
have included with the baseline mapping.

Further information may be added at the request of the user, but is limited to the
available budget assigned to this type of mapping. For example, Users have
requested that more topographic information is included such as vegetation and
human-made features. Existing topographic information is available from pre-
scanned Russian mapping at a scale of 1:200,000 scale – please refer to Appendix
10.

Pro-active mapping will be carried out in those areas thought most likely to be at
risk of suffering humanitarian crises, such as: areas of high seismic activity and
other geologically unstable areas, areas of chronic exposure to flood or cyclone
hazards and areas with populations highly vulnerable to drought or related food
security pressures to meet this requirement. Other areas likely to be targeted for
proactive basic mapping will include those areas where aid organisations are
already working. Basic mapping is likely to include some pro-active mapping of
cities, for example, UNOSAT maps around 20 new cities per year.

4.1.2   Service Users

  4.1.2.1   Operational Focus
The basic mapping service addresses users in all humanitarian organisations (and
those organisations working on their behalf) who need geographic information for
multiple applications. These applications include:
   • Planning (Logistics, Aid delivery, Personnel security, Extraction of
       information, Identifying natural resources and potential hazards);
   • Situation Maps - Definition of Area of Interest
   • Navigation;
   • Physical/natural/political barriers to access

  4.1.2.2   Core Users
The core users of the basic mapping service include: OCHA, UNHCR, UNDPKO,
WFP, UNJLC, ISDR, FAO, UNDSS, AECI, InterSOS, Spanish Red Cross, THW, DRK,

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DG-ECHO, DG-RELEX and NGOs. Others users may include any aid organisation
that requires geo-spatial data to put their operations into context, such as
secondary VACs.


  4.1.2.3   User Requirements
Users require reliable, accurate geographic data that can be used either to
produce a topographical map or as an input or context layer for multiple
applications, e.g., from situation and security maps to monitoring refugee
movements to identifying likely locations for water resource supplies.


  4.1.2.4   Service Delivery Time
The level of need is dependent upon the nature of the crisis and the Service
Levels will determine the speed of response i.e. whether providing rapid or
standard delivery. The basic mapping is primarily created to order as defined by
the user and is made available via service delivery category 1. The delivery time
is dependent upon data availability and the amount of vector processing, analysis
and formatting required.


4.1.3   Geographic Scope


  4.1.3.1   Regions of Interest
This service is focussed upon global coverage of developing countries. Definition
of areas of interest (AOIs) is dependent upon the operations of the aid
organisations requiring the service.


  4.1.3.2   Coverage per product
Service cover is determined by the extents as defined by the end-user
organisation. Using maps as an example, situation maps are often 1:1 million
scale or smaller but Crisis and Damage mapping can be focused on specific town
or cities (e.g. Bam in Central Iran) at 1:5,000 – 50,000 scale. A single product
could comprise numerous map sheets; it is a function of the size of the area of
interest and the scale at which the product is required. The products could be
made available in digital format in addition to hardcopy. For Respond internal
costing purposes, one mapping unit is the equivalent to one EO scene
(differentiated by either small or large scale mapping).


  4.1.3.3   Typical Map Scale
Scale is dependent upon the application:
    • For coarse mapping 1:1 million scale mapping;
    • 1:200,000 - 250,000 scale mapping for prioritised areas chosen by users.
For those situations where very high resolution imagery is required, e.g., to
identify potential locations for refugee camps, and an accurate assessment of
urban damage, then map products at scales from 1:5,000 – 50,000 can be
produced.




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4.1.4   Product Format and Input Data


  4.1.4.1   Product Format
Product type will include both digital and hardcopy raster maps. Digital data will
be available via the Respond web-catalogue providing an online download service.
Where licensing permits, the vector layers will be provided as KML GIS layers for
use within Google Earth. This application will allow the user to update the vector
mapping and add their own mapping symbols, linked to overview satellite
imagery.


  4.1.4.2   Input Data types for Map/Image Products
There are variety of input datasets that can be utilised for the provision of basic
mapping.

Digital geo-spatial data may include:
          • Vector files (e.g., VMAP level 0, updated version of Digital Chart of
              the World, VMAP Level 1 coastlines and country boundaries and
              major urban centres);
          • Satellite Imagery;
          • Scanned Maps;
          • Digital Terrain Models (DTMs).

Hardcopy maps will include access (depending upon availability) to off-the-shelf
topographic maps and will include civilian and military maps such as JOG, TPC,
and ONC and Russian military topographic mapping.

   •    Vector files for VMAP 0 are originally derived from 1:1 million scale US
        military mapping [Operational Navigation Charts]. Attribute information
        includes topography, hydrology, physiography, hypsography,
        oceanography, aeronautical features, infrastructure, utilities, culture, and
        administrative boundaries.
   •    VMAP 1 data are used to create US military 1:250,000 scale Joint
        Operations Graphics (JOG) Charts.
   •    Satellite Imagery will include data from both active (SAR) and passive
        (optical) sensors from all commercially accessible Earth Observation
        satellites. This imagery will come in both processed and ‘raw’ formats.
        Subject to licensing, Respond will provide access to several archives around
        the world that contain both processed and ‘raw’ image data.

   •    Scanned military and civilian maps are available over the Internet for
        almost anywhere in the world. The developed countries have the widest
        coverage and the less developed countries have very varied coverage often
        dependent upon a 19th century colonial legacy and 20th century strategic
        military importance. The military maps (often Soviet) are usually derived
        from imagery acquired by high resolution ‘spy’ satellites or aerial
        photography. Full details of the source data for these maps are not always
        available for every location. Even though many of these maps are out-of-
        date (20-25 years) they are sometimes the only ancillary thematic map
        information to more recently acquired satellite imagery. These scanned
        maps can be a useful source for checking or adjusting the position of
        satellite imagery. Civilian maps are often derived from military mapping and
        usually include street and cadastral maps to coverage at a country scale.

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   •   DTMs are available on a global basis in several formats. The original US
       GTOPO 30 data was derived from ONC military mapping and provided a
       dataset with a pixel resolution of 30 arc seconds (roughly equivalent to
       1km). This dataset has been improved as the ACE DEM (Altitude Corrected
       Elevations), which is derived from GTOPO 30 data that has been enhanced
       by the integration of altimetry data, acquired by the ERS satellites. Within
       the past two years the Shuttle Radar Thematic Mapper (SRTM) elevation
       data has been released by NASA. This dataset (derived from C-band data)
       covers the Earth’s land masses between latitudes 60 degrees North and
       South. This is available at a resolution of 30m for the US and for outside
       the US on a case-by-case basis. Alternatively it is resampled to a 90m
       resolution for global coverage outside of the US (see Appendix 7). Higher
       resolution data 30m (derived from X-band data) is available but coverage,
       although across the world, is limited to strips (see 7).


  4.1.4.3   Data Availability


   •   VMAP 0 data is available for most of the inhabited regions of the world.
       Even though much of the global coverage of VMAP 1 has been de-classified
       it has not been released by the US military. See Appendix 8 for pictures
       showing the available coverage.

   •   Satellite Imagery will include data from both active (SAR) and passive
       (optical) sensors from all commercially accessible Earth Observation
       satellite archives. Access to data archives such as the Digital Map Archive
       (DMA) run by the Joint Research Council (JRC) and those held by
       international agencies (such as the UN) is also included via links from the
       Respond website. Airborne imagery is highly localised and is more likely to
       be held in-country than in global databases.

   •   Scanned topographic maps are available from several commercial suppliers
       and also from academic institutions. Russian and US military topographic
       mapping is available from commercial suppliers, coverage varies according
       to scale. Appendix 10 contains examples of coverage available from some
       sample suppliers.

   •   DTMs/DEMs are available on a global basis. SRTM data is available from the
       USGS and covers the majority of the global landmass. The ACE dataset
       supplies complete global coverage and is available from De Montfort
       University (Leicester, UK). DEMs are also available from stereo satellite
       imagery (notably SPOT and Russian satellites) DTMs, derived from Russian
       military topographic mapping at several scales, can also be supplied from
       commercial suppliers.


  4.1.4.4   Data Requirements
All sources of geographic information should be available to users. Common data
types are mentioned above.


  4.1.4.5   Data Sources
There are many geographic data sources available throughout the world, some
provide global/regional/local coverage and act as mirror sites, and some are

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aimed specifically at the humanitarian sector. Access to archives varies depending
upon the nature of the source and associated agreements. A comprehensive list of
data held by the service providers is included in dossier D2.

Vector data
VMAP data is available from outlets in the US, Canada, UK and Australia (See
Appendices 8 & 11).

Satellite Imagery
Although there are many satellite imagery archives around the world the majority
are commercial enterprises many are run by government (or companies
connected to government) agencies (e.g., USGS, JPL, ESA, JRC, SPOT, NRSA).
European satellite image archives include the following examples: ESA Earthnet
On-line (EOLI), EOWEB (operated by DLR), Disaster Mapping Archive (DMA)
(operated by JRC), and Sirius (operated by SPOT). The US operates the greatest
number of Earth observation satellites. Data collected and distributed by US
government bodies is often sold at cost (e.g., Landsat 7, Terra, Aqua, EO-1). The
US has the largest number of commercial companies operating very high
resolution Earth observation satellites (e.g., DigitalGlobe – Quickbird 2, Space
Imaging – IKONOS 2, Orbimage – Orbview-3). A good site to understand the
various satellites and sensors used in remote sensing and developed for PREVIEW
(the EU co- funded R&D FP6 Project) can be found at http://www.space-
risks.com/SpaceData/index.php


Scanned Maps
There are two prime companies (both US) who supply global coverage of scanned
topographic mapping (Omni Map Resources and East View Cartographic). Other
institutions include the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection at the University of
Texas in the US.

Digital Terrain Models (DTMs)
Global DEMs such as the SRTM and ACE datasets are single source. However once
the data has been purchased it can be hosted on Respond user-access only
websites.


  4.1.4.6   Availability of Archive Data
There are numerous archives of suitable image and vector data, especially for
smaller scale products (1:250,000+ scale). During Stage 1, a detailed list was
compiled and circulated amongst Respond members, and now is in the throws of
being updated by DLR as network co-ordinator.

  4.1.4.7   Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Almost all VACs will have arrangements in place with commercial imagery
suppliers, although it is the intention that specific data agreements are negotiated
on behalf of the Respond consortium, in order to maximise data discounts. Details
of these agreements are held on the Respond partner extranet site.


  4.1.4.8   Processing Service Chains


Each service provider has their own specific service chains in order to create the
Respond mapping but essentially cover:


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Geometric processing: Raster – Levels of geo-rectification. There are numerous
ways in which raster data can be geo-rectified dependent upon the application,
availability of ancillary data and urgency of requirement.

Image processing: type of enhancements (spectral, spatial & radiometric);
Digitisation, Vectorization, Classification and modelling methods.

Vector – Re-projection; Editing; Analysis, Input to and from other datasets (both
geographic and non-geographic)

  4.1.4.9   Non-Geographic data requirements
Core geographic data will be both image and vector data. In addition there may
be databases containing socio-economic, demographic and ecological information
that can be connected through common location attributes (e.g. place names or
administrative boundary polygons) and displayed on maps.

  4.1.4.10 Input data formats and delivery methods
There are many different format types for images, DEM/DTMs and vector data.
Most GIS and image processing software can accept a very wide range of formats.
Appendix 9 gives an idea of some of the raster and vector formats that can be
found. Primary data (as supplied by the source) would not be re-formatted to a
standard format. However secondary data (primary data re-formatted or data
generated for Respond applications) would be supplied in a standard format.

Example 1: - Vector data.
   • VMAP level 1 data used for the Democratic Republic of Congo would be
      supplied in the standard VPF (vector product format) unless it had been
      updated through an earlier Respond application. In the latter case it would
      be supplied as one of several common commercial vector formats (e.g.
      ESRI shapefile -.shp, ESRI interchange file -.e00, MapInfo -.mif). Where
      attributes might be lost through re-formatting the original re-format would
      be retained.

Example 2: Raster data.
   • Archive Landsat satellite imagery originally supplied by the USGS and
      stored in HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) would be re-formatted as part of
      any image processing by a VAC prior to delivery to a User as a map. The
      processed image would be stored in a Respond archive as both an image
      map (non-georeferenced image file) and as an image-only (georeferenced
      image file).

Ordering

Data would be ordered through a variety of methods:
   • Online through an Internet portal.
   • Telephone (authorised user only)
   • Fax
   • Mail


  4.1.4.11 In-Field Data Collection
Some base mapping data may contain field data. Most data acquired in the field
would be static (such as roads, railway stations, villages, water wells, etc.).



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  4.1.4.12 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
Each dataset will have its own unique copyright specifications. Collation of this
information will be an ongoing task by the Network co-ordinator. It is anticipated
that copyright-free data will be selected in preference to copyrighted data in
initially building up the base mapping database. However this should not be seen
to preclude the acquisition of data to fulfil a core user’s base mapping
requirements. Where possible, data sources that operate very stringent copyright
specifications will be overlooked in preference to data sources with fewer
restrictions.


  4.1.4.13 Availability of metadata
Metadata availability will usually depend on the originator of the data but should
be mandatory according to Respond standards for every delivered product.
Digital data created by government or military organisations usually comes with
extensive metadata.



4.1.5   Software Tools

  4.1.5.1   Software Used
For Stage 2, the web-catalogue is being improved which will assist in making it
easier for providers and users to use the facility. In addition, the ‘Super Human’
interface, built by Keyobs, will be implemented to allow users to adapt the
Respond baseline mapping on an external application such as Google Earth.

  4.1.5.2   Restrictions of the distribution of software tools
No Restrictions have been identified with this service


  4.1.5.3   Accessibility of software tools
Primarily the web catalogue and Super Human interface will be used in an online
mode but will have limited offline capability.


  4.1.5.4   Software toolset functionality
The toolset will be as provided by Google Earth.

  4.1.5.5   Product Validation
Each dataset that is utilised for the creation of the basic maps should only be
used from a reliable and credible source. Details on the specific product validation
can be found in dossier C5.

4.1.6   Service Delivery

  4.1.6.1   Speed of Delivery
If the input dataset is already in the possession of the service provider and needs
no processing then delivery speed will be dependent upon memory size and
method of transmission.
If data must be acquired specifically the turnaround will be longer and will vary
with data type. The extents of the geographic coverage required will also have an
influence upon the delivery speed.

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    4.1.6.2   Delivery Methods


Delivery mechanisms will include the Internet [HTTP, FTP and e-mail] and if
required by hand delivery (CD-ROM/DVD/Hardcopy).

Formats for Respond geo-datasets will include the following common types:

     •   Raster   (Georeferenced uncompressed):
            o     GeoTIFF – Georeferenced Tagged Image File Format (.tif)
            o     TIFF – Tagged Image File Format (.tif) + Tiff World file (.tfw)
            o     BIL – Band Interleaved-by-Line + header file (.hdr)

     •   Raster (Georeferenced compressed):
            o ECW – Enhanced Compression Wavelet (.ecw)
            o [Later] JPEG2000 - Journalist Photographers Expert Group (.jpg)

     •   Raster (Non-georeferenced uncompressed):
            o TIFF – Tagged Image File Format (.tif)

     •   Raster (Non-georeferenced compressed):
            o JPEG – Journalist Photographers Expert Group (.jpg)
            o PDF – Adobe (.pdf)

     •   Vector data:
            o MapInfo (.mif/.mid)
            o Shapefile (.shp) (Environmental System Resources Institute –
                ESRI)
            o ArcGIS Interchange format (.e00) (Environmental System Resource
                Institute – ESRI)
            o Digital Exchange Format (.dxf)
            o Keyhole Markup Language (kml) for managing the display of three-
                dimensional geospatial data

The exact delivery format will be arranged with the User via the SDP.


    4.1.6.3   Annual anticipated usage
The supply of base mapping in the first instance is dependant on the allocation of
service volumes within the project. Thereafter, dissemination of the created
maps is dependant on user requirements. However, it is anticipated that the
service will be accessed on a daily basis when the Respond catalogue becomes
integrated into Reuters Alertnet

4.1.7    Existing Services

There are services that offer access to geographic data for humanitarian purposes
and also environmental data. These are listed below:

•    ReliefWeb – ReliefWeb is a project of the United Nations Office for the
     Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).
•    [UN OCHA] HICs – Humanitarian Information Centres set up by OCHA for
     specific locations around the world.
•    UNOSAT – UNITAR project implemented by UNOPS.

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•   UNHCR – UN High Commission for Refugees (GIS Information & Mapping Unit)
    and the provision of map products from Metria.
•   ISFEREA – Information Support For Effective and Rapid External Aid (Joint
    Research Centre (JRC) project).
•   DMA – Disaster Mapping Archive. JRC.
•   AlertNet – Reuters Foundation sponsored organisation that disseminates
    information to over two hundred and sixty NGOs.
•   Human – Humanitarian Mapping Service (KeyObs and Medecins Sans
    Frontieres)
•   ZKI – Centre for Satellite Based Crisis Information (Applied Remote Sensing
    Cluster of DLR) – http://www.zki.dlr.de
•   SERTIT – Sertit provides geographical information to the civil protection
    community amongst others in crisis situations.
•   EOPortal – Earth Observation Portal (ESA)
•   FEWS – Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET)
•   GIST – Data Repository of the Geographic Information Support Team (GIST)
    at Univ. of Georgia (US).
•   Google Earth – a system that maps the earth by the superimposition of
    images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe.

4.1.8   Added Value

There is no existing site that provides a single portal through which users can
access the wealth of geo-spatial data that exists throughout the web. Respond
can provide this. Respond will allow access to basic mapping as and when it is
needed, it will also allow users to acquire a variety of mapping services from the
same place thus saving time in a crisis. As Respond develops, an Open Service
Partnership will come into being which will maintain the current supply
arrangements that currently exist but will provide the additional benefit of
opening up the supply of map products to a far wider community of aid
organisations

4.1.9   Cost and Production

Sample costs have to be based on certain assumptions. The sample prices shown
below are based on two scenarios in which the final deliverable(s) is/are hardcopy
maps and the accompanying digital file.

    •   Scenario 1 - rectangular AOI of 30km x 50km. Map scale 1:50,000. Map
        sheet dimensions W: 66cm x H: 115cm. One map sheet required. Date
        source is multispectral SPOT5 with 10m ground resolution,. Image
        processing involves enhancement and output as false-colour image. Prices
        for additional digitising of linear features (data extraction) and
        classification of imagery have also been provided. 10 hardcopies of map as
        output. Price € 4,500, lamination + € 75 per map, digitising + € 920,
        classification + € 1,000.

    •   Scenario 2 - AOI 250km x 600km. Map scale 1:200,000. 3 map sheets
        required (each map covers 125km x 200km). Map sheet dimensions W:
        70cm x H: 115cm. Landsat 7 as data source. Image processing involves
        pan-sharpening and output as natural colour image. Prices for additional
        digitising of linear features (data extraction) and classification of imagery
        have also been provided. 10 hardcopies of each map sheet required. Price
        € 9,500, lamination + € 75 per map, digitising + € 920, classification + €
        1,000 (This assumes 9 Landsat 7 scenes)


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5. Crisis and Damage Mapping
5.1.1   Service Definition

The rapid crisis and damage mapping service provides an assessment of the state
or availability of infrastructure in urban areas or regions during humanitarian
crisis situations or after catastrophic events. This service operates on any scale
(local to global) and thus can be requested for any humanitarian crisis or hotspot
region in the world on 24/7 throughout the year.

In complex and rapid onset crisis situations it is critical to provide good situation
awareness information, particularly to assess changes that may have occurred,
and preferably on a rolling update basis. Such information is often crucial for relief
activity planning and logistics in the first hours and days after an event to
improve and update the existing knowledge base about a situation at all scales
from in situ to local or regional. Maps giving detailed analysis of single images or
image series to display crisis/disaster specific impacts on the affected area such
as flood extent, drought extent or severity, earthquake damage, landslide
location, or storm damage have proven invaluable for this and strongly supports
negotiations about cooperation amongst NGO and GO in the field, as well as that
it quickens work logistics and planning facilities for staff working in the field.


5.1.2   Service Users

  5.1.2.1   Operational Focus
Decision makers, mission planners, heads of departments and desk officers, as
well as field teams involved in humanitarian crisis management and operations
use damage and crisis maps (based on VRH imagery). Typically they want
information through services such as:
    • Location of damaged and non-damaged sites (to navigate convoys, local
       situation development & locate possible shelter-areas)
    • Comparison of pre- and post disaster situation e.g. pre and post flooding
    • Damage Assessment
    • Overview on situation
    • Magnitude of event
    • Planning documentation/backdrop
    • Pre-disaster situation overview.

  5.1.2.2   Core Users
The core users of the basic mapping service include: OCHA, UNHCR, UNDPKO,
WFP, UNJLC, ISDR, FAO, UNDSS, AECI, InterSOS, Spanish Red Cross, THW, DRK,
DG-ECHO, DG-RELEX and NGOs. Others users may include any aid organisation
that requires geo-spatial data to put their operations into context, such as
secondary VACs.


  5.1.2.3   User Requirements
The users want to understand the contingency, what is happening on the ground
and estimate the magnitude of the event and to locate key infrastructure, towns,
roads, rivers, and likewise. The users want to have a rapid overview in map
format of a given situation (after the event) and what the area looked like before
the disaster/crisis.

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Possible map theme is any widespread or major natural or human made disaster.
Operational examples
     • Buildings/infrastructure: damage mapping by means of unfilled polygons
        delineating the damage, preferably on top of pre-disaster imagery to allow
        the user to extract information on the pre-disaster building structure.
Flooding: damage mapping by means of a polygon showing the high water
situation (derived from RADAR or Optical imagery), preferably displayed on top of
a topographic map to compare to mean water level and to allow better navigation
and better recognition of damage to sites (e.g. historical city centres) and
infrastructure (e.g. bridges, railway station

    5.1.2.4   Service Delivery Time
Users require products as fast as possible, depending on the time-scale of
deployment/decision process (usually a few hours up to several days). VAC
delivery time is dependent upon data availability and the amount of pre-
processing required, with a maximum of 12h after data delivery to VAC. It is
recommended to deliver a first version to the user as quick as possible to provide
basic information and to iterate and update the product in the following
hours/days.

5.1.3    Geographic Scope

    5.1.3.1   Regions of Interest
The product is global and dependent on the particular crisis situation and the
amount of people affected by the disaster.

    5.1.3.2   Coverage per product
A number of km² (local) to thousands of km² (national). The list below overviews
a number of crisis situations and the approximate size of the disaster area:
    • Earthquake (e.g. Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia): local, regional and national
    • Flooding (eg Vietnam, Ethiopia): regional scale
    • Fires : local to regional
    • Volcanic eruption: local to regional
    • Landslide (Philippines): local
    • Tsunami (Sumatra, Thailand, Sri Lanka and southern India): local,
      regional, and national


    5.1.3.3   Typical Map Scale
1:5.000-10.000 for local highlighting
1:15.000 – 1:50.000 for extended detail
1:200.000 / 250.000 for regional overviews, depending on the extent and
magnitude of the event


5.1.4    Product Format and Input Data


    5.1.4.1   Product Format
•     Digital maps in jpg, pdf, and/or tiff (including world-file and GoogleEarth KML
      to support GIS applications) format
•     Digital geo-spatial data may include vector files (shapefile), satellite imagery
      (geotiff), scanned maps (jpg, tiff, geotiff) or digital terrain models (geotiff)
•     Hardcopy: laminated / non-laminated (on request)

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  5.1.4.2   Input Data types for Map/Image Products
A rapid delivery crisis and damage service has the following core constituents:
    • Recent and archived Satellite imagery: includes data from optical (Ikonos,
        Quickbird, Orbview-3, SPOT, MERIS, ALOS, SAC-C, DMC, IRS, Kompsat,
        Formosat, Landsat, ASTER, MODIS) and radar (ERS, ASAR, Radarsat,
        TerraSar-X) sensors, either purchased through the Charter or commercial
        channels. The imagery comes in ‘raw’ or processed formats.
    • Digital Terrain Models (DTM): available on a global base in several formats.
        SRTM-X and C-band elevation (Appendix 7) will be hierarchal combined
        with other DEM sources to compose a ‘best-of-DEM’ with varying
        resolution between 30m to 1km.
    • Vector data: main digital archive of urban areas, infrastructure, and
        administrative units are derived from VMAP 0 and VMAP 1 (Appendices 8
        & 11) vector map data. Other sources include Digital Chart of the World
        (DCW), Gazetteer (NGA, ESRI), as well as data from national agencies,
        East-View Cartographic services, and MS-Encarta databases.
    • Scanned military and topographic maps: Russian military maps are usually
        derived from high resolution ‘spy’ satellites or aerial photography and they
        are sometimes the only ancillary thematic map information to more
        recently acquired satellite imagery. Scanned topographic maps of
        1:25,000 prove very helpful as a backdrop for flood monitoring.
    • Building/Infrastructure damage assessment layer: analysis of pre- and
        post-disaster imagery by means of
            o visual interpretation of damaged sites delineated using a red
               signature
            o image combination by superimposing the pre-image (green) and
               post-image (red) reveal unchanged properties in yellow (colour
               additive mixing process)
            o visual interpretation of damage sites using grid cells, where each
               grid cell is interpreted by means of UN housing damage
               classification (no damage, moderately damage (<33%), severely
               damage (33-66%), and completely destroyed (>66%).
    • Flood damage layer: vector file delineating the aerial extent of the flooded
        area. Typically this is superimposed on a scanned topographic map to
        allow navigation and recognition of damage to sites (e.g. historical city
        centres) and infrastructure (e.g. bridges, railway station)
    • Field data: if available, field data is used to validate map products



  5.1.4.3   Data Availability


Most of the disasters are very difficult to be predicted in time and therefore
satellite data acquisition is difficult to assess by means of orbit programming and
availability. However, archived imagery in association with satellite systems ‘at
the right time at the right place’ provides temporal pertinence to allow successful
response to a disaster (see Appendix 13 for an overview on satellite revisit rate,
spatial resolution). In terms of image quality the ground pixel spacing of optical
and radar earth observation systems has developed to the meter domain,
allowing meaningful response to a disaster.

Digital elevation models (DEMs), derived from SRTM X- and C-band data, are
available from the USGS and and covers the majority of the global landmass.




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Vector data (VMAP 0,1, Appendicies 8 & 11) is available for most of the inhabited
regions of the world. For a rough estimation of the population affected by a
disaster the LandScan 2004 database gives a good global representation of rural
and urban population density.

Scanned topographic maps are available from several commercial suppliers, and
also from academic institutions. Russian and US military topographic mapping is
available from commercial suppliers, coverage varies according to scale. Appendix
10 contains examples of coverage available from some sample suppliers.


  5.1.4.4   Data Requirements
All high/medium resolution satellite imagery as detailed in Appendix 13
For accurate damage analysis pre- and post-disaster images (Appendix 13) are
obligatory


  5.1.4.5   Data Sources
    1. Very High - Medium resolution satellite imagery:
            a. Satellite image providers (ESA, Spotimage, Digital Globe, Space
               Imaging, OrbView, Isro and subsidiaries, etc.)
            b. Data provided through the International Charter on Space and
               Major Disasters (ERS, ENVISAT, SPOT, RADARSAT, IRS, NOAA,
               Formosat, Kompsat, Conae, ALOS, TerraSar-X, etc.)
            c. Upcoming / future satellite systems: Cosmo-Skymed, Rapid Eye,
               Pleiades
            d. Every year the list expands!!!
   2. Auxiliary data
            a. Gazetteer (NGA)
            b. Vector data (DCW, VMAP, National agencies)
            c. Hardcopy / digital maps (National agencies, Russian Military maps,
               East-view cartographic, MS-Encarta)
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): Global DEMs such as the SRTM and ACE datasets
are single source. However once the data has been purchased it can probably be
hosted on Respond user-access only websites (tbc)


  5.1.4.6   Availability of Archive Data


Archived data is an important starting point as often post-event data is
unavailable.     Archived data is useful as a reference for change detection.
Especially for earthquake affected areas, pre-disaster imagery clearly reveals the
building structure and infrastructure patterns providing key information to the
map users

  5.1.4.7   Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider


1. The International Charter :Space and Major Disasters
2. Individual arrangements eg DLR-EUSI, SERTIT-SPOT one stop shop for easy
   and efficient access to all data types).
3. Consortium arrangements with the data suppliers in order to take advantage
   of data discounts (ESA, SPOT, Eurimage etc)- details of these agreements can
   be found on the Respond extranet site.



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  5.1.4.8   Processing Service Chains
Each service provider has their own specific service chains in order to create the
Respond mapping but essentially cover:

   •   Geometric processing: Raster – Level of geo-rectification. Vector – Re-
       projection; Editing; Input to other datasets.

   •   Image processing: type of enhancements (spectral, spatial & radiometric);
       Classification methods; Modelling methods.

   •   Geometric Correction: Referencing to a local projection, including ortho-
       rectification if terrain requires and DEM is available

   •   Atmospheric Correction: If atmospheric distortions requires (e.g. haze
       reduction, cloud shadow removal)

   •   Image processing: image fusion / pan-sharpening / spectral enhancement
       for visualization.

   •   Classification: Visual enhancement and interpretation, digitising               of
       features, standard change detection techniques and classifications

Please refer to 5.1.8 & 5.1.9 of this section for the specific processing chains of
Respond partners, DLR & Sertit.

  5.1.4.9   Non-Geographic data requirements
LandScan data provides statistical information on the global distribution of rural
and urban population densities, which can be very helpful for damage assessment
purposes.

  5.1.4.10 Input data formats and delivery methods
   •   Imagery / raster data: digital inputs formats are mainly IMG, GeoTIFF or
       HDF ( Appendix 9)
   •   Vector data: several commercial vector formats such as ESRI shapefiles
       (.shp), ESRI interchange file (e00), MapInfo (.mif).
   •   Data ordering: online through an internet portal, or by telephone or fax
   •   Data delivery to VAC: only via ftp to ensure rapid delivery


  5.1.4.11 In-Field Data Collection
Both dynamic and static field data collection may be required for map validation

  5.1.4.12 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights


Each dataset will have its own unique copyright specifications. Where possible
data sources with so-called multi-user license, such as raw Ikonos data, is
preferred. However this should not be seen to preclude the acquisition of data
such as Quickbird which is often sold with a single-user license. In general data
has to be purchased and there are copyright limitations attached to these data
sources. Products could be free of copyright depending on the licensing
agreements




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  5.1.4.13 Availability of metadata


For most of the map products suitable standards-based metadata is available
providing basic information on the map content, extent, etc

5.1.5   Software Tools


  5.1.5.1   Software Used


Image processing software, GIS, desktop publishing, and Google Earth

  5.1.5.2   Restrictions of the distribution of software tools
Any restrictions will be covered under specific licensing conditions operated by the
software provider.

  5.1.5.3   Accessibility of software tools
The software tools are accessible through the internet (downloadable but may be
subject to license costs)


  5.1.5.4   Product Validation
During the crisis event the only validation possible is cross-checking by several
interpreters/operations (4-eye-principle)
Later on the validation can be conducted through field units and complementary
mapping actions, and/or further EO data sources.


5.1.6   Service Delivery


  5.1.6.1   Speed of Delivery
The speed of delivery for crisis and damage mapping products is anticipated to be
hours to a few days and is based on accessibility of data.

  5.1.6.2   Delivery Methods


Internet based delivery and Hardcopy maps.


  5.1.6.3   Annual anticipated usage
It is anticipated that the service will be in irregular use in association with the
irregular occurrence of a disaster. This means once per month on an average
base.

5.1.7   Existing Services and Added Value

  5.1.7.1   Existing Services


Rapid space map and analysis generation developed by DLR or SERTIT in the
context of the Charter and beyond. Additionally, MapAction teams deployed to the



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scene of crises produce situation maps as the crisis unfolds, which are updated
regularly (possibly every 12 hours) as required.


  5.1.7.2   Added Value


The provision of rapid satellite based map generation to humanitarian crisis
situations and products to the national and international relief community.
Improved speed of delivery and proven reliability.    The user benefits from
Respond’s links to the R&D community for innovation in value adding techniques
and sensor technology, and from Respond’s experience in operational rapid
mapping.

5.1.8   RM Supply Chain description SERTIT

SERTIT’s commitment is to deliver ready-to-use geo-information to the user
within 12 hours of image acquisition and is mainly aimed at civil protection and
humanitarian aid organisations, deciders / managers and field workers.

SERTIT works with all commercial satellite data available through the Charter or
not and produces high quality rapid mapping products from these data. The usage
of data in rapid mapping services depends on value adding task distribution, user
needs, data fit to need and access to these data in a pertinent time-scale, i.e.
rapidly. Concerning newly available satellite data such as ALOS and Radarsat-2,
SERTIT is PI in up-and-coming R&D programmes and is updating the processing
chain. The areas were Respond could provide a boost to SERTIT's and therefore
Respond's rapid mapping supply chain capacity would be if Respond could furnish
CompSat-2 and TerraSAR-X data over areas were SERTIT would have other data.
The different image processing steps are generic and treated below.

The processing chain is comprised of 7 separate modules and one transversal
continuous process, quality control. The seven modules are as follows: operational
service maintenance, rapid mapping action triggering, pre-processing and photo-
grammetry, image processing, spatial analysis and geographical information
production, cartographic edition and geo-information delivery. Moreover, this
chain is designed to be able to manage all possible types of available data. After
each step quality control comes into play.


Operational service maintenance
SERTIT’s implication in the production of rapid mapping is constant with much
attention being paid to operational service maintenance with:
    • worldwide disaster monitoring,
    • in-house personnel training,
    • up-dating of skills with respect to recent R&D development,
    • on-call 24/7 personnel roster,
    • and making ready software and hardware capacity to handle,
           o 3 parallel natural disaster rapid mapping actions,
           o all types of remote sensing and GIS data.

Quality Control
Quality control procedures are applied with check-lists and the 4-eye principle
being continuously applied.




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Triggering of Rapid Mapping Action
Once an action is triggered, SERTIT’s designated rapid mapping team meets to
pick the action’s team leader, the person who monitors the action’s development
and who insures quality control management, decide on an operational strategy,
and internal coordination.
SERTIT looks for reference archive and crisis data acquisition possibilities, ensures
satellites are tasked and receives the available rapid mapping satellite data:
    • directly from the provider agency,
    • off a rolling archive,
    • or off the specific International Disaster Charter server,
using secure, password protected FTP technology and SERTIT’s huge bandwidth
capacities.

Pre-processing and photogrammetry
Before data reception, global reference datasets are built and a local projection is
chosen, with the data where necessary being re-projected.
Imagery quick-looks or the raw data are previewed before or on data reception,
to choose the optimum data processing and analysis strategies. Immediately after
this, the photogrammetric procedures are set in motion to orthorectify where
possible and/or georeference the imagery. Then, image enhancement techniques
with spatial and temporal merging are applied. The results of each step are
validated by a second person not involved in the ongoing process.

Image processing, spatial analysis and geographical information
production
Specific neo-channel thematic processing, to enable geo-information extraction, is
elaborated whatever the data. Event analyses using change detection procedures
are put in place to determine the event’s extent, intensity and impact – with
remote sensing and GIS procedures being combined in the event’s assessment
and analysis. Throughout, the 4-eye principle and the quality control management
are implemented. The geographical information production step is an operator
and team validated interpretative phase with the result being a GIS/map
compatible geo-information layer. These procedures apply as much for floods,
fires, earthquakes or any other spatially distributed natural or man induced
disaster.

Cartographic edition
The rapid mapping team decides then on how to best communicate the extent,
intensity and impact of the disaster by following a reference symbology charter
adapted not only to the given reference and crisis data but also to user
requirements.
Titles are drawn up, map layers are integrated, the map(s) scale(s), legend(s)
projection(s) and extents are chosen (single or map series) and the mapped areas
are localised in overview maps.
Finally, when the maps are ready, they are quality checked through a check list
system by another operator and exported to user friendly digital formats and at
different compression levels to enable the delivery of these products over many
different bandwidths.

Geo-information delivery
Several types of resolution products are elaborated for distribution and all forms
of electronic distribution are used.
The delivery of high resolution products occurs through password protected FTP
sites. To facilitate the rapid consultation by authorised users, the medium
products are uploaded onto specific websites (Internet, Intranet) and sent by e-
mail as attached quick-looks to alert the targeted user community. To end the

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supply chain, the electronic access to SERTIT’s rapid mapping products is finally
checked and from external network connections the operational access to the
products are validated.




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5.1.9   RM Supply Chain description DLR

24/7 Supply chain: contact
DLR runs a 24/7 crisis mapping supply chain providing a 24/7 telephone contact
through a mobile crisis phone and a 24/7 team of remote sensing, GIS and
mapping specialists. Only trained and experienced staff is holding this crisis phone
and is member of the production team.

Normally used data for Rapid Mapping
Basic assumption: There are two main points that have to be considered when
using EO data for RM:
1.: Timeliness of the data delivery to the VA
2.: Adequate resolution with respect to the crisis
For rapid mapping it is essential that the data is provided as fast as possible.
Therefore, DLR uses the data that is available first most of the time.
But additionally, we have to address the quality issue. Many users tend to request
GIS layers to implement these into their own systems. Extracted information of
EO- data can be used in GIS-tools and also in GoogleEarth. Anyhow, to avoid too
much accuracy error, misunderstanding and wrong use concerning the extracted
information, the source EO-data should have a minimum resolution of 20 – 30 m.
Only for final merged digital overview maps EO data with a resolution of 100 –
200 m can be used. In most disasters the extent of the affected area is too small
to get representative information from coarse resolution data sets.

DLR uses following data for the RM chain:
ENVISAT ASAR Narrow Swath data, ERS SAR, LANDSAT, IRS-P6, SPOT,
FORMOSAT, DMC, RADARSAT, IKONOS, QUICKBIRD, TERRASAR-X, etc.


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DLR has wide experience in fast processing of EO data. DLR therefore can work
with nearly all data sets provided by the Charter (SPOT level 1A or following
levels, ERS/ENVISAT SLCs or following levels, e.g.). Especially in the radar
domain we appreciate to receive SLC data sets to process the images ourselves.
In some cases (if the processing by the data provider is fast and accurate) it is
recommended to get already rectified EO images to fasten the image analysis
process.
The transfer to the VA has to be clearly arranged and easy to use. DLR prefers the
personal notification and FTP transfer (as most of the data providers do). Another
data source is the Rolling Archive from ESA, containing MERIS and ASAR images.
It is a valuable tool but at the moment no pragmatic approach in crisis situations.
For a more detailed description of this platform please have a look at the SFM
report.
Another option for generating crisis information are the ASAR IMM products
derived by the GRID team at ESA. The images contain multi-temporal radar
information of the flooded region, resulting in a change detection product. During
recent activations in 2007 ESA provided these information products to the VAC
(DLR), during the Charter activation of the flooding in England. The results
seemed to be good, although it’s not clear if the products have been validated by
ESA. Additionally, it is recommended to add geolocation information to all
delivered products. Without this information the VAC/User has to search for GCPs
for rectification, which is very time consuming and quality diminishing and
therefore hinders the operational use of these data sets for Rapid Mapping at the
moment. The search for GCPs is complicated due to the resolution of approx. 50
m of the IMM data. Nevertheless, if the IMM products are georeferenced, provided
with Metadata and operationally available in NRT, they are a promising
contribution to the rapid mapping analysis. For a more detailed description of the
use of ENVISAT ASAR IMM data and ENVISAT ASAR data in general for flood rapid
mapping, be referred to the SFM report.

What information can be extracted from which data sets?
Optical data: damage assessment (vhr), floods (if not clouded), landslides, forest
fires, volcanic eruptions, land cover, streets, (urban) infrastructure, etc.
The data should contain all bands acquired from the sensor. Merged band
combinations are tailored for special applications (land-water-extraction).
Radar data: floods, main classes of land cover, digital elevation model (if
interferometric capabilities), streets, water bodies.
Very high resolution radar data: First experiences gained during the analysis of
TS-X data for the floods in England 2007 showed that already in the Stripmap
mode (3 m resolution) the imaging of details reaches a new dimension. The
advantage of this mode is that we get a high resolution on the one hand and a
large coverage on the other hand. This is needed for disasters like floods that
affect a wide region. Along with a higher resolution come new features that
influence the extraction results of existing methods. Features like power lines are
now clearly visible in the image, cutting flooded areas into parts. Due to the
coarser resolution such phenomena were hidden in former radar data sets.
During the mentioned mapping activation DLR tested a new semi-automatic
method which is a combination of an amplitude thresholding, an object-oriented
approach and a final manual logic check. The method shows plausible results and
can be performed in a short time. But in general, the analysis of very high
resolution x-band radar data with respect to an automatic extraction algorithm
will be part of research for the near future. Other features like smearing based on
backscattering mechanisms in clouds and strong rain influence the usability of the
images or at least regions of the images where these effects occur. The system
actually operates in “commissioning phase“ mode, full operational use and full
polarimetry will be available after this phase, giving new fields of applications.

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Even during this phase images are available completely processed to the ordered
format 30 minutes after acquisition.

Outputs:
1.: After processing: geo- or orthorectified EO data set
2.: After analysis: GIS ready layers (shape files)
3.: After merging of data sets: map products (accompanied by kml- and
Worldfiles)

Additional information:
Nearly all products represent a combination of EO imagery, EO derived
information and additional archived GIS information like road network, population
density, etc.

Main processing steps and their work flow can be seen in the figure below:




Non-Crisis Mapping Chain (Damage Assessment)
The non-crisis mapping chain uses the same infrastructure as the crisis mapping
chain without the 24/7 service and is therefore working only during normal
working hours.

For damage assessment only VHR resolution optical data is used at the moment.
The capabilities of VHR x-band radar data will be tested during the TS-X and
Cosmo missions.


5.1.10 Cost and Production

In 5 – 10 years, the required amount of products required per year is likely to be
50-75 mapping units per year.




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The production costs estimates for rapid mapping activities is based on the so-
called Unit Price. The costs of 1 unit refers to the price of processing and map
generation for an “equivalent scene”, which is defined as a satellite image (or set
of imagery – pre/post event) and associated image layers covering the area of the
disaster event in the limit of the available footprint(s) of the satellite sensor(s).
Hence ‘multiple equivalent scenes’ are considered to be a common multiple of the
equivalent scene; e.g. 3 multiple equivalent scenes means that the total
production costs is 3 times the costs of a multiple scene.

The price of a unit is built up of the service costs such as production, validation,
quality control, and dissemination, as well as a contribution to the maintenance of
a permanent on-duty 24/7 service. In the context of the Charter, where data are
“free of charge”, the unit price for baseline and extension Rapid Mapping services
are the same, which means that the unit price for all crisis assessment generic
products is €10k as defined to be part of the Crisis Mapping service (near real
time).

Typical Examples:
1. Generation of one satellite space map over disaster/crisis region 100km²:
   • Acquisition of one VHR Satellite image, area covered 100km², resolution
       1m. Preparation of auxiliary data, preparation of satellite data acquisition.
       Satellite Image Ingestion, pre-processing, analysis and interpretation. Map
       product delivery, documentation, follow up and consultancy to user. Total:
       10k € excluding data costs
   • Example of Rapid Mapping Service Price for Crisis Damage Mapping (3600
       km2) SPOT 5 at 2.5m/Radarsat/Envisat (Haiti, Bam, …), Total : 10k €, or
       close to 3 € per km²

2. MapAction teams deployment costs are dependent upon a number of
   variables:
       • The nature of the disaster and therefore the size of the team
       • The geographical distance from the UK and therefore the cost of air
           travel, including freight charges
       • The cost of hiring vehicles for reconnaissance
       • Travel insurance charges
       • Cost of satellite/mapping imagery
       • Satcom airtime to download imagery and for communications across
           the theatre of operations
       • Food
       • Hire of guides/translators
       • To collect spatial data in the field speedily takes manpower and
           organisation. There are also security considerations that required field
           teams to operate in pairs of individuals.
MapAction volunteers are unpaid and the team when deployed live in local
accommodation (or tents in earthquake events). For a full deployment of 12
persons (3x field teams of 2 persons each), 2x GIS ‘mappers’, 1x database
operator, 2x logistics/liaison, 1x field director, the approximate cost is € 30,000.




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6. Situation Mapping
6.1.1   Service Definition

Situation maps are important for both field, regional and headquarter staff to take
informed decisions within a common reference frame. However, in rapidly
evolving operations, by the time headquarter staff assesses a map, the situation
may have changed in the field. It is therefore important to construct the service
to fit the dynamic status of the particular humanitarian operation.

Situation maps provide relevant and up-to-date thematic information, for example
location of actors and what they do in the operational theatre (who-what-where),
road access, climatic conditions, destroyed health centres, security zones etc.

The distribution of situation maps has to be field-focused. During dynamic
situations, such maps should ideally be made in the field for interaction with end
users. Maps for more static situations can be made from a distance, for example
in Europe, but with very close ties to the field and regular co-ordination channels,
such as the Inter Agency Standing Committee and its typical Task Force setup for
major operations.

6.1.2   Service Users

  6.1.2.1   Operational Focus


Humanitarian Crisis Management

  6.1.2.2   Core Users


Decision makers, mission planners, heads of departments and desk officers, as
well as field teams involved in humanitarian crisis management and operations
use who want the latest information available on the situation that affects them in
the field

Core user include : WHO, IFRC, THW, DRK

  6.1.2.3   User Requirements
The most recent information that can assist users in better carrying out their
mandate. Example: Very high resolution satellite image with up to date road
network showing the various security levels by blocks, land mine areas and recent
security incidents, such as fire arms attack, car bombs etc

  6.1.2.4   Service Delivery Time
Delivery of maps should be as soon as possible, from a few days to a few weeks.
Some products need to be updated daily (for example security levels by block),
while others only weekly (for example progress in land mine clearance,
demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants which are relatively slow
tasks).




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6.1.3   Geographic Scope

  6.1.3.1   Regions of Interest
Key geographic areas are currently concentrated in Middle East, Africa (West
Africa, Central Africa, Great Lakes and Horn of Africa) and SouthEast Asia and
Pacific. Central Asian countries are under close monitoring, as are Afghanistan,
Central and South America, Mexico, Colombia and the Caribbean (Haiti).

  6.1.3.2   Coverage per product
    •   1:250,000 and 1:50,000: whole country
    •   1:5,000 to 1:25,000: targeted region (sub-national              administrative
        territorial entities such as district and cities)

  6.1.3.3   Typical Map Scale
    •   1:250,000 for overall area targeting and reporting
    •   1:50,000 for peace agreement monitoring
    •   1:25,000 to 1:5,000 for DDR (disarmament, demobilising and
        reintegration)


6.1.4   Product Format and Input Data


  6.1.4.1   Product Format
Digital and hardcopy maps. Digital maps also on peer to peer network for security
reasons. No online service for sensitive information (only peer to peer and
hardcopy).

  6.1.4.2   Data types for Map/Image Products
     Raster data
    • Topographic maps at 1:50,000 scale
    • Topographic maps at 1:100,000 scale
    • Topographic maps at 1:250,000 scale
    • Digital Elevation Model: GTOPO30 (SRTM-improved, 1 km resolution),
       SRTM mosaic (90 m resolution)
    • Landsat ETM+ natural colour mosaic and raw data individual files
    • Landcover mosaics derived from SPOT Vegetation and Landsat ETM+ data
    • Ikonos, QuickBird and/or OrbView-3 very high resolution imagery of key
       towns of interest
    • Landscan 2002 population distribution

     Vector data
    • All vector data from Global Insight Plus or equivalent 1:1M database
    • Most detailed Gazetteer for country of interest and neighbouring countries
    • DPKO supplied GPS points/polygons of special features of interest
    • Land cover vector polygons derived from raster data
     Contour lines derived from DEM

  6.1.4.3   Data Availability


Improved gazetteers are needed. Require more details than what is available
from 1:1M databases. Place-codes may need to be developed in the field.


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  6.1.4.4   Data Requirements
Standard basic data stored in GIS for country of interest and all neighbouring
countries and basic maps (ready to print PDF files) including above data produced
at
   • 1:10,000 scale (towns of interest)
   • 1:50,000, 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 (land cover, DEM, standard map)
   • country scale map (land cover, DEM, standard map)
   • regional scale map (land cover, DEM, standard map)


  6.1.4.5   Availability of Archive Data
In general all typical satellite imagery data exist in archive of main cities, but new
acquisitions may be required pending the situation and if smaller villages need to
be covered.

  6.1.4.6   Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Almost all VACs will have arrangements in place with commercial imagery
suppliers, although it is the intention that specific data agreements are negotiated
on behalf of the Respond consortium, in order to maximise data discounts. Details
of these agreements are held on the Respond partner extranet site.

  6.1.4.7   Processing Service chains
Each service provider has their own specific service chains in order to create the
Respond mapping but essentially cover:

 •   Orthorectification of satellite imagery. Supervised land cover classification.
 •   Digitalization of up to date road network from EO data verified in the field.
 •   Feature recognition
 •   3D display platform

  6.1.4.8   Non-Geographic data requirements
Situational data is collected in the field and geo-referenced using GPS or detailed
maps. Potentially, information is also received from other UN entities and NGOs
(depending on field scenario). Each country has datasets produced by local public
institutions.

  6.1.4.9   Input data formats and delivery methods
Proprietary and standard satellite image formats. Currently only Landsat and
Aster data is available on line. Standard commercial ordering systems apply for
HR and VHR optical and Radarsat. Data leasing pilot project with Spot Image.

  6.1.4.10 In-Field Data Collection
UN DPKO and potentially other UN and NGO’s will supply data on an ongoing
(dynamic) basis in the field.

  6.1.4.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
Normally no copyright on field collected data, but likely to be restricted
distribution due to security issues. Copyright on certain commercial satellite
imagery. UNOSAT has negotiated favourable copyright conditions with key data



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providers. Property rights should be secured for producers if local public sources
are to be used.


  6.1.4.12 Availability of metadata


Metadata is usually available for EO data. For vector data the availability of
metadata is generally loose, but UNOSAT will strongly advocate for at least
minimum metadata standards (SHARE).


6.1.5   Software Tools


  6.1.5.1   Software Used
    •   Groove peer to peer network.
    •   Spaceyes 3D visualization tool

  6.1.5.2   Restrictions of the distribution of software tools
Both Groove and Spaceyes are commercial software products and therefore
subject to restrictions. UN DPKO is currently assessing this software and may
purchase multiple licences. Groove and Spaceyes are relatively low cost software.

  6.1.5.3   Accessibility of software tools
Groove: Stand-alone for download, but work in a closed peer to peer network.
Spaceyes: Stand-alone, low cost inter-active viewer and ready to run data
applications can be distributed on CD.


  6.1.5.4   Software toolset functionality
All available (full versions)

  6.1.5.5   Product Validation
Situation mapping products will be validation against data collected in the field.

6.1.6   Service Delivery

  6.1.6.1   Speed of Delivery
One month from T0. Daily, weekly (or less frequent) updates will be conducted as
required

  6.1.6.2   Delivery Methods


    •   Closed peer to peer network.
    •   Hardcopy distribution
    •   CD distribution

Formats: JPEG, GeoTiff, Shape, Tab, ECW and others as suited




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6.1.7   Existing Services and Added Value

  6.1.7.1   Existing Services
There are other service providers outside of Respond e.g. UNOSAT

  6.1.7.2   Added Value
Lower cost and improved quality service through experienced consortium. Well
connected with end user(s). Timely service delivery

6.1.8   Cost and Production

In 5 – 10 years it is likely that 100 situation maps could be required. The Respond
service could supply at almost half of these. 15 products per year are likely to be
produced during Respond Stage 2. One single situation map can be provided at a
cost of 5-10k € depending on the content of the map and how complex it is.



7. Refugee/IDP Support Mapping
7.1.1   Service Definition

IDP is short for “internally displaced person”. Some 25 million people worldwide
currently live in situations of internal displacement as a result of conflicts or
human rights violations. They were forced to flee their homes because their lives
were at danger, but unlike refugees they did not cross international borders. It is
recognised that internally displaced people now outnumber refugees by two to
one.

Respond partners UNOSAT, Keyobs and Metria are likely the most experienced
providers of satellite imagery based services related to refugee and IDP camp
mapping. With UNHCR now also taking on responsibility for IDP camps, the need
for such products is likely to grow even further. With the more systematic
approach by the UN Refugee Agency, UNHCR, towards field level information
management including camp GIS and state of the art registration systems, the
provision of a very high resolution optical based Respond service fits nicely with
ongoing and future planned activities by the user.

This service has an integrated approach towards product delivery by both
ensuring high quality paper and digital maps, while at the same time integrating
vector layers derived from satellite imagery, registration data and field
assessments into an operational local information management system run by
UNHCR. This service will be enhanced through the provision of a secondee from
Keyobs, to work for limited periods at UNOSAT in Geneva.

7.1.2   Service Users

  7.1.2.1   Types of Users and Overall Requirements
The typical users of this service are: Field staff, registration officers, camp
planners, logistics officers, camp managers, and medium and senior level UN
decision makers, as well as NGOs, donor and host governments. They want a
system where the needs of the beneficiaries (refugees and IDPs) are well
accounted for. This system should quickly produce up-to-date information on the



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refugee or IDP situation ranging from local (camp) level to province, national,
regional and international level.

No such service yet developed for operational use in close cooperation with
UNHCR (which is an absolute demand for such a service). UNOPS UNOSAT and
Metria have currently defined a project with UNHCR and are the most advanced
actors in this field

  7.1.2.2   Core Users
The core users are:
   • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
   • UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA)
   • NGOs
   • Donor governments
   • Host-governments.

Other users: IRFC, THW, DRK & InterSOS


  7.1.2.3   User Requirements
Detailed maps of refugee/IDP camp with GIS/registration information linked to
each family. Camp performance indicators aggregated to national and regional
level to assist in HQ and regional decision making. Camp borders changes. For
example: A very high resolution satellite image of a refugee camp where each
shelter is identified and linked to a geographic id, again linked to various
registration information (e.g. number of people, sex and age distribution,
unaccompanied        children,    elders,   education    level     etc.). Combined
GIS/registration/population information used at local level to for example plan the
location of new schools (depending on children population distribution), health
clinics and sanitation infrastructure, water points and accessibility.

  7.1.2.4   Service Delivery Time
From 24 hours for emergencies to annual updates for more stable situations

7.1.3   Geographic Scope

  7.1.3.1   Regions of Interest
Chad (Darfur emergency), Ghana (Liberia emergency), central Africa. In general:
central Africa, Horn of Africa, west Africa, west Asia and Central Asia

  7.1.3.2   Coverage per product
The area of a typical product is a refugee camp and depends on the size and
extent of the camp. Therefore, the area can vary from camp to camp (number of
inhabitants varies between 5,000 and 100,000). A typical example would be
designed for printing in A1 format at a scale of 1:2500-5000 which would cover
an area of 3x3km (typically a Quickbird or Ikonos scene is used)


  7.1.3.3   Typical Map Scale
1:5,000 to 1:50,000




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7.1.4   Product Format and Input Data

  7.1.4.1   Product Format
Digital and hardcopy maps. Local GIS databases aggregated to national, regional
and HQ level.

  7.1.4.2   Data types for Map/Image Products
Very high resolution satellite imagery (better than 1m pan, better than 4m colour)
or aerial images, field collected or satellite derived vector data, SRTM DEM,
Landsat or SPOT high resolution imagery for wider area coverage) combined with
UNHCR refugee registration.

  7.1.4.3   Data Availability
The required sensors for acquiring satellite data exists but data over a specific
refugee camp may not exist. Vector and DEM data may not exist. The system for
integrating data needs to be developed. Both raster and vector data generally
need to be programmed / collected and analysed. There is often a poor data
archive over UNHCR locations of interest.

  7.1.4.4   Data Requirements
Standard basic data stored in GIS for country of interest and all neighbouring
countries and basic maps (ready to print PDF files) including above data produced
at
   • 1:10,000 scale (towns of interest)
   • 1:50,000, 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 (land cover, DEM, standard map)
   • country scale map (land cover, DEM, standard map)
   • regional scale map (land cover, DEM, standard map)


  7.1.4.5   Availability of Archive Data
Archive data is suitable for mapping if the data exists and are up to date;
although VHR archives are not extensive at present some archived data is
available at www.spaceimaging.com and www.digitalglobe.com.

  7.1.4.6   Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Metria are re-sellers for both Ikonos and Quickbird data, for UN customers
Quickbird data orders must be handled from Eurimage in Rome, Italy, who has
the exclusive right for Quickbird to European customers. Data agreements are
currently being negotiated in order that the Respond consortium can receive
preferential discounts from these data suppliers.

  7.1.4.7   Processing Service Chains
Each service provider has their own specific service chains in order to create the
Respond mapping but essentially cover:

Ortho-rectification of image data. System corrected satellite data corrected with
GPS points from the field (if orthorectified images are not available). Vector and
registration information integrated into GIS. Automatic shelter detection
(algorithm developed by Metria) verified by field staff. Automatic shelter detection
is developed with satellite data and not tested with aerial data. Satellite data must


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be merged for best results, 1 m panchromatic and 4 m multispectral data. This
can be done by the data provider but is preferred to be done in-house.
Camp maps in near natural colours, for easiest interpretation by non-expert
remote sensing personnel. For later updates, e.g. environmental change
assessments Landsat or SPOT imagery will be used.

  7.1.4.8   Non-Geographic data requirements
UNHCR has its standard registration document, which will be integrated in a GIS
with a location id for each shelter, thus providing for map production and GIS
analyses of socio economic and demographic parameters. Registration information
is sensitive and raw data restricted to UNHCR and its implementing partners

  7.1.4.9   Input data formats and delivery methods
Input data consists of VHR satellite data in GeoTiff format. Other formats are
available but GeoTiff is the preferred format. Ordering is done via the sales
organisation of Metria or Eurimage, by filling in an order form. Data is delivered
either on CD or by ftp. In the case of Quickbird and ordering from Eurimage a
point of contact is identified.

  7.1.4.10 In-Field Data Collection
In field data will be supplied by UNHCR and field missions. Initially, test will be
conducted upon (static) situation. Future operational use will mean a dynamic
environment

  7.1.4.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
Satellite data is copyrighted by the data provider. Vector data supplied by UNHCR
is also copyrighted.

  7.1.4.12 Availability of metadata
Metadata will be supplied with EO imagery as standard.

7.1.5   Software Tools


  7.1.5.1   Software Used


Automatic shelter identification algorithm is developed by Metria and Metria has
the copyright. The software to use the algorithm is under development and will be
free to use by UNHCR, but copyrighted by Metria. The software is a tool to
extract the product, not a part of the product.

  7.1.5.2   Restrictions of the distribution of software tools
Distribution of the software must be an agreement between Metria and UNHCR.

  7.1.5.3   Accessibility of software tools
The software MSI (Metria Shelter Identifier) is not ready for use externally,
further development is needed. There are no third party distribution rights.


  7.1.5.4   Software toolset functionality
N/A


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  7.1.5.5   Product Validation
Data products are validated in the field together with end-user specialists.

7.1.6   Service Delivery


  7.1.6.1   Speed of Delivery
Speed is not important but accurately recording the information is. Delivery is
very dependant on receiving the VHR data which usually has to be specially
programmed over the AOI - therefore can range between 2-6 months.

  7.1.6.2   Delivery Methods


Delivery mechanism is preferably FTP push but if not existing by hand on CD/DVD
by mail, carrier or implementing agencies such as MapAction. ECW compression,
pdf, GeoTIFF and JPEG/JPEG 2000.


  7.1.6.3   Annual anticipated usage
The usage exceeds the available budget for this type of mapping. Under Stage 2,
41 IDP/Refugee maps are planned.

7.1.7   Existing Services and Added Value


  7.1.7.1   Existing Services
There are no other existing services of this nature. Metria and UNHCR provide the
most advanced solutions today


  7.1.7.2   Added Value
    •   Well structured and solid partners.
    •   State of the art products and other Respond resources.
    •   UNCHR and UNOPS UNOSAT on good terms will yield core decision making
        information for UN, donor governments.

7.1.8   Cost and Production

The cost of a single IDP camp mapping product depends on the size of the camps
but is estimated to be between € 5,000 and € 30,000




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8. Thematic Mapping services

8.1.1   Service Definition

Thematic mapping includes all mapping containing thematic information additional
to that provided in the basic mapping service. Respond defines five specific types
of thematic maps – Vulnerability maps, Reconstruction and rehabilitation maps,
Health maps, and Environmental status mapping .

THEMATIC MAPPING – VULNERABILITY MAPPING

Local authorities and humanitarian assistance communities in disaster prone
areas rarely have adequate geographic information as a basis for vulnerability
mapping. This service will ensure required information is available to the involved
actors to improve local GIS capacity at an affordable cost for the various funding
groups (for example local authorities, donor governments, friendship cities, etc.).


  8.1.1.1   Service Users

  8.1.1.2   Operational Focus
Local and national authorities in disaster-prone areas e.g. Swiss Development
Cooperation undertaking landslide mapping for risk analysis in Tajikistan.

  8.1.1.3   Core Users
The core users are local and national authorities in disaster-prone areas. Other
users could include international lending agencies and humanitarian agencies


  8.1.1.4   User Requirements
Local maps and assessments highlighting areas at risk and areas at low
vulnerability for more informed decision making during urban and rural planning.
Example: Vulnerability map towards floods and landslides for urban area / city in
developing country or Vulnerability map examining potential crop failure.


8.1.1.5 Service Delivery Time
These products are not needed rapidly. Typically a product should be ready within
1-2 months after order. It is more important to collect quality data to have a good
end product than trying to deliver the product quickly. These products are in the
opposite temporal delivery range than the rapid mapping products. These
products are produced satisfactorily but more services and products can be
delivered. Lack of quality data at the right scale will always be a problem.

8.1.2   Geographic Scope

  8.1.2.1   Regions of Interest
Key areas of interest are typically in high-pressure urban areas in developing
countries. Area size typically that of a city of 20-50k inhabitants and upwards.




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  8.1.2.2   Coverage per product


Coverage is limited to one city and its immediate surroundings


  8.1.2.3   Typical Map Scale
1:25,000 - 1:50,000


8.1.3   Product Format and Input Data


  8.1.3.1   Product Format
Hardcopy and digital maps, ready to use GIS layers

  8.1.3.2   Data types for Map/Image Products
DEM, geophysical data, socio-economic data, population distribution, topographic
maps, model data, EO data.

  8.1.3.3   Data Availability
Data availability can be limited depending on the region of interest.


  8.1.3.4   Data Requirements
EO and vector data inputs are typically derived from high or very high resolution
imagery. EO data can often be acquired from multiple sources. Geophysical and
socio-economical data are not normally acquired from dual sources.


  8.1.3.5   Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Almost all VACs will have arrangements in place with commercial imagery
suppliers, although it is the intention that specific data agreements are negotiated
on behalf of the Respond consortium, in order to maximise data discounts. Details
of these agreements are held on the Respond partner extranet site.


  8.1.3.6   Processing Service Chains
Each service provider has their own specific service chains in order to create the
Respond mapping but essentially cover:

    •   Orthorectification
    •   Land cover classification
    •   Slope analysis
    •   GIS layer combination


  8.1.3.7   Non-Geographic data requirements
Geophysical and Socio-Economic data.

  8.1.3.8   Input data formats and delivery methods
    There is currently no standard.


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  8.1.3.9   In-Field Data Collection
Local partners (for example local authorities) normally provided in-situ data.

  8.1.3.10 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
Data from the public domain is usually free from copyright. EO data is usually
subject to copyright restrictions. Intellectual property for derived products
normally belongs to the VAC.

  8.1.3.11 Availability of metadata
Metadata availability will usually depend on the originator of the data but should
be mandatory according to Respond standards for every delivered product.
Digital data created by government or military organisations usually comes with
extensive metadata. Two examples of metadata are provided in Appendix 12.


  8.1.3.12 Product Validation
Using data obtained in the field by local authorities and implementing partners.


8.1.4   Service Delivery


  8.1.4.1   Speed of Delivery
The anticipated speed of delivery is likely to be between 1 and 2 months.

  8.1.4.2   Delivery Methods
Internet-based delivery in standard image formats such as TIFF, GeoTIFF, JPEG,
JPEG2000 (+ world-file). Also delivery of hardcopy maps by mail.


  8.1.4.3   Annual anticipated usage
It is estimated that the service will be required 4-6 times during Respond stage 2


8.1.5   Existing Services and Added Value


  8.1.5.1   Existing Services
Thematic vulnerability maps are standard products offered by most GIS
companies

  8.1.5.2   Added Value
The capability to work more closely with the users in a not for profit environment
to ensure good information to base decisions on are affordable to those who need
it.


8.1.6   Cost and Production

In 5 – 10 years, the required amount of products required per year is likely to be
100. Respond stage 2 is likely to provide 10-15 maps. The cost of a product
depends on the situation but is estimated to be between € 5,000 and € 15,000.

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THEMATIC MAPPING – RECONSTRUCTION / REHABILITATION

Local authorities and humanitarian assistance communities in disaster prone
areas normally have very scarce geographic information for which to improve
their rehabilitation mapping. This service will ensure required information is
available to the involved actors in order to improve local GIS capacity at an
affordable cost for the various funding groups (for example local authorities,
donor governments, friendship cities, etc.)

8.1.7   Service Users

  8.1.7.1   Operational Focus
Pre-crisis operations such as those provided by UN International Strategy for
Disaster Reduction (UN ISDR) in close cooperation with local authorities, UN sister
organizations and NGOs.


  8.1.7.2   Core Users
UN ISDR. Other potential users include: UN Environment Programme, UN
Development Programme, UN Habitat, local governments, InterSOS, NGOs


  8.1.7.3   User Requirements
Reliable up to date information on geophysical and socio-economical parameters
required for comprehensive vulnerability mapping and planning as well as post-
crisis damage assessments. Example: Land cover information from SPOT
combined with SRTM elevation data for computing slope in combination with
hydrological networks for assessing vulnerable and “safer” areas for settlements.

  8.1.7.4   Service Delivery Time
This is not an emergency product. The time frame for when they need the product
largely depends on the area of interest and the geophysical and socio-economical
parameters involved. However, a Respond product should typically be finished
within three months after kick-off.

8.1.8   Geographic Scope

  8.1.8.1   Regions of Interest
Depending of the situation and the respective country affected. Areas range from
local (municipal) to regional

  8.1.8.2   Coverage per product
On the order of 10s to 100s of km²


  8.1.8.3   Typical Map Scale
1:10,000-1:1,000,000 (from local level to region covering several countries




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8.1.9   Product Format and Input Data


  8.1.9.1   Product Format
Digital GIS layers, digital and hardcopy maps as well as online services

  8.1.9.2   Input Data types for Map/Image Products
Raster data
   •    Topographic maps at 1:50,000 scale
   •    Topographic maps at 1:100,000 scale
   •    Topographic maps at 1:250,000 scale
   •    Digital Elevation Model: GTOPO30 (SRTM-improved, 1 km resolution),
        SRTM mosaic (90 m resolution)
   •    Landsat ETM+ natural colour mosaic and raw data individual files
   •    Landcover mosaics derived from SPOT Vegetation and Landsat ETM+ data
   •    Ikonos, QuickBird and/or OrbView-3 very high resolution imagery of key
        towns of interest
   •    Landscan 2004 population distribution (30’’ resolution)


Vector data
   •    All vector data from Global Insight Plus or equivalent 1:1M database
   •    Most detailed Gazetteer for area of interest
   •    Socio-economic data from UNDP and/or other local organizations/institutes
   •    Land cover vector polygons derived from raster data
   •    Contour lines derived from DEM


  8.1.9.3   Data Availability
Improved gazetteers are needed. Require more details than what is available
from 1:1M databases. Place codes may need to be developed in the field.


  8.1.9.4   Data Requirements
Pre- and post-event satellite data, GIS reference data and field based statistical
data.

  8.1.9.5   Availability of Archive Data


Reference archives exist will all major satellite data providers, but depends on the
scale of the application. Statistical data and climatic/geological data also
important.

  8.1.9.6   Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
All thematic mapping services/products need to be performed in close cooperation
with data supplier and product creator. UNOSAT for example has existing supply

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agreements with all key EO providers and also recognizes the need to work with
local actors for data supply (non EO based). In addition, data agreements are
currently being negotiated in order that the Respond consortium can receive
preferential discounts from these data suppliers.


  8.1.9.7   Processing Service Chains
Each service provider has their own specific service chains in order to create the
Respond mapping but essentially cover:

    •   Orthorectification of satellite imagery.
    •   Supervised landcover classification.
    •   Digitalization of up to date road network from EO data verified in the field.
    •   Slope and angle calculated from SRTM over area of interest.
    •   Socio-economic data may have to be re-projected depending on the source
        data.

  8.1.9.8   Non-Geographic data requirements
Thematic information, such as climatology, socio-economy, geology, and project
statistics (can be aggregated). Data providers are identified on a case by case
basis.

  8.1.9.9   Input data formats and delivery methods
    •   Reports (non geo-referenced text)
    •   Vector/Raster GIS format

  8.1.9.10 In-Field Data Collection
UN ISDR and potentially other UN and NGOs will supply data and assist in field
verification of map products.

  8.1.9.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
There are normally no copyright restrictions on field collected data. Most other
satellite imagery and GIS data have standard copyright restrictions to them.


  8.1.9.12 Availability of metadata
Metadata is usually available depending upon the data source.


  8.1.9.13 Product Validation
Data products are validated in the field together with end-user specialists.

8.1.10 Software Tools

The service will utilise commercially available software tool such as: GeoImage 3D
flythrough application; MapInfo, ArcView, ERMapper amongst others. These are
subject to standard commercial copyright restrictions. Functionality depends upon
the tools used and range from simple visualisation to complex analysis.




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8.1.11 Service Delivery

  8.1.11.1 Speed of Delivery
This will depend on the urgency of the request, and extent of the area to be
analyzed. Normally delivery is within three months.

  8.1.11.2 Delivery Methods
Internet, CD and/or DVD, hardcopy.


8.1.12 Existing Services and Added Value


  8.1.12.1 Existing Services
No such overall service is available. Currently serviced on a case by case basis
using UN DPKO GIS staff and commercial companies


  8.1.12.2 Added Value
Lower cost and improved quality service through experienced consortium. Well
connected with end user(s).

8.1.13 Cost and Production

As more disasters strike, reconstruction mapping becomes a very important asset
and therefore it is foreseen approximately 50-100 products per year will be
required in 5 – 10 years time. Respond stage 2 will supply about 12-15 products
per year. The cost of a single product will be 5,000-15,000€ depending on the
area.




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THEMATIC MAPPING – HEALTH MAPPING/ONLINE HEALTH MAPPING

Health maps will aid in the assessment and planning of aid efforts. Maps can be
used for epidemiological analysis, planning the location of health clinics, hospitals
and camps, distribution of medical aid and vaccination campaigns.

  8.1.13.1 Operational Focus


All aid organisations (and those organisations working on their behalf) who need
geographic information for medical applications. It includes international
organisations, UN entities (WHO), NGOs and research centres (CDC, Tropical
Medicine Institutes...)

A Health Map should not be a topographic map used in case of medical problems.
It is a thematic map presenting health/medical data, with potentially spatial and
temporal evolution. This map should be used to make better decisions and better
allocate the limited resources.

Health   maps can be used:
   •     Operationally to manage activities in the field
   •     To communicate on the activities (health ministries, donors, press...)
   •     To capitalise information


  8.1.13.2 Core Users
DRK, CERMES’ other first aid and medical organisations. It is anticipated that the
future users will include NGOs like MSF and Epicentre.

  8.1.13.3 User Requirements
Users want reliable, accurate geographic data that can be used either to produce
a health map or as an input or context layer for multiple applications, e.g., from
epidemic monitoring to preparedness, emergency management in case of
outbreaks, management of vaccination campaigns, distribution of medicines etc.
However, the creation of health map is today limited by the availability of health
data. Jena-Optronik has specialised in providing health maps to CERMES, by
looking at environmental factors that may contribute to the outbreaks of Malaria
and Meningitis.


  8.1.13.4 Service Delivery Time
The level of need is dependent upon the nature of the crisis. The Service Levels
will determine the speed of response. Speed is not an issue when you use health
maps to anticipate crisis (repetitive epidemics or health problems e.g. cholera,
seasonal fevers...). It becomes crucial in case of epidemic outbreaks like Marburg
Virus in Angola. The required delivery time can vary from 2 days to a few months.


8.1.14 Geographic Scope

  8.1.14.1 Regions of Interest
The service is global. Definition of areas of interest (AOIs) is dependent upon
those aid organisations requiring the maps.



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  8.1.14.2 Coverage per product
Coverage is highly variable and dependent upon the specific application, from
local to regional scales.

  8.1.14.3 Typical Map Scale
1:10,000 – 1:500,000 scale.
Fine scale will be used for medical problems in cities while coarser scales will be
used for regional or national management


8.1.15 Product Format and Input Data


  8.1.15.1 Product Format
Product type will include both digital and hardcopy maps. Digital data will be
available as an on-line service and as a finished product. The digital geo-spatial
data mainly includes specific health Vector files overlaid on Basic Maps vector
products.


  8.1.15.2 Data types for Map/Image Products
Data used for Health products is similar to Basic Maps products except that Health
layers of information are created from field information.
Field information is available in different formats:
• Excel file/database
• Reports

Environmental maps can also be used for further analysis of epidemics/health
conditions (water/sanitation for cholera analysis...). But this is often far beyond
the mission of humanitarian organisations.

With respect to the health maps being produced for CERMES, they constitute a set
of georeferenced thematic information layers with corresponding statistical
evaluations to map and monitor environmental risk factors for infectious diseases.
It is a tool to develop a model that predicts the outbreak of an epidemic, to find
the reservoir of diseases.


  8.1.15.3 Data Availability
See Basic Mapping Service for the generation of the project 'background' creation.
Availability of field information remains an issue and is dependent on the
evolution of the relief organisations in terms of data collection and capitalisation


  8.1.15.4 Data Requirements
Refer to Basic Mapping Service requirements


  8.1.15.5 Availability of Archive Data
Archive data is suitable in terms of management of epidemics. The more you
know on the past events the best you are prepared.
A complete study of the conditions of outbreaks could lead to useful information
for future events.

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  8.1.15.6 Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Almost all VACs will have arrangements in place with commercial imagery
suppliers, although it is the intention that specific data agreements are negotiated
on behalf of the Respond consortium, in order to maximise data discounts. Details
of these agreements are held on the Respond partner extranet site.


  8.1.15.7 Processing Service Chains
The question of raster processing has been addressed in other sections (Basic
Maps, Environmental Maps, Situation Maps...). The focus here is on the
processing of field information. The main task is the structuring of field
information into GIS-compatible database that can be mapped. The processing
depends on the type of information available.


  8.1.15.8 Non-Geographic data requirements
Demographic data is very important for health mapping. Data such as Landscan
demographic information is likely to be used.
Data from environmental databases held by UN organisations may be accessed
(e.g. FAO, UNEP)

  8.1.15.9 Input data formats and delivery methods
Health Maps can be considered as a secondary product, which is based on Basic
Maps information or methodologies. Refer to the basic mapping service.

  8.1.15.10 In-Field Data Collection
Field data collection is a probable source of information

  8.1.15.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
Humanitarian data and especially health data are very sensitive data. The data
should remain the property of the organisations that produced it. Dissemination of
derived products should be made carefully with prior authorisation of the
concerned humanitarian organisations. Layers created from data collected by
humanitarian organisations shall not be free of copyright

  8.1.15.12 Availability of metadata
Metadata availability will usually depend on the originator of the data.
Humanitarian organisations will play a role in the development of suitable
metadata. It is extremely important for sensitive information.


  8.1.15.13 Product Validation
Regarding the basic information, same procedure as for the 'Basic Mapping'
should be applied. Regarding the medical information, the originators are
responsible for the reliability of their information. Complete documentation should
be available on the data collection procedures.




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8.1.16 Software Tools

Medical organisations sometimes use a dedicated SW called ‘Epi Info’ created and
distributed by CDC and WHO. The SW is dedicated to epidemiologists and makes
thematic mapping and analysis possible. http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/
This SW uses ESRI formats. We should ensure a compatibility with this SW.
On the other hand web services could be used to share information among
organisations. Access to such services should be limited to relevant people due to
the sensitivity of medical information


8.1.17 Service Delivery


  8.1.17.1 Speed of Delivery
If the basic dataset is in the Respond database and needs no processing then
delivery speed will be dependent upon memory size and method of transmission.
If data for underlying basic maps must be acquired specifically the turnaround will
be longer and will vary with data type. The extents of the geographic coverage
required will also have an influence upon the delivery speed.
The final delivery speed will be fixed by the delivery time of health data

  8.1.17.2 Delivery Methods
Delivery mechanisms will include the Internet [HTTP, FTP and e-mail] and if
required by hand delivery (CD-ROM/DVD/Hardcopy).

Formats for Respond geo-datasets will include the following common types:

Raster (Georeferenced uncompressed):
• GeoTIFF – Georeferenced Tagged Image File Format (.tif)
• TIFF – Tagged Image File Format (.tif) + World file (.tfw)
• JPEG – Jounalist Photographers Expert Group (.jpg) + World file (.jgw)
Raster (Georeferenced compressed):
• ECW – Enhanced Compression Wavelet (.ecw)
• [Later] JPEG2000 - Journalist Photographers Expert Group (.jpg)
Raster (Non-georeferenced uncompressed):
• TIFF – Tagged Image File Format (.tif)
Raster (Non-georeferenced compressed):
• JPEG – Journalist Photographers Expert Group (.jpg)
• PDF – Adobe (.pdf)
Vector data:
• MapInfo (.mif/.mid)
• Shapefile (.shp) (Environmental System Resources Institute – ESRI)
• ArcGIS Interchange format (.e00) (Environmental System Resource Institute –
   ESRI)
• Digital Exchange Format (.dxf)
Other:
• Results can also be issued in an MS excel table


  8.1.17.3 Annual anticipated usage
It is anticipated that the service will be in regular use and will be accessed on a
monthly basis

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8.1.18 Existing Services and Added Value


    8.1.18.1 Existing Services


There are two mapping tools existing that allow Health Mapping:
          • EpiInfo (WHO/CDC)
          • HUMAN (Keyobs)


    8.1.18.2 Added Value
•   The provision Creation of a demographic database
•   Availability of basic maps anticipatively


8.1.19 Cost and Production

It is not yet known how many products will be required in 5 to 10 years time.
Nevertheless medical activity is the core business of huge organisations like MSF,
MDM and WHO. A significant number of products could be anticipated. Respond
stage 2 is likely to produce between 3 and 5 product per year. The estimated cost
per products is between 10k € to 25k €, including 'Basic Mapping' cost.




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THEMATIC MAPPING – ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING

Environmental mapping will provide maps with a range of themes: identification
of hydrological resources, environmental changes, sources of fuel/biomass, effects
of aid provision (e.g. waste monitoring, exploitation of local biomass resources).

Environmental mapping includes themes such as identification of ‘easy to reach’
hydrological resources, sources of fuel, shelter etc. These maps may also be used
for the environmental assessment of an area post conflict. They will be used to
help in the assessment and planning of aid efforts and the effect of those efforts
on the local environment and natural resources. These maps will have local to
regional scale coverage and will include many of the basic mapping features e.g.
boundaries, road, rivers etc. It is likely that these maps will be created following
specific user requests following close user consultation.

8.1.20 Service Users

  8.1.20.1 Core Users
The core users include:
   • UNEP
   • OCHA
   • UNHCR
   • WFP
   • UNOPS
   • NGOs


  8.1.20.2 User Requirements
Environmental mapping products to aid assessment and planning logistics. Such
examples could be examining forest cover change in refugee camp hosting areas
in order to objectively quantify how much forest has been cut and to see if this
can be related to refugees or if it is related to local development.

  8.1.20.3 Service Delivery Time
Normally within 1-2 months

8.1.21 Geographic Scope

  8.1.21.1 Regions of Interest
The regions of interest are global generally focussed upon developing countries.

  8.1.21.2 Coverage per product
From 5 by 5km to 50 by 50km


  8.1.21.3 Typical Map Scale
1:10,000 to 1:250,000


8.1.22 Product Format and Input Data




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  8.1.22.1 Product Format
Digital maps and GIS ready data as well as assessment report

  8.1.22.2 Data types for Map/Image Products
      •   Multi-temporal EO data
      •   Landcover datasets


  8.1.22.3 Data Availability


At least one EO scene can be expected to be programmed


  8.1.22.4 Data Requirements


Refer to Basic Mapping Service requirements


  8.1.22.5 Availability of Archive Data


Archived datasets especially for change detection are available

  8.1.22.6 Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Almost all VACs will have arrangements in place with commercial imagery
suppliers, although it is the intention that specific data agreements are negotiated
on behalf of the Respond consortium, in order to maximise data discounts. Details
of these agreements are held on the Respond partner extranet site.

  8.1.22.7 Processing Service Chains
Each service provider has their own specific service chains in order to create the
Respond mapping but essentially cover:

   •      Orthorectification
   •      Land cover classification
   •      Change assessment


  8.1.22.8 Non-Geographic data requirements
N/A

  8.1.22.9 Input data formats and delivery methods


Digital input data as well as hardcopy if accessible (reference maps for example

  8.1.22.10 In-Field Data Collection
Field data is required for Product Validation

  8.1.22.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
The data should remain the property of the organisations that produced it.
Dissemination of derived products should be made carefully with prior



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authorisation of the concerned humanitarian organisations. Layers created from
data collected by humanitarian organisations shall not be free of copyright

  8.1.22.12 Availability of metadata
Metadata availability will usually depend on the originator of the data.
Humanitarian organisations will play a role in the development of suitable
metadata. It is extremely important for sensitive information.

  8.1.22.13 Product Validation
Product Validation required field data usually obtained through implementing
partners operating locally

8.1.23 Service Delivery

  8.1.23.1 Speed of Delivery
The anticipated speed of delivery will be between 1-2 months

  8.1.23.2 Delivery Methods
Internet and hardcopy


  8.1.23.3 Annual anticipated usage
It is anticipated that the environmental thematic maps will be required 2 to 4
times per year


8.1.24 Existing Services and Added Value


  8.1.24.1 Existing Services


This service can be provided by private GIS companies


  8.1.24.2 Added Value


This service benefits from the improved knowledge of user needs through User
Ambassadors

8.1.25 Cost and Production

It is foreseen that approximately 100 products will be required per year in 5 – 10
years time. Respond stage 2 will supply about 10-20 products per year. The cost
of a single product will be 10-30K€ depending on the area




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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



THEMATIC MAPPING – AGRICULTURAL MONITORING

Agricultural monitoring will provide maps delineating the agricultural land cover
type over multiple years (typically 3 years). The service also includes change
maps that should show the trends in the evolution of the agriculture activity
(reconstruction).

8.1.26 Service Users

  8.1.26.1 Operational Focus
The main area of service operation is agriculture redevelopment.

  8.1.26.2 Core Users
Caritas International

  8.1.26.3 User Requirements
Users require medium scale maps delineating the agricultural areas. Medium scale
change maps showing difference and trends in the agricultural area.

  8.1.26.4 Service Delivery Time
Normally 1-2 months after order

8.1.27 Geographic Scope

  8.1.27.1 Regions of Interest
The first service of this type from Respond has focussed on Burundi, that is trying
to redevelop the agricultural economy after the end of the wars (2003). In
principal it can be applied in other developing countries that are trying to
redevelop their agricultural infrastructure.

  8.1.27.2 Coverage per product
About 1.000 km2

  8.1.27.3 Typical Map Scale
The typical map scale is 1:50,000


8.1.28 Product Format and Input Data


  8.1.28.1 Product Format
Digital maps and GIS ready data as well as assessment report.

  8.1.28.2 Input Data types for Map/Image Products
   •   Multi-temporal EO data
   •   Digital Elevation model (DEM)
   •   Administrative boundaries + annotation layer

  8.1.28.3 Data Availability


It will be dependant on the steps of the time series but for GEOID’s maps of
Burundi, it has the required data available for 2003, 2005 and 2007.

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ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence




  8.1.28.4 Data Requirements
Refer to Basic Mapping Service requirements

  8.1.28.5 Availability of Archive Data


Archived data for change assessments is available. For the Burundi example,
Geoid will start with an archive image dating from 2003. This will be the baseline
marking the end of the civil war.

  8.1.28.6 Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Almost all VACs will have arrangements in place with commercial imagery
suppliers, although it is the intention that specific data agreements are negotiated
on behalf of the Respond consortium, in order to maximise data discounts. Details
of these agreements are held on the Respond partner extranet site.

  8.1.28.7 Processing Service Chains
Each service provider has their own specific service chains in order to create the
Respond mapping but essentially cover:

   •    Orthorectification
   •    Land cover classification (agriculture area only)
   •    Change assessment
   •    Map generation (adding annotations etc)


  8.1.28.8 Non-Geographic data requirements
There are no requirements for non-geographic data.

  8.1.28.9 Input data formats and delivery methods
Common digital formats

  8.1.28.10 In-Field Data Collection
Field data is required to:
    • Ground control point collection to support orthorectification.
    • To execute validation

  8.1.28.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
As thematic layers are interpreted from imagery, copyright is does not restrict the
service significantly. Intellectual Property Rights remain with the value adding
service provider.

  8.1.28.12 Availability of metadata
Suitable metadata is available.

  8.1.28.13 Product Validation
Data collected by field actors, local implementing partners (e.g. Caritas
International)

8.1.29 Software Tools


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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                    Commercial-in-Confidence



  8.1.29.1 Software Used
Skyline software for visualisation

  8.1.29.2 Restrictions of the distribution of software tools
Licenses are owned by GeoID. Data can be viewed with a free viewer,
TerraExplorer Viewer.

  8.1.29.3 Accessibility of software tools
Internet-based

  8.1.29.4 Software toolset functionality
Interactive 3D visualisation, Data querying.

8.1.30 Service Delivery


  8.1.30.1 Speed of Delivery
1 month for a single year. 3 month for the complete time-series

  8.1.30.2 Delivery Methods
Internet and hardcopy


8.1.31 Existing Services and Added Value


  8.1.31.1 Existing Services
Similar services are provided by academic institutions and also by some private
companies.

  8.1.31.2 Added Value
The service will bridge the gap with the humanitarian aid sector and provide
financial support.

8.1.32 Cost and Production

It is foreseen that approximately 15 products will be required per year in 5 – 10
years time. Respond stage 2 will supply about 3 products per year. The cost of a
single product will be 7.5-12K€ depending on the area.




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Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



9. Alert Services
9.1.1   Service Definition

This service will be provided by one service chain: Reuters AlertNet. Other
alerting systems exist, but there is no service that provides a comprehensive
range of humanitarian alerts which is open to any user. Respond will adopt a
stepwise approach to developing such a service

The service’s initial aims are two-fold:
       a) To alert users within the humanitarian relief community and others
          interested in humanitarian crises to the fact that an emergency has
          happened or is likely to happen
       b) To provide an aid to humanitarian response planning by including a link
          within the alert to a relevant online map and/or geographic derived
          information.

The project proposed would limit alerts to earthquakes and tropical storms but in
principle the alerting system could be extended to any real-time disaster
information source.


9.1.2   Service Users

  9.1.2.1   Operational Focus
The humanitarian community as a whole would use it. Decision makers would use
it to release humanitarian aid and implementing organizations, ad headquarters,
will use the alert to prepare on time for the relief operation.

  9.1.2.2   Core Users
The core users envisaged are emergency officers within donor organisations (e.g.
ECHO) and relief NGOs. However, the functionality would be of use to anyone
within the humanitarian community seeking early visibility of fresh emergencies.
It would also be available to journalists and to members of the general public.
These two audiences are of vital importance in mobilising political and financial
support for emergency relief.

  9.1.2.3   User Requirements
Core users want an alerting brain to scan and evaluate emergency information
sources and to alert them as rapidly as possible if there are indications that an
event becomes a humanitarian crisis. They would like to be able to designate how
they are to be alerted – via email, SMS or IM – according to what technology is
available to them. The initial project would be confined to e-mail. The reasons
why core users can not currently get this information include the following:
   • Lack of awareness that the information sources exist
   • Lack of time to survey the information sources
   • Non-availability of pushed alerts from the information sources
   • Non-availability of integrated online map references
   • Non-availability of models filtering non-disaster from disaster events

  9.1.2.4   Service Delivery Time
Core users want this information as soon as possible. Alerts are typically
requested within minutes to couple of hours. Beyond that media tend to report on
the disaster. The Alerts would provide also the geographical extent of the area.

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Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence




9.1.3   Geographic Scope

  9.1.3.1   Regions of Interest
Thematically, the major areas of interest for NGOs are conflict, food security,
health and sudden onset disasters. Emergency relief NGOs would give the
following continental ranking: Africa; Asia; Americas; Europe (including Middle
East).

  9.1.3.2   Coverage per product
Disaster affected area, with information on population affected, vulnerability of
population and physical exposure based on climate data.


9.1.4   Product Format and Input Data


  9.1.4.1   Product Format
The service envisaged is an online e-mail alerting service with links to the
mapping and editorial content of the AlertNet website, as well as dedicated web
mapping services providing the basic geographical information layers.

  9.1.4.2   Data types for Map/Image Products
The product can be a map produced with vector layers and basic raster that can
include population density, location of towns, cities and transport facilities (road
network, airports and harbours). The map should provide a synoptic overview of
the affected area.

  9.1.4.3   Data Availability
More data could be added but this is being addressed under stage 2

  9.1.4.4   Data Requirements
Basic background layers like a global Landsat mosaic or better, a general map at
1:1,000,000, and vector layers with critical information.

  9.1.4.5   Availability of Archive Data
There are a number of sources and institutions that may provide the data. In the
commercial domain Google Earth is providing a global high resolution satellite
imagery coverage that can be used as background.

  9.1.4.6   Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Archive data have proven to be useful especially when post disaster data are not
yet available. In general, archive data are useful to provide reference and to carry
out change detection for damage assessments. Archive data are not appropriate
for the storm alert service but archive images or maps would be of value if that
was all available at the onset of a disaster and were communicated via the
Respond map alert system.

  9.1.4.7   Processing Requirements
There is an agreement between Reuters Foundation and University College
London for the use of TSR material on the AlertNet site.


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  9.1.4.8   Non-Geographic data requirements
In general, all data have to be geo-processed to be able to provide the different
geographic representation. Satellite imagery is also typically enhanced for visual
appreciation.
JRC disaster threshold models are using LandScan Population dataset, GTOPO30
Digital Elevation Model and other datasets. The model consists of calculation
neighbourhood statistics in the affected area of the event.
On AlertNet, there is no additional processing required for the images (one-off
maps or EO imagery) supplied by the Respond content providers.
The additional processing for the Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) data involves
processing the metadata storm position and projected positions into the AlertNet
online mapping tool. The end result is a shape file showing the path of the storm
which can be used throughout the AlertNet service.

  9.1.4.9   Input data formats and delivery methods
Vulnerability data is essential in the models. Currently, GDP (World Bank
Indicators) and other indicators from sources such as UN Human Development
Indicators are used. Nothing in addition to the information already contained in
one-off maps supplied by Respond partners.

Data are typically procured from commercial vendors and generated in research
organization. In the first case this is though a commercial transaction in the latter
case thought agreements and sharing.


  9.1.4.10 In-Field Data Collection
Increasingly in-field information is provided through the network of UN agencies
and International NGOs. In fact the data held by these institutions could be made
available through appropriate arrangements

  9.1.4.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
Some GIS data is under copyright (e.g. Global Discovery from Europa
Technology). However, the threshold models are not critically dependent on this
data. For TSR, copyright resides with University College London.Most software is
open source. Acknowledgment is necessary in most cases. Individual map
providers hold copyright for their material


  9.1.4.12 Availability of metadata
Metadata are often not made available to the degree needed. Metadata for one-
off maps and images are provided by the individual publisher when they publish
map on AlertNet. For TSR the metadata are all present, with the crucial aspect
being countries in the path of the storm – the parameter used to generate
appropriate alerts


9.1.5   Software Tools


  9.1.5.1   Software Used
Any development will use the PERL-based, open-source Mason system (as used
by Amazon.com) and the open-source mySQL server database system.



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  9.1.5.2   Restrictions of the distribution of software tools
There are no legal restrictions on distribution of the software.

  9.1.5.3   Accessibility of software tools
The idea behind the tool is to make it available only online.

  9.1.5.4   Software toolset functionality
Users would specify the types of emergencies and the geographical areas they
were interested in and whether they want to receive alerts as they happen or
rolled up to a daily summary.

  9.1.5.5   Product Validation
The product will be validated by a small number of emergency officers from
AlertNet members . As at 08/07/07 there were 567 subscribers including
emergencies officers at CARE International, ICRC, IFRC, Oxfam East Asia and
WorldVision International

9.1.6   Service Delivery


  9.1.6.1   Speed of Delivery
Speed of delivery should be as soon as technically feasible. TSR on AlertNet will
be updated every six hours. Maps on AlertNet will available as soon as the
producer publishes to the AlertNet site and thus generates an alert.

  9.1.6.2   Delivery Methods
Method of delivery will be via email as programmed via a simple web-based
interface. SMS messages to the emergency numbers provided by the users.

  9.1.6.3   Annual anticipated usage
Ideally, twice a week -- the service as envisaged would be triggered by the
hundred or so instances of major earthquakes and windstorms that happen on
average each year (source: World Disasters Report, 2003, IFRC). Whenever a
major storm system is formed or a humanitarian map is produced by a member
of the Respond consortium.


9.1.7   Existing Services and Added Value


  9.1.7.1   Existing Services
A disaster alert system has been developed within JRC on request of ECHO to
support the UN OCHA. It is referred to as Global Disaster Alert System (GDACS)
However other crisis alerting systems exist and these include Virtual OSOCC,
GEO, IRIN. Respond users have requested that Respond work to develop better
links between interational early warning systems.

  9.1.7.2   Added Value
RESPOND adds value in several ways:
   • Leverages relationships with existing content providers and channels to
     deliver vital alerting service.


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    •   Integrates alerts within a geographical context and thus with the other
        outputs of RESPOND projects.
    •   Transforms event-driven alert systems to humanitarian alert systems.

9.1.8   Cost and Production

Technology has permitted this service to provide daily alerts to a wide range of
NGO’s that have subscribed to the Alerting service provided by Reuters. Any new
costs will be attributable to system upgrades and any additional functionality to
the site.




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10. Communication / Reporting Resources
10.1.1 Service Definition

Communication and report mapping is designed to improve the communication on
the location and impact of humanitarian crises/events by creating different
products easily accessible to NGOs and media at large. Communication maps are
conceived to be simple context maps featuring basic needed information to
understand the ongoing situation.

The communication mapping service falls into two parts in order to develop
communication documents to end-users adapted to the public they are
addressing.

   1. External communication (Press actors toward the public, NGOs towards
      the public, press and donors)

   2. Internal communication (NGOs need visual communication tools to
      support briefings and good communication with field teams)

To that end, two kinds of communication maps are offered under Respond:

   •   Off-line simple standardised maps will be created by the service
       provider to be delivered systematically as soon as the crisis breaks out
       and/or following a demand introduced by an end-user.
   •   Online customisable maps will be created by the end-users themselves
       through an interactive web mapping system.

Basic information used for this service will be close to or identical to that used for
basic mapping.

10.1.2 Service Users

  10.1.2.1 Operational Focus
The primary purpose of this service is to portray operational statistics within a
geographic context.

  10.1.2.2 Core Users
Core users include:
   • DFID
   • IFRC
   • UNOCHA
   • UNHCR
   • UNOPS
   • THW
   • DRK
   • AlertNet

Other users:
Any aid organisation that requires geo-spatial data to put their operations into
context.




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  10.1.2.3 User Requirements
DRK may have epidemiological information that needs placing into geographic
context to display the evidence collected and also to potentially explain
phenomena. DFID require monthly maps to display where in the world they are
active. Merlin require location specific details on where they are operating in order
to supply to potential donors.


  10.1.2.4 Service Delivery Time
Many users need an immediate response for communication activities but for
those
users requiring more customised products a bespoke service would be available.
These bespoke ad-hoc services will be provided on demand, with individual levels
of urgency. However, it is anticipated that these products would have a
turnaround of a minimum of a working week, sometimes as much as a month as
drafting and data capture could be time consuming.

Production time is dependent upon the amount of image processing, analysis and
formatting required

10.1.3 Geographic Scope

  10.1.3.1 Regions of Interest
The geographic coverage will vary extensively, both in scale and focus, depending
on the graphic required.

  10.1.3.2 Coverage per product
Product cover is determined by the extents as defined by the end-user
organisation. Using maps as an example, situation maps are often 1:1 million
scale or smaller. A single product could comprise numerous map sheets; it is a
function of the size of the area of interest and the scale at which the product is
required.

  10.1.3.3 Typical Map Scale
Scale is dependent upon the application. Most products will be small scale
mapping (largest scale 1:1 million scale) and will feature regions, countries and
continents rather than towns, cities and localities.


10.1.4 Product Format and Input Data


  10.1.4.1 Product Format
Product type will include both digital and hardcopy maps and possibly in the
future the supply of software to enable viewing of and interpretation of
geographic datasets.

  10.1.4.2 Data types for Map/Image Products
   •   Vector files for VMAP 0 are originally derived from 1:1 million scale US
       military mapping [Operational Navigation Charts]. Attribute information
       includes     topography,   hydrology,     physiography,        hypsography,
       oceanography, aeronautical features, infrastructure, utilities, culture, and
       administrative boundaries.

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     •   VMAP 1 data are used to create US military 1:250,000 scale Joint
         Operations Graphics (JOG) Charts.


     •   Satellite Imagery will include data from both active (SAR) and passive
         (optical) sensors from all commercially accessible Earth Observation
         satellites. This imagery will come in both processed and ‘raw’ formats.
         Respond will provide access to several archives around the world that
         contain both processed and ‘raw’ image data.

     •   Scanned military and civilian maps are available over the Internet for
         almost anywhere in the world. The developed world has the widest
         coverage and the less developed world has very varied coverage often
         dependent upon a 19th century colonial legacy and 20th century strategic
         military importance. The military maps (often Soviet) are usually derived
         from imagery acquired by high resolution ‘spy’ satellites or aerial
         photography. Full details of the source data for these maps are not always
         available for every location. Even though many of these maps are out-of-
         date (20-25 years) they are sometimes the only ancillary thematic map
         information to more recently acquired satellite imagery. These scanned
         maps can be a useful source for checking or adjusting the position of
         satellite imagery. Civilian maps are often derived from military mapping
         and usually include street and cadastral maps to coverage at a country
         scale.

     •   DTMs are available on a global basis in several formats. The original US
         GTOPO 30 data was derived from ONC military mapping and provided a
         dataset with a pixel resolution of 30 arc seconds (roughly equivalent to
         1km). This dataset has been improved as the ACE DEM (Altitude Corrected
         Elevations), which is derived from GTOPO 30 data that has been enhanced
         by the integration of altimetry data, acquired by the ERS satellites. Within
         the past two years the Shuttle Radar Thematic Mapper (SRTM) elevation
         data has been released by NASA. This dataset (derived from C-band data)
         covers the Earth’s land masses between latitudes 60 degrees North and
         South. This is available at a resolution of 30m for the US and for outside
         the US on a case-by-case basis. Alternatively it is resampled to a 90m
         resolution for global coverage outside of the US. Higher resolution data
         30m (derived from X-band data) is available but coverage, although
         across the world, is limited to strips.

     •   In the instance of DFID mapping, a background world map has been
         supplied by DFID and is supplemented with a monthly excel sheet that
         pinpoints their activity in the world for communication mapping.

    10.1.4.3 Data Availability


 Clients will be required to provide their own data in either hardcopy or
 (preferably) digital format prior to entry into a geographical context.

•     VMAP 0 data is available for most of the inhabited regions of the world. Even
      though much of the global coverage of VMAP 1 has been de-classified it has
      not been released by the US military. See Appendix 11 for pictures showing
      the available coverage.



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•     Satellite Imagery will include data from both active (SAR) and passive
      (optical) sensors from all commercially accessible Earth Observation satellite
      archives. Access to data archives such as the Digital Map Archive (DMA) run
      by the Joint Research Council (JRC) and those held by international agencies
      (such as the UN) is also intended. Airborne imagery is highly localised and is
      more likely to be held in-country than in global databases.

•     Scanned topographic maps are available from several commercial suppliers
      and also from academic institutions. Russian and US military topographic
      mapping is available from commercial suppliers, coverage varies according to
      scale. Appendix 10 contains examples of coverage available from some
      sample suppliers.

•    DTMs/DEMs are available on a global basis. SRTM data is available from the
     USGS and covers the majority of the global landmass. The ACE dataset
     supplies complete global coverage and is available from De Montfort University
     (Leicester, UK). DEMs are also available from stereo satellite imagery (notably
     SPOT and Russian satellites) DTMs, derived from Russian military topographic
     mapping at several scales, can also be supplied from commercial suppliers


    10.1.4.4 Data Requirements
All sources of geographic information should be available to users. Common data
types are mentioned see above.

    10.1.4.5 Availability of Archive Data
There are numerous archives available, both over the Internet and through
partners.

    10.1.4.6 Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
Almost all VACs will have arrangements in place with commercial imagery
suppliers, although it is the intention that specific data agreements are negotiated
on behalf of the Respond consortium, in order to maximise data discounts. Details
of these agreements are held on the Respond partner extranet site.


    10.1.4.7 Processing Service Chains
It is expected that the majority of requests will involve a thematic display rather
than a satellite image. Nevertheless the processes required for satellite imagery
have been listed below.

Client data processing could involve the following:
 • Data entry – copying data from hardcopy to digital format suitable for
     representation in a map display.
 • Re-formatting – taking a client’s digital data and re-formatting it for map
     display
 • Design selection – selection of layout for effective rendering of client’s data.

Geometric processing: Raster – Levels of geo-rectification. There are numerous
ways in which raster data can be geo-rectified dependent upon the application,
availability of ancillary data and urgency of requirement.

Image processing: type of enhancements (spectral, spatial & radiometric);
Digitisation, Vectorization, Classification and Modelling methods.

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Vector – Re-projection; Editing; Analysis, Input to and from other datasets (both
geographic and non-geographic).


  10.1.4.8 Non-Geographic data requirements
The service will rely extensively on both geographic data and non-geographic
data. The former is expected to be accessed through Google Earth/Respond
catalogue and the latter from clients (e.g. users field data)

In addition there may be databases containing socio-economic, demographic and
ecological information that can be connected through common location attributes
(e.g. place names) and displayed on maps.

  10.1.4.9 Input data formats and delivery methods
The input data format from clients (users) will range from hardcopy (tables,
descriptive text, and possibly sketches) to digital data (text documents, pdf files,
spreadsheets and databases).

There are many different types of format for image, DEM/DTMs and vector data.
Most GIS and image processing software can accept a very wide range of formats.

Ordering

Data would be ordered through a variety of methods:
              • Online through an Internet portal.
              • By telephone (authorised user only)
              • By fax

  10.1.4.10 In-Field Data Collection
The service does not include in-field data collection. However the service will
probably make use of data collected from the field or supplied by the end user

  10.1.4.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
Each dataset will have its own unique copyright specifications.

Users of the Ad hoc service will be asked to make the products of their requests
available to other Respond users through the Respond web site (subject to
copyright restrictions attached to the source data).

Each dataset will have its own IPR and collation of this information will be an
ongoing task. Where possible data, which has very stringent IPR, will be
overlooked in preference to similar data with less restrictive rights.

  10.1.4.12 Availability of metadata
Metadata availability will usually depend on the originator of the data.
Digital geographic data created by government or military organisations usually
comes with extensive metadata. Base mapping data held by Respond will come
with metadata attached.

10.1.5 Software Tools




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  10.1.5.1 Software Used
It is the intention not only to supply the communication maps in raster format but
also as KML files for use with Google Earth.

  10.1.5.2 Restrictions of the distribution of software tools
Subject to Google Earth licensing.

  10.1.5.3 Accessibility of software tools
It is proposed that the software tools are provided exclusively though Google
Earth.

  10.1.5.4 Software toolset functionality
The functionality is based on available toolsets from Google Earth. Currently this
consists of

 •   Load raster and vector data for combined display.
 •   Pan, zoom and scroll throughout the extents of the displayed data.
 •   View attributes of vector files.
 •   Print
 •   Grid overlay
 •   Additions of user layers (icons/polygons/text etc)


  10.1.5.5 Product Validation
Data products will be validated by the end user, who has expert knowledge of the AOI.


10.1.6 Service Delivery


  10.1.6.1 Speed of Delivery
Turnaround depends upon the nature of the work, amount of processing and
output format required.

If the dataset is in the Respond database and needs no processing then delivery
speed will be dependent upon memory size and method of transmission.

If data must be acquired specifically the turnaround will be longer and will vary
with data type

  10.1.6.2 Delivery Methods
Delivery mechanisms will include the Internet [HTTP, FTP and e-mail] and if
required by hand delivery (CD-ROM/DVD/Hardcopy).

Formats for ad hoc service geo-datasets will include the following common types:

Raster (Georeferenced uncompressed):
   • GeoTIFF – Georeferenced Tagged Image File Format (.tif)
   • TIFF – Tagged Image File Format (.tif) + World file (.tfw)
   • JPEG – Jounalist Photographers Expert Group (.jpg) + World file (.jgw)
Raster (Georeferenced compressed):
   • ECW – Enhanced Compression Wavelet (.ecw)
   • [Later] JPEG2000 - Journalist Photographers Expert Group (.jpg)

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Raster (Non-georeferenced uncompressed):
  •    TIFF – Tagged Image File Format (.tif)
Raster (Non-georeferenced compressed):
   • JPEG – Journalist Photographers Expert Group (.jpg)
   • PDF – Adobe (.pdf)
Vector data:
  • MapInfo (.mif/.mid)
  • Shapefile (.shp) (Environmental System Resources Institute – ESRI)
  • ArcGIS Interchange format (.e00) (Environmental System Resource
      Institute – ESRI)
  • Key hole mark up language (KML)
  • Digital Exchange Format (.dxf)


  10.1.6.3 Annual anticipated usage
It is anticipated that as the Respond service matures in Stage 2 the service will be
required around 10-15 times per year

10.1.7 Existing Services and Added Value


  10.1.7.1 Existing Services
The UN HICs (Humanitarian Information Centres) and the UN GIS Information &
Mapping Unit provide a range of services to the many UN departments. These
services may include several that are similar to the Ad Hoc Services within
Respond.

Whilst there are services that offer access to geographic data for humanitarian
purposes and also environmental data they tend to offer specific products rather
than ad hoc products

  10.1.7.2 Added Value
For non-UN users the Ad Hoc Services theme provides a unique opportunity for
users to have their operational data presented in a geographical context that
draws upon a very extensive database of geographic information.

This means that the users will have the benefit of specialised GIS and mapping
staff without having to invest in internal capacity or establish relationships with
more than one supplier.

10.1.8 Cost and Production

It is difficult to provide costs without referring to an example situation. Assuming
the client provides the data in a suitable format for entry into a GIS and thence
displayed in a map layout the following example could be applied:

Example 1:

Requirement: Thematic Map of Sudan showing location of refugee/IDP camps with
medical facilities and case numbers for different diseases.
Client Data: supplied as MS-Excel spreadsheet
Source Data: VMAP level 0
Output product: Digital map as described, format as PDF and JPEG files.
Price: c.€ 1,500


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Example 2:

Requirement: 4 Thematic Maps of Southern Africa showing flooding status
affecting four countries and estimated forecast variation in flood waters over next
two weeks. Maps to also feature population centres and distribution, hospitals and
civil defence locations, transport and power infrastructure.
Client Data: hospitals and civil defence locations as a list on paper.
Source Data: VMAP Level 0, SRTM DTM, Recent MODIS satellite imagery. Weather
forecast data (incl. estimated rise/fall in floodwater level).
Output: Digital Maps featuring hill shading, initial flood regions derived from
MODIS data, forecast rise modelled simply using SRTM DTM. Output format PDF
and JPEG.
Price: c.€ 4,000




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11. Field Mapping Service
11.1.1 Service Definition

This service produces hardcopy maps for users showing the situation prior to or
just at the outset of a humanitarian relief effort. Also the service allows for field
data collection to assist other mapping themes either for primary data collection
or for validation of existing data. For examples these could include data collection
or validation of transport routes for background mapping, refugee/IDP camp
layout assessment, ground control validation for high resolution satellite imagery.
Integral with the above applications is an intention to include skills and knowledge
transfer through engaging with local professionals. An associated aim is to
enhance local relief capabilities and to establish a local communication base in
case of future Respond involvement.

This service will be provided principally by one service chain: MapAction.
MapAction's field mapping capability has been tested in two major sudden onset
disasters, the Asian tsunami of December 2004, and the Pakistan earthquake of
October 2005 and a number of slow onset crises (Lesotho for WFP, in India for a
local water charity CURE, in Niger for the UN Humanitarian Information Centre,
and in Liberia for Merlin). It is therefore a mature service.

11.1.2 Service Users

  11.1.2.1 Operational Focus
In addition to situation maps, this focus provided field data collection which may
be used by all in-sector service providers.

  11.1.2.2 Core Users
The core users include: DLR, UNOSAT, Sertit, KeyObs, Metria,

Other users:
ECHO, UNOCHA, UNHCR, UNOPS, THW, DRK

  11.1.2.3 User Requirements
Examples could include data collection or validation of transport routes for
background mapping, refugee/IDP camp layout assessment, ground control
validation for high resolution satellite imagery.

  11.1.2.4 Service Delivery Time
Speed of delivery depends upon the application. For background mapping the
speed is important but not paramount; for assessment of camp layout speed of
data delivery will have an important role in the camp design and organisation; for
ground control for satellite imagery speed of response is paramount as the sooner
ground control data is received, the sooner more accurate satellite image maps
can be produced.

11.1.3 Geographic Scope

  11.1.3.1 Regions of Interest
Areas for background mapping will be designated hotspot areas, notably east
central and western Africa. Areas to be covered could include local towns or inter


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regional major transport routes. For camp design and layout and also satellite
imagery ground control areas will be relatively small (0.5ha – 256ha) and will
vary according to current crisis location.

  11.1.3.2 Coverage per product
Product cover is determined by the extents as defined by the end-user
organisation.

  11.1.3.3 Typical Map Scale
Scale is entirely dependent upon the application. Mapping regional transport
routes could involve mapping at 1:100k – 1:1M. More detailed sites such as
refugee/IDP camps and VHR imagery ground control could involve scales such
1:500 – 1:25,000.


11.1.4 Product Format and Input Data


  11.1.4.1 Product Format
Product type may include both digital and hardcopy maps. Data may also be
provided as point and line vector files for subsequent incorporation into maps.

  11.1.4.2 Data types for Map/Image Products
The most common data source will be GPS-acquired positions, either as waypoints
or as tracks. Satellite imagery and topographic maps (either as hard or softcopy)
may well be used as ancillary or reference information. VHR satellite imagery will
be essential when providing ground control validation.

  11.1.4.3 Data Availability
The nature of the service requires the capture of new data. It is possible that
alternative sources of data may be accessible, such as users, the UNJLC and the
local HIC (if present).

  11.1.4.4 Data Requirements
All sources of geographic information should be available to the service provider
to assist them in their task(s). Common data types are mentioned in the basic
mapping service.

  11.1.4.5 Availability of Archive Data
The service usually requires that the most up-to-date data is acquired. There is
little archive data readily available.

  11.1.4.6 Agreements between Value Adder and Data provider
No agreements between the value adder and the data provider have been
identified. However, there may be an arrangement between UN ‘ambassador’
UNOSAT and other relevant UN organisations such as the Joint Logistics Centre
(JLC) and the local HIC.

  11.1.4.7 Processing Requirements
Data acquired using GPS receivers will need downloading to PCs, processing to
separate waypoints and tracks as shapefiles.


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Imagery may need a modicum of enhancement to improve land cover
discrimination in the vicinity of ground control points.


  11.1.4.8 Non-Geographic data requirements
It is possible demographic-related data may be acquired whilst engaging in
refugee/IDP camp layout design activities, for example acquiring GPS positions of
tents and basic administrative details of the occupants.

  11.1.4.9 Input data formats and delivery methods
Data acquisition will primarily by using GPS receivers. Delivery to users will be via
the Internet either using e-mail or satellite communications.

  11.1.4.10 In-Field Data Collection
The service is intrinsically based on field data collection. Both static and dynamic
applications will be addressed

  11.1.4.11 Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights
Data acquired in the field will aim to be copyright-free. Other data sources used
to assist field data capture may be subject to copyright restrictions, especially
VHR satellite imagery. Intellectual property rights of data collected in the field will
reside with the organisation that acquires the data

  11.1.4.12 Availability of metadata
Basic metadata will be created for data sets created from data acquired during
field data collection.

  11.1.4.13 Product Validation
Validation of data collected in the field will not be subject to the usual validation
procedures due to the very nature of its collection. However it is intended that
parameters associated with the GPS signal strength and quality at the time of
data acquisition will also be acquired and made available.

11.1.5 Service Delivery

  11.1.5.1 Speed of Delivery
This is very much application dependent. Factors that need to be considered
would include the following as a minimum:
          • availability of MapAction volunteers to deploy;
          • availability of flights and local transport;
          • Health and safety conditions onsite.


  11.1.5.2 Delivery Methods
Delivery mechanisms will include the Internet [HTTP, FTP and e-mail] and if
required by hand delivery (CD-ROM/DVD/Hardcopy).

3D positions could be available in the following vector formats (elevation would be
stored as an attribute):
MapInfo (.mif/.mid)
Shapefile (.shp) (Environmental System Resource Institute – ESRI)



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ArcGIS Interchange format (.e00) (Environmental System Resource Institute –
ESRI)
Digital Exchange Format (.dxf)

  11.1.5.3 Annual anticipated usage
During stage 2 it is anticipated that the service will be used 3 times

11.1.6 Existing Services and Added Value

  11.1.6.1 Existing Services
Rapid currently there is no directly comparable service available. If the UNJLC
have been operating recently in the area then it is possible that they may have
data and information could be used for logistical applications. UNHCR and
UNOCHA may have data of use for refugee/IDP camps.

  11.1.6.2 Added Value
The service provided an opportunity to provide a unique service, currently not
available on a regular basis to the humanitarian agencies and to those Respond
partners supporting these same agencies.

11.1.7 Cost and Production

It is foreseen that approximately 10 deployments will be required per year in 5 –
10 years time. This service could typically be deployed 5 times per year. During
Respond stage 2, the service will be deployed about 3 times per year.

Costs are illustrated by the examples below.

Example 1:
Requirement: Assuming the client needs street plans for two towns in southern
Sudan.

Return flight to Nairobi: €750 x 2 persons
Internal transport to Southern Sudan: €300 x 2
Southern Sudan:
           • Internal transport (air): €170 x 2 persons
           • Internal (vehicle): €150
           • Processing data and delivery: €200
Daily rate: €720 x 2 persons
Travel and subsistence/day: €60 per person
No. of days 7
Price: c.€12000

Example 2:
Requirement: Mapping refugee/IDP camps in Liberia.

Return flight to Monrovia: 750 Euro x 2 persons
Internal transport
           • Internal transport (air): €200 x 2 persons
           • Internal (vehicle): €100
           • Processing data and delivery: €200
Daily rate: €720 x 2 persons
Travel and subsistence/day: €60
No. of days 7
Price: c.€ 12000

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12. Appendices:
APPENDIX 1 RESPOND MAP TEMPLATES

A standard Respond map template is used for all published digital and printed
maps within the consortium. The following figure shows a thumbnail of this
template, which is available in two different formats: DIN A1 and DIN A3.




Explanation of the logo section:

•   The organisation responsible for the creation of the map should feature their
    logo and contact details under or next to their entry. In-Sector Providers
    (ISPs) should also enter their contact details. The size of the logo should be
    approximately one third (1/3) of the size of the Respond logo (landscape
    design) or a maximum of 3 cm along its longest dimension (X, Y).
•   If the Job management/PM is done by another organisation than the value
    adding, the logos of both organisations can be shown together with the
    description of their role. The area for all logos should be partitioned as follows:
    50% Respond logo, 25% logo of map producer, 12.5% logo of PM and (if
    needed) 12.5% Charter logo.

The following figure shows an example of a possible logo positioning if more than
one organisation is involved in a map product:




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APPENDIX 2 SUMMARY OF USER REQUIREMENTS

                                                                                Required
Service             Core Users                 User Requirements                Service
                                                                                Delivery Time
Basic Mapping       OCHA, UNHCR,               Reliable, accurate               Varying.
                    UNDPKO, WFP,               geographic data that can be
                    UNJLC, ISDR, FAO,          used either to produce a         Dependant upon
                    UNDSS, AECI,               topographical map or as an       the nature of the
                    InterSOS, Spanish Red      input or context layer for       crisis,      data
                    Cross, THW, DRK, DG-       multiple applications            availability   or
                    ECHO, DG-RELEX and                                          processing
                    NGO                                                         needs.


Crisis and          UN Departments,            An overview of the               A few hours to
Damage              National and European      magnitude of a crisis            several days.
                    International              showing key infrastructure,
Mapping             Development                towns, rivers, flood extents,
                    agencies, NGOs             damaged areas etc.

Situation           UN Departments,            Recent information that can      A few days to a
Mapping             National and European      assist users in better           few weeks.
                    International              carrying out their mandate.      Updates may be
                    Development                e.g security situation, land     required on a
                    agencies, NGOs             mine areas.                      daily, weekly or
                                                                                monthly basis

Refugee/IDP         UNHCR, UN OCHA,            Detailed maps of refugee/IDP
Camp Mapping        Donor governments,         camp with GIS/registration       Varying
                    host governments,          information linked to each
                    NGOs, IRFC, THW,           family.                          From 24 hours to
                    DRK & InterSOS                                              annual updates


Thematic            UN Departments,            Pre and post crisis maps         1 – 3 months. An
Mapping             National and European      showing vulnerability,           Epidemiological
                    International              reconstruction, health,          crisis may
                    Development                environment al or agricultural   require delivery
                    agencies, NGOs.            information                      within a few
                    Including those                                             days.
                    focusing on
                    reconstruction, health,
                    environment and
                    agricultural issues.

Alert Services      Emergency officers         An ongoing evaluation of         Alerts are
                    within donor               emergency information            typically
                    organisations (e.g.        sources and to rapidly alert     requested within
                    ECHO) and relief           users to a potential             minutes to
                    NGOs                       humanitarian crisis              couple of hours
                    DFID,   IFRC,UNOCHA,
Communication UNHCR,UNOPS,,THW,                Maps to show the current         Varying. Usually
and report    DRK, AlertNet                    operational status of an         between 1 week
                                               organisation within a            to 1 month.
mapping                                        particular country of region.

Field mapping       DLR, UNOSAT, Sertit,       Collection of field data to      Application
service             KeyObs, Metria             support other mapping            dependant
                                               services.




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APPENDIX 3 SUMMARY OF SOFTWARE TOOLS

Service                 Software Used          Restrictions             Functionality
                        Web Catalogue,
Basic Mapping                                                           Interoperability with Google
                        Super Human            None
                                                                        Earth,
                        interface
                        Image processing       Subject to
Crisis and Damage       software, GIS,         restrictions
                                                                        N/A
Mapping                 desktop publishing,    according to
                        and Google Earth       software provider
                        Groove peer to peer
Situation Mapping       network.               Subject to
                                                                        Peer to Peer Collaboration,
                        Spaceyes 3D            commercial
                                                                        3D viewing
                        visualization tool     licensing

                        Automatic shelter      Licence owned
Refugee/IDP Camp
                        identification         by Metria. UNHCR         N/A
Mapping                 algorithm              has free use
                                               Subject to co
Thematic Mapping        Commercially           Commercial
                        available GIS and      licensing.
                        Image Processing       ‘Epi Info’ subject to
                                                                        Ranging from simple
                        software               restriction placed
                                                                        viewing to complex analysis
                        ‘Epi Info’ - Health    by CDC and WHO.
                        Specific software.     Skyline restricted
                                                                        3d Viewing
                        Skyline and            according to
                        TerraExploer           GEOID.
                        Viewers                TerraExploer –
                                               free viewer
                        PERL-based, open-
Alert Services          source Mason
                        system (as used by                              Generation of situation an
                        Amazon.com) and        None                     location news alerts as
                        the open-source                                 defined by users.
                        mySQL server
                        database system.
                                                                          •   Load raster and vector
Communication                                                                 data for combined
and report                                                                    display.
mapping                                                                   •   Pan, zoom and scroll
                                                                              throughout the extents
                                               Subject to Google              of the displayed data.
                        Google Earth           Earth licensing.           •   View attributes of vector
                                                                              files.
                                                                          •   Print
                                                                          •   Grid overlay
                                                                          •   Additions of user layers
                                                                              (icons/polygons/text etc)


Field mapping           N/A                    N/A                      N/A
service




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APPENDIX 4 SUMMARY OF SERVICE DELIVERY
                                                Delivery
Service                   Delivery Time                             Estimated Annual Usage
                                                Method
                                                Internet based or
Basic Mapping             Dependent on, data
                                                postal delivery     Dependant upon user
                          acquisition and
                                                for hard copy       demand
                          processing times
                                                products
                                                                    Irregular use. Averaging 1
Crisis and Damage                                                   product per month but with
Mapping                   Hours to days         Same as above
                                                                    more crisis occurring likely
                                                                    to increase
                          1 month with daily,   Same as above
Situation Mapping         weekly or monthly     but also included   Linked to operations/crisis
                          updates as            closed P2P          events but will increase
                          required.             networks
                                                                    Usage will exceed budget.
Refugee/IDP Camp
                          Within 2 months       Same as above.      41 maps are planned for
Mapping                                                             Stage 2
                                                                    Vulnerability: 4 – 6 times
Thematic Mapping                                                    Health: 12
                          1-3 months            Same as above.
                                                                    Environmental 2-4

                          Newsfeeds every 6
Alert Services                                  Web based
                          hours                                     Disaster dependant
                                                interface, SMS
                          Maps as soon a                            averaging 2 times a week
                                                messages
                          supplied
                          Dependent on, data    Internet based or
Communication and         acquisition and       postal delivery
report mapping                                                      12-15 times per year
                          processing times      fro hard copy
                          and user need.        products
                                                Internet based or
Field mapping             Situation
                                                postal delivery     3 times during stage 2
service                   dependent
                                                for CD/DVDs




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APPENDIX 5 SUMMARY OF EXISTING SERVICES AND ADDED VALUE

Service                   Existing Services                  Added Value
                          ReliefWeb, UNOCHA                  Respond provides a Single
Basic Mapping             Humanitarian Information           portal through which users can
                          Centres, UNOSAT,                   access a variety of mapping.
                          UNHCR -GIS Information &           Respond maintains supply
                          Mapping Unit, ISFEREA – JRC,       arrangement through an Open
                          Disaster Mapping Archive JRC,      Service Partnership. This
                          AlertNet, Human – Humanitarian     opens up the supply of map
                          Mapping Service (KeyObs and        products to a far wider
                          Medecins Sans Frontieres), ZKI     community of aid
                          – DLR, SERTIT., EOPortal,          organisations.
                          FEWSNET , GIST, Google Earth
                          DLR and SERTIT provide a           Improved speed of delivery
Crisis and Damage         crisis mapping service in the      and proven reliability.
Mapping                   context of the charter.
                          MapAction also produce maps
                          as crisis unfold.
                          UNOSAT                             Lower cost and improved
Situation Mapping                                            quality service through
                                                             experienced consortium. Well
                                                             connected with end user(s).
                                                             Timely service delivery

                          There are no other existing        Well structured and solid
Refugee/IDP Camp          services of this nature. Metria    partners. State of the art
Mapping                   and UNHCR provide the most         products and other Respond
                          advanced solutions today           resources. UNCHR and UNOPS
                                                             UNOSAT on good terms will
                                                             yield core decision making
                                                             information for UN, donor
                                                             governments.

                          Standard products offered by       The capability to work more
Thematic Mapping          most GIS companies.                closely with the users in a not
                          No     similar    reconstruction   for profit environment to
                          mapping services                   ensure good information to
                          Health    services   -   EpiInfo   base decisions on are
                          (WHO/CDC), HUMAN (Keyobs)          affordable to those who need it


                                                             Leverages relationships with
Alert Services                                               existing content providers and
                                                             channels to deliver vital
                                                             alerting service.
                          Disaster Alert System JRC,
                                                             Integrates alerts within a
                          GDACS , Virtual OSOCC, GEO,
                                                             geographical context and thus
                          IRIN
                                                             with the other outputs of
                                                             RESPOND projects.
                                                             Transforms event-driven alert
                                                             systems to humanitarian alerts
                                                             Users will have the benefit of
Communication and         UN HICs (Humanitarian
                                                             specialised GIS and mapping
report mapping            Information Centres) and the UN
                                                             staff without having to invest
                          GIS Information & Mapping Unit
                                                             in     internal   capacity   or

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Service                   Existing Services                 Added Value
                                                            establish relationships    with
                                                            more than one supplier.

                                                            An opportunity to provide a
Field mapping             Currently there is no directly
                                                            unique service to HA
service                   comparable service available
                                                            organisations




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APPENDIX 6 SUMMARY OF COST AND PRODUCTION

Service             Current Cost per Product (€)
                    Variable depending on the imagery, interpretation, map scale or
Basic Mapping       map size. VHR data increases the cost. Approx €5000-€10,000
                    10K € or approx 3€ per km2 – assuming data provided free under
Crisis and          the Charter.
Damage
Mapping             MapAction deployment to field - € 30,000
                    5-10k € depending on the content of the map and how complex it
Situation           is.
Mapping
                    € 5,000 and € 30,000
Refugee/IDP
Camp Mapping
                    €5K to €15K
Thematic            Environmental - €10K to €30K
Mapping             VHR data increases the costs

                    N/A
Alert Services
                    €1.5K to €4K
Communication
and report
mapping
                    €12K for a 2 person 7 day deployment.
Field mapping
service




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APPENDIX 7 COVERAGE OF SRTM ELEVATION DATA

Figure 1. Coverage of SRTM data over globe (C- & X-band) (c/o USGS).




Figure 2. Coverage of X-band SRTM data over Africa.




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ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



Figure 3. Coverage of X-band SRTM data over Asia.




Figure 4. Coverage of X-band SRTM data over Europe.




Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                            Page 96/114
Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



Figure 5. Coverage of X-band SRTM data over Australia.




Figure 6. Coverage of X-band SRTM data over North America.




Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                            Page 97/114
Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



Figure 7. Coverage of X-band SRTM data over South America.




Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                            Page 98/114
Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



APPENDIX 8 VMAP LEVEL 1 COVERAGE

VMAP level 1 Coverage




Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                            Page 99/114
Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



APPENDIX 9 RASTER AND VECTOR FORMATS

Raster and Vector formats


                                               Description                      Extension
               RASTER
                            Uncompressed

                                               Band-Interleaved-by-Line         BIL
                                               Band Sequential                  BSQ
                                               GeoTIFF                          TIF
                                               Hierarchical Data Format         HDF
                                               Sun Raster File Format           RAS
                                               Targa File Format                TGA
                                               Tagged Image File Format         TIF
                                               (TIFF)                           BMP
                                               Windows Bitmap
                            Compressed Lossy
                                               Journalist Photographers         JPG
                                               Expert Group                     ECW
                                               Enhance      Compression
                                               Wavelet
                            Compressed
                            Lossless
                                               Portable Network Graphic         PNG
                                               Journalist Photographers
                                               Expert Group                     JPG
                                               Compressed version of
                                               Bitmap                           RLE
               VECTOR
                                               Digital Exchange Format          DXF
                                               AutoCAD Drawing file             DWG
                                               ESRI Shapefile                   SHP
                                               ESRI Arc/Info Interchange
                                               file                             e00
                                               Manifold                         MFD
                                               MapInfo                          MIF
                                               Bentley    Microstation /
                                               Intergraph Drawing File          DGN
               ENCAPSULATING    GRAPHIC
               AND   PAGE   DESCRIPTION
               LANGUAGE FORMATS
                                               Encapsulated Postscript
                                               Hewlett-Packard      large       EPS
                                               format printer file              RTL
                                               Portable         Document
                                               Format                           PDF
                                               Postscript                       PS
                                               Windows Metafile Format          WMF




Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                           Page 100/114
Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



APPENDIX 10 SCANNED TOPOGRAPHIC MAP COVERAGE

Scanned Topographic Map coverage


Figure 1. Russian 1:200,000 scale Map coverage.




Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                           Page 101/114
Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                         Commercial-in-Confidence



APPENDIX 11 VMAP LEVEL 0 DATA SOURCES

The VMAP Level 0 is available through:


                                           UNITED STATES

                         Defense Customers (Users)         Civilian Customers (Users)
                     National Imagery and Mapping Agency
                                                             USGS-Information Services
                           Customer Assistance Office
                                                                BOX 25286, MS 306
                               4600 Sangamore Rd
                                                              Denver, CO 80225-0046
                           Bethesda, MD 20816-5003
                                                              Tel: 1-800-435-7627 or
                          Tel: (301) 227-5518/2495 or
                                                                  1-800-872-6277
                                 1-800-826-0342




                                              AUSTRALIA

                       Defense Customers (Users)                   Civilian Customers (Users)

            Directorate of Military Geographic Information - Army
                                                                  The Manager National Data Centre
                                    CP2-4-24
                                                                            P.O. Box 2
                          CAMPBELL PARK OFFICES
                                                                       BELCONNEN ACT 2616
                            CANBERRA ACT 2600
                                                                            AUSTRALIA
                                  AUSTRALIA




                                         UNITED KINGDOM

                                           All Customers (Users)
                                                Military Survey
                                   Directorate of Geographic Commitments
                                                 (Land Reqts)
                                               Elmwood Avenue
                                              Feltham, Middlesex
                                                   TW13 7AH
                                                       UK
                                             Tel: 0181 818-2143
                                             Fax: 0181 818-2177




                                                  CANADA

              Defense Customers (Users)                                Civilian Customers
                  J-2 Defense Geomatics                         Centre for Topographic Information
          National Defense Headquarters (NDHQ)                             2144 King W.
         Mapping and Charting Establishment/Ops                        Sherbrooke, Quebec
          Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0K2 0E9                           Canada, J1J 2E8
                   Tel: (613) 996-8763
                   Fax: (613) 995-4359
                                                       Tel: 1-800-661-2638 (Canada and USA)




Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                                       Page 102/114
Version: I1.00                                                                        Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                                Commercial-in-Confidence



APPENDIX 12 EXAMPLES OF METADATA FORMATS

Metadata –please also refer to D4 dossier Inspire technical note

Example 1: UN Spatial Data

http://www.ungiwg.org/docs/UN-ISOmodel.pdf

Draft ISO template for UN spatial metadata version 1.0
Field Name Mandatory /
Defaults
ISO 19115 XML Tag Contents Description
File identifier D mdFileID Unique identifier for the metadata
Metadata Language D mdlang - languageCode The language used to create the
metadata
Metadata Character
Set
D mdChar - CharSetCd The character set used to create the
metadata.
Point Of Contact M mdContact – rpIndName and/or
rpOrgName
rpCntInfo – cntPhone & cntAddress
role – RoleCd
etc
Person or Organization that can be
contacted for acquiring knowledge
about or acquisition of the resource.
Metadata Date
Stamp
M/D mdDateSt The date on which the metadata record
was created.
Metadata Standard
Name
D mdStanName The name of the metadata standard
used to describe the data set.
Metadata Standard
Version
D mdStanVer The version of the metadata standard
used to describe the data set.
Online resources onLineSrc The URL and related details where the
data is published, described further.
Title M resTitle The title of the map or data set, the
name by which the cited resource is
known
Dataset Reference
Date
M refDate The date on which the data set was
published or created.
Dataset Reference
Date Type
M/D DateTypCd Select the type of date which you have
entered in the field above, i.e.
publication or creation.
Dataset Edition resEd The version number of the data set.
Presentation Format D PresFormCd The presentation format for the data,
e.g. map, table or vertical cross
section.
Abstract M idAbs A brief narrative summary of the
content of resource(s).
Purpose idPurp The primary use for which the data set
was created.
Status D status – ProgCd How complete is the data set.
Resource Provider M idPOC - details The person or organization that
provides the resource
Keywords keyword One or more keywords describing the
thematic content of the data set.
Place Keyword M keyword A keyword that describes the
geographical extent of the data set.


Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                                          Page 103/114
Version: I1.00                                                                           Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                                      Commercial-in-Confidence



Browse Graphic File
Name
bgFileName Name of the file that contains a graphic
that provides an illustration of the data
set.
Browse Graphic File
Description
bgFileDesc Text description (Title) of the
illustration.
Browse Graphic File
Type
D bgFileType Format in which the illustration is
encoded.
Direct Spatial
Reference Method
D SpatRepTypCd Method used to spatially represent
geographic information, the digital
mechanism used to represent spatial
data.
Scale of the dataset dataScale - equScale - rfDenom The scale of the map from which the
data set was derived.
Dataset language M dataLang The language of any text information in
the data set.
Dataset character
set
M dataChar – CharSetCd The character set used for any text
based information in the data set.
Topic Category M TopicCatCd One of 19 topic categories specified by
the ISO 19115 metadata standard.
Bounding box M geoBox – westBL- eastBL – northBLsouthBL
Coordinates that define the extend of
the dataset
Start Date TM_Period - begin The date on which the contents of the
data set began to be valid.
End Date TM_Period – end The date on which the contents of the
data set stopped being valid.
Supplemental
Information
suppInfo Additional information that is
important for correct use of the data
set.
Maintenance
Frequency
D MaintFreqCd Frequency with which changes and
additions are made to the resource
after the initial resource is completed.
Restrictions D SecConsts - useLimit & ClasscationCd The nature of any restrictions placed
on the use or distribution of the data
set by its owners.
Data quality scope
code
ScopeCode the specific data to which the data
quality information applies
Lineage Statement dataLineage - statement A general explanation of the data
producer’s knowledge about the
lineage of a data set.
Processing step
description
stepDesc Description of the event, including
related parameters or tolerances
Processing step
date/time stamp
stepDateTm date and time or range of date and time
on or over which the process step
occurred
Data quality report
result
dqReport - DQTempValid - measResult
- Result value (or set of values) obtained from
applying a data quality measure or the
out come of evaluating the obtained
value (or set of values) against a


Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                                                Page 104/114
Version: I1.00                                                                                 Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                                  Commercial-in-Confidence



specified acceptable conformance
quality level
Geometric Object
Type
D SpatRepTypCd (for vector data only) - Name of point
and vector spatial objects used to
locate zero-, one- and two-dimensional
spatial locations in the data set.
Cell Geometry CellGeoCd (for grid data only) - Identification of
grid data as point or area.
Geographic
Reference System
D refSysID - identCode The geographic reference system or
projection in which the data set is
stored.
Legend: M = Mandatory Field D = Default value could be used
Example metadata record
Identifier: 1014
Metadata language: English
Metadata character set: utf8
Point of contact: Joe Bloggs
FAO-UN
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Lazio, Italy
tel: +39-57055001
fax: +39-5753333
email: Joe.Bloggs@fao.org
Date stamp: 2002-06-19
Metadata name & version: ISO 19115 DIS
Online resource: http://www.fao.org/geonetwork/international_boundaries.htm
Link description: Website on the international boundaries set
Title: Best boundary map available
Data set reference date: 2000-01-01 Publication date
Edition: first edition
Format: digital map
Abstract: A lot of nice words about the map
Purpose: Support UN agencies decision making
Status: ongoing
Resource provider: Joe Bloggs
FAO-UN
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Lazio, Italy
tel: +39-57055001
fax: +39-5753333
email: Joe.Bloggs@fao.org
Keywords: international boundaries
Place keyword: World
Thumbnail:
Thumbnail description: Boundaries of the world
Direct spatial reference method: vector
Scale: 1:1000000
Data language: English
Data Character set: utf8
Topic category: Boundaries
Bounding box: -180 , 180, -90, 90
Start date: 2002-06-19
Supplemental information: The dataset should only be used at scales
between 1:500000 and 1:2500000
Maintenance frequency: as needed
Restrictions: restricted, for internal UN use only
Scope: dataset
Lineage statement: reasonable quality
Processing: Last updated, 2002-06-18 15:00:00
Quality report: The result of a data quality assessment
Geometric object type: complexes
Reference system code: WSG 1984




Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                                            Page 105/114
Version: I1.00                                                                             Date: 24/07/06
ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
                                                 ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Date: 24/07/06                                   Version: I1.00
 Page 106/114                                    Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00
                                        ,)senil noitacinummoc dna senilepip yrtnuoc-ssorc( skrowten
                                           ytilitu rojam ,smetsys eganiard cigolordyh rojam ,skrowten
                                               liar dna daor rojam sedulcni atad ehT .sreyal citameht
                                            01 otni dezinagro si dna atad rotcev fo setybagem 009,1
                                      naht erom sniatnoc esabatad ehT .serutaef pamesab laitnesse
                                                  fo egarevoc labolg suounitnoc ,tnetsisnoc sedivorp
                                               taht ecnetsixe ni seires pam deifissalcnu elacs tsegral
                                              eht si sihT .seires )CNO( trahC noitagivaN lanoitarepO
                                              )AMIN( s'ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN eht si
                                       esabatad eht rof ecruos yramirp ehT .)MOR-DC( yromem ylno
                                              daer csid tcapmoc no derots atad lautxet dna ,etubirtta
                                                   ,cihpargotrac fo stsisnoc tI .dlrow eht fo pamesab
                                         rotcev elacs 000,000,1:1 evisneherpmoc a si 0 leveL paMV
                                         .stcudorp paMV fo ylimaf-gnigreme redaorb a nihtiw tcudorp
                                               desiver eht gninoitisop elihw ,2991 ni dehsilbup ,WCD
                                             lanigiro eht ot egaenil sti wohs ot deman laud si tcudorp
                                           ehT .90 5991 dehsilbup meti esaeler detimil a saw noitide
                                                 dnoces ehT .dlroW eht fo trahC latigiD eht fo noitide
                                       driht eht stneserper esabatad 0 leveL )paMV( paM rotceV ehT
                                                                                              :tcartsbA
                                                                                              :tcartsbA
                                                                                              :tcartsbA
                                                                                              :tcartsbA
                                                                                            :noitpircseD
                                                                                  :egakniL_enilnO
                                                                                  :egakniL_enilnO
                                                                                  :egakniL_enilnO
                                                  eciffO tcejorP gniledoM niarreT :egakniL_enilnO
                                                                                       :rehsilbuP
                                                                               :ecalP_noitacilbuP
                                                                               :ecalP_noitacilbuP
                                                                               :ecalP_noitacilbuP
                                                                               :ecalP_noitacilbuP
                                                                          :noitamrofnI_noitacilbuP
                                                                                              :
                                                                                              :eltiT
                                                                                 :etaD_noitacilbuP
                                                                                        :rotanigirO
                                                                               :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                              :noitatiC_kroW_regraL
                                             ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN :egakniL_enilnO
                                                3381634104467 ,1381634104467 ,0381634104467
                                       :)NSN( rebmuN kcotS lanoitaN ATAD0PAMV rebmuN kcotS
                                                                              :sliateD_noitatiC_rehtO
                                                  ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN :rehsilbuP
                                                                     AV ,xafriaF :ecalP_noitacilbuP
                                                                             :noitamrofnI_noitacilbuP
                                                          paM :mroF_noitatneserP_ataD_laitapsoeG
                                                                                            3 :noitidE
                                  )dlroW eht fo trahC latigiD( 0 leveL paM rotceV - 01V1_PAMV :eltiT
                                                                                  :etaD_noitacilbuP
                                                                                  :etaD_noitacilbuP
                                                                         00107991 :etaD_noitacilbuP
                                                  ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN :rotanigirO
                                                                                 :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                                 :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                                 :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                                               :noitatiC
                                                          IDENTIFICATION_INFORMATION
                               Example 2: VMAP Level 0 (political boundaries)
    Commercial-in-Confidence                    Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications
           Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2
                                                  ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Date: 24/07/06                                    Version: I1.00
 Page 107/114                                     Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00
                                                                          noitategev :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                                    :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                                    :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                                    :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                   secalp detalupop :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                          seniltsaoc :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                                     :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                            sruotnoc :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                          snoitavele :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                             stropria :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                                seitic :drowyeK_emehT
                                                           seiradnuob lanoitanretni :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                            sdaorliar :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                               sdaor :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                               srevir :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                           MOR-DC :drowyeK_emehT
                                                            esabatad latigid labolG :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                      esabatad SIG :drowyeK_emehT
                                                             pamesab labolg latigid :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                               WCD :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                               paMV :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                         paM rotceV :drowyeK_emehT
                                                                        :suruasehT_drowyeK_emehT
                                                                        :suruasehT_drowyeK_emehT
                                                                   enoN :suruasehT_drowyeK_emehT
                                                                                                  :emehT
                                                                                                :sdrowyeK
                                                                                                :sdrowyeK
                                                                                                :sdrowyeK
                                                               5979.55- :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htuoS
                                                                        :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htroN
                                                                        :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htroN
                                                                        :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htroN
                                                                0000.03 :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htroN
                                                                0000.52- :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_tsaE
                                                                       :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htuoS
                                                                       :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htuoS
                                                                       :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htuoS
                                                            000000.09- :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htuoS
                                                                0000.09 :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_htroN
                                                                         :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_tsaE
                                                                         :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_tsaE
                                                                         :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_tsaE
                                                                0000.081 :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_tsaE
                                                              0000.081- :etanidrooC_gnidnuoB_tseW
                                                                                 :setanidrooC_gnidnuoB
                                                                                 :setanidrooC_gnidnuoB
                                                                                 :setanidrooC_gnidnuoB
                                                                                 :setanidrooC_gnidnuoB
                                                                                         :niamoD_laitapS
                                                                :ycneuqerF_etadpU_dna_ecnanetniaM
                                                                :ycneuqerF_etadpU_dna_ecnanetniaM
                                                                :ycneuqerF_etadpU_dna_ecnanetniaM
                                                    yllaunitnoC :ycneuqerF_etadpU_dna_ecnanetniaM
                                                                                    etelpmoC :ssergorP
                                                                                                    :sutatS
                                                                                                    :sutatS
                                                                                                    :sutatS
                                                                                                    :sutatS
                                                              etad noitacilbuP :ecnerefeR_ssentnerruC
                                                                                       :etaD_gnidnE
                                                                                107991 :etaD_gnidnE
                                                                             107991 :etaD_gninnigeB
                                                                               :
                                                                               :semiT/setaD_fo_egnaR
                                                                              :noitamrofnI_doireP_emiT
                                                                                :tnetnoC_fo_doireP_emiT
                                                                             :noitamrofnI_latnemelppuS
                                   .snoitacilppa smetsyS noitamrofnI cihpargoeG troppus ot dengised
                                             esabatad labolg esoprup lareneg a si 0 leveL paMV ehT
                                                                                                :esopruP
                                       .aidem citengam a ot derrefsnart eb nac ro esabatad eht erots
                                        taht sMOR-DC lacitpo ruof eht morf yltcerid dessecca eb nac
                                        esabatad ehT .secalp detalupop dna seiradnuob lanoitanretni
                                                  ,seniltsaoc ,)sruotnoc latnemelppus tf052 dna tf005
                                              htiw ,)tf(toof 0001( sruotnoc noitavele ,stropria rojam lla
    Commercial-in-Confidence                    Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications
           Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2
                                                ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Date: 24/07/06                                  Version: I1.00
 Page 108/114                                   Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00
                                                ecruos CNO eht no detciped serutaef fo tnecrep 001
                                                                               :tropeR_ssenetelpmoC
                                                                    .yrarbil eht nihtiw level egarevoc
                                                   eht ta tneserp selif evitarran elbat erutaef suoirav
                                          eht ni dna elbaT ytilauQ ataD eht htiw detaicossa evitarran
                                               eht ni debircsed selur eht gnisu derutpac yltnetsisnoc
                                               erew atad llA .tneserp era stoohsrevo ro stoohsrednu
                                               oN .stpircsunam ecruos eht no detciped sa debircsed
                                             yletelpmoc era saera llA .tneserp era serutaef etacilpud
                                                  oN .tcerroc yllacigolopot eb ot dnuof erew atad llA
                                                                         :tropeR_ycnetsisnoC_lacigoL
                                               .tnemetats ycarucca etubirtta evitatitnauq a poleved
                                            ot nekatrednu saw troffe lamrof oN .stpircsunam ecruos
                                          eht tsniaga deweiver erew sedoc etubirtta fo tnecrep 001
                                                                         :tropeR_ycaruccA_etubirttA
                                                                                   :ycaruccA_etubirttA
                                                                                   :ycaruccA_etubirttA
                                                                                   :ycaruccA_etubirttA
                                                          DATA_QUALITY_INFORMATION
                                                  phs.al_tenop\wcd\lop_f\esabpam\esabatad\atad\:d
                                                                tamrof elifepahs 1.3 noisrev weiVcrA
                                                                      :tnemnorivnE_teS_ataD_evitaN
                                                                      :tnemnorivnE_teS_ataD_evitaN
                                                                      :tnemnorivnE_teS_ataD_evitaN
                                                                      :tnemnorivnE_teS_ataD_evitaN
                                                                                  :ecivreS_fo_sruoH
                                                                 :sserddA_liaM_cinortcelE_tcatnoC
                                                                 :sserddA_liaM_cinortcelE_tcatnoC
                                                                 :sserddA_liaM_cinortcelE_tcatnoC
                                                                 :sserddA_liaM_cinortcelE_tcatnoC
                                                                    :enohpeleT_elimiscaF_tcatnoC
                                                                       :enohpeleT_ecioV_tcatnoC
                                                                       :enohpeleT_ecioV_tcatnoC
                                                                       :enohpeleT_ecioV_tcatnoC
                                                        3003-462 )307( :enohpeleT_ecioV_tcatnoC
                                                                                       SU :yrtnuoC
                                                                                    :edoC_latsoP
                                                                                    :edoC_latsoP
                                                                                    :edoC_latsoP
                                                                              13022 :edoC_latsoP
                                                                            AV :ecnivorP_ro_etatS
                                                                                               :ytiC
                                                                                               :ytiC
                                                                                               :ytiC
                                                                                       xafriaF :ytiC
                                                                      yawhgiH eeL 3168 :sserddA
                                                                                  :epyT_sserddA
                                                                                  :epyT_sserddA
                                                                                  :epyT_sserddA
                                                     sserdda lacisyhp dna gniliam :epyT_sserddA
                                                                                  :sserddA_tcatnoC
                                                                                 :noitisoP_tcatnoC
                                                                            NTTA :noitisoP_tcatnoC
                                                                                  :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                         :noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                     ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN :noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                    :yramirP_noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                                :noitamrofnI_tcatnoC
                                                                                     :tcatnoC_fo_tnioP
                                                         ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN etiC
                                                                                     :stniartsnoC_esU
                                                                                                 enon
                                                                                  :stniartsnoC_sseccA
                                                                   egarevoc dlrow :drowyeK_ecalP
                                                                  egarevoc labolg :drowyeK_ecalP
                                                                 enoN :suruasehT_drowyeK_ecalP
                                                                                                :ecalP
    Commercial-in-Confidence                  Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications
           Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2
                                                 ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Date: 24/07/06                                   Version: I1.00
 Page 109/114                                    Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00
                                                                                     :rotanigirO
                                                                            :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                            :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                            :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                            :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                            :noitatiC_kroW_regraL
                                                                                  :
                                                                                  :egakniL_enilnO
                                                                           :sliateD_noitatiC_rehtO
                                              ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN :rehsilbuP
                                                                OM ,siuoL .tS :ecalP_noitacilbuP
                                                                          :noitamrofnI_noitacilbuP
                                                       pam :mroF_noitatneserP_ataD_laitapsoeG
                                                                                           :noitidE
                                                             trahC lanoitagivaN lanoitarepO :eltiT
                                                                           4991 :etaD_noitacilbuP
                                               ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN :rotanigirO
                                                                               :noitamrofnI_noitatiC
                                                                                    :noitatiC_ecruoS
                                                                                  :noitamrofnI_ecruoS
                                                                                               :egaeniL
                                                          .lavretni ecnedifnoc %09 a ta rorre raenil
                                          sa desserpxe era stluser sisylana ehT .tset siht etelpmoc
                                           ot yrassecen saw noitalopretni launam emoS .esabatad
                                             latigid eht nihtiw noitacol emas eht ta seulav noitavele
                                             ot spam elacs 000,42:1 no snoitacol ruotnoc noitavele
                                           gnirapmoc yb depoleved erew serugif ycarucca lacitreV
                                               .sretem ni desserpxe si ycaruccA lanoitisoP lacitreV
                                                   .egarevoc ytilauq atad 0 paM-V eht ni setubirtta
                                            erutaef aera sa elbaliava era seicarucca cificeps-trahc
                                                   ecruoS .ycarucca llarevo stneserper erugif sihT
                                                               :tropeR_ycaruccA_lanoitisoP_lacitreV
                                                                        :ycaruccA_lanoitisoP_lacitreV
                                                                        :ycaruccA_lanoitisoP_lacitreV
                                                                        :ycaruccA_lanoitisoP_lacitreV
                                                                        :ycaruccA_lanoitisoP_lacitreV
                                         .noitaluclac erauqs mus toor a ni seicarucca trahc ecruos
                                       ot srorre noitcudorp nwonk gnidda yb deifirev yltnednepedni
                                               saw erugif sihT .lavretni ecnedifnoc %09 a ta erugif
                                           ycaruccA paM ralucriC a sa secnereffid gnisserpxe dna
                                        ,stesffo eht gnirusaem ,ycarucca rehgih fo secruos tsniaga
                                              segarevoc eganiard dna ,senil ytilitu ,sdaorliar ,sdaor
                                               eht ni stniop denifed-llew fo snoitisop eht gnirapmoc
                                            yb depoleved erew serugif ycarucca latnozroh deliateD
                                            .sretem ni desserpxe si ycaruccA lanoitisoP latnoziroH
                                       .tcejorp WCD eht fo esahp gnipytotorp eht ni ylno trahc eno
                                       no demrofrep saw sisylana ycarucca yramirp ehT .egarevoc
                                                  ytilauq atad 0-paMV eht ni setubirtta erutaef aera
                                       sa elbaliava era seicarucca cificeps-trahc ecruoS .ycarucca
                                       llarevo stneserper eulaV ycaruccA lanoitisoP latnoziroH ehT
                                                            :tropeR_ycaruccA_lanoitisoP_latnoziroH
                                                                      :ycaruccA_lanoitisoP_latnoziroH
                                                                                   :ycaruccA_lanoitisoP
                                                         .meht ot dengissa sedoc etubirtta dilav evah
                                           serutaef eht fo tnecrep 001 .derutpac neeb evah slairetam
    Commercial-in-Confidence                   Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications
           Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2
                                                  ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Date: 24/07/06                                    Version: I1.00
 Page 110/114                                     Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00
                                                             :epyT_tcejbO_rotceV_dna_tnioP_STDS
                               sniahc fo desopmoc nogylop-TG :epyT_tcejbO_rotceV_dna_tnioP_STDS
                                                                            :noitpircseD_smreT_STDS
                                                                 :noitamrofnI_tcejbO_rotceV_dna_tnioP
                                                              rotceV :dohteM_ecnerefeR_laitapS_tceriD
                                     SPATIAL_DATA_ORGANIZATION_INFORMATION
                                                                                :ecivreS_fo_sruoH
                                                                :sserddA_liaM_cinortcelE_tcatnoC
                                                     6496-775-318 :enohpeleT_elimiscaF_tcatnoC
                                                         0010-875-318 :enohpeleT_ecioV_tcatnoC
                                                                                    ASU :yrtnuoC
                                                                             20733 :edoC_latsoP
                                                                           LF :ecnivorP_ro_etatS
                                                                              grubsreteP .tS :ytiC
                                                                    .evA ht9 htroN 0598 :sserddA
                                                     sserdda lacisyhp dna gniliam :epyT_sserddA
                                                                                 :sserddA_tcatnoC
                                                                                 :sserddA_tcatnoC
                                                                                 :sserddA_tcatnoC
                                                                                 :noitisoP_tcatnoC
                                                                                 :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                                 :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                                 :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                   xenoeG :noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                         :yramirP_nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                         :yramirP_nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                         :yramirP_nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                         :yramirP_nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                               :noitamrofnI_tcatnoC
                                                                                    :tcatnoC_ssecorP
                                                                                    :tcatnoC_ssecorP
                                                                                    :tcatnoC_ssecorP
                                                                                    :tcatnoC_ssecorP
                                                            :noitaiverbbA_noitatiC_decudorP_ecruoS
                                                                                      :etaD_ssecorP
                                                                                      :etaD_ssecorP
                                                                                      :etaD_ssecorP
                                                                               404991 :etaD_ssecorP
                                                                :noitaiverbbA_noitatiC_desU_ecruoS
                                                                                :noitpircseD_ssecorP
                                                                                :noitpircseD_ssecorP
                                                                                :noitpircseD_ssecorP
                                                                                :noitpircseD_ssecorP
                                                                                        :petS_ssecorP
                                                                                   atad lacituanorea
                                            fo noitpecxe eht htiw ecruos eht no dnuof noitamrofni llA
                                                                                :noitubirtnoC_ecruoS
                                                                                :noitubirtnoC_ecruoS
                                                                                :noitubirtnoC_ecruoS
                                                                                :noitubirtnoC_ecruoS
                                                                 CNO :noitaiverbbA_noitatiC_ecruoS
                                                                   :ecnerefeR_ssentnerruC_ecruoS
                                                 setad noitacilbuP :ecnerefeR_ssentnerruC_ecruoS
                                                                              4991 :etaD_gnidnE
                                                                                :etaD_gninnigeB
                                                                           4791 :etaD_gninnigeB
                                                                           :semiT/setaD_fo_egnaR
                                                                          :noitamrofnI_doireP_emiT
                                                                   :tnetnoC_fo_doireP_emiT_ecruoS
                                                        lairetam esab-elbats :aideM_ecruoS_fo_epyT
                                                              000,000,1 :rotanimoneD_elacS_ecruoS
                                                                                :egakniL_enilnO
                                                                                     :rehsilbuP
                                                                             :ecalP_noitacilbuP
                                                                        :noitamrofnI_noitacilbuP
                                                                                            :eltiT
                                                                               :etaD_noitacilbuP
    Commercial-in-Confidence                    Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications
           Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2
                                                 ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Date: 24/07/06                                   Version: I1.00
 Page 111/114                                    Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00
                                                        .5991 beF 9 ,)93098-V-LIM( 0 leveL )paMV(
                                          paM rotceV ,noitacificepS yratiliM ,esnefeD fo tnemtrapeD
                                                :ni debircsed si 0-paMV .eciffO tnemhcateD ecivreS
                                              gnitnirP esnefeD ,esnefeD fo tnemtrapeD ,aihpledilihP
                                             :)90098-D-LIM( dlroW eht fo trahC latigiD noitacificepS
                                                yratiliM ,2991 ,esnefeD fo tnemtrapeD :ni debircsed
                                                  ylluf era WCD rof setubirttA dna )serutaef( seititnE
                                                                 :noitatiC_liateD_etubirttA_dna_ytitnE
                                                                           .4991 yraunaJ ,2.1 noitidE
                                        dradnatS egnahcxE noitamrofnI cihpargoeG latigiD ni dnuof
                                       eb yam CCAF fo noitpircsed lluf A .emehcs gnidoc CCAF eht
                                    otni deppam erew sedoc sutatS/epyT WCD ehT .)CCAF( golataC
                                             gnidoC etubirttA dna erutaeF htiw ecnadrocca ni dedoc
                                           etubirtta si atad 0-paMV .tneserp evitimirp cihparg fo epyt
                                          eht rof noitaiverbba rettel owt a dna noitaiverbba egarevoc
                                               rettel owt eht yb dedeecerp era seman edoc etubirtta
                                           SUTATS dna EPYT eht ,WCD eht ni etubirtta cihpargoeg
                                                    hcae yfitnedi yleuqinu ot redro nI .scitsiretcarahc
                                           rieht yfitnedi yleuqinu ot edoc SUTATS dna EPYT a htob
                                              eriuqer serutaef emoS .erutaef eht fo noitidnoc tnerruc
                                                 eht seificeps etubirtta SUTATS eht elihw ,si erutaef
                                             eht tahw seificeps etubirtta EPYT ehT .serutaef txet rof
                                      srotangised LOBMYS dna LEVEL dna ;serutaef tniop dna ,enil
                                       ,aera rof srotangised SUTATS dna EPYT fo desopmoc si taht
                                          metsys gnidoc etubirtta cificeps-tcudorp a desu WCD ehT
                                                                       :weivrevO_etubirttA_dna_ytitnE
                                                                                 :
                                                                                 :noitpircseD_weivrevO
                                             ENTITY_AND_ATTRIBUTE_INFORMATION
                                                  365322752.892 :oitaR_gninettalF_fo_rotanimoneD
                                                                          7318736 :sixA_rojam-imeS
                                                                        6681 ekralC :emaN_diospillE
                                          7291 fo mutaD naciremA htroN :emaN_mutaD_latnoziroH
                                                                                      :ledoM_citedoeG
                                                   seergeD lamiceD :stinU_etanidrooC_cihpargoeG
                                                                      100000. :noituloseR_edutignoL
                                                                        100000. :noituloseR_edutitaL
                                                                                           :cihpargoeG
                                                            :noitinifeD_metsyS_etanidrooC_latnoziroH
                                                   SPATIAL_REFERENCE_INFORMATION
                                                              5773 :tnuoC_tcejbO_rotceV_dna_tnioP
    Commercial-in-Confidence                   Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications
           Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2
                                                   ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
Date: 24/07/06                                     Version: I1.00
 Page 112/114                                      Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00
                                                                80604991 :noisreV_dradnatS_atadateM
                      rof dradnatS tnetnoC eettimmoC ataD cihpargoeG laredeF :emaN_dradnatS_atadateM
                                                                                 :ecivreS_fo_sruoH
                                                                  :sserddA_liaM_cinortcelE_tcatnoC
                                                                      :enohpeleT_elimiscaF_tcatnoC
                                                            3003-462-307 :enohpeleT_ecioV_tcatnoC
                                                                                     ASU :yrtnuoC
                                                                              13022 :edoC_latsoP
                                                                            AV :ecnivorP_ro_etatS
                                                                                       xafriaF :ytiC
                                                                       yawhgiH eeL 3168 :sserddA
                                                        sserdda lacisyhp dna gniliaM :epyT_sserddA
                                                                                  :sserddA_tcatnoC
                                                                                  :sserddA_tcatnoC
                                                                                  :sserddA_tcatnoC
                                                                            NTTA :noitisoP_tcatnoC
                                                                                  :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                                  :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                                  :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                                  :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                        ycnegA gnippaM dna yregamI lanoitaN :noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                     :yramirP_noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                     :yramirP_noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                     :yramirP_noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                     :yramirP_noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                                :noitamrofnI_tcatnoC
                                                                                   :tcatnoC_atadateM
                                                                                   :tcatnoC_atadateM
                                                                                   :tcatnoC_atadateM
                                                                                   :tcatnoC_atadateM
                                                                              :etaD_weiveR_atadateM
                                                                                     :etaD_atadateM
                                                                                     :etaD_atadateM
                                                                                     :etaD_atadateM
                                                                            01107991 :etaD_atadateM
                                                  METADATA_REFERENCE_INFORMATION
                                                                                  :ytilibaiL_noitubirtsiD
                                                                                  :ytilibaiL_noitubirtsiD
                                                                                  :ytilibaiL_noitubirtsiD
                                                                                  :ytilibaiL_noitubirtsiD
                                                    3381634104467 ,1381634104467 ,0381634104467
                                           :)NSN( rebmuN kcotS lanoitaN ATAD0PAMV )rebmuN kcotS(
                                           :)NSN( rebmuN kcotS lanoitaN ATAD0PAMV )rebmuN kcotS(
                                           :)NSN( rebmuN kcotS lanoitaN ATAD0PAMV )rebmuN kcotS(
                                           :)NSN( rebmuN kcotS lanoitaN ATAD0PAMV )rebmuN kcotS(
                                                                                :noitpircseD_ecruoseR
                                                                                 :ecivreS_fo_sruoH
                                                                                 :ecivreS_fo_sruoH
                                                                                 :ecivreS_fo_sruoH
                                                                                 :ecivreS_fo_sruoH
                                                                  :sserddA_liaM_cinortcelE_tcatnoC
                                                                     :enohpeleT_elimiscaF_tcatnoC
                                                       80942-722-103 :enohpeleT_elimiscaF_tcatnoC
                                                            5942-722-103 :enohpeleT_ecioV_tcatnoC
                                                                                     ASU :yrtnuoC
                                                                         1005-61802 :edoC_latsoP
                                                                            DM :ecnivorP_ro_etatS
                                                                                    adsehteB :ytiC
                                                                    .dvlB ruhtrAcaM 1006 :sserddA
                                                        sserdda lacisyhp dna gniliam :epyT_sserddA
                                                                                  :sserddA_tcatnoC
                                                                            NTTA :noitisoP_tcatnoC
                                                                                  :nosreP_tcatnoC
                                                                       AMIN :noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                     :yramirP_noitazinagrO_tcatnoC
                                                                                :noitamrofnI_tcatnoC
                                                                                            :rotubirtsiD
                                                             DISTRIBUTION_INFORMATION
    Commercial-in-Confidence                      Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications
           Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2
  Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

  Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence



  APPENDIX 13 DATA SOURCES

  Data sources used for Crisis and Damage Mapping

Satellite     Charact       Lifetime                                                 Useful for Crisis and Damage Mapping
              eristic                                                                                  Spectral
                                                                Revisit Rate       Spatial Res.                               Other
                                                                                                  bands/SAR freq.
TerraSAR-X    radar         2007-2014                          2         days     1-16m           X-band          • Single, dual, and quad
                                                               (flexible          (flexible                         polarization mode
                                                               mode)              mode)
Cosmo-        4-sat                                            <8h         in     <1-30m          X-band          • ‘nominal’ vs
Skymed        SAR                                              Europe (with       (flexible                         ‘interferometric’ orbital
              constellat                                       4 sat.)            mode)                             configuration
              ion
Rapid Eye     optical       2007-2014                          Daily (with all    6.5m (nadir)   VIS-NIR, pan       • Fast satellite tasking (6h)
                                                               sat.)                                                • Ortho-imagery <24h
Pleiades      optical       2008-2013                          4 days             0.7 - 2.8m     VIS-NIR, pan       • ortho-imagery on
                                                                                                                      regional scale
Envisat       radar         2002-2007                          3 days             12.5m          C-band             • wide swath mode
ASAR                                                                              (image                              available with 150m for
                                                                                  mode)                               regional overview
Envisat       optical       2002-2007                          3 days             300m (FR)      VIS-NIR            • orthorectification and
MERIS                                                                                                                 regional overview
Radarsat      radar         Radarsat 1: 1995-2001              1-2 days           12.5m          C-band             • various beam modes
                            Radarsat 2: 2006-
MODIS         optical       Terra: 1999 - 2005                 1-2 days           250m           VIS-NIR-SWIR-      • large swath
                            Aqua: 2002 - 2008                                                    TIR
Sentinel 1    radar         2007-2008 (before end of           tbd                Tbd            Tbd
                            ENIVISAT)- ca 5 yrs.
Sentinel 2    optical       2007-2008 (before end of           tbd                tbd            tbd
                            ENIVISAT)- ca 5 yrs.
Landsat       optical       L.-5: 1984- exp. 1987 (still in    16 days            30-28.5m       VIS-NIR-SWIR       • accurate calibration
                            use)
                            L.-7: 1999- 2004


  Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                           Page 113/114
  Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
  ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC
  Service consolidation actions of the EarthWatch GMES Services Element Phase 2

  Respond S5: Service Portfolio Specifications                Commercial-in-Confidence




Satellite     Charact       Lifetime                                                Useful for Crisis and Damage Mapping
              eristic                                                                                 Spectral
                                                                Revisit Rate       Spatial Res.                             Other
                                                                                                 bands/SAR freq.
Formosat      optical       F. -2: 5/2005- 2010                Daily              2m (pan)       VIS-NIR, pan    • early equator crossing
                            F. -3: 4/2006-2008/ exp.2011                          8m (ms)                          time increases the
                                                                                                                   chances of acquiring
                                                                                                                   cloud-free images in
                                                                                                                   equatorial regions
Kompsat       optical       12/ 1999- 12/2004                  2-3 days           6.6m (nadir)   VIS-NIR, pan
ALOS          optical   /   2006 - 2009                        2 days             2.5m optical) VIR-NIR, L-band
              Radar                                                               10m (optical
                                                                                  and radar)

IRS           optical       P4 (Oceansat) 5/1999- 2004         5 days             5, 23.5, 70.5,   VIR-NIR-SWIR
                            (still in use)                                        188 m
                            P5 (Cartosat) 5/2005- 2011
                            P6 (Resorcesat-1) 10/2003-
                            Late 2008
DMC           optical       2003 onwards                       Daily (with 5      ~32m             VIR-NIR
                                                               sat.
                                                               constellation)
SAC-C         optical       1999 - Late 2003                   9 days             175m             VIS-NIR-SWIR
ASTER         optical       1999 - > 2006                      4-16 days          15-30-90m        VIS-NIR-SWIR-
                                                                                                   TIR
SPOT          optical       -2/ -4 still working               1-3 days           2.5 – 20m        VIS-NIR-SWIR
                            -5 Late 2007
IKONOS        optical       Late 2007 (possibly 2008)          1-2 days           1m               VIR-NIR, pan
QuickBird     optical       Late 2008                          1-5 days           0.6m             VIR-NIR, pan
OrbView-3     optical       2003 onwards                       <3 days            1m               VIR-NIR, pan




  Document No: S5-ITUK-P2-S1-I1.00                                           Page 114/114
  Version: I1.00                                                            Date: 24/07/06
  ESA/ESRIN contract No: 20091/06/I-EC

								
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