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					Marketing Guide for ASEAN Exporter




    ASEAN-Japan Center
                                              Message



 The ASEAN-Japan Centre (ASEAN Promotion Centre on Trade, Investment and Tourism) has
been making dedicated efforts to implement various activities in order to promote trade, investment
and tourism between Japan and the ASEAN nations (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) since its foundation in May 1981.


 Exports to Japan from ASEAN countries are expected to increase following the signature in April
2008 of the ASEAN- Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement,which is expected
to enter into force in 2008. In line with this Agreement, the Centre has been undertaking trade
activities, such as the Market Survey Program, to contribute to the enhancement of trade between
ASEAN and Japan.       This particular program aims to help facilitate ASEAN exports to Japan by
providing businesses in specific product areas with information on the Japanese market, trade trends,
Japanese imports and sale regulations and related points to bear in mind when entering the market.


 For Fiscal Year 2007, the Survey focused on the Japanese spa industry, one of the“health & well-
ness”industries, which are projected to expand in Japan.  This Survey provides comprehensive in-
formation on the treatments available at Japanese spas, the history of spa development in Japan, an
overview of the spa industry, qualifications that spas must have in order to operate, market trends for
related products, domestic import procedures, and a list of related public and private sector organiza-
tions. The report also contains, for reference, academic explanations of the plants and fruits that con-
stitute the basic ingredients of various spa products.


 We hope this Survey can provide manufacturers and exporters in ASEAN countries with valuable
information to support their market entry or increased their market share in Japan.




                                                                                 ASEAN-Japan Centre
                                                                                       Nobutoshi Akao
                                                                                     Secretary General


April 2008
                                     Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Spa Industry
1.Introducing Japan's spa industry
< What Is a Spa? > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・2
< The Definition of a Spa > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・3
  1)Integrated medical care ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・7
  2)CAM ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・8
  3)Wellness ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・8
  4)Nutrition therapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・9
      Diet therapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 10
      Spa Cuisine ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 11
  5)Physiotherapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 16
  6)Exercise therapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 17
      < Yoga > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 17
      < Tai Chi > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 18
      < Ouigong > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 19
      < Rusie Dutton > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 19
      < Fitness program > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 20
  7) Diverse manipulative therapies ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 21
      < Japanese massage, European massage, acupressure, acupuncture, and moxibustion > ・・・ 21
      < Western reflexology > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 22
      < Eastern reflexology > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 23
      < Manual lymphatic drainage > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 25
      < Athletic Massage(Sports Massages) > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 25
      < Swedish Massage > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 25
      < Esalen Massage and Body work > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 27
  8)Hydrotherapy and Other Physiotherapies ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 27
      < Hydrotherapy > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 27
      < Thermotherapy > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 33
      < Phototherapy > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 34
      < Electrotherapy > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 34
  9)Meditation ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 36
  10)Stress management ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 36
  11)Beauty regimens ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 37
      < Esthetics > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 37
      < Beauticians/barber > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 40
  12)Music therapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 41
  13)Other therapies・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 42
  14)Climatotherapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 43
  15)Homeopathy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 47
  16)Phytotherapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 48
      < Herbal remedies > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 48
      < Aroma therapy > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 54
      < Flower therapy > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 56
      < Gardening therapy > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 57
  17)Clay therapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 58
  18)Balneotherapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 59
  19)Thalassotherapy ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 60
  20)History of beautification・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 70
  21)Massage culture in Japan ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 71
  22)Zen ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 72
  23)Kodo ‒ Japanese art of incense ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 72
  24)Vegetarian fare ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 73
  25)Bathing culture ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 74
  26)Traditional Chinese medicine・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 75
  27)Thai medicine ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 77
  28)Jamu ‒ Indonesian traditional medicine ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 79
  29)Ayurveda ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 79
  30) Unani medicin ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 82
  31)Greek medicine・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 83
  32)Lomi lomi ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 84
  33)Vietnamese medicine ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 85
  34)Khmer medicine ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 85
  35)Laotian medicine ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 86
  36)Traditional medicine of the Philippines ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 86
  37)Other ethnic medicines ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 87
< Trends in spa services in Japan >  ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 88
< Requirements > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 90
< Spa-related laws > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 106
< History of Spa-Related Industries > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 107



2.The Development of the Unique Japanese Spa Culture ・・・・・ 111
  1)The origins of the Japanese spa ‒ hot springs culture goes back to ancient times ・・・ 111
  2)Modern hot springs ‒ From a therapeutic bathing place to a tourist spa
     ‒ the prosperity of the onsen ryokan [hot springs inn] ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 112
  3)Onsen ryokan [hot springs inns] and spas ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 114
  4)Hotel industry and spa ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 117
  5)Development of hot bath facilites ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 124
  6)Esthetic industry and spas ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 128
  7)Fitness industry and spas ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 133
  8)Developing Japanese spa market ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 139



3.Market Trends in Japanese Spa Products (Cosmetics) ・・・・・ 149
  < Sales Trend by channel > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 149
  < Notable concepts > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 150
  < Actual import of cosmetics into Japan > ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 151




Chapter 2: Import and Marketing of Spa Products
1.Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan・・・・・・・ 153


2.Products that Fall under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law such as
 Cosmetics, Soap, Massage Oils and Toothpaste・・・・・・・・・・・157
  (1)Pharmaceutical Affairs Law ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 157
  (2)Definition of Cosmetics, etc. ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 157
  (3)Importation of Cosmetics into Japan ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 161
  (4)Manufacturing License ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 162
  (5)Manufacturing and Marketing License ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 165
  (6)Other Necessary Procedures ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 168
  (7)Major Legal Regulations ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 170
  (8)Standards for Cosmetics ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 171
  (9)Representation of Cosmetics ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 184
  (10)Advertisement ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 191
  (11)Administrative Measures ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 192



3.The Compliance of Import Procedures with the Food Sanitation Law ・・・195
  (1)The importation of foods and suchlike ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 195
  (2)Importation of teas and herbal teas ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 198
  (3)Procedures for taking the required inspection on imported tableware ・・・・・・・ 202



4.Import Procedures for Towels and Linen ・・・・・・・・・・・・205


5.Importation of Aroma-related Products ・・・・・・・・・・・・207
6.Home Electric Appliances in General ・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 209

Reference
 Reference [1] List of Industrial Organizations ・・・・・・・・ 214
 Reference [2] List of Industrial Organizations ・・・・・・・・ 218
 Reference [3] Supporting Companies ・・・・・・・・・・・・ 222


Appendix・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・ 228




ASEAN Promotion Centre on Trade, Investment and Tourism
(ASEAN-JAPAN CENTRE)
Central Building, 10-3, Ginza 4-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0061, Japan
TEL:03-3546-1225
FAX:03-3546-9050
URL:http://www.asean.or.jp
                                                                * All rights strictly reserved
                       Chapter1
                               


  Chapter 1

The Spa Industry




                   1
            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           1.Introducing Japan's spa industry
Chapter1



           < What Is a Spa? >

            Recently in Japan, we hear the word
           “spa”used on many occasions. Most hotels
           in central Tokyo are equipped with a spa,
           and we also hear about the idea of spas
           being incorporating in beauty salons. Many
           department stores also have a spa. A new
           building opened by a famous French brand
           recently made news by being equipped
           with a spa facility. Japanese people have
           traditionally associated the word“spa”with
           what they call onsen. However, this tradition
           has gradually changed. Today, people are                          Photo: Kusatsu Onsen Tourism Association
           living more stressful lives, which is why kenko (health) and iyashi (a sort of mental relaxant) are
           attracting a lot of people. Similar trends can be found worldwide. As advances in communication
           networks and transportation have increasingly made the world smaller, you can easily notice the
           international increase in demand for spas. As partnerships and affiliations between spa businesses
           have recently transcended international borders, spas are steadily gaining a foothold as an
           established industry. It is time for us to consider the spa industry, a promising business in Japan, as
           something we can depend on, so, let's take a closer look at it.


            One Japanese dictionary defines a spa as“a mineral spring, a hot spring or a relaxation facility
           that has a mineral spring or a hot spring”. In English, s spa may mean (1) a mineral spring (area)
           or a hot spring (area); (2) a hotel located in a hot spring area (United States only); or (3) a bubble
           jet bath or a spa bath (United States only). It is clear that spas originally meant something similar
           to what is known as onsen in Japan. It has been suggested that the word“spa”is derived from an
           acronym of the Latin expression, solus per aqua. Solus means“cure”. Per means“through”while
           aqua means“water”. In Italian,“spa”can be interpreted as salute (healthy) per acqua (water),
           which means maintaining good health through the benefit of water or taking in water from a mineral
           spring.
            For centuries, European people have used water to cure their afflictions. The body of accumulated
           knowledge was handed down at major medical schools around Europe. Doctors called Kur physicians
           prescribed lukewarm baths, radium baths, herbal wrap, thermotherapy, massages and other forms of
           treatment. These spa resorts were also furnished with saunas, steam rooms, swimming pools, beauty
           salons and many other amenities. Many Europeans who had emigrated to the United States brought
           with them the idea of spa treatment and a variety of other practices. Some of these facilities continue




            2
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

to flourish as mineral spas, accounting for nearly three percent of all spas.




                                                                                                              Chapter1
 In addition, spas can be found all around the world in various forms. They include hammam , a
public bath in Muslim countries, as well as sauna (Finland) and the Russian bath. Native Americans
also had customs similar to that associated with spas.
 Including the Japanese onsen, many countries have their own traditional spa culture.
 Spa”originally referred to mineral springs and other locations where a hot spring gushed forth.
However, people gradually began to extend their interpretation of the word to include the mud                         
that surrounded the springs that was found to offer therapeutic benefits, and to non-spring water
collected from a lake or the sea. A spa may also refer to artificial mineral water or other unique forms
of treatment that make use of the therapeutic benefits of the climate or environment, rather than
mineral water.




< The Definition of a Spa >

 How are spas regarded around the world? “The International Spa Association (ISPA)”, based in
Kentucky, the United States, is an internationally well-known industrial organization that is involved
with spas. The ISPA mainly consists of spa managers, and organizes the“accreditation of supervisors
of spa facilities”in an effort to improve the efficiency of spa management and to facilitate qualitative
improvements in the training that therapists undergo. By providing its own code of conduct and code
of ethics and by requiring its member companies to comply with the codes, the ISPA aims to maintain
and improve the level of service provided at spa facilities around the world.


The following is the ISPA's definition of a spa.
 
  Spas are entities devoted to enhancing overall well-being through a variety of professional    
  services that encourage the renewal of mind, body and spirit.


 The ISPA also divides spa services into three categories including (1) massage therapies, (2)
aesthetic services and (3) hydrotherapies. A facility that is deemed to provide at least two of these
categories is regarded as a“spa”. The above definition of a spa was mainly prepared by ISPA officials
and has been subject to revision when new forms of services are created, when the consumers' needs
for spas change and whenever else a revision is required.


 The general meeting of the“International Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation”,
the world's largest academic meeting concerning spas, was held in Hungary in 2002. At the meeting,
Dr. de Belleville proposed the following definition of spas.


    Spa culture is today's generic term that refers to the traditional practices of healing,
       healthcare, therapies and health resort medication.




                                                                                                        3
            Introducing Japan's spa industry                                        Introducing Japan's spa industry

            The doctor also said spa therapies might generally concern rehabilitation, improved health,
Chapter1

           healthcare, leisure, sightseeing and many other activities, possibly involving thalassotherapy, hot
           spring therapies and qigong .
            The definition of a spa varies around the world. In recent years, the Nippon Spa Association, Japan
           Spa Association, Japan Spa and Sauna Association and many other private organizations have sprung
           up in Japan and have put forth their respective definitions. However, this does not mean that the
           Japanese government has an official definition of a spa. At this point, Japanese people's views of spas
           are very diverse and cannot be fully encapsulated with just a few words. So we will take a closer look
           at the facts surrounding Japanese spas and their related industries through an exhaustive discussion
           of the areas that are generally considered spas in Japan and by adding historical comments while
           explaining the related industries.
            First, as indicated in Table 1, we summarize the factors that comprise spa therapies and that
           concern all spa-related industries in Japan. Opinions on how to summarize the factors may differ
           among individuals. In fact, many factors have become intertwined with one another in a complex
           manner and developed to form the spa of today. To facilitate the reader's understanding of the
           correlations, these factors are narrowed down into the more relevant ones and explained in numerical
           order.
            Table 2 is a chronological table showing the history of the Japanese spa industry. This will help in
           understanding how the factors shown in Table 1 have developed through Japanese history and, thus,
           how Japanese spas and their related industries have reached their current state.
            It should be emphasized that Japanese spas are an industry in ascension. No Japanese law gives
           an explicit scope or provides a definition of a spa. Currently, there is no commonly agreed answer to
           the question“What is a spa?”among spa businesses, general consumers and related administrative
           agencies. There are more spa industries than what is indicated in this marketing guide. Definitions
           of spas differ among individuals. In using this guide, please keep in mind that spas will undergo
           repeated changes as they continue to develop.




            4
                                                                                                Introducing Japan's spa industry

 Table 1:     Spa Therapies and the Spa Service Industry




                                                                                                                                        Chapter1
                                                                                             Hydrotherapy [8]

                                                                         Others              Electrotherapy [8]

                                                                                             Phototherapy [8]

                                                                                             Thermotherapy [8]
                                                                    Physiotherapy [5]
                                                                 (Physical therapists
                                                                                             Manipulative therapy [7]                           
                                                                 and health fitness         (Acupuncturists,moxibustionists,
                                             Physical health     instructors)               massagers,Judo therapists and
                                                                                            physical therapists)

                                                                                             Exercise therapy [6]
                                                                 Nutrition therapy [4]
                                                                 (Registered dietitians
                                                                 and cooks)               Meditation [9]
                                                                      Emotional           Stress management [10]
                                                                       health
                              Wellness                                                    Relaxation

                                                                    Mental health         Creation activities and arts

                                             Mental health          Beauty regimens (Beauticians and barbers)

                                                                     Music therapy

                                                                        Other                                       Gardening therapy
                                                                       therapies           Homeopathy [15]
                                                                                                                    Herbal remedy
                                                                                           Phytotherapy [16]        Aromatherapy
   Integrated       CAM [2]              Health establishments Climatotherapy                                       Flower therapy
 medical care [1]                         that use the natural      [14]                   Clay therapy [17]
                                              environment                                                           Clay therapy
(Medical doctors)                                                                                                   Mud therapy
                                                                    Forest therapy        Balneotherapy [18]
                                                                                                                    Thermotherapy
                                                                                          (Bathing Instructors)
                                                                                                                    Hydrotherapy
                                                                                          Thalassotherapy [19]      Thalassotherapy

                                                                                           Massage culture in Japan [21]
                                                                                           K o d o [23]
                                               Japanese traditional culture [20]           History of beautification [20]
                                                                                           Zen [22]
                                               Chinese medicine [26]                       Vegetarian fare [24]
                                                                                           Bathing culture [25]
                                               Thai medicine [27]
                              Traditional
                              medical care     Indonesian traditional medicine (Jamu) [28]
                                               Ayurveda [29]
                                               U n a n i medicine [30]
                                               Greek medicine [31]
                                               Lomi lomi [32]
                                               Vietnamese medicine [33]
                                               Khmer medicine [34]
                                               Laotian medicine [35]
                                               Traditional medicine of the Philippines [36]
                                               Ethnic medicine [37]




                                                                                                                                5
           Introducing Japan's spa industry

                                                                                                              Spa-related Facilities in Japan
Chapter1

                                                                                              Private Facilities                                                                                                                             Public Facilitie




                                      Barbers
                                      Beauty Salons/
                                      ners
                                      Therapy Practitio-
                                      Esthetic Salons
                                                           Fitness Clubs
                                                                           Relaxation Facilities
                                                                           ping Malls
                                                                           Large-scale Shop-
                                                                           City Center Hotels
                                                                                                   Resort Hotels
                                                                                                                   Hot Springs Inns
                                                                                                                                      Day Trip Hot Springs
                                                                                                                                                             Resort Facilities
                                                                                                                                                             Salons
                                                                                                                                                             Aromatherapy
                                                                                                                                                             Salons
                                                                                                                                                             Thai Massage
                                                                                                                                                             Ayurveda Salns
                                                                                                                                                                                 Independent tores
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Spa Accommodations
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Clinics
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cosmetic Sergery
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Nursing Facilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Clinics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hospitals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    bustion Practitioners
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Acupuncture and Moxi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and Welfare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Minister of Health, Labor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Facilities Accredited by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Health Promotion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and Welfare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Minister of Health, Labor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Facilities Accredited by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Health Promotion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in Communities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ities/ Sports Complexes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Community Sports Facil-
           Cosmetics
            Skin Care                               ○                     ○ ○ ○ ○  ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
            Makeup                     ○            ○                       ○      ○ ○ ○       ○
            Nail Care                  ○            ○                       ○
            Body Cares                              ○     ○ ○ ○     ○ ○   ○ ○ ○
            Hair Care                  ○                              ○     ○
            Bath Agents                                         ○ ○   ○     ○
            Products Sold in Shops     ○            ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                                                                                                                                             ○
           Naturopathic
            Herbs                                                          ○                 ○                                                               ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
            Herbal Balls etc.                                              ○                 ○                                                               ○   ○ ○ ○ ○
            Essencial Oils                                                 ○               ○ ○                                                               ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
            Massage Oils                            ○                      ○               ○ ○                                                               ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
            Clays                                   ○                      ○                                                                                 ○       ○ ○
            Marine-derived Products                 ○                      ○                                                                                 ○       ○ ○
           Foods
            Foodstuffs                              ○
            Teas                       ○            ○   ○                                                                             ○ ○ ○                                      ○
            Supplements                             ○ ○   ○                                                                             ○                                        ○                          ○
            Diet Foods                              ○ ○   ○                                                                             ○                                        ○
           Garments
            Uniforms                   ○      ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                                                                                                                                         ○             ○                  ○
            Gowns                             ○ ○   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
            Fitness Wares                         ○                                                                                                                                                                                                           ○                                ○
            Shoes                               ○ ○                                                                                                                                                                                                           ○                                ○
            Aquawares                             ○                                                                                                                                                                                                           ○             ○
           Supplies
            Linens                     ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                               ○               ○                  ○                      ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○     ○ ○ ○                    ○ ○                       ○             ○                  ○
            Towels                     ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                               ○               ○                  ○                      ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○     ○ ○                      ○ ○                       ○             ○                  ○
            Paper Pants                    ○     ○ ○                                               ○               ○                  ○                      ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○     ○
            Slippers                     ○ ○   ○ ○ ○                                               ○               ○                  ○                      ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○     ○ ○ ○                    ○ ○                                     ○                  ○
            CDs                        ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                               ○               ○                                         ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○         ○                    ○
            Serving Dishes                         ○                                                               ○                                             ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○
            Candles                            ○   ○                                               ○               ○                                         ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○
            Incenses                           ○   ○                                               ○               ○                                         ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○
            Paraffin Sheets                ○   ○   ○                                               ○               ○                  ○                      ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○
            Solvents                   ○   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                               ○               ○                  ○                      ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○      ○ ○ ○ ○                                           ○             ○                  ○
            Cleaning Things            ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                               ○               ○                  ○                      ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○      ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                         ○             ○                  ○
            Office Supplies            ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                               ○               ○                  ○                      ○   ○    ○    ○     ○                   ○      ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                         ○             ○                  ○
           Display Items
            Pictures                   ○   ○   ○   ○ ○                                                             ○   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                                     ○       ○
            Funitures                  ○   ○   ○   ○ ○                                                             ○   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                                     ○   ○ ○ ○ ○                                              ○             ○                 ○
            Curtains                   ○ ○ ○   ○ ○ ○ ○                                                             ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                                     ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                              ○             ○                 ○
            Mats                       ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                             ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                                     ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                              ○             ○                 ○
            Furnishing Goods           ○   ○   ○   ○ ○                                                             ○   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                                     ○       ○
           Facility Equipments
            Beds for Treatment                 ○ ○
                                              ○ ○                                          ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                             ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○   ○ ○ ○
            Facial Equipments                   ○○                                         ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                             ○     ○ ○
            Steamers                            ○○                                         ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                             ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
            Baths                              ○                                           ○ ○   ○                                                                       ○                                                                                    ○             ○
            Foot Baths                     ○   ○ ○                                               ○                                                                     ○ ○                                                                                                                    ○
            Towel Steamers             ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                         ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                             ○ ○ ○ ○ ○         ○
            Showers                        ○ ○ ○ ○                                         ○ ○                                                                   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○   ○   ○                                                                            ○             ○                 ○
            Pools                            ○                                               ○                                                                           ○                                                                                    ○             ○                 ○
            Saunas                         ○ ○ ○ ○                                           ○   ○                                                                     ○ ○                                                                                    ○             ○                 ○
            Fitness Equipments               ○                                                                                                                                                                                                                ○                               ○
            Lockers                    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○                                                   ○                                  ○                                                              ○                              ○                         ○             ○                 ○

           6
                                                                         Introducing Japan's spa industry

 Spas in Japan aim to offer integrated medical care focusing on all-around harmony of the mind




                                                                                                            Chapter1
and body, and spa culture is the current collective designation for traditional healing, health care,
therapies, and health resort medicine.




1)Integrated medical care                                                                                           
 Integrated medical care, which awakens and maximizes natural human healing powers, has been
advocated by Dr. Andrew Weil, M.D. of the United States.
 People have benefitted from modern Western medicine and its scientific achievements. The overly
segmented approach of Western medicine has led physicians to view the human body as being
comprised of machine-like parts. Humans are not machines, however. People have hearts and spirits
as well as bodies. Recent trends show that many diseases derive from such background factors as
emotional issues or an unbalanced lifestyle. In providing treatment and health enhancements,
integrated medical care tries to see the human as having an entire existence beyond that of the body
alone.
 Integrated medical treatment provides optimal patient care by combining different therapies,
including alternative medicine or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Physicians who
are familiar with Western medicine work together with patients to maintain and improve health and
enhance natural healing powers.
 Integrated medical care maximizes“healing power”by blending optimal therapies or health
management methods on the basis of modern medicine. This is more effective than the mere
employment of alternative, including Eastern, medicine.




         < Doctors >(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P.90)
          Article 17 of the Medical Practitioners' Law stipulates that “no one other than
         a medical doctor shall engage in medical practice”. Medical practice refers to any
         action taken concerning the disease or medical care (examination, treatment) of
         another person. Doctors are normally employed for these purposes. In the modern
         general knowledge, illness and injury include physical abnormalities where the
         body is afflicted by bacteria and viruses, abnormalities and disorders of the organs
         and tissues of the body, and bodily loss and disability due to trauma. If a condition
         is associated with a disease, the patient must be told not to seek therapy at a spa
         but to seek advice from a medical specialist.




                                                                                                      7
            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           2)CAM
Chapter1


            CAM is the general term for a system of medicine and medical care that has not been verified
           scientifically or clinically applied in the field of Western medicine (according to the Japanese Society
           for Complementary and Alternative Medicine).
            CAM incorporates new therapies not covered by insurance as well as traditional medicine and
           folk remedies from around the world. A surprising number of people, judging by population ratio,
           find little benefit from modern Western medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies
           65 - 80% of the world's health management services under“traditional medical care”. In Western
           societies, such traditional medical care belongs to alternative medicine, which includes Chinese
           medicine (Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture & moxibustion, acupressure and Quigong), Indian
           medicine, immunotherapy (e.g., lymphocyte therapy), medicinal foods and health foods (antioxidants,
           immunostimulants, and various prophylactic or supplemental foods), herbal therapy, aromatherapy,
           vitamin therapy, diet therapy, mental or psychological therapy, hot spring therapy, and oxygen
           therapy.




           3)Wellness

            “Wellness”became a popular term in the United States in the 1960s and has been used widely
           since then to refer to a condition that is the opposite of“illness”. Wellness entails the“maintenance
           and management of mental and physical health”through personal will and endeavor. It advocates a
           lifestyle of pursuing optimal health within the limit of one's abilities.
            In 2000, a general meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO) defined“health as a state of
           complete physical, mental, and social well-being”. To have wellness means to have a satisfactory
           mentally and physically sound life, representing a way of life of each individual or lifestyle itself.
           A high level of wellness can be achieved through physical means such as well-balanced nutrition,
           exercise, and body care, as well as through mental means including stress management, meditation,
           fostering creativity and being engaged in various arts. It can also be attained through leisure
           activities and other ways to improve one's relation to society and the natural environment.
            To achieve a high degree of wellness, consider first the physical health that can be derived from
           well-balanced nutrition.




            8
                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

4)Nutrition therapy




                                                                                                               Chapter1
 Nutrition therapy is a method of preventing and treating diseases primarily through the use of
vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, without resorting to so-called drugs. Modern nutrition
therapy began around 1970 when Linus Pauling, Abraham Hoffer, and Ivan Cameron first proposed
“orthmolecular medicine”. Dr. Gerson pioneered nutrition therapy over forty years before that,
having confronted cancer with a unique diet/nutrition therapy he called Gerson's therapy.                              
 Blindly consuming loads of nutrients does not help one to optimal health. Balance is always
important. Vitamins, minerals and other nutrients work together. If a person takes too much of a
 specific vitamin, it may have an adverse effect. A more comfortable state of health can be achieved
gradually by consuming an appropriate amount of nutrients in a balanced manner.
 Vitamins and mineral requirements vary by person. Optimal dosage may even differ for the
same person under different circumstances. A person with a particular disease may take a certain
supplement at a certain dosage, but the same supplement and dosage may not necessarily suit
someone else with the same disease. In this respect, the best approach to prevent and optimize
health would be to seek the advice of a physician who is familiar with nutrition therapy regardless of
treatment.
 Nutrition therapy does not work if one counts only on nutrients and ignores daily diet. Vitamins
 and minerals, like other nutrients, serve as lubricants to aid the body's effective consumption of food.
 If there are imbalances or other problems with one's diet, the nutrients will not function effectively.
 For this reason, it is also important to include diet therapy, especially concerning the quantities and
 qualities of the three major nutrients (carbohydrate, fat, and protein) that should be taken as food
 (Takeshi Yamaguchi, M.D., Eiyoryoho [Nutrition Therapy]).



         < Nutritionists >(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P.91)
          Article 1 of the Nutritionists Law defines the “term nutritionist as a person
         who is engaged in nutritional guidance in accordance with this law”. While no
         definition of “nutritional guidance” is given in the law, it can be interpreted to
         mean nutritional guidance within the realm of general knowledge. According to
         this definition, a nutritionist is one “who takes the name nutritionist and provides
         nutritional guidance”, and one cannot enter the field of a nutritionist unless they
         call themselves a nutritionist. However, a nutritionist must possess the knowledge
         required of a nutritionist as long as they provide nutritional guidance. Article 6
         of this law stipulates, under Exclusive Use of the Name, that “anyone other than a
         nutritionist shall not use the name of nutritionist or any similar name”. Caution
         should be taken since prefectures have different interpretations of what constitutes
         a “similar name”.




                                                                                                         9
            Introducing Japan's spa industry
Chapter1

           Diet Therapy
            In 2000, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Agriculture,
           Forestry, and Fisheries developed Dietary Guidelines for the purpose of improving the health
           of Japanese nationals. These guidelines were approved at a subsequent cabinet meeting. They
           incorporate the following concrete proposals:
        
                   1. Enjoy meals.
                   2. Establish a daily rhythm based on regular meal times.
                   3. Eat well-balanced meals consisting of a staple food, a main dish, and a side dish.
                   4. Eat grains such as rice.
                   5. Combine vegetables and fruits and milk and dairy food with beans and fish.
                   6. Avoid too much salt and fat intake.
                   7. Know your ideal body weight and eat the amount of food that corresponds to your daily
                      activities.
                   8. Eat local specialties and adopt the local food culture. Occasionally try new recipes.
                   9. Be efficient with preparing, cooking and preserving food. Reduce excess and waste.
                   10. Review your daily diet.




                                       Shokuji Baransu Gaido [Guide to a Well-Balanced Diet]
                                (Illustration: The Information Service Center for Food and Foodways)


                   < Licensed Cooks >(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P.98)
                    The Cooks Law (No. 147, 1958) defines a licensed cook as a “person who is
                   licensed to cook by the governor of the prefecture”.
                           Under the law, restaurants and other such establishments must employ
                   a licensed cook to prepare their food. To obtain their business license, such
                   businesses must have “someone who is certified responsible for food sanitation”.
                   (Such qualifications are automatically granted to “licensed cooks”, “nutritionists”,
                   “confectionary hygienists”, “poultry sanitation managers”, “ship cooks”, and “food




           10
                                                                          Introducing Japan's spa industry


        sanitation managers”.) Cook's licenses do not cover the preparation of “blowfish”,




                                                                                                             Chapter1
        which requires a special license. “Breadmaking and confectionary” production
        requires a “confectionary hygienist's license”, and “cooking in ship restaurants”
        requires a “ship cook's license”.



                                                                                                                     
 




Spa Cuisine

Spa cuisine refers to meals served at spas.
Health-oriented spas often provide meals,
which are not considered mere epicurean
delights or
          “indulgences”.
 Guests can be taught various practicalities
about cooking and some packages could offer
cooking classes as well as healthy food so that
some guests can continue their diet at home,
as long as they aim to slim down or improve
their health, and other guests can simply look
forward to enjoying special dishes.                                            Photo:Chiva-som(Thailand)
 Diet therapy is more effective if a specialist consultant plans meals suited to the purposes of each
client, and if a uniform diet is avoided while other appropriate treatments and therapies are provided.
 Since people need to eat every day, it would be ideal to provide books, brochures, food, herbs, and
supplements so that guests can continue their spa diet at home. Such services will help people to
achieve optimal health. It will also help in establishing a relationship of trust between the spa
and its guests and encourage them to visit again because they will see the personnel at the spa as
specialists. Guest acceptance of spa cuisine depends on the facilities' understanding of the necessity
and importance of spa cuisine.
 Special nutritional guidance to combat obesity is effective for use with spa cuisine, since it aims at
not only obtaining optimal body weight but also at achieving optimal health.
 Obesity has more than one cause and ways to combat obesity vary with each cause. One cause
may also be tied to another, and this requires an overall approach (refer to Mark Hyman, Ultra-
Metabolism , 2007; translated by Takeshi Yamaguchi (CHUO ART PUBLISHING CO., LTD.)). Mark
Hyman served as Co-Medical Director at Canyon Ranch in Lenox, Massachusetts for approximately
ten years. There he provided integrated medical guidance, including diet consultations. His guidance
is always given from an overall approach including stress management and exercise as well as diet.




                                                                                                      11
             Introducing Japan's spa industry

            Studying this guidance will help those in charge of spa cuisine in spas that offer integrated services.
Chapter1




            < Effective Spa Cuisine >

           (1)Appetite control (introduction of low GI food)
             Dieting isn't as simple as people think. Most people believe that a person can slim down if they
            simply take in fewer calories and exercise more.
             Although many spas offer low-calorie meals, no one can stick to eating only low-calorie meals for the
            long term. It easier to cope with eating lighter meals when staying at a spa for a short time, but many
            people eat to excess as soon as they return home. This has the reverse effect of making the body more
            resistant to weight loss, and this result is worse than doing nothing.
             Hunger is what makes a person give up on a low-calorie diet. The hunger instinct cannot be beaten.
            The glycemic index (GI) is more important than calories. Foods with different GI affect your body
            differently, even if they have the same number of calories.
             GI is a scale that shows increases in blood sugar after eating carbohydrates. The higher GI, the
            slower carbohydrates are absorbed and the more the blood sugar level rises. Low GI food is digested
            slowly, which naturally prevents you from eating too much.
             High GI food, on the other hand, may elevate the level of blood sugar excessively because it is
            absorbed quickly. This means that an excessive amount of insulin needs to be excreted to reduce blood
            sugar, and this leads to an excessive decrease in blood sugar, which makes a person feel hungry, and
            the person may end up eating too much. Excessive insulin secretion also exhausts the pancreas and
            makes insulin receptors overly sensitive.
             To create a low GI diet, low GI food should be used to decrease the overall GI level of a meal. Low
            GI food includes unrefined whole wheat and brown rice.


           (2)Anti-inflammation
             Omega-3 fatty acids are used to generate hormone-like agents that suppress inflammation, and
            omega-6 fatty acids are used to produce inflammatory hormone-like agents (prostaglandins). Ordinary
            diets tend to contain more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids. Both omega-6 and omega-3
            fatty acids are essential fatty acids that may be associated with allergies, autoimmune diseases,
            cancer, and obesity.
             Almost all edible oils contain more omega-6 than omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of omega-3 fatty
            acids include fish oil, linseed oil, and chia seed oil. Such oils should be used as they are and not heated
            since omega-3 fatty acids are prone to oxidization.
             Olives and avocados are rich in omega-9 fatty acids, which act neutrally on inflammation and are
            suitable for cooking because they are not prone to oxidization. Saturated fatty acids rich in animal
            fat can become a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases as they may increase blood cholesterol levels.
            In contrast, the lauric acid in coconut oil is a useful fatty acid, found in mother's milk. It works as a




             12
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

nutrient for the brain and has a positive effect on the immune system.




                                                                                                              Chapter1
 Fat is an essential nutrient for the body, though people tend to avoid it because it has more calories
per unit than carbohydrates or protein. It is important to intake a good balance of fatty acids
by consuming appropriate amounts of fat. Nutrient absorption can be delayed by consuming an
appropriate quantity of oil, which can in turn decrease the GI of an entire meal.


(3)Anti-oxidation                                                                                                     
 Free radicals can be generated through normal metabolic activities, in particular, excessive eating
or exercise.        Free radicals act on
genes, exacerbating inflammation and
hindering metabolism. If a person
consumes food rich in anxioxidants, he
or she may avoid the destructive effects
of free radicals.
 It is important to incorporate into
meals sufficient quantities of vegetables
and fruits, which contain an abundance
of such antioxidants as vitamin
C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and
polyphenol. Drinking freshly squeezed
juice is one way to consume a large
amount of such nutrients easily.
                                                            Photo:THE FARM AT SAN BENITO(Philippines)

(4)Strengthening thyroid glands
 Thyroid glands generate hormones that play a major role in metabolism, and they are easily
disturbed by stress and toxins. It is important to eat meals that provide the nutrients to support
thyroid glands (e.g. vitamins A and D, zinc, selenium, and omega-3 fatty acids). Such meals also help
stress relief and detoxication.


(5)Detoxication
 One way to detoxicate the body is to force it to sweat by taking a sauna. Heavy metals and PCBs
accumulated within the body may hinder thyroid gland functioning, disturbing metabolism. Heavy
metals and PCBs are accumulated in fat. If the fat percentage of the body is reduced to some degree,
they will need to be excreted efficiently since they will otherwise flow out into the body and the body
will no longer lose weight.
 Detoxication can be aided with supplements of vitamin C, polyphenols, alpha-lipoic acids, and
MSM, and the consumption of such food such as vegetables from the blassica family (e.g. broccoli,
kale, cauliflower), green tea, coriander, artichoke, garlic and cacao. Lactic acid bacteria decreases
harmful bacteria to reduce the toxins produced by harmful bacteria. Such bacteria also aids in bowel
movements to quickly excrete harmful substances. (Takeshi Yamaguchi, Spa ni okeru Shokuji Ryoho




                                                                                                       13
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           [Diet Therapies in Spas]).
Chapter1


            
            As the first among Japanese hotels,
           the InterContinental Yokohama Grand
           introduced“spa cuisine”in 2004. Their chef,
           having learned the essence of spa cuisine
           at“Chiva-Som”, the destination spa in
           Thailand, developed a new-style spa cuisine
                                       “getting healthy
           by researching the concept of
           by enjoying delicious food”. Since its
           introduction, this new spa cuisine has been
           a hit alongside the hotel's“Bay Window”
           spa. Their“spa cuisine”has the following
           characteristics:
            * Fat is reduced to cut down on calories.
             (No oil is used in cooking).
            * Sodium intake is reduced.
             (Tamari sauce and soybean paste are  
              used instead of salt).
            * Honey and fruit juice are used as     
             sweeteners.
            * Fiber-rich foods are used
                                                                             Photo: InterContinental Yokohama Grand
             (e.g. brown rice and wild rice).




           < Dietary supplements >
            Japanese people generally use the term supplements to mean dietary supplements. It used to be
           translated into a Japanese word meaning nutritional supplement food. Supplements refer to anything
           used to supplement nutrition other than meals. Unfortunately, there are no exact definitions of the
           term            in
               “supplement” Japan.
            There are numerous types of supplements available and their number is increasing. The following
           table provides a summary of common supplements.




            14
                                                                                      Introducing Japan's spa industry




                                                                                                                         Chapter1
                        Supplements                                      Drugs


                                                      Synthesized           Chinese
                                                       chemicals             herbs        Enzymes                                

                   Nutrients that can be                            Nutrients that cannot be
                     taken from food                                     taken from food




               Nutrients that can be taken               Favorite        Herbs and
                  from an ordinary diet                   dishes                             Herbs
                                                                           spices




                     Essential nutrients                Effective though non-essential nutrients




                                                                                          Vegetable
                                    Sugars,            Dietary          Vegetable          chemicals
                Vitamins                                                 chemicals
                   and             fats, and          fiber and                           that should
                                     amino           lactic acid        that should        be taken
                 minerals                                                be taken
                                      acids             bacteria                         according to
                                                                          usually          situation
(Reference: Extract from p. 11, Konna Sapurimento ga Hoshikatta [These are the Kinds of Supplements I Wanted], by
Takeshi Yamaguchi, Shufunotomo Co., Ltd.)




 < Herbs >
  Herbs are not normally considered daily food. Some are used daily as spices, but they are generally
 consumed in smaller quantities than everyday food. Spices play a special role, for example, in
 changing tastes, masking smells, helping digestion, and providing invigorating vital energy. In
 the West, herbs have been used traditionally for treating ailments, meaning that they shouldn't be
 consumed as easily as other ordinary foods but rather after consideration given to timing, purpose,
 and individual constitution.




                                                                                                                    15
            Introducing Japan's spa industry
Chapter1

           < Phyto-chemicals >
            Phyto-chemicals are all natural chemical substances found in plants and other vegetables,
           excluding vitamins and minerals, which are essential nutrients for human life. Phyto-chemicals
           are useful to the human body in some ways although they are not regarded as essential agents like
           vitamins and minerals. They include bioflavonoids, which enhance the functioning of vitamin C,
           and OPC polyphenols, which have a strong antioxidant effect especially on blood vessels. They are
        
           characterized as generally useful substances that can be effectively utilized on the premise that
           vitamins and minerals have been taken appropriately.




           5)Physiotherapy

            Physiotherapy refers to the scientific techniques of physical treatment using exercise, heat, light,
           water, electricity, and massage. This therapy aims at relieving pain, promoting circulation, preventing
           and mitigating the effects of disabilities, and ensuring the maximum recovery of mobility and muscle
           functioning. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines physiotherapy, also called physical
           therapy, generally.
            The principle of physiotherapy is explained as follows:
                  “A vital body maintains health by homeostasis and the automatic control of physiological
           functions. Disease may occur if for some reasons balance is lost and control is impaired. Physiotherapy
           stimulates the surface of the body slowly and continuously, promoting blood and lymph circulation,
           adjusting the functions of nerves and muscles to rectify imbalances and restore impaired balance.”



                   < Physiotherapists >(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P. 92)
                    Translation of the physical therapists and occupational therapists law
                  “Article 1 Objective of the law
                    This law specifies the qualifications of physical therapists and occupational therapists,
                   sets down regulations and rules for appropriate practices, and consequently contributes
                   to the proliferation and improvement of medical care.
                    Article 2 Definition
                    The“physical therapy”herein refers to therapeutic exercises and other workouts that
                   the physically disabled are encouraged to do as well as the electric stimuli, massages,
                   heating, or any other physical procedures used so that they can retrieve basic capability
                   of movement. Occupational therapy refers to the work, including handicrafts, which the
                   physically or mentally disabled can do to retrieve a capacity for applied movement or the
                   capacity for social adaptability.
                     A                    is
                      “physical therapist” a person who provides physical therapy under the instructions




            16
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry




                                                                                                               Chapter1
       of a physician who holds a license granted by the Minister of Health, Labour and
       Welfare.
        An“occupational therapist”is a person who provides occupational therapy under
       instructions of a physician who holds a license granted by the Minister of Health, Labour
       and Welfare.”
        In Japan, physical therapist practices aim at rehabilitating the physically disabled.
                                                                                                                       




6)Exercise therapy
 Exercise therapy is effective for lifestyle-related diseases. A moderate degree of exercise is good
for healing mind and body. Exercise also cures or prevents other diseases caused by a combination
of“stress and other lifestyle-related factors”. Even taking a walk can free the mind, improve
metabolism, and help heal the body. People who are concerned about their physical condition should
consult a physician or specialized trainer to determine an appropriate degree of exercise. Here are
some of the representative exercises in spa programs.


< Yoga >
 Yoga is the exercise system designed for
mental and physical health. Poses that are
individually stylized are combined with deep
breathing and meditation. The ultimate
objective of yoga is oneness of the human soul
with the eternal soul.
 Yoga was developed about five thousand
years ago. The first description of yoga
appeared in Yoga Sutras written by Patanjali.
According to Patanjali, the body has networks
called nadis and centers called chakras . If you
work on the nadis and chakras , the energy
hidden in the body will be released. The energy               Photo:Kairali Ayurvedic Health Resort Pvt. Ltd
generated is called kundalini .
 Patanjali described an eight-fold path consisting of yama (universal moral principles); niyama




                                                                                                        17
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           (self-purification through disciplines); asana (postures); pranayama (breath control); pratyahara
Chapter1

           (withdrawal of mind from things in the world around); dharana (concentration); dhyama (meditation);
           and samadhi (superconsciousness). Apart from these paths, yoga incorporates many different
           disciplines to address the varied aspects of human life. Such disciplines include hatha yoga (physical
           exercise), dhyana yoga (mental and intelligent exercise), and karma yoga (disciplinary behaviors in
           daily life).
        
            As an ancient practice for health and fitness, yoga provides treatment for both the body and mind.
           In yoga, aging is considered autotoxication, or an artificial state caused by self-poisoning. Cellular
           deterioration can be lessened drastically if the body is kept clean and sufficiently lubricated. To derive
           the maximum benefit from yoga, one must follow the three key guidelines: asana, pranayama, and
           yoga nidra .
            By taking up asana regularly, cholesterol levels can be controlled and body weight can be reduced.
           Blood pressure can also be normalized and the functioning of the heart can be enhanced. Asana
           addresses any hard-to-identify clogs in the body, thereby harmonizing the flow of mental energy and
           bringing about into mental stability and equability.
            Utilizing pranayama , a proper way of breathing, helps people control their energy operation.
           Almost everyone breathes incorrectly (i.e. depending only on chest respiration without using the
           diaphragm, that is, utilizing only half of their lung potential). Pranayama teaches a new method of
           breathing, which relieves bodily tension, relaxes the mind, and helps to achieve a new balance of the
           nerve system, reducing the necessity for sleep and promoting creative thinking. Other benefits are a
           rise in oxygen provided to the brain, making for a sharper, more awake mind and improved physical
           health.
            Yoga nidra is a form of meditation done in the shavasana pose (lying on your back), to relax the
           physiological and psychological systems.
           This method holistically recovers vitality of
           the body and mind and gives one a feeling of
           good health.




           < Tai Chi >
            Tai Chi is a martial art that originated
           in China. It has recently developed into a
           health management method. It is based on
           slow and gentle movements, preferred over
           violent movements by many Chinese. The
           fluent, circular movements peculiar to Tai Chi
           require a relatively large amount of motion
           in spite of their appearance. It is an effective
           exercise for strengthening the nervous,

                                                                                           Photo:Chiva-som(Thailand)



            18
                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

respiratory, and circulatory systems as well as the joints and muscles. Even elderly and physically




                                                                                                               Chapter1
fragile people can carry out Tai Chi movements since they are not an excessive physical burden and do
not involve high impact. In China, the therapeutic and curing effects of Tai Chi are recognized even
among medical professionals. These days, Tai Chi has become a popular health management method
around the world similar to yoga and Quigong, and it has been proactively introduced into health
programs at spas.

                                                                                                                       
< Quigong >
 Quigong is an ancient Chinese regimen and therapy that regulates the ch i and human
consciousness to train the mind and body and maintain, enhance, and recover health. Quigong is used
widely in China for rehabilitation and other areas alongside other major medical procedures including
acupuncture and medical massage, and it has been shown effective for recovering after various health
problems. 




< Rusie Dutton >
 Rusie Dutton has an over-two-thousand-year history similar to other traditional Thai medical care
like Thai massage. The term is comprised of rusie meaning hermit/mountain hermit, dut meaning
stretch/twist, and ton meaning self. In other words, it is a kind of self-stretching self massage. It has
attracted more attention as“Thai-style yoga”. Thai traditional medicine believes that all things in
nature are comprised of four elements: earth, water, wind, and fire.
 Human beings and other creatures take in these four elements in the forms of food, beverages, and
respiration so as to maintain the balance of the elements within their bodies. Disease is considered
to come from an imbalance of the four elements caused by various factors. Diseases are treated by
making up for insufficiency and cutting down on excess through medication and diet therapy in order
to retrieve the balance.
 “Wind”(flow or movement) is the important element in Rusie Dutton . When the blood flow becomes
stagnant, waste accumulates, leading to fatigue. When the lymph flow is stagnant, swelling occurs.
When digestion is stagnant, the result is constipation.
 It is also held that the energy necessary for life support flows within the body through energy lines,
which are routes called sen in Thai. Sen is not an anatomical concept but a pathway of energy that is
considered to move the aforesaid four elements. Humans take in air and food via respiration and diet
and turn them into vital energy (prana ) within the body. The body and mind are maintained in such a
way that the energy is carried to the whole body through these energy lines.
 In Rusie Dutton , stretching and massaging stimulates the energy lines to normalize the flow of vital
energy. The human body is said to have as many as 2,700 energy lines and the most important ten
lines are regarded as key energy lines. All of the ten key energy lines (sen ) begin around the navel.
Similar to Indian ayurveda , it is thought that energy flows from the navel to the periphery of the body
even after birth since fetuses absorb oxygen and nutrients from the navel cord within the mother's




                                                                                                        19
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           womb.
Chapter1



           < Fitness program >
            Being fit refers to a“comfortable state of both body and mind that is brought about through
           habitual exercise”. Fitness programs can be divided into aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
            Aerobic exercise is a general term for the kind of exercise where a certain degree of intensity is
           maintained over a fixed period of time and the muscles are moved dynamically and rhythmically
           while the body takes in oxygen. Representative aerobic exercises include aerobic dancing, jogging,
           walking, exercise biking, and swimming. Anaerobic exercise uses a relatively high intensity that can
           be sustained for only a short time. Its aim is to enhance muscle power and develop and promote the
           size of the muscles.
            Anaerobic exercise can enhance the endurance of specific muscles or the entire body when certain
           methods are employed. Anaerobic training includes weight training, strength training, muscular
           power training, muscular endurance training, and speed training.




                                                                              Photo: Fitness Online, Club Business Japan


                   < Health fitness instructors >(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P.93)
                    The qualifications of“health fitness instructors”are becoming more important since
                   they are expected to play a role in“preventing lifestyle-related diseases”and“reducing
                   people's dependence on long-term care”. These are the major themes of the“Health
                   Japan 21”and Health Frontier Strategy, set in place when the medical care system was
                   reformed in June 2007. As of January 2007, there were 11,275 registered health fitness
                   instructors in Japan. They provide exercise guidance at health promotion facilities,
                   healthcare center, prefectural and municipal health centers, and private health
                   promotion facilities (e.g. fitness clubs) nationwide.   “Health fitness instructors”
                   develop safe and effective exercise programs and give instruction to individuals
                   based on basic medical knowledge and knowledge of exercise physiology, with a
                   view to preventing lifestyle-related diseases and maintaining and enhancing health.




            20
                                                                          Introducing Japan's spa industry

       Qualifications were introduced in 1988 to establish a system that would be certified




                                                                                                             Chapter1
       by the Minister of Health and Welfare. The Japan Health Promotion and Fitness
       Foundation currently manage the service. Today, health fitness instructors work at
       hospitals, welfare facilities for the elderly, and long-term care insurance facilities as
       well as sports facilities.


                                                                                                                     



7) Diverse manipulative therapies


< Japanese massage, European massage, acupressure, acupuncture, and
moxibustion >
  Japanese massage, European massage, and acupressure refer to pressing, pulling, kneading,
rubbing, stroking, or patting parts of the human body with to treat or provide relief from disease by
vitalizing the natural healing (immunity) powers.


 Japanese massage originated in ancient China. European massage was systematized in Europe.
Acupressure is a combination of traditional Japanese massage, do-in and judo techniques and
was systematized in the early Taisho period when theories and procedures involving American
manipulative treatment were adopted.
  Acupuncture is a procedure where a certain degree of mechanical stimuli is provided to a vital body
depending on how the needles contact parts of the body surface and to evoke effective vital reactions,
which are used to correct abnormal life functions. Acupuncture is used widely for health and the
prevention or treatment of diseases.
  Moxibustion is a where thermal stimuli is provided to parts of the body surface through the use
of burning moxa, to evoke effective vital reactions, which correct abnormal life functions. It is used
widely for health and the prevention or treatment of diseases.



      < Masseurs/masseuses, massagers, acupressure therapists, acupuncturists, and
      moxibustionists >(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P.94)
       Article 1 of the Law for Practitioners of Massage, Finger Pressure Therapy, Acupuncture,
      and Moxa Cauterization,“concerning licenses, stipulates that anyone other than a
      physician who wishes to practice massage, acupressure, acupuncture or moxibustion shall
      require a license for massage, acupressure, acupuncture or moxibustion”. Article 12,
     “concerning restrictions on services similar to medical care, stipulates that no one shall
      provide any service similar to medical care except as stated in Article 1, and the practice




                                                                                                      21
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

                  of jodo-orthopaedics shall comply with the Judo Therapists Law (No. 19, 1970)”. While
Chapter1

                  laws do not define services similar to medical care, they are thought to be medical
                  practices that can be conducted only by physicians in treating diseases. According the
                  law, the purpose of massage is to treat disease or illness.
                  Reference: <Judo-therapist>(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P.95)


        



           < Western reflexology >
            “Reflexology”, involving certain“methods of pressing the reflex zones”on the hands and feet, is
           massage that helps the body to achieve physical balance.
            While reflexology was developed in Europe, it is called                    to
                                                                  “Western reflexology” discriminate it from
           the foot therapy that originated in the East, which has come to be called“Eastern reflexology”.
            Modern Western reflexology is based upon“zone therapy”advocated early in the last century by
           William FitzGerald, M.D. (1872-1942), an American ear, nose, throat specialist. While Europeans
           had been providing“pressure therapy”to treat diseases and pain since around the 16th century, Dr.
           FitzGerald developed a“zone theory”in which the body can be divided into ten reflex zones on the
           basis of this pressure therapy.
            Dr. FitzGerald discovered that, because of the anesthetic-like effect of pressing a certain part of the
           body, patients felt only slight pain during minor surgical procedures. This triggered his research on
           pressure points that correspond to parts of the body. He pressure zones all over the human body.
            The zone theory proposes that the parts of the body belonging to the same zone are connected, and
           if one part of the body is stimulated, then the other parts of the body in the same zone will be affected
           in a reflex action.
            Subsequently, Eunice Ingham, a student of one of Dr. FitzGerald's students, completed a map of
           reflex zones on the hands and feet, focusing attention on zones of higher sensitivity. She consequently
           developed a unique massage therapy that focuses on the hands and feet.
            The basic technique is the original form of current Western reflexology.
            Ingham's reflexology won attention in Europe from early on and has been used widely. It focuses
           primarily on the feet since the reflex zones in each foot affect the entire body. Western reflexology
           originally dealt with both hands and feet. Hands are only involved in limited cases, for example,
           when the feet cannot be massaged for some reason.
            Western reflexology is characterized by massage that puts pressure on parts of the hands and feet
           based on the zone theory. Reflex zones on the foot correspond to different organs of the body. If a
           reflex zone is pressed, it will have an effect on the corresponding organ.
            Western reflexology is performed when the reflexologist uses his or her hands to put pressure on
           the feet or hands of the patient. The reflexologist used primarily the thumb. The thumb is placed on



           22
                                                                          Introducing Japan's spa industry

a point of the reflex zone and pressure is applied. When moving to another reflex zone, the finger is




                                                                                                               Chapter1
slided across the skin and then pressure is reapplied. The finger moves like a worm. This is how to
recognize Western reflexology.
 A pointed finger may also be used besides the thumb. The reflexologist has to be careful to use the
ball of the finger and not allow the fingernail to press into the skin. Pressure should be applied to the
extent that the client does not feel any pain or discomfort.
 Blended oils may be used for a massage, but antislip powder is generally used for accuracy in                         
applying pressure to reflex zones.




< Eastern reflexology >
 Foot massage therapy has its tradition
in the East, too. Sometimes referred to as
“Chinese”, or“Taiwanese”, reflexology,
in Japan such Eastern foot massage
therapies are collectively called“Eastern
reflexology”, to differentiate them from the
increasingly popular Western reflexology.
 Eastern reflexology is based on the
concept of the“channel”, or“conduit”,
deriving from ancient Chinese philosophy
and the idea that there are five channels
through which the chi (energy) in the body
flows, and the points that relay responses
through these channels are called potent
points, or acupressure points. In Eastern
reflexology, the practitioner presses on the
reflex zones, or potent points associated
with different organs to help improve the                                     Photo: Factory Japan Co., Ltd.
patient's physical condition. 
 The zone therapy, which is the basis of Western reflexology, actually has its origin in this concept of
the channel in the Eastern procedure.
 In Western reflexology, reflex zones in the hands and feet correspond to different parts of the body
and the zones, while not consistent with channels, connect energy flows in the body. Channels were
the origin of this zone concept. Zone therapy deals with different“facets”or“areas”of the body but
the channels and potent points of Eastern reflexology focus on                  in
                                                             “points and lines” the body.
 Eastern reflexology teaches that one can attain a healthy, harmonious state by massaging the reflex
zones of the foot in order to regulate the balance of the whole body. These reflex zones differ from
those in Western reflexology, despite some consistencies, because they deal with channels and potent
points.




                                                                                                       23
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

            All reflex zones are thought to be interlocked with their corresponding organs. Reflexology focuses
Chapter1

           on feet because the feet have reflex zones that cover all the systems and organs of the body.
            A foot has reflex zones that correspond to organs from the head to the toe including the heart,
           kidney, and liver. The foot has links to the physiological balance of the entire body, and the entire
           body can be treated by concentrating on just the foot. This is also true in Western reflexology.
            Almost all potent points are located in the same positions on both the right and left foot. The potent
           point for the head as well as the nose, eyes, and ears is located on the inner lateral side of the first toe.
           Great care should be exercised in handling some of the other potent points on the foot, especially those
           for the heart, spleen, liver, gall bladder, and genitals.
            When the practitioner provides stimulus to a reflex zone on the foot, he is thought to be able to
           tell the condition of the corresponding organ. If the organ is in an unfavorable condition, the reflex
           zone will feel hard and rough and there will be some pain when it is pressed. Since stimulating
           the reflex zones is said to aid an understanding of condition of each part of the body, many believe
           that reflexology can be effective for the detection and early treatment of ailments as well as for the
           maintenance of health.
            In Eastern reflexology, the primary purpose of massage is to promote a better flow in areas of the
           body where the energy is said to be stagnant. Strong pressure with a hand or stick is applied to the
           reflex zone, and fingers and other parts of the hand are used according to the purpose or the point
           focused on. For example, the second joint of the finger is sometimes used in a bent position. During
           treatment, the skin is massaged directly or after it has been coated with cream.
            The following shows the rates at which“reflexology”is provided at different types of spa-related
           facilities in Japan:




                        “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                 [Source:
                                               Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




            24
                                                                             Introducing Japan's spa industry

< Manual lymphatic drainage >




                                                                                                                Chapter1
 In the 1930s, Dr. Emile Vodder introduced a light procedure-based massage called“lymphatic
drainage”. Since then, manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) has been recognized as the way to
encourage lymphatic circulation without irritating the skin.
[Indications]
 Normal recovery of lymphatic circulation to prevent skin diseases, pre- and post-operational
  swelling, swelling at affected sites, cystic scars in nerves, and general swelling                                    
[Contraindications]
 All acute bacterial/viral diseases (e.g. colds and influenza), thrombosis, malignant tumors,
  cardiovascular dysfunctions, and renal failure
[Benefits]
  Blood and lymph are carried to the different systems of the body via blood vessels and lymphatic
     vessels. Manual lymphatic drainage has a sedative effect on the nervous system and brings about
     a deeply relaxed state in the client. It stimulates lymphatic circulation and further vitalizes the
     functions of the immune system. Treatment involves no pain and the lymphatic vessels will not
     be paralyzed.


  Lymphatic fluid flows slowly and some lymphatic vessels are located near the surface of the body.
The application of excess pressure may hinder the lymphatic flow. A light touch is therefore employed
during the procedure and the area corresponding to the lymphatic flow is massaged gently. Lymphatic
drainage massage is performed with a touch that some recipients may feel is too light.




< Athletic Massage (Sports Massages) >
 Athletic massage traces its roots back to the time of the Roman Empire. Athletes and gladiator
wrestlers received massages to relax and relieve pain at the end of their long, hard days. Today's
top professional athletes use massage to keep their bodies in good condition. The purpose of athletic
massage is to relax the muscles of the whole body and use intense stimulus to specific muscle groups.
It can also be used for spot treatments of problematic areas.
 Since athletic massage is deep tissue massage, it is intended for those who engage in hard physical
activities. Athletic massage works for people who do all types of sports including jogging, tennis,
swimming, cycling, golf, horseback riding, and skiing.




< Swedish Massage >
 Per Henrik Ling, a Swedish medical practitioner, developed and popularized massage. A“master
of gymnastics”, he became famous internationally for his Swedish massage.About two hundred




                                                                                                         25
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           years ago, Ling developed this method
Chapter1

           of massage for the Swedish people under
           orders from the King of Sweden. Now, it
           is performed widely throughout Europe.
            Swedish massage is characterized for its
           use of oil, to reduce friction, for its gentle
           stimulation, and for its action on deep
           muscle tissues. It also promotes blood and
           lymph circulation and enhances the body's
           immune system, helping prevent colds
           and other ailments. Scientific research
           has shown that Swedish massage induces
           hormonal secretions that may help                                               Photo: Axelson Swedish School

           alleviate stress. It is also easier for the practitioner to perform than many other methods of massage.
            Ling believes that the muscles of the body should be kept in balance both inside and out. He was
           interested in Eastern therapies such as acupuncture and acupressure because they put emphasis on
           good physical balance for achieving wellness.
            The Swedish muscle therapy introduced after 1978 eliminated most of the conventional percussive
           movements (i.e. patting with the side of the hand or the palm and swinging and vibrating movements)
           and instead introduced framing and crossing for more important muscles. The new grip works more
           effectively on muscles and muscle tension and is a special therapy for especially tensed or contracted
           muscles. Sometimes referred to as muscularing, this therapy includes special muscle massage, muscle
           compression, and muscle testing as well as muscle dilation.
            The following shows how often Swedish massage is provided at various types of spa-related facilities
           in Japan.




                        “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                 [Source:
                                               Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




            26
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

< Esalen Massage and Bodywork >




                                                                                                              Chapter1
 Esalen® massage and bodywork involve a special communication between the practitioner and
the recipient. Careful work on the body's muscles and circulatory systems is united with traditional
methods taken from Swedish massage and flows together with deep sense awareness. Many different
elements are integrated into Esalen massage. A delicate touch, deep sensory experience and rich
communication reach deeply into the emotions and spirit of the recipient. The massage is generally
structured and uses purposeful contact. Its aim is to alleviate muscular pain and stress and help the                 
recipient achieve a balance of physical consciousness and physical energy. Its ultimate effects include
the sedation of all organic tissues, achieved through active stimulation of skin, lymph, and blood;
relaxation of the muscles and nervous system; removal of waste matters; the stretching of connective
tissues; and its beneficial effects on the parasympathetic nervous system. In this healthy way to treat
stress, the client is gently encouraged to participate actively by being more conscious and surrendering
to the deep sensations. Esalen massage uses long, slow t'ai chi -like strokes, stretches, and passive
joint movements as well as deep muscle framing, delicate cranial balance, exquisite energy work and
precise point work. The practitioner's ability to focus actually takes precedence over technique, and
each massage session is in essence highly unique. One of the best things about this type of massage is
how meditation through touch allows you to reach the deepest, most personal levels of consciousness.




8)Hydrotherapy and Other Physiotherapies


< Hydrotherapy >
 Since ancient times, humans have used water to maintain, enhance, and recover their health. In
modern times, Sebastian Kneipp (1821-1897), a Roman Catholic priest, put together a new health
management method and therapy based on established“hydrotherapy practices”. As a priest,
Kneipp was devoted solving people's physical as well as mental problems. When he was 24 years old,
he suffered from an intractable lung disease. He overcame the disease by bathing in the cold water
of the Danube River. After that, Kneipp studied ancient folklore remedies that use water and came
up with a more sophisticated, systematized form of hydrotherapy. After he published his first book
in 1886, hydrotherapy became a hit around Europe. It is rarely provided as a medical practice today
because modern Western medical practices took over, but various forms of hydrotherapy are used
in treatment programs at spas. A number of hydrotherapy devices have been developed including
hydrotherapy tubs and the Vichy shower. In the spa business these days,“hydrotherapy”usually
refers to tubs and other such hydrotherapy devices.




                                                                                                       27
             Introducing Japan's spa industry


            1 Bathing and Bath Therapies
Chapter1


             Hydrotherapy includes several essential tub bathing treatments. There are three critical elements
            in the use of“water”in bath treatments:“pressure”,“temperature”, and“water quality”.
            When these factors change, it has a different impact on the body and the mind. “Soaking up to the
                      in
            shoulders” a big, deep tub improves circulatory systems as the body receives“hydrostatic pressure”
            from the weight of water. “Bathing only half of the body”(i.e. soak up to the stomach level) puts less
           pressure on the body and lessens the burden on the heart.
        
            “Bathing in hot water”stimulates the sympathetic nerves of the autonomous nervous system to
            increase metabolism and revitalize mental faculties. Using“warm”or“lukewarm”water is relaxing
            and induces a comfortable sleep, which helps recovery from physical and mental fatigue since it
           stimulates primarily the parasympathetic nerves. “Water quality”is controlled according to purpose,
           with the use of natural resources including hot springs, mineral spring and seawater, as well as bath
           agents like essential oils, seaweed, and salt.
            Water can be used effectively for bath treatments at spas by changing conditions such as         ,
                                                                                                    “pressure”
           “temperature”, and“water quality”according to purpose. Therapists and instructors offer the bath
            treatments that differ in“hydraulic pressure”and/or“temperature”.




           ・Neutral baths
             A neutral bath is one where a person soaks up to the shoulders in water that is 33 to 36 degrees
           centigrade for the purpose of relaxation. The duration of the bath varies with the client's condition
            and ranges from 15 minutes to one hour. After this time is up, the client dries the body quickly and
            gently and takes a thirty-minute rest. Neutral bathing is contraindicated for people with diabetes
            mellitus, fever, hypertension, chronic pain, arteriosclerosis, and skin diseases that may be exacerbated
            by extended contact with water. People who have heart disease or who are pregnant should consult
            with their doctor before initiating such therapy.


           ・Hot baths
             In this type of therapy, a person soaks up to the shoulders in water that is 40 degrees centigrade,
            which warms the body quickly and improves blood circulation. The stimulation to the body lasts for
            a while after bathing, and the body calms down gradually, alleviating tension in both mind and body.
            Body temperature is adjusted through sweating since the entire body, with the exception of the head,
            is immersed in the tub. This stimulates the substance metabolism of the body. Clients taking hot
            baths should be monitored constantly to prevent accidents. The head should be kept cool with cold
            towels or sponges. After the bath, the body should be dried off quickly and the client should rest for
            about one hour. The client must discontinue the treatment if he feels dizzy at any time during the
            bath.


           ・Cold baths
             This therapy entails a five-second dip in cold, 24-degree centigrade water. While the client is in




             28
                                                                              Introducing Japan's spa industry

the bath, the therapist rubs the client's whole body vigorously using a bath mitten. After the bath,




                                                                                                                 Chapter1
the client's body is again dried off vigorously with a towel. The point of this therapy is to utilize
the body's natural reaction to the cold water. Its volume of blood elevates to prevent a rapid drop
in body temperature. This revitalizes the body and tenses the skin in a short time. Cold baths
should be taken only by those with sound health. Cold baths are contraindicated for women who are
menstruating and for people with chills, diabetes mellitus, cold allergies, heart diseases, and abnormal
blood pressure.                                                                                                          
・Alternating baths
 This therapy involves alternating baths and showers. The client takes a warm bath for a couple
of minutes, followed by a cold shower for 20 seconds, and this process is repeated three times.
Alternating baths improves blood circulation and strengthens the body's resistance to illness. It
is contraindicated for people with any bladder or kidney problems, abdominal pain, proneness to
convulsions, epilepsy, and heart disease.


・Aromatherapy baths
 This therapy combines hydrotherapy and aromatherapy by using essential oils in the bathwater.
The essential oils are selected according to personal preference or purpose, since they each have their
own effect. The appropriate duration for the bath is 15 to 20 minutes. Special caution should be
exercised in the selection of essential oils for people who are pregnant or who have epilepsy or heart
disease.


・Seaweed baths
 This therapy involves a 20 to 30-minute bath in water to which a very fine seaweed powder has
been added. Minerals, vitamins, and other seaweed ingredients penetrate the skin, promoting skin
metabolism. Seaweed baths should be avoided by those who have any diseases such as Basedow's
disease where symptoms may worsen if the functioning of the thyroid glands is stimulated.


・Salt baths
 In this therapy, approximately 50 grams of salt is added to the bathwater and the client takes a bath
normally lasting 20 to 30 minutes. The salt may also contain other minerals according to its origin.
Dead Sea salt, for example, is rich in potassium, which promotes sweating. Rose salt contains much
iron. Essential oils may also be added to salt baths for differing effects.


・Mandi Susu
 Mandi Susu is a traditional Indonesian milk bath. Milk baths have long been popular in Europe as
well. Legend has it that Cleopatra had smooth skin because she took milk baths. If a person takes
a milk bath for about 20 to 30 minutes, the lactic acids in the milk exfoliate their dead skin cells and
promote the regeneration of new skin cells, leading to smoother skin.




                                                                                                          29
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           ・Flower baths
Chapter1

            In this therapy, the client bathes in a bath
           that has seasonal flowers floating all over
           its surface. This mild type of bath, full of
           flowery fragrance, is more often taken after
           some other form of treatment. It is used
           for its peaceful, relaxing effect rather than
           for any effect it may have on the skin or the
           body. Adding salt or milk may multiple its
           beneficial effects.


            Other bath therapies include mud baths,
           wine baths, and sake (Japanese rice wine)
           baths. The effect of the therapy depends
           upon the bath agent used.




                                                                <Flower bath> Photos: Tourism Authority of Thailand




           2 Tubs Used for Bath Therapy

           ・Hydrotherapy tubs
            Hydrotherapy tubs are functional bathtubs especially designed for bubble baths and hydraulic
           pressure baths. The tub has two types
           of nozzles: one for bubble baths and
           another for hydraulic pressure baths,
           which send jets of either bubbles of
           pressurized water to specific points on the
           body. The intensity and jetting patterns
           can be adjusted by changing the settings
           on the hydrotherapy tub. The tub also
           has a jet nozzle for a hand showers
           with which the therapist can provide
           underwater massage. Hydrotherapy tubs
           allow practitioners to make therapeutic
           adjustments according to the specific
                                                                      <Hydrotherapy tubs> Photos: Aqua Enterprise




            30
                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

needs of the client.




                                                                                                                Chapter1
・Jacuzzi tubs
 While this type of bathtub uses both
bubbles and hydraulic pressure just like
a hydrotherapy tub, it has fewer nozzles,
the jet patterns cannot be changed, and                                                                                 
there is no hand shower jet nozzle for
underwater massage. Jacuzzis provide
the multiple effects of warm water and
massage with bubbles or water pressure.


                                                                    <Jacuzzi tubs> Photos: Tokyu Sports Oasis
・Whirlpool tubs
 Whirlpool tubs generate swirling water currents by means of a propeller. Most also have a bubble
bath function. With its dual functions, the whirlpool tub can provide both thermal and physical
stimuli, for effective treatment of tension and muscle fatigue.




3 Showers and Hydro-massages
 In these treatments, which use showers or pressurized water currents, pressure and temperature
are more important than water quality. As in bath therapy, different water temperatures have
different effects on the body.


・Affusion
 Affusion is a term that means“pouring”or“bathing in water”. It is also a technical term for
hydrotherapy. The purpose of affusion is to revitalize the body. There are generally two methods:
one using non-pressurized water currents and the other using pressurized water currents. Affusion
usually uses low-temperature water, as long as the water isn't pressurized. Alternate baths of warm
and cold water may also be provided, according to the purpose of the treatment.


・Affusion Shower
 Affusion shower employ a showerhead installed above a massage table. Also called a Vichy shower
or rain shower, it is designed to shower all or parts of the body of a client lying on the massage table.
It provides a mild stimulus to muscles and to the entire body. Affusion showers can provide warm
and cold water alternately at regular intervals. They can also be used to provide a shower-type of
alternating bath therapy.
 Affusion showers employ hydrotherapy methodology and generally involve the discharging of water
as warm as 40 degrees centigrade to the body or alternating shower therapy where the temperature of




                                                                                                         31
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           the water is changed several times. Their
Chapter1

           effectiveness varies according to changes
           in water temperature and water pressure
           intensity. Mist showers have a relaxing,
           sedative effect on the body while showers
           with slightly higher water pressures
           stimulate the body surface, enhancing its
           natural immunities. Alternating showers
           further strengthen these immunities and
           help the body to recover from muscular
           fatigue after exercise. Affusion showers
           may also be used to wash the body
                                                                           <Affusion showers> Photos: Aqua Enterprise
           after whole-body mud packs or other
           treatments or procedures.




           ・Affusion Shower Massages
            In this treatment, the therapist rubs massage gel or oil lightly onto the client's skin while he is
           having an affusion shower. This massage promotes blood circulation, restores tired muscles, and has
           a relaxing effect.
            The body may also be lightly brushed while the client is experiencing the affusion shower.
           This stimulates the circulation of blood and other body fluids. Affusion shower massages are
           contraindicated for people who may be pregnant or have lymphedema, arrhythmia, or any wound that
           has not completely healed.




           ・Swiss showers
            Swiss shower combines an overhead deluge shower with multiple showerheads surrounding
           the client. The showerheads target water at the top of the head as well as at specific sites from
           the shoulders to the feet. The thermal and massaging effects of the water pressure enhance blood
           circulation and metabolic function. While an authentic Swiss shower can jet cold and warm water
           intermittently for alternating showers, it can also be used to either relax or rejuvenate the body
           according to adjustments in water pressure intensity and water flow pattern settings. It can be used
           before and after such procedures as body wraps or massages.


           ・Scotch hose
            The scotch hose has a pointed nozzle that provides a blitz of water also called a jet shower. It
           is used for pressurized water affusion because it provides relatively high water pressure. In this
           treatment, the client can be seated or standing. The therapist controls water volume and pressure as
           he discharges the water from three to four meters away because the water is so highly pressurized.




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                                                                             Introducing Japan's spa industry

Normally, the pressurized water is first moved along the lower body to massage the muscles. The




                                                                                                                Chapter1
effects of the procedure differ according to pressure, temperature, and the sequence used to discharge
water onto different parts of the body. While it may revitalize the metabolism and circulatory
systems, it is also used to treat cellulite and relieve stress. Scotch hoses are contraindicated for people
with heart disease or blood pressure problems.


                                                                                                                        
・Underwater pressure massage and manual jet
 Underwater pressure massage is provided in a bathtub or otherwise under water using a hose that
jets out highly pressurized water. It most commonly employs a manually operated hose attached
to a hydrotherapy tub. In underwater pressure massage, the client relaxes in the bathtub and the
therapist massages the client with the water jetting from the hose. The bathtub is filled with water
at about 36 degrees centigrade and the water temperature is adjusted to be higher or lower than
 that in the tub. When the water in a tub is hotter, the body will feel relaxed. When it is colder, the
body will be stimulated and its physiological functions revitalized. While the client may have a cold
shower after receiving an underwater pressure massage for 20 to 30 minutes to further stimulate
blood circulation, it is recommended that the client take a rest for 30 minutes to one hour after the
procedure. Because of the buoyant effects of bathtub water, underwater pressure massage can be
applied to muscles that are not tensed. This type of massage therefore puts less of a burden on
the body. Appropriately pressurized warm water massage loosens tension in the skin and muscles
and relaxes the whole body. At thalassotherapy centers, therapists may offer underwater pressure
 massage in a pool containing warm seawater.




< Thermotherapy >
 Thermotherapy provides warmth to affected
sites or to the entire body to increase metabolism
and improve blood circulation and thereby restore
and promote the body's natural healing powers.
The client may“bathe only half their body”(up to
stomach level), which can also be done at home,
and far infrared radiation may be used as well as
         or
“heaters” other special tools.
 Thermotherapy includes saunas baths,
 alternating baths, hot springs baths, and bedrock
baths. Japanese spas use the following types of
saunas:
 Finnish saunas, far infrared saunas, convection
gas saunas, steam saunas, mist saunas, salt saunas,
                                                                        <Thermarium> Photo: Aqua Enterprise




                                                                                                         33
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           hammam , cool saunas, jimjil bang and the thermarium.
Chapter1




        



                          <Finnish sauna> Photo: Tokyu Sports Oasis   <Sauna with ondol (jimjil bang )> Photo: Aqua Enterprise




           < Phototherapy >
            Phototherapy is a procedure that uses infrared light, visible light, and ultraviolet light together or
           singly. It includes infrared therapy, ultraviolet therapy, carbon-arc phototherapy, and sunbathing.




           < Electrotherapy >
            All living organisms generate electricity. Bioelectricity generation is a sign of life. Representative
           examples include electrocardiography, which records cardiac activity caused by contractions of the
           heart, brain waves coming from the physiological activity of the brain, and electroneurography and
           electromyography, which record the action potentials of nerves and muscles respectively.
            Electricity is always generated when there is some physiological activity in the nerves and muscles
           of a living organism. This phenomenon is called action potential or action current. Electricity
           generation is as much a sign of life as the halting of brain waves is a sign of death.
            The electrical properties of the skin matter when electricity is used for diagnosis or treatment.
           The human body is covered with skin, which conducts electricity. This means that skin may protect
           people from the risk of electric shock. Skin also serves as an obstacle, however, when treating the
           inside of the body with the use of electricity. Skin has electrical insulating properties (resistance) and
           electricity storing properties (capacitance). Collectively these are called skin impedance. 
            Electrotherapy includes low-frequency therapy, electric shock therapy, ionphotoresis, electric
           bathing, ultrasonic therapy, microwave therapy, and ultra short-wave therapy.




            34
                                                                Introducing Japan's spa industry




                                                                                                   Chapter1
< Health fitness instructors >(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P.93)
 Qualifications for health fitness instructors were set up in a program certified
by the Minister of Health and Welfare in 1988, to improve the health of Japanese
nationals.
 Boasting the highest longevity in the world and ever-lengthening lifespans,
Japanese people die primarily as a result of cancer, heart disease, and stroke.                            
More people are suffering from senile dementia and becoming bed-ridden,
requiring long-term nursing. A big problem is the rapid increase in social security
costs including healthcare and nursing expenditures.
 In general, three factors are associated with the onset of disease. First are
“external environmental factors” including pathogens and harmful substances;
second are “hereditary factors” from abnormal genes and aging; and third are
“lifestyle-related factors” including daily diet, regular exercise, rest, and habitual
preferences.
 These days, “lifestyle-related factors” have been found to have a close association
with the onset and progress of “adult-onset diseases” including diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, cancer, stroke, and heart disease. Once called “adult-onset diseases”,
they have been referred to more often as “lifestyle-related diseases” since 1996.
This new term has aided efforts to prevent these diseases and review and improve
individual lifestyles. 
  To prevent “lifestyle-related diseases” and improve health, the Japanese
government has suggested improvements in terms of “nutrition/daily diet”,
“physical activity/exercise”, “recreation/mental health”, “smoking”, and “drinking”.
Among these improvements, “health fitness instructors” play an important role as
specialists in “physical activity/exercise”.
 Today there are over 10,000 “health fitness instructors” working at fitness clubs,
hospitals, and welfare facilities throughout Japan. They plan and direct safe and
effective exercise programs with their knowledge of medicine and kinesiology.
The government has been trying to further increase the numbers of health fitness
instructors.




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           Mental Health Therapies
Chapter1

           9)Meditation


            More physicians prescribe meditation
           as a method for improving blood pressure,
           enhancing motor abilities, aiding
        
           respiration in asthma patients, and
           alleviating daily stress. Meditation is a
           safe and simple way to achieve a favorable
           balance in mind, body and emotions.
           Meditation is based on the principle that
           “one is not affected by the two major
           causes of chronic stress (memory and
           anxiety) when one is remaining calm and
           concentrating on the present moment”.
            Meditation is generally divided into                                                Photos: Beniya Mukayu

           concentrative and attentive types. Concentrative meditation requires you to stay tranquil and
           concentrate on respiration, thought, or sound (using mantras) so as to reach a higher level of clarity
           and consciousness. The simplest form of concentrative meditation involves sitting calmly and
           concentrating on your breathing.
            Attentive meditation involves sensitivity without being bothered by senses, emotions, thoughts,
           ideas, sounds, odors or other passing things. It requires one to sit quietly and simply look at all that
           passes through the mind without reacting or responding to ideas, memories, concerns or thoughts.
           This helps the person to reach a state of non-responsive calm and clarity of mind.
            Research has shown that one can respond quicker, be more creative, and have better understanding
           after meditation. Quieting the mind also enables people to get in touch with themselves and listen to
           the body's wisdom. This is one of the principles of the traditional Japanese Zen culture.




           10)Stress management
            The word stress most likely came into general use as a medical/physiological term after Hans
           Selye, a Canadian physiologist, published“his theory about stress”in the English journal Nature in
           1936. Selye defined stress as the“nonspecific reaction of the body to external requests”. “Stressful
           situations”are“situations or changes that need to be coped with in some way”. People simply
           deal with what they can handle, but the mind and body react in various ways to situations that are
           difficult to handle. They have“stressful reactions”. There are no problems if the situation improves
           or if the person learns to cope with the stress reaction, but if the situation deteriorates or the person
           cannot cope with the stress reaction, then various problems can occur including physical or mental




            36
                                                                                   Introducing Japan's spa industry

symptoms, and work and life in general can be hindered. People cannot avoid stress as long as they




                                                                                                                          Chapter1
live. What they need to do is to know about stress and practice proper ways of handling it so that they
can live with stress wisely. That is called stress management.




11)Beauty regimens                                                                                                                

 < Esthetics >
 In Japan, esthetics generally refers to
soins esthetiques , defined as“encouraging
a satisfied, relaxed, peaceful state of
mind and maintaining and protecting
beautiful skin and body with the use of
cosmetics, quasi-drugs, machines, tools,
and maneuvers while taking into account
the mind, skin and body characteristics
and conditions of individual clients”.
 In 1948, the World Health Organization
(WHO) defined health as a “state of
complete physical, mental, and social well-
                                                                                           Photo: Fuji Beauty Co., Ltd.
being, not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity”. The definition bears a modern characteristic in regard to mental as well as physical
health. The concept of“wellness”that appeared in the 1960s advocated“maintaining, managing and
restoring a favorable mental and physical stat”through one's own will and effort. The new concept of
wellness goes a step beyond and reflects the“health”practices advocated by the WHO. Mental and
physical well-being correspond to“beauty”, so becoming healthy really means becoming beautiful.




                                      Finess               Live your one and only life to the full.
                    Beauty           (Refined)
                                                                   Total Health Design
                                     Fitness                        Esthetic salons
                    Health         (Concordant)
                                    Happiness                   *Create a fulfilling life of health,
                    Comfort         (Contented)
                                                                creativity, and pleasure.


                      “Esthetic Standards-Theory I”issued by Japan Esthetic Association;
                           edited by Education Committee, Japan Esthetic Association




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             Introducing Japan's spa industry
Chapter1

             In Japan, estheticians are classified as liberal or freelance professionals since they are not subject
            to legal tenure or business-related laws. (Other such professionals include sports club instructors,
            makeup artists, cosmetic salespersons, and cosmetologists.) Since esthetics has developed with the
            times and esthetic procedures have become more specialized, problems have been pointed out in
            connection with the Cosmetologists Law.

             Most attention has been drawn to the“use of beautifying services”in the section of the law that
            defines“beauty”, and what has mattered was whether it referred to the facial treatments offered at
            esthetic salons.
             One problem occurred in 1952, before the Cosmetologists Law was made into an independent law,
            when there was a dispute over the facial treatments offered at the cosmetic stores that were popular
            at the time. In the end, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently the Ministry of Health, Labor
            and Welfare) solved the issue with the instruction that“these facial treatments had nothing to do
            with the Cosmetologists Law as long as they are offered in order to sell cosmetics”.
             In 1967 when total body beautification became a hot topic, the Ministry of Health and Welfare
            presented a new“interpretation of cosmetics for personal beautification”. This took the form of an
            official response by the Director of the Ministry of Health and Welfare Environmental Health Bureau
            to questions about the Cosmetologists Law posed by the head of the Public Health Department at the
            Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Public Health.
             As a result of this dispute, the Ministry of Health and Welfare first recognized the difference
            between estheticians and the beauticians, whose work is regulated under the Cosmetologists Law, and
            stated that the skin beautifying facial treatments and other esthetic treatments offered to improve
            one's figure and treat the skin were beauty services that are not controlled under the Cosmetologists
            Law. This is how estheticians have come to be considered“freelance professionals”.
             Interpretations continued to fluctuate greatly over time.
             Article 3,“concerning the correct definition of services”under the“standard business stipulations
            for beauty salons”issued by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1984 lists facial treatments as one
            of the services offered by beauty salons. This means that facial treatments are one of the officially
            recognized procedures offered at beauty salons. The government appears to have inconsistent
            views here. This whole situation was brought about by the fact that many beauty salons offer facial
            treatments.
             After a partial amendment to the Cosmetologists Law in 1998, beauty schools started offering
                      as
           “esthetics” a required subject.
            Although not subject to the Cosmetologists Law,“estheticians”must now follow hygiene and safety
            regulations.




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                                                                      Introducing Japan's spa industry


Question 41-382 regarding the“Cosmetologists Law”:




                                                                                                         Chapter1
                 From: Head of the Public Health Department,
                 Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Public Health
                 To: Director of the Environmental Health Division,
                 Ministry of Health and Welfare Environmental Health Bureau
                 Date: September 30, 1966
                                                                                                                 
  We have operated with the understanding that the definition of appearance, as set
down in Article 2 of the Cosmetologists Law, is limited primarily to parts of the body
from the neck above as well as the fingernails and toenails, for manicures and pedicures.
Recently, however, many businesses have been offering total body beautification services-
both in total body salons that are part of general beauty salons and in salons specializing
in total body beautification. Under these circumstances, we would like to know if we
may change the above interpretation to include the whole body. Your prompt reply is
appreciated.



Answer (7030):
                 To: Head of the Public Health Department,
                 Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Public Health
                 From: Director of the Environmental Health Division,
                 Ministry of Health and Welfare Environmental Health Bureau
                 Date: February 16, 1967


 The head of the Public Health Department of the Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Public
Health would like to answer the question 41-382, dated September 30, 1966, as follows:
                  


  The definition of“beauty services”set forth in Section 1, Article 2 of the
Cosmetologists Law is limited to such services as“permanent waves, hairdressing, and
makeup application”. Services in other categories should be interpreted in a limited
sense as belonging to those with a purpose similar to the examples illustrated. The
services here refer to those that are used to beautify the appearance from the neck
above. If this interpretation is to be expanded upon in any way, it may still only include
manicures and pedicures. Total body beautification procedures, therefore, are completely
different from the stipulations under the law and do not apply to the definition of“beauty
services”under the current Cosmetologists Law.
   It may be added that the Public Bathhouse Law applies to businesses that
provide facilities for bathing with the purpose of beautifying the whole body.




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry

            Massage-based and other esthetic
Chapter1

           techniques that make use of cosmetics or
           other products form the core of esthetics.
           These techniques eliminate physical and
           mental tension, correct the flow of blood
           and lymph, and stimulate the body's
           immune system to compensate for, help
           and enhance the body's ability to maintain
           itself, which tends to decline with age.
            Basic ideas and procedural techniques
           are described in Hyojun Esutetikkugaku,
           Gijutsu-hen [Standard Esthetic
           Techniques], published by the Education                                  Photos: Rebirth Tokyo Co., Ltd.
           Research Committee of the Association Japonaise des Esthéticiennes. Some of the key esthetic
           treatments in Japan are listed below.


             1.Facial care (counseling, facial care procedures and esthetic facial equipment)
             2.Esthetic makeup
             3.Manicures
             4.Pedicures
             5.Body care (various types of body care, body care massages and esthetic body equipment)
             6.Wax epilation
             7.Other treatments (lymph drainage, massage based on Eastern medicine, aromatherapy,
                    thalassotherapy, and reflexology) 




           < Beauticians/barbers >
            Beauticians in Japan, whose primarily
           work deals with hair, are under the
           jurisdiction of the Cosmetologists Law
           today. Estheticians belong to the so-called
           freelance professions. The situation is
           exactly the opposite in Europe, because
           in Japan the Cosmetologists Law
           was enacted first. The“Barbers and
           Cosmetologists Law”, enacted in 1947,
           was separated into the“Cosmetologists
                                   in
           Law and the Barbers Law” 1957.

                                                                                        Photos: Aveda Corporation




           40
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

  【Cosmetologists Law】




                                                                                                              Chapter1
“Article 2:“Beauty services”are those that are offered for the purpose of beautifying the appearance
 and include permanent waves, hairdressing and makeup application. A“cosmetologist (beautician)”
 is a person who provides these beauty services under license approved by the Minister of Health and
 Welfare.
 A              is
  “beauty salon” a facility set up to provide these services.
                                                            “

                                                                                                                      
【Barbers Law】
“Article 1-2: Hairdressing involves the arranging of one's appearance and includes such services
 as haircuts and face shaving. A“barber”is a person who provides these hairdressing services. A
            is
“barbershop” a facility set up for to provide these hairdressing services.”




      < Beauticians >(→ For qualification requisites, refer to P. 97)
        Beauticians are qualified by the state under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Health,
      Labor and Welfare, as stipulated in the Cosmetologists Law.
        Beauticians offer many different services such as hairstyling, which may include a
      shampoo, haircut, permanent, and hair coloring; makeup application; kimono-fitting
      (including Japanese-style hairdos); facial treatments; and manicures and other nail care.


      < Barbers >(→ For qualification requisites, arefer to P.97)
       Barbers are qualified by the state under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Health, Labor
      and Welfare, as stipulated in the Barbers Law.
        Hairdressing involves the arranging of one's appearance and includes such services as
      haircuts and face shaving.(Article 1-2, Barbers Law)
        It used to be that barbers cut hair and beauticians styled it. Today there is no great
      difference between the two since even barbers provide clients with permanents. Only
      those with barber's licenses, however, can provide face or other shaving services.




 12)Music therapy
  There are two major types of music therapy: active therapy, which entails performances and passive
 therapy, which entails listening.
  Psychological testing and autonomic nerve activity indices have shown that music has a favorable
 effect on both the mind and body, with the following results:




                                                                                                       41
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

             
Chapter1

             Changes in the body:
                   1.Relaxation of tensed muscles (alleviation of stiff shoulders)
                   2.Improvement of peripheral circulation (warming of fingertips and toes)
                   3.Changes in brain waves, blood pressure, and pulse
             
             Changes in mood:
                   1.Soothing of tension
                   2.Relief from anxiety
                   3.Relief from feelings of fatigue
                   4.Relief from feelings of depression and perceived lack of energy


            When people relax their bodies, they also begin to feel relaxed. Scientists have analyzed the
           frequencies of babbling brooks, birdsong, and other natural sounds in an attempt to find sounds that
           are soothing to everyone. Results have shown that such sounds share a common rhythm that affects
           the mind favorably. This delicate, elusive rhythm is called the“1/f fluctuation”. It exists in nature,
           even in the human brain and human heartbeats, and it is easy for it to become disturbed by the stress
           of our modern society. People need the“1/f fluctuation”to feel comfortable and calm and to prevent
           any mental or physical imbalances.
            The sound of running or falling water is a familiar, natural sound that has been proven extremely
           effective in music therapy. Ordinary music, especially classical music, also carries the“1/f fluctuation”
           rhythm and is effective for relaxation. According to Dr. Mariko Makino, a physician accredited by the
           Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine, Air on G String and Canon is a good example of soothing
           classical music.
            Spas that want to help their clients relax should use music therapy.




           13)Other therapies
            Spas also offer other therapies including color therapy, stone therapy, crystal healing, and oxygen
           therapy. Spa services are sure to improve further with the development and advancement of new
           services.




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Health Establishments That Use the Natural Environment




                                                                                                             Chapter1
14)Climatotherapy       
 Climatotherapy involves moving to a place where the climate is better for the treatment of a specific
disease. The person rests or convalesces in the new climate as part of the therapy.
 The following shows various climatic factors and their effects on living organisms. The
characteristics of a region's climate depend on the collective effects of these factors as well as
                                                                                                                     
individual factors such as temperature and humidity.


    【Climatic factors and their effects on living organisms】
     1. Thermal factors (air temperature, water vapor, sunlight, infrared light, and wind changes)
        Important for metabolism and in regulating body temperature, circulation, and
        respiration


     2. Humidity (absolute and relative humidity)
        Important for metabolism and in regulating body temperature, circulation, and
        respiration


     3. Mechanical/dynamic factors (atmospheric pressure and wind speed)
        Act on the circulatory, respiratory, hematopoietic, and autonomic nervous systems,
        and influence blood gas components especially under high or low atmospheric
        pressure


     4. Chemical factors (enzymes, ozone, carbon dioxide gas, terpenes, natural and artificial
        harmful contaminants)
        Influence respiratory and circulatory systems, and blood components


     5. Light rays (visible light and ultraviolet light)
        Ultraviolet light may (1) cause the formation of red patches on the skin, (2) affect
        pigmentation, (3) help the body generate vitamin D, and (4) have a bactericidal action


     6. Electromagnetic factors (air ions, electromagnetic waves, etc.)
        Act on the autonomic nervous system; and aid serotonin secretion


     7. Behavioral-physiological effects (light)
        Affect biorhythms and behavior


Three types of climates are recognized in climatotherapy. They are sorted according to the degree of
stimulation they provide to living organisms throughout the year.




                                                                                                      43
             Introducing Japan's spa industry


           (1) Protective climates
Chapter1


            The temperature and atmospheric pressure of these climates do not fluctuate greatly day or night.
           The sun's rays are mild and the air is clean. Many different plants grow, which prevents rapid
           climate change. These climates have an overall protective and sedative effect. They are suitable
           for the elderly and they are useful for those recovering from illnesses as well as those suffering from
           psychosomatic disorders and stress-related diseases.
        
           (2) Stimulative climates
            The temperature and humidity of these climates fluctuate greatly daily and yearly. Temperatures
           can drop drastically with high winds. There is a high volume of sunlight and ultraviolet rays and a
           relatively low volume of oxygen. Such factors have a stimulative effect on living organisms. Those
            with the physical strength or reserves to handle such climatic stimuli can use it effectively in their
           training programs.


           (3) Load factor climates
            These climates are known for their long periods of muggy heat, fog, and humid cold. They are not
            suitable for those convalescing because of bad air and insufficient sunlight that doesn't last very long.




            The above climates can be also classified by altitude, as follows:

           (1) Coastal climates and thalassotherapy
            In these climates, the temperature is high and the land well-heated during the day. This causes the
           ocean winds to blow in toward the land. During the night, the winds blow in the opposite direction,
           from the land to the ocean. Ocean winds feel wet and contain a large volume of salt, but no plankton
           or dust. Breathing in the air of coastal
            climates boosts metabolism, increases
            heart rate and blood pressure and
            strengthens cardiopulmonary functioning.
            Most warm coastal areas have a protective
            climate and most cold coastal areas have a
            stimulative climate.
             Children react well to climatic stimuli.
            If a child adapts to a cold climate, it will
            have enhanced resistance to respiratory
            infections. In Germany, there are coastal
            hospitals that specialize in pediatric
                                                                                     Photo: Tourism Authority of Thailand
            bronchial asthma and chronic eczema.




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                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

(2) Intermediate-mountain, high-mountain, and highland climates




                                                                                                              Chapter1
 Air temperatures drop by 0.6 degrees
 centigrade every 100 meters above
 sea level. These climates, which are
generally protective in the plateaus,
with altitudes ranging from 300 to 1,000
meters, and in the intermediately high                                                                                
mountainous areas, are said to be good
for the treatment of various conditions.
Water vapor, in the form of clouds and
fog, plays an important role in climates
consisting of high mountains and
highlands over 1,000 meters. There is                                                                   a
low volume of dust and a high volume
of sunlight and ultraviolet rays as well as great temperature differences between sunlit and shaded
areas. Wind velocity is high, elevating the cooling effect of the temperature, and the low air pressure
and oxygen volume make it a more stimulative climate. Highland climates, and the geographical
variations of such areas, can be used for effective cardiopulmonary training.




(3) Forest climates
 Forests tends to subdue and purify
the climate. Trees release aromatic
substances such as turpenes that
 have antibacterial, antiseptic and
 sedative effects. Forests are also rich
 in negative ions, which stimulate the
 parasympathetic nerves. The tranquility
of the forest, with its green trees and
 leaves, has a relaxing effect. Forest
 climates are protective.
  Both sunlit and shaded areas are
therapeutic. Walking exercises that
make use of the general topography,
or differences in altitude, such as terrainkur walking therapy can be used in these areas to improve
cardiopulmonary functioning.




                                                                                                       45
            Introducing Japan's spa industry


                   Climatotherapy and its benefits】
Chapter1

                  【
                 1. Marine climates
                 Characteristics: Little difference in atmospheric temperatures; low humidity; sea-salt/
                                    iodine in ocean breezes; and enhanced influence of ultraviolet light
                 Benefits:           Stimulates metabolism and stabilizes autonomic nerves

                 2. Highland climates
                 Characteristics: Low oxygen volume, low air pressure, and low air temperature
                 Benefits:           Useful for training the physically fragile, provided they can adapt to the
                                    climate.


                 3. Intermediate-mountain climates
                 Characteristics: Less stimuli because of low oxygen volume and air pressure; warm and
                                    humid
                 Benefits:           Beneficial for treatment of lung tuberculosis (aerotherapy using fresh
                                    air) and mild disorders of the circulatory organs


                 4. Flatland climates
                 Characteristics: High temperatures; high air pressure; less sunlight and temperature
                                    change than in highlands; effects of phytoncides in forests
                 Benefits:           Suitable for resting and recovering from fatigue


            People to take up climatotheraphy should have the necessary reserves. This type of therapy is
           generally contraindicated for people who are suffering through the acute phase of a disease or who are
           otherwise seriously ill.

                 【Climatotherapy indications】
                  1. Chronic respiratory diseases: allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, lung emphysema,
                     and lung tuberculosis
                  2. Cardiac disease rehabilitation (e.g., terrainkur), mild to intermediate hypertension,
                     and functional circulatory disorders
                  3. Autonomic imbalances and depression
                  4. Chronic dermal diseases (eczema, psoriasis, and neurodermatitis)
                  5.Diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, and chronic rheumatic diseases
                  6. Secondary anemia
                  7. Physically weak children (those with rickets, nutritional deficiency, anemia, etc.)


                 【Climatotherapy contraindications】
                  1. Recent myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, renal failure, respiratory failure,




            46
                                                                             Introducing Japan's spa industry


        pericarditis, and severe coronary sclerosis




                                                                                                                Chapter1
     2. Acute infections
     3. Severe diseases, leukemia, and malignant anemia
     4. Severe endocrine diseases, mucous edema, and Addison's disease



                                                                                                                        

< Forest therapy >
 Forest therapy is an all-around therapy that makes use of the five senses in a forest environment.
It includes such activities as forest bathing, walk rehabilitation using forest terrains, occupational
therapy using trees and forestry products, and such psychological applications as walk counseling and
group therapy approaches.
 Forest therapy involves three-dimensional activities that make use of natural terrains, slopes, and
inclines, and horticultural therapy involves two-dimensional activities that make use of flower beds.
 Forest therapy uses outdoor activities to rehabilitate the five senses of the entire body. It can
involve both work and recreation and be extremely useful in programs that deal with the mentally
challenged or otherwise disabled persons, where it encourages interaction with nature in the form
of such activities as carrying logs, growing mushrooms, strolling and singing, and playing in or near
forest rivers. This kind of forest therapy is offered at several facilities in Japan and in Sweden.
 There are two methods of forest counseling: one where the counselor tries to encourage change
in the client through verbal or non-verbal interaction while strolling, and another one where group
activities are used to enhance mutual understanding. Forests can be used as counseling spaces with
either method. The most important aspect of this therapy is the person's perception and enjoyment of
the scenic beauty of nature with its continuous areas of forest green landscapes, sunlight streaming
through the leaves of the trees, sounds of the leaves rustling, and birdsong as the wind blows through
the trees.
 When you leave artificial spaces behind to experience this kind of counseling, you can really feel the
effects of the“change in scenery”.




15)Homeopathy
 Homeopathy is one of those very rare natural therapies that seem to be difficult to combine perfectly
with aromatherapy.
 In the first half of the 19th century, the German physician Samuel Hahnemann systematized
homeopathy, a medical system based on the belief that“like cures like“, that an illness can be cured




                                                                                                         47
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           by taking a minute dose of a substance that would otherwise cause the disease symptoms in a healthy
Chapter1

           individual. Hahnemann believed that a very small amount of a specific substance can be used to treat
           symptoms that may be caused by taking large amounts of the same substance. Homeopathic remedies
           are prepared through serial dilution of animal, vegetable, or mineral substances, or occasionally,
           bacteria or viruses. After each dilution, the solution is shaken vigorously, making it more potent.
           Unlike conventional medicines, homeopathic remedies become more efficacious the more they are

           diluted. Scientists deny the efficacy of homeopathy because the source materials cannot be detected
           in the high-potency diluted solutions. This therapy is widely considered effective, however. It often
           works even when scientifically proven therapies have failed.




           16)Phytotherapy
            Phytotherapy, a synthesis of two Greek terms meaning“plant”and“therapy”, refers to plant-
           based forms of therapies.
            British people call it medical herbalism.
            In France, aromatherapy is often included in phytotherapy. French therapists frequently combine
           essential oils and remedial herbs in their treatments and very rarely depend on essential oils by
           themselves.


           < Herbal remedies >
            Unlike humans, plants have the capacity to store solar energy. Photosynthesis uses sunlight,
           carbon dioxide and water to produce sugar, protein, enzymes, hormone-like substances, oil, and
           various other elements. In this way, plants provide us with valuable curative medicines. They also
           draw up from the earth elements that are vital to our health and well-being. In providing themselves
           with nutrients, they generate enzymes, which are indispensable for life. Living creatures must all
           make use of the solar energy taken in by plants.
            It is easy to understand how important
           remedial plants have been for life since
           ancient times. When people use herbs they
           are borrowing the power of the earth. The
           role of herbs in healing diseases suggests
           that holistic theory is right in many ways.
           Look at the way herbs are used for their
           useful effects described in Anne McIntyre's
           The Complete Woman's Herbal.
            Stand in a fragrant herb garden or
           pick wild herbs on a suburban footpath
           in summer and you can just feel their                         Photo;Kairali Ayurvedic Health Resort Pvt. Ltd




            48
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

beneficial effects already. The simplest




                                                                                                                Chapter1
way to use herbs is obviously to eat
them. You can use parsley in salads,
dill for fish, marjoram for pizzas, mint
for lamb, horseradish for beef, basil for
pasta, and garlic for just about anything.
Herb components enter the blood vessels                                                                                 
through the digestive tract and circulate
throughout the body.
 Herbs can also be used in tea,
tinctures, and tablets.

                                                                                    <Organic herb garden >
                                                              Photo;Kairali Ayurvedic Health Resort Pvt. Ltd




[1] Infusion
 Infusions are prepared using the soft parts of plants such as the leaves, stems, and flower.
On average, 25 g of dried herbs or 50 g of fresh herbs are used with 600 ml of hot water. The
concentration may be varied according to taste. It's important to make it to taste, so that you'll make
sure to enjoy it whenever you drink it. The herbs are put into a warmed cup and hot water is poured
into the cup. The herbs are infused for 10 minutes and
then strained off. Infusions are usually taken three times
a day to treat chronic diseases, or six cups or more a day
for acute diseases. They keep for about two days in a
refrigerator.
 Cold water should be used for infusions of Russian
comfrey and other herbs containing lots of viscous
substances, using the same infusion method above. Most
infusions are taken hot. They can, however, be cooled or
refrigerated to treat urinary tract problems.
 Several types of herbs may be blended to make a tasty
infusion. The bitterness of remedial herbs can be masked
with such herbs as mint, lemon balm, lemon-scented
verbena, fennel, lavender, and licorice. This is especially
recommended for children.

                                                               Photo: Veda Vie Business Development Division,
                                                                                            Pias Corporation




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           [2] Decoction
Chapter1


            Decoctions are similar to infusions and involve heating the hard parts of plants including the bark,
           seeds, roots, and nuts. To prepare a decoction, the plant parts are crushed with a mortar and pestle or
           shredded if raw or unprocessed. This is put into a pot filled with water and brought to boil. The pot is
           covered, boiled for 10 minutes and then the liquid is strained. About 25 g of herbs are used in a little
           over 600 ml of water since the water is somewhat after boiling. Dosages should be the same as for
           infusions.
        

           [3] Uses of infusions and decoctions
            Infusions and decoctions can be used for washing eyes, gargling, rinsing the mouth, and treating the
           whole body. They are used two or three times a day for chronic diseases or every two hours for acute
           diseases.




           [4] Syrups
            Syrups can be helpful for treating children. Two teaspoons (two tablespoons for adults) of syrup are
           taken three or four times a day to treat chronic diseases. Acute diseases require double the dosing.
           To prepare the syrup, add 325 g of sugar to 600 ml of infusion or decoction and heat until the sugar
           is melted. Keep the syrup in a refrigerator. Honey equal to one-fourth the weight of the infusion or
           decoction may be added. It should be boiled on low heat and stirred, and the dross that appears on
           the surface should be skimmed off until it gets thick.
            Syrups can be also prepared by adding 1.25 kg brown sugar to 600 ml of hot water and stirring
           it over low flame until the sugar has melted and the solution has boiled. The pan can be left on
           the stove. Tinctures (see below) can be added to the syrup in a one part to three proportion. This
           preparation method ensures long-term storage.




           [5] Tinctures
            Tinctures are usually mixtures of water and alcohol. They are a conservable form of concentrated
           herb extracts with medicinal properties. The portions of water and alcohol vary according to remedy.
           The simple extraction of glycoside or tannin requires 25% alcohol, while that of resin and rubber
           requires 90% alcohol. The ratio of dried herbs to liquid is 2:5 and that of fresh herbs to liquid is 1:2.
           The herbs are put in a bottle with a wide opening and a mixture of alcohol and water are poured over
           them. The bottle is shaken every day for two weeks to soften the contents. The resulting solution is
           strained with a wine press. The herbs are removed after the liquid is squeezed out completely. The
           herbs that are removed can serve as a good fertilizer. The tincture is put in a dark-colored, light-
           shielding bottle or a wide-mouthed glass bottle, which is then labeled and stored in a cool, dark
           place. Tinctures can be prepared at home using such alcohol as undiluted brandy, gin, and vodka.




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                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

Decoctions may become sweeter and more drinkable when glycerol (glycerin) is added. If glycerol is




                                                                                                               Chapter1
added, reduce the volume of the water and glycerol to 80% to prevent any spoilage or deterioration in
quality.
 A teaspoon of tincture diluted with a little water can be taken three times a day, before or after
meals, as a standard dose to treat chronic diseases. The dose should be halved for children and reduce
to a quarter for infants.
 Tinctures usually hold up throughout the year. Although they take longer to prepare than tea, they                    
are easier to store and require lower doses. Tinctures can also be applied to the body as lotions or
used as douches. One half to one teaspoon of tincture is usually mixed with 250 ml water and taken
two to three times a day for chronic diseases or every two hours for acute diseases.




[6] Suppositories
 Suppositories are a quick and easy cure for both local and systemic symptoms. They are absorbed
into tissues rapidly because they do not pass through the digestive tract. Their active herbal
components penetrate directly into the bloodstream through mucosal membranes of the rectum.
Suppositories can be prepared easily at home by mixing finely pulverized dried herbs. The resultant
herb paste is put into oval indentations made in cooking foil and kept in the refrigerator.




[7] Tablets and capsules
 Herbal tablets and capsules are available at herb stores and health food stores. They can be
prepared easily at home by simply putting the powdered mixtures of necessary herbs into gelatin
capsules. A capsule filler can be very helpful, especially when preparing large quantities. Size 0
capsules ordinarily contain 0.35 g of powder. As a standard dose, take three Size 0 capsules three
times a day. Two Size 00 capsules, containing 0.5 g of powder, can also be taken three times a day.




[8] Herbal baths
 Warm, aromatic baths are an extremely elegant, relaxing and effective way of getting the beneficial
effects of herbs. They are also useful for use with infants. Dried or fresh herbs are put into a muslin
bag and hanged under the hot water tap. Thick infusions of herbs can be put into the bathwater and
left to soak for 15 to 30 minutes. A few drops of your favorite essential oils may also be added. Oils,
however, should be diluted before use with infants and people who have sensitive skin. During an
herbal bath, the pores are opened, being warmed by the hot water, and the active plant components
are absorbed via the open pores. The essential oils are also inhaled through the nose and mouth
and absorbed into the lungs, reaching the blood vessels. Oils inhaled through the nose send signals
to the brain through peripheral nerve receptors, quickly relieving mental and emotional tensions,
relaxing and calming you down. Lavender, chamomile, and ylang-ylang loosen tension and also have




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           Introducing Japan's spa industry

           a splendid fragrance. Rosemary sends blood into the brain and excites as well as relaxes.
Chapter1



           [9] Partial bathing of hands and feet
            Hands and feet are very sensitive, having more peripheral nerves. Herbal components penetrate
           easily into the body and enter the bloodstream even through the thicker skin of hand or foot. People
           in England have traditionally used the mustard foot bath as a remedy for coldness and humidity,
        
           ranging from colds, influenza, and bad
           blood circulation to arthritis. Maurice
           Mességué, a famous French herbalist,
           advocated partial bathing in herbs in
           his books about remedial herbs. He
           recommended an eight-minute foot bath
           at night and an eight-minute hand bath
           in the morning. Hand and foot baths are
           good for infants as well. Infants' limbs
           are soaked in herbal baths for half time
           required for adults, or four minutes in the
           morning and evening.




           [10] Ointments and creams
            To prepare a simple ointment, herbs are immersed in oil to soften them. Approximately 450 ml
           of olive oil and 50 g of honey wax are put in a heatproof bowl. Herbs are added until they are fully
           steeped in the oil. The bowl is heated in hot water at low heat for several hours. During this time,
           the beneficial components of the herbs are drawn out into oil. The oil is strained through a muslin
           bag and the herbs are removed. The warm oil is then put into a bottle, where it soon becomes solid.
            Creams can be also prepared easily by mixing tinctures, infusions, decoctions, or a few drops of
           essential oil with aqueous cream available from a pharmacy.




           [11] Patches
            Patches are soft and damp preparations applied to the body. Fresh or dried herbs are placed
           between gauze. When fresh leaves, stems or roots are used, they are first mashed or crushed. When
           dried herbs are used, the powdered or finely chopped herbs are kneaded with a small amount of warm
           water and spread over the gauze. The gauze is applied to the affected site, fastened with a bandage
           and the site is warmed by placing a bottle filled with warm water over the patch. Cabbage
           leaves work for painful arthritis and tenderness of the breasts, and rice-bran packs alleviate
           mastitis.




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[12] Poultices




                                                                                                                   Chapter1
 To create poultices, immerse a clean cloth or towel in a hot or cold herbal infusion, decoction, or
a few drops of essential oil, wring it and apply it to the affected site. These are used for treating
headaches, menstrual pain, lower back pain, swelling of joints, and varicose veins. Effective results
can be expected when poultices are used repeatedly.


                                                                                                                           
[13] Embrocations
 An embrocation is a liquid drug used as a massage oil to stimulate and loosen muscles and
ligaments, and alleviate inflammation and pain from injuries. It is made from a mixture of alcohol-
based tinctures and herbal essential oils, extracted with oil or alcohol. It promotes blood circulation,
and penetrates quickly through the skin. In many cases, it contains stimulative oils and chilis (cayenne
pepper).




[14] Oils
 Essential oils cannot be prepared at home because they have to be extracted from aromatic plants
using a steam distillation technique. Herbal oils, however, can be prepared by soaking finely chopped
herbs in almond oil, sunflower oil, olive oil, or another pure vegetable oil for two weeks. The herbs are
put in a glass bottle with a lid that can be tightly closed. Oil is poured over them. The bottle is placed
under the sunlit window and shaken every day. The active components are gradually drawn out in
oil. In two weeks or more, the oil is strained through a muslin bag, squeezed well and stored it in a
lightproof bottle with a tightly closed lid. Oil can be also used for massaging. It is a very simple way
to use herbs with infants. To prepare massage oil, dilute a few drops of essential oil in a base oil (two
drops of essential oil to 5 ml of base oil). Add five to ten drops of essential oil to a basin for inhalation,
to a small quantity of water for a room spray, or to a facial steamer for cleansing skin.
                                                           (Source: Anne McIntyre, The Complete Woman's Herbal )




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           < Aromatherapy >
Chapter1


            Aromatherapy can be regarded simply as“therapy using aromatic substances”, which come from
           flowers, trees, shrubs, and grass. When the appropriate part (wood from sandal wood, petals from
           roses, peel from lemons, leaves from rosemary shrubs, and berries from junipers) is processed through
           distillation, potent aromatic substances will result. These liquids are called essential oils.
            Essential oils consist of many different chemical substances. The combination of chemical
           substances varies by plant. Different plants produce different wonderful scents and therapeutic
        
           effects. As many as 50 types of chemical substances can be detected in some essential oils. These oils
           work wonderfully on the body and also act on the brain and nervous systems, permitting a wide range
           of applications for psychological and other types of treatment.
            Essential oils can be introduced into the body in various
           ways to bring about benefits. The easiest way is to consume
           the herbs in food or beverages. Diluted essential oils may
           also be rubbed onto skin or inhaled through the nose. If
           you breathe in essential oils, the aroma stimulates nerve
           terminals (odor receptors) in the sinus cavity and is this
           is conveyed as nerve impulses or messages to the brain,
           specifically, the cerebral limbic system which controls
           reflexes, emotions, sexual desire, and memory. When you
           inhale essential oil, the fine particles are also breathed
           into the lungs, absorbed into blood through the alveoli, and
           carried throughout the body. Nerve terminals under the skin
           are stimulated when you rub essential oils onto the skin or
                                                                             Photo: Veda Vie Business Development Division,
           take a bath with fragrant essential oils, which are absorbed
                                                                                                          Pias Corporation
           through the surface of skin.
            
            The effects of massage are conveyed to subcutaneous
           tissues, muscles, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
           and also carried to the pituitary gland, which controls all
           the endocrine glands, including the adrenal gland, via
           the nervous system. Aromatherapy, therefore, works on
           hormone-related diseases and promotes relaxation. Rose
           oil, for example, is a woman-friendly essential oil that
           relieves tension and anxiety, and alleviates symptoms
           such as menstrual abnormalities, premenstrual syndrome,
           postpartum anxiety, sex-related emotional disorders, and
           postpartum depression. Therapeutic effects last for hours,
           even though the essential oil is absorbed in as quickly as 30
           minutes. Once it has been introduced into the bloodstream,
           it spreads all over the body, having different effects in <Aromatherapy massage> Photo: Hakone-Ginyu




            54
                                                                                       Introducing Japan's spa industry

 various organs. After performing their wonderful feats, essential oils are excreted from the body via




                                                                                                                          Chapter1
 the skin, lungs, and urine.
  Essential oils act on the cerebral limbic system to control memory as well as emotions. For this
 reason, aromas awaken memories of places, people, and past events.


【Uses of essential oils】
   ・Massage                                                                                                                       
   ・Bathing, half-body bathing (soaking up to the waist), hand bathing, and foot bathing
   ・Incense burners and vapor inhalation
   ・Gargling solutions and mouthwash solutions
   ・Poultices and room sprays


【Cautions when using essential oils】
  Keep essential oils out of reach of children as they are concentrated. Avoid using them around the
 eyes. Essential oils should not be taken orally or used without being diluted. Those with sensitive
 skin should have a patch test with the essential oil several times before applying it to the body or
 putting in a bath.
  Some types of essential oils enhance skin sensitivity to sunlight or ultra violet rays: bergamot,
 lemon, lemon-scented verbena, orange, and lime.
  Those suffering from hypertension, epilepsy, or psychological disorders need to seek advice from
 a specialist before using essential oils. Avoid using essential oils during pregnancy since some may
 promote bleeding, inducing miscarriage.
(Sources: Maggie Tisserland, Aromatherapy for Women ; Anne McIntyre, The Complete Floral Healer: Healing Power of
Flowers Through Herbalism, Aromatherapy, Homeopathy and Flower Essences)
  


 The following shows often aromatherapy is provided in spa-related facilities in Japan.




                   “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
            [Source:
                                        Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




                                                                                                                    55
            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           < Flower therapy >
Chapter1


            Flower therapy is generally known as a
           method of using flower essences for healing
           and health enhancement. There are other
           variations including flower bed therapy,
           which is based on the idea that by growing
           or displaying flowers, you can use their
        
           vital energy to enhance the health of your
           body and mind, and flower arrangement
           therapy, whose practitioners believe that
           the flower you chose can tell you a healing
           message and that just touching flowers can
           relax you. The following is a description of
           different flower therapies that involve flower essences.




           [1] Flower essences
            A flower's essence can act to clear up disharmony of the mind and emotions, thought to be a cause
           for many diseases. It can also encourage you to become more aware of the part of your nature that
           appears to be in disharmony or to have a disease, and then help you to resolve these problems. Flower
           remedies can help people become more responsible for their lifestyles and achieve happiness on their
           journeys to find themselves.




           [2] Types of flower essences
           ・BACH FLOWER REMEDIES
           ・CALIFORNIAN FLOWER ESSENCES (FES Quintessentials)
           ・Australian Bush Flower Essences




           [3] How flower essences work
             Flower essences acts on the body's
           delicate energy structure. They have a
           mild but not instant effect on the body
           and mind like general drugs. The body's
           energy structure is similar to the“routes”
           used in acupuncture and Chinese herbal
           medicine and the“chakras”used                                                         Photo;i-bach.com




            56
                                                                               Introducing Japan's spa industry

in ayurveda . Flower essences have an influence on your body since they affect your thinking and




                                                                                                                  Chapter1
emotions, even if only slightly.
(Source: Anne McIntyre, The Complete Floral Healer: Healing Power of Flowers Through Herbalism, Aromatherapy,
Homeopathy and Flower Essences)




< Gardening therapy >
                                                                                                                          
 Gardening consists of a series of actions that are indispensable to preserving life, including the
preparation of soil, sowing, growing, harvesting, eating, and storing. These actions appeal to the
five senses by enhancing your experience of happiness, beauty, nostalgia, sadness, tranquility,
deliciousness, pleasant aromas, and pleasurable touch.
 Gardening therapy uses these properties effectively to revitalize the body and mind. It can help
the elderly, disabled and socially disadvantaged to become more sociable and restore their zest for
life. The American Horticultural Therapy Association (AHTA) was set up in 1972 and the British
Horticultural Therapy Association (currently called Thrive) was established in 1978. In Japan,
gardening has been used in both social welfare and medicine. Early in the 1990s, Japanese people
learned that gardening was already an established therapy overseas. Gardening has rapidly drawn
more attention in Japan, where many people are seeking more emotional fulfillment. Gardening
therapy is carried out in welfare facilities, hospitals, schools, and communities. Local governments
have also become more interested in gardening therapy.
 
 【Facilities that employ gardening therapy】
 ・Special nursing homes for the elderly
 ・Fee-charging homes for the aged (offering nursing services)
 ・Health care facilities for the elderly requiring long-term care
 ・Day-care centers
 ・Facilities for people with mental retardation
 ・Hospital pediatrics departments (for asthma and other illnesses)
 ・Hospital roof/balcony gardens
 ・Alcohol rehabilitation facilities
 ・Reconstructed houses in earthquake disaster areas
 ・Parks built on universal designs
 ・Community gardens
 ・Schools for disabled children
 ・Small workshops




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           17)Clay therapy 
Chapter1


            Clay therapy has been for healing since
           ancient times. Many types of clay are rich
           in minerals. Pure clay has existed in soil
           around the world since antiquity. Today,
           harmful chemicals have contaminated
        
           the Earth's soil, making it more difficult
           to find quality clay. Pure clay, with the
           greatest healing powers, is extremely hard
           to find. People discovered the healing
           power of clay by observing animals eating
           clay. When animals are suffering from
           indigestion, they eat clay. When they get
           injured, they rub clay against their injuries to help them heal. In ancient times, clay was used as an
           external medicine for injuries and as an oral medicine for improving physical condition. Dr. Nip's
           therapy, using clay and water, is widely known in Europe. This medical doctor is well known for
           having adopted natural therapies. Known as a kaolin in Europe, clay exists approximately 60 meters
           below the surface of the ground. Clay is extracted at many sites in northern France, where there are
           lots of clear streams and thick forests. In Japan, quality clay is mined in Niigata, Yamagata, and
           Gunma prefectures. Clay that has been dug up is exposed to sunlight and wind and allowed to dry
           thoroughly.




           [1] Clay components
            Clay consists primarily of silica, iron, enzymes, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. These components
           activate the body's metabolism and help it to excrete wastes and other harmful substances that have
           been absorbed into the body. Clay is not harmful to the human body.




           [2] Clay ingestion
            When clay is introduced into parts of the body that are in poor condition, it collects and removes
           the malignancies that caused the poor condition. People who are healthy will not suffer any adverse
           reactions to the ingestion of clay. It helps to restore the body's physiological balance and discharge
           harmful toxins that have accumulated in the body. Clay restores the body's condition by activating its
           immune system and protecting it from diseases.




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                                                                         Introducing Japan's spa industry

[3] External uses of clay




                                                                                                              Chapter1
 Clay that consists of fine particles serves well
as a face pack. It restores skin discolorations and
absorbs dirt that has found its way deep into the
skin, revitalizing keratin renewal, improving blood
circulation, and creating healthier skin.
 Clay that consists of rougher particles is often used                                                                
on other parts of the body. Clay can help give your
body a sound condition by purifying it and helping it
discharge harmful substances.




[4] Effects of negative ions in clay
 When the negative ions in clay are absorbed into the
body, they help the body excrete waste, which in turn
helps the body to have a more alkaline constitution.
                                                                                             <Clay mask>
This improves the functioning of the internal organs,
                                                                    Photo: Aroma Vera, Co., Ltd. (Thailand)
enhances the immune system, and helps to regulate the balance between the body and the mind.
 When the blood contains too many positive ions, its cell metabolism slows down, which gives the
body a more acidic constitution. This causes more rapid aging-the body's functions decline and its
immune system is impaired. Clay has the power to turn these positive ions into negative ions.




18)Balneotherapy 
  
 According to the mineral analysis
method guidelines established by Japan's
Ministry of the Environment, the following
stipulations have been set down with
regard to hot springs, mineral springs, and
therapeutic springs:
 A mineral spring refers to a“spring of
hot water or mineral water that is emitted
from the ground, ordinarily containing a
large amount of solid or gaseous matters
or special substances, the temperature
of which is significantly higher than the                                         Photo: Goshougake Onsen




                                                                                                       59
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           annual average atmospheric temperature around the spring”.
Chapter1

            Under the Hot Spring Law, a“hot spring”is defined as including the moisture vapor and other
           gasses (excluding natural gas comprised mainly of hydrocarbons) that are emitted from a mineral
           spring and from underground. A mineral spring is differentiated from ordinary water such as tap
           water or water from a well, as shown in the table provided for article 2 of the Hot Spring Law (Table
           1-1). Among mineral springs, those that can be used for treatments are called therapeutic springs, as
           defined in Table 1-2.
            Notification No. 227, issued on May 25, 1982 by the Director-General of the Nature Conservation
           Bureau at the Environment Agency of Japan presented the standards for determining indications,
           contraindications, and cautions for bathing and drinking in hot springs (therapeutic springs). (Table:
           Standards for determining indications)
            Today, hot spring facilities must display a notice stating the facts and reasons if anything has been
           added to the water. They must indicate how the water is heated, what circulation units are used, and
           whether any bath agents have been added or any sterilization has been carried out, if applicable.


                   【Table 1-1. Definition of a mineral spring
                             (limitations for discrimination from ordinary water)】


                    1. Temperature (the one of water that is collected from the source of hot spring):
                       25 degrees centigrade or more
                    2. Components (whether any of the following substances are present in the water):
                                                  Substance                             Content (per 1 kg)
                    Dissolved substances (excluding gaseous substances)          1,000 mg or more in total
                    Free carbon dioxide (CO2) (free carbonic acid)               250 mg or more
                    Lithium ions (Li+)                                           1 mg or more
                    Strontium ions (Sr2+)                                        10mg or more
                    Barium ions (Ba2+)                                           5mg or more
                    Total iron ions (Fe2++Fe3+)                                  10mg or more
                    Manganese (II) ions (Mn2+) (Manganese I ions)                10mg or more
                    Hydrogen ions (H+)                                           1mg or more
                    Bromide ions (Br-)                                           5mg or more
                    Iodide ions (I-)                                             1mg or more
                    Fluoride ions (F-)                                           2mg or more
                    Hydrogen arsenate ions (HAsO42-)                             1.3mg or more
                    Zinc arsenite (HAsO2)                                        1mg or more
                    Total sulfur (S) [corresponding to HS-+S2O32-+H2S]           1mg or more
                    Metaboric acid (HBO2)                                        5mg or more
                    Metasilisic acid (H2SiO3)                                    50mg or more
                    Sodium acid carbonate (NaHCO3) (Bicarbonate of soda)         340mg or more
                                                                                 20 × 10-10Ci=74Bq or more
                    Radon(Rn)
                                                                                 (5.5 Mache unit or more)
                    Radium salt (as Ra)                                          1 × 10-8 mg or more




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     【Table 1-2. Definition of a therapeutic spring】




                                                                                                                                  Chapter1
      1. Temperature (the one of water that is collected from the source of hot spring):
         25 degrees centigrade or more
      2. Components (whether any of the following substances are present in the water):
                                      Substance                                           Content (per 1 kg)
      Dissolved substances (excluding gaseous substances)                      1,000 mg or more in total
      Free carbon dioxide (CO2)                                                1,000mg or more
      Copper ions (Cu2+)                                                       1mg or more
                                                                                                                                          
      Total iron ions (Fe2++Fe3+)                                              20mg or more
      Aluminum ions (Al3+)                                                     100mg or more
      Hydrogen ions (H+)                                                       1mg or more
      Total sulfur (S) [corresponding to HS-+S2O32-+H2S]                       2mg or more
                                                                               30 × 10-10Ci=111Bq or more
      Radon (Rn)
                                                                              ((8.25 Mache unit or more)



【Standards for determining indications】
 1. General indications for a therapeutic spring:
 Neuralgia, muscle aches, joint pain, frozen shoulders, motor paralysis, joint stiffness, bruises,
sprains, chronic diseases of the digestive organs, piles, poor circulation, post-convalescence, fatigue
relief, and health enhancement
2. Indications by quality of the spring:
                Quality of spring                           For bathing                          For drinking
                                              Cuts, burns, chronic dermal diseases,
                                                                                     Chronic diseases of the digestive
                 Chloride                     physical weakness in children, chronic
                                                                                     organs, chronic constipation
                                              gynecological diseases
                                                                                     Chronic diseases of the digestive
                 ydrogen carbonate            Cuts, burns, chronic dermal diseases organs, diabetes mellitus, gout,
 Salt springs
                                                                                     hepatic diseases
                 Hydrosulfate                                                          Chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis,
                                              Arteriosclerosis, cuts, burns, chronic
                 (excluding iron-hydrosulfate dermal diseases                          chronic constipation, obesity,
                 and aluminum-hydrosulfate)                                            diabetes mellitus, gout

                                              Hypertension, arteriosclerosis, cuts,    Chronic diseases of the digestive
                 Carbon dioxide
                                              burns                                    organs, chronic constipation
                 Iron                         Menstrual disorders                      Anemia
                 Iron springs containing
                                              Same as for springs containing iron      Same as for springs containing iron
                 copper
                                              Chronic dermal diseases, chronic
                                              gynecological diseases, cuts, diabetes
 Therapeutic                                  mellitus                                 Diabetes mellitus, gout,
 springs         Sulfur
                                              (Hydrogen sulfide)                        constipation
 containing
                                              Same as for the above Hypertension,
 special
                                              arteriosclerosis
 components
                 Springs containing acid      Chronic dermal diseases                  Chronic diseases of the digestive organs
                 Springs containing
                                              Same as for springs containing acid      Same as for springs containing acid
                 aluminum
                                                                                       Gout, chronic diseases of the
                                              Gout, arteriosclerosis, hypertension,
                                                                                       digestive organs, chronic
                                              chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis,
                 Radium                                                                cholecystitis, cholelithiasis,
                                              chronic dermal diseases, chronic
                                                                                       neuralgia, muscular aches, joint
                                              gynecological diseases
                                                                                       pain




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry
Chapter1

                                  Hot springs and health
                                                                     Rehabilitation
                                                                   suited to each user

                                                            Cooperation
                                                            with health        Higher awareness
                                        Cooperation with      services             of health
                                       clinics activities

                                                                 Higher frequency   Preventing diseases
                                                                      spa use       and promoting early
                                     Encouraging outings and
                                   active exchange with people          Hot springs      detection
                                        and communities
                                                                    Pleasure of going to a spa
                                                     Improving
                                                   employment and                               Reducing medical expenses
                                                   life purpose                   Use of spas
                                                                                   as salons
                                                     Suppressing and preventing
                                                          senile dementia

                                          Suppressing and preventing
                                       conditions that requiring nursing



                                                                                                        “Effect of hot spring”]
           [Source: specified nonprofit corporation, Kenkou-Hoyou Network HP (http://www.kenkou-hoyou.net/)



            Japan is a nation of hot springs, with 27,644 hot springs sources as of 2005 and 3102 spa resorts
           as of 2004. Balneotherapy uses hot spring water for bathing and drinking purposes. Balneotherapy
           is offered as a complex of therapies including hydrotherapy, physiotherapy such as massage and
           thermotherapy, diet therapy, and exercise in swimming pools filled with warm water. You can expect
           to derive positive psychological benefits from climatotherapy because it frees your body and mind from
           stressful situations by taking you away from stressful daily surroundings and moving you to a quieter
           environment with fresher air, like that at a spa resort. Physicians who are able to make prescriptions
           and give advice on balneotherapy are called balneotherapists. There are about 1,000 balneotherapists
           in Japan. Balneotherapy can be used safely and repeatedly, and is free from side effects. It doesn't
           ensure instant effects, however, as do many modern therapies including pharmacotherapy and
           surgical operations.
            Contraindications for balneotherapy include: 1) fever accompanying any acute disease or
           progression of any symptoms, 2) severe hypertension/cardiac disease/hepatic or renal disorders, 3)
           recent myocardial infarction, 4) hemorrhagic diseases or severe anemia, and 5) the early and end
           stages of pregnancy.




            




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                                                                               Introducing Japan's spa industry

< Spa resorts and balneotherapy >




                                                                                                                  Chapter1
              Spa resort elements
                                          Coast
                                          Mountains (intermediate and high mountains)
                        Natural
                        environment       Forests                                                                         
                                          Flatland (paddies)
                                                                Heat
                Spa                                             Hydrostatic pressure
                                          Physical action       Buoyancy
                         Hot spring
                         water            Mechanical action     Viscosity

                                          Chemical action       Components

                         Hot spring gas and steam
                         Mineral mud



[1] Thermal effects
 Bathing in slightly warm water of 39 degrees centigrade or less has a tranquilizing effect in general.
It stimulates primarily the parasympathetic nervous system and is used to treat nervous breakdowns,
insomnia and various neuroses. It is also suitable for the treatment of hypertension, heart diseases,
and the after-effects of strokes. Bathing in hot water at 42 degrees centigrade or more, however,
stimulates the human body by activating the sympathetic nervous system, increasing heart rate,
and elevating the tension of the blood vessels, resulting in higher blood pressure. It can also help to
relieves pain, soothe spasms and ankylosis, and regulate the action of the stomach and intestines.




[2] Mechanical effects (hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy)
 A body below the water surface is subject to hydrostatic pressure during bathing. Abdomen and
chest measurements get slightly smaller in a bathtub that is one meter deep. This increases the
return of venous flow to the heart in the comparatively shallower parts of the lower limbs, which leads
to rise in heart rate. This means that blood flow will gradually increase in the organs and tissues,
which in turn elevates the supply of oxygen and nutrients and promotes the excretion of wastes.
 Empirical evidence provides proof that your body feels lighter, and this is because of the buoyancy
of the water. A person who weighs 60 kg will only weigh 6 kg under water. With muscle tension
dramatically reduced, you are able to exercise easily and pain in the lower back and joints will be
alleviated.




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           [3] Pharmacological action (concerning components)
Chapter1


            The hot spring is partially known for the effects of its
           chemical components. Hot springs water has many more
           effects since it is composed of many more than just one
           single component. The effects of bathing in hot springs
           may vary according to their components, even in water of
           the same quality. This also applies to effects of drinking
           hot spring water. The components of a hot spring
           may change after the upwelling, or aging of the water,
           impairing its effects. The instability of these effects is
           another characteristic of balneotherapy.




           [4] Comprehensive effects on regulating
           the body (hot spring cure)
            Physiological factors including temperature, blood
           pressure, and hormone secretions fluctuate in a uniform
                                                                        Photo: Nashigi Onsen Nashigikan and Haseoteiand
           rhythm during the day. Variables such as stress and
           diseases may disturb this rhythm. The regular bathing
           involved in a long-term hot spring cure regulates physical condition and stabilizes the vital rhythms
           that have become disturbed. Hypertension and hypotension are both normalized, as are excessive
           secretions of gastric acid, or the opposite condition, called hypochlorhydria. Bathing in a hot spring
           ensures the regulation effect that is sometimes called non-specific modulation, or overall biological
           regulation.




           [5] Balneotherapeutic practices
            ≪ Hydrotherapy ≫
           ・Bathing (whole-body bathing, half-body bathing, and partial bathing)
            Before taking a bath, hot water is poured onto the body several times, starting with the feet, then
           the legs and abdomen. This dilates the blood vessels of the skin. One should not enter the bath or
           stand up suddenly. The body is not soaked for more than 30 minutes when taking a warm bath,
           and after the bath a 30-minute rest is recommended. Hot springs bathing should not be turned into
           something complicated. Have a bath once or twice a day for first several days. Then, gradually
           increase the number of baths, up to three or four times a day. If taking a hot bath at around 42
           degrees centigrade, finish bathing within ten minutes. That includes the time it took to enter and
           leave the bath. Hot baths promote sweating, which decreases the moisture in the blood and makes
           it more viscous. Hot baths also excite the sympathetic nerves, making blood pressure rise. This may
           encourage the blood to coagulate and lead to more frequent cerebral or myocardial infarctions after




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                                                                             Introducing Japan's spa industry

bathing. Avoid taking a hot bath if you have or are likely to have hypertension, thrombotic diseases,




                                                                                                                Chapter1
or arteriosclerosis. Elderly people should be particularly careful since they are less likely to realize
when the water is very hot because of their reduced sensitivity to heat. To address the reduction of
moisture in the blood, it is best to drink one to two glasses of water containing minerals during or
after bathing. Isotonic drinks or fresh, vitamin-rich fruit juice is especially recommended.


・Utaseyu (cascading hot spring) and pressurized hot water bathing                                                       
 These methods improve blood circulation, helping relax stiff muscles.


・Bubble baths
 Naturally-occurring bubbles in the hot spring caress the skin and massage the body.


・Steam baths and steam boxes
 Hot spring steam is used to warm the body in steam baths and is also used to fill steam boxes, in
which a person sits up to their neck in steam. Both ways of bathing put less of a burden on the heart
and ensure stronger thermal effects without involving hydrostatic pressure.


・Neyu (stretching out in the tub during bathing)
 This method also involves less thermal stimuli and places less of a burden on the heart while
involving little hydrostatic pressure. Warmth is conveyed to the whole body gradually, starting at the
back.




≪ Mud therapy ≫
・Mineral mud bath
 In this type of bath, mud containing the same components as hot spring water is used. Mineral
mud baths are a traditional application in gynecology since they raise the temperature of not only the
skin but also the deeper parts of the body. It also has a beautifying effect on the skin.


・Sand baths
 These are a kind of steam bath. The user lies down in sand that is warmed by a chloride spring at
the seaside. Heat and the accumulation of sand promote blood circulation, or hemodynamics.


・Bedrock bath
 It is a sort of outdoor ondol based on the geothermal power in a region that has many volcanoes. It
warms the inside of the body as well as outside.


 Other applications include drinking the water and inhaling the steam of a hot spring.


 In Japan, there are health improvement facilities offering primarily hot spring bathing. They are




                                                                                                         65
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           required to comply with certain standards set forth by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.
Chapter1

           Visitors are entitled to income tax rebates for using the facilities, and transportation fees to and
           from the facilities, as long as the visit meets certain conditions and the facilities are being used for
           a hot spring cure. Various bathing facilities use hot springs, and many sports facilities have general
           arrangements with medical institutions that employ physicians with knowledge and experience in
           balneotherapy. Health fitness instructors and spa instructors work in such facilities to assist with
           various“hot spring treatments”.
            Some health improvement facilities that aim to be popular by offering hot spring bathing provide
           it not as a“cure for illness (hot spring treatments)”but as a general way to improve health. Health
           improvement facilities that offer hot spring bath programs have resident hot spring bathing
           counselors.




           19)Thalassotherapy
            Thalassotherapy is a natural therapy that enhances physical functions while effectively using gifts
           from the sea such as seawater, seaweed, and the oceanic
           climate.                                                          Three major elements of good health
            The sea is the origin of all life. You will feel a deep relief
           when you are embraced by seawater, which is similar
           to amniotic fluid in terms of composition. The benefits                       Exercise
           from the ocean help you achieve a good balance in mind
           and body and also draw out natural human beauty and
           soundness.
            Thalassotherapy puts emphasis on three major                                  Health
           elements of good health.


                                                                              Nutrition              Relaxation
           1.Exercise in thalassotherapy
            Physical and mental tension can be eased with exercise
                                                                                       Source: Thalasso System Japan Corp.
           because of the properties of warm seawater (e.g. buoyancy,
           hydraulic pressure, and water temperature). Bodily functions are enhanced by being activated from
           the inside.


           2.Relaxation in thalassotherapy
            Thalassotherapy provides a peaceful and relaxing experience in a comfortable space. Rest is one
           of the important elements of thalassotherapy. It improves the benefits of the treatment, and it gives




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 more control to the stimulated metabolism, as well as helps the receiver to achieve harmony in mind




                                                                                                            Chapter1
 and body.


 3.Nutrition in thalassotherapy
  Minerals and other nutrients in seawater and seaweed are absorbed via the skin and respiratory
 organs. When the body takes in the power of the sea in body and mind, it elevates the body's self-
 healing powers.                                                                                                    
  Thalassotherapy programs are performed together with other therapies including hydrotherapy,
 algotherapy, kinesitherapy, and climatotherapy.




 ≪ Hydrotherapy ≫

  Hydrotherapy uses warm seawater bathing and water current massage to stimulate circulatory
functions (blood and lymph flow) and regulate the autonomous nerves.
 
【Aquatonics】Soaking in a multifunctional
pool filled with seawater warmed to a
neutral temperature (33 to 36 degrees
 centigrade) has a highly relaxing effect
 on the body. Once the body is relaxed,
 the person does exercises to stimulate the
 metabolism and loosen the muscles. The
 minerals have a coating effect in seawater,
 helping it to retain heat and moisture,
 and keep the body warm.
                                                                      Photo: Thalasso System Japan Corp.
【Neutral temperatures】Soaking
 in seawater warmed to a neutral
 temperature, affects primarily your
 parasympathetic nerves, producing a
 highly relaxing effect.


【Buoyancy】Buoyancy, which is 1.2 times
higher than in fresh water, eases muscle
tensions, relaxes the body, and reduces
burdens on joints.
【Resistance】Underwater resistance
                                                                       Photo: Thalasso System Japan Corp.



                                                                                                     67
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

            allows you to shift your weight around
Chapter1

           freely according to your physical strength
            since it varies according to speed of
           movement.


           【Hydraulic pressure】Moderate hydraulic
           pressure activates cardiopulmonary
            functions and also enhances the
            functioning of the circulatory system.


           【Jets】Jet water pressure, designed on the
            basis of ergonomics, allows for comfortable                              Photo: Kanna Thalasso Okinawa
            massaging of muscles and the promotion of blood flow.




           ≪ Algotherapy ≫
            Applications of warmed seaweed paste
            onto the body (body wrapping) promote
            waste discharge, supplement the body with
            nutrients, alleviate pains, and also relax
            the mind and body.


             There are several additional beauty
           treatments.




                                                                                       PhotoKanna Thalasso Okinawa




            Despite being surrounded by the ocean and having access to an abundance of seawater, Japan has
            fewer thalassotherapy facilities than in Europe. Recently, deep ocean water has attracted attention
           for its proactive development and use in beverages, cosmetics, and other products. This has also
           made thalassotherapy a popular topic.
            Since 2002, new thalassotherapy facilities have been constructed and opened to the public one after
           another. In spite of this, massive initial costs (i.e. construction costs) have had a heavy impact on
           operating revenues because of the large scale of these facilities, and some of them had to close down




            68
                                                                          Introducing Japan's spa industry

after only several years of operation.




                                                                                                              Chapter1
 
 Public thalassotherapy facilities are known for having relatively lower fees than private facilities,
partly because the public facilities have had to set fees lower for the sake of their target customers,
that is, residents in local and neighboring municipalities.
 In Okinawa Prefecture, Kanna
Thalasso Okinawa operates a facility                                                                                  
based on membership system that has
very reasonable fees, consisting of an
enrollment fee of 5,000 yen, a member
fee of 5,000 yen, and a facility use fee of
2,500 yen. They also have special fees for
children. The facility holds festivals and
events and invites local residents. During
the week, they offer a number of different
classes including dumbbell exercise and
swimming classes. The venue also serves                                    Photo: Kanna Thalasso Okinawa
as community-based thalassotherapy facility for health enhancement.
 One example of a successful private thalassotherapy facility in Japan is the Thermes Marins du
Pacifique run by the Thalasso System Japan Corporation. Thermes Marins du Pacifique embarked
on commercial operations in 1997, after Japan's first thalassotherapy facility, the Thalassa Shima
Hotel & Resort, opened in 1992. The oldest player in thalassotherapy in Japan has drawn attention
as a facility that offers the best in full-fledged thalassotherapy. They introduced techniques and
services into Japan from“Les Thermes Marins de Saint Malo”, a prestigious, world-renowned
facility in France, a leading country for
thalassotherapy. Facilities offer a varied
program of natural thalassotherapies
a c c o r d i n g t o pu r p o s e — f o r h e a l t h ,
beauty, and healing (exercise, diet, and
beautification). Many day visitors come
from urban areas thanks to good access
and alliances with travel agencies. Unlike
at public thalassotherapy facilities, you
can choose to stay at a hotel nearby and
spend more time receiving the therapies.


                                                                         Photo: Thalasso System Japan Corp.




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           Japanese Traditional Culture
Chapter1


           20)History of beautification
            Painting the face, or putting on makeup, is a very old custom that can be traced back to 100,000 B.C.
           when the Neanderthals were thought to have colored and tattooed their bodies.
             Wei Zhi (Chronicles of Wei)”, a Chinese history book written about Japan in the third century,
            “
           states that the Japanese people at the time tattooed and applied red paint to their bodies. This
           indicates that the Japanese people of the time did use makeup. Many of the clay figures from
           the tumulus period (4th to 6th centuries) were painted in red. Such makeup was used not for
           beautification but for camouflage when hunting, for threatening enemies, or for magical or social
           purposes. At any rate, the act is more or less related to the application of cosmetics.
            The meaning of the word“cosmetic”can be traced back to the Greek word, cosmetico , which came
           from the word, cosmos , meaning space, as the embodiment of order and harmony, harmonization, and
           an orderly system of ideas. Some think the origin of the word can be linked more to the Greek word,
           cosmeo , meaning decoration or arrangement.
            Yukio Haruyama describes how the word subsequently became the English word“cosmetic.”
           In French, cosmetic means to use cosmetic products and the plural form of the word refers to a
           beautification methodology or technique.
            In Japanese, makeup was referred to as keso in The Pillow Book (written in the middle of the Heian
           period). Other books of the time also used the term kesho . Subsequent records used the two Chinese
           characters ( 仮 相 , keso) for the term. Rigen Shuran , a dictionary produced during the Edo period,
           includes the word 化粧 , pronounced kesho , and the book, Onna Kagami Hidensho (1650) explains how
           to apply face powder and lip color when it talks about kehahironokeshonokoto . The title of Miyako
           Fuzoku Kewai Den (1813) tells us that 化 粧 was occasionally pronounced kewai . This educational
           book describes skin care, makeup, hair care, and hairstyles, as well as how to walk, how to tie an obi
           and various other grooming techniques. It used the term Kewai to express a broad range of meanings,
           including“a sign of presence“, “delicate attention“, and“consideration to not annoy others.”
            While it may refer to a tool used for“makeup”, the word cosmetics has changed in meaning and
           form in many ways according to how it has been used.
            A long time ago, people used to apply sap, oil, soil, or powdered stone to their bodies to protect
           themselves from natural threats. They had rituals to prevent natural calamities and religious
           festivals where they cleansed themselves by burning fragrant wood and putting pigment (powdered
           mineral stone) or dye (plant extracts) on their bodies.
            Makeup has changed in various ways to meet the needs of consumers throughout time, while
           the safety and usefulness of cosmetics (and their effects on the skin, hair and body) have advanced
           dramatically and variations have become quite diversified. These days, cosmetics have been
           positioned as indispensable for aging gracefully and being comfortable in various occasions of life.
            Natural cosmetics have been used for a long time. Japanese people generally used such familiar
           materials as water that has been used for washing rice, seaweed, powdered crops, clay, lye, lime, rice
           bran, and bean curd residue. Naturally enough, these natural cosmetics were easier on the skin.




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                                                                         Introducing Japan's spa industry

Traditional cosmetics and makeup methods became antiquated as Western makeup methods became




                                                                                                            Chapter1
popular, with the advent of soap and petroleum-based cosmetics. Ancient Japanese cosmetics were
put to use again, however, when there was a dramatic increase in skin troubles. Traditional cosmetics
include“powder made from small red beans”, which had been used since the Nara period, and
Japanese bush warbler droppings, which Japanese women have used since the Edo period.


                                                                                                                    
21)Massage culture in Japan


・Oriental massage
 Oriental massage dates back to ancient China when it began with Tao-yin Angiao , and was
conveyed to Japan. It has been systematized on the basis of theories about acupuncture routes and
points, as part of traditional Chinese medicine. It is held that Wang-in came from Paekche to Japan
at the time of Emperor Oujin (285) and introduced Tao-yin along with the Analects and The Thousand
Character Classic . Tao-yin was incorporated into the medical care system under Tahho Code early in
the Nara period (701). A medical bureau was established within the Imperial Court, complete with
physicians, doctors specializing in Oriental massage, and masseurs/masseuses and their trainees.


 【Word structure of 按摩】
       按・・・Refers to the offensive approach of pressing
       摩・・・Refers to the defensive approach of stroking
 【Word structure of 導引按蹻】
       導引・・Refers to movements of the joints involving swinging of muscles and bones, and the
        motion called prasakha
       按・・・Refers to kneading and compression to pressurize skin and flesh
       蹻・・・Refers to methods of moving the hands and feet


・Massage
 After Hippocrates (4-5 B.C.) proposed the necessity of massaging, massage developed around
Europe. French-style massage was introduced into Japan in the Meiji period. Hospitals and other
facilities have further developed massage into medical massage, using unique Japanese methods.




・Acupressure
 In the Edo era, acupressure was conducted privately as an empirical treatment consisting of
Oriental massage, Tao-yin , and bodywork based on martial arts. After American osteopathy was
imported in the Meiji period, these were put together and systematized into an original Japanese
technique, which was further integrated into acupressure in the Taisho period.




                                                                                                     71
            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           < Definitions of Oriental massage, massage, and acupressure >
Chapter1


            A practitioner uses his or her fingers to give dynamic stimuli to the living body to regulate any
           abnormal physical state and enhance health.


           【Effects】
            The functioning of the body is regulated through the stimulation of circulatory functions and
           baroreflex reactions. Reflexes caused by pressure stimuli share the same basis among the three types
        
           of therapies.




           22)Zen
            While some say that Zen was introduced to Japan in 13th century, there is documentation stating
           that it had already existed during the Heian period, and a lecture about Zen, given at Danrin-
           ji Temple, illustrated this fact. The practice of Zen became prevalent among the samurai clans
           and ordinary people in and after the Kamakura period, when Zen temples were being constructed
           all over Japan. The Sanskrit word dhyana means meditation. While meditation is explainable
           verbally in terms of action, Zen is supposed to be inexpressible in words. The two are different and
           should be thought of differently. The confusion between meditation and Zen may be attributable to
           mistranslations into English and other languages due to a lack of proper vocabulary. In Chinese,
           禅     定 corresponds to Zen. Samādhi , a Sanskrit word, refers to a similar concept. The words        禅
           and    定 originate in India. Meditation had a significant meaning when Buddhism was established.
           Gautama-Siddhartha is said to have achieved enlightenment through Zen meditation. Zen
           meditation is essential for Buddhist training. Zen is one of the three studies (jie, ding , and hui ) in
           Hinayana Buddhism, and it is one of the“six perfections”(giving, moral discipline, patience, effort,
           concentration, and wisdom) in Mahayana Buddhism. Zen prevailed in Japan and Japanese Zen is
           the best known in the world. Daisetsu Suzuki, a Japanese scholar who is said to be enlightened,
           introduced Zen into the United States and Europe in the 20th century. Taisen Deshimaru, a Soto Zen
           monk, propagandized Zen in Europe. Today, in the 21st century, both the Soto Zen and Rinzai Zen
           sects have temples in the United States and Europe.




           23)Kodo ‒ Japanese art of incense

            Kodo is one of the traditional Japanese entertaining arts, in which fragrant wood is burned to
           appreciate its aroma. Kodo developed as part of the luxurious Higashiyama culture, alongside the
           tea ceremony and flower arranging. There are currently two traditions for kodo : the Oieryu and the
           Shinoryu . In kodo , they do not refer to“smelling”             “listening to”
                                                              fragrances but             fragrances.




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                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

  In a kodo ceremony, the host performs a series of rituals (temae , in Japanese), and an incense




                                                                                                               Chapter1
 burner is passed from one guest to another so that guests can appreciate the fragrance. Despite the
 great difference, the flow and manner of the ceremony are similar to that of the tea ceremony. Guests
 enjoy it as something like a game,“guessing what type of incense it is”. Regardless, the primary
 goal is to appreciate and enjoy the scents, not“give a correct answer”. Another important aim is to
 cultivate the self by refining your sensitivities with the help of the images that you can get from the
 fragrances. Guests may also play the game called kumikou during the ceremony. The host suggests a                     
 theme, using two or more types of incense, based on one of the Japanese classics or traditional poems.
 Guests appreciate the world of classic literature as expressed by the scents, and they proceed to
“listen to”the scents. Kodo is based on the enjoyment of fragrances, but it has a close relationship to
 traditional Japanese poems and literature.
  About 1400 years ago, during the reign of the Emperor Suiko, a piece of fragrant wood drifted
 down to Japan. This was the first time that Japan had seen fragrant wood. Fragrant wood was
 introduced officially to Japan during the Buddhist proselytization of Japan. Then, fragrant wood
 became something indispensable for Buddhist rituals. Around the 8th century, noblemen of the
 upper classes inaugurated the custom of burning incense to scent their clothes or hair. This was
 called soradakimono . The fashion helped popularize the game called takimonoawase , which involved
 competition in technique and proficiency in deriving fragrances from mixing two types of incense.
Kodo became established, with certain rules and manners, when the elegant Higashiyama culture
 flourished during the Muromachi period. In the Edo period, kodo was no longer the exclusive luxury
 of the noble families. It began to prevail among the townspeople and commoners. It was subsequently
 established as a traditional Japanese art.
  Even though Japanese people have a long history of using incense, all of the raw materials used in
 the incense come from foreign countries. The primary origins of these materials are Southeast Asia,
 China, and India. Representative materials include botanical fragrances like sandalwood, agarwood,
 aloeswood, cloves, cinnamon, and star anise.




 24)Vegetarian fare
  Generally, vegetarian fare refers to dishes that are prepared using vegetables, fruits, and seaweed,
 with no meat or fish. It doesn't make use of aromatic foods, including Oriental chives, green onions, or
 garlic, or spices and other pungent ingredients.
  Vegetarian fare was established as part of Zen during the Kamakura era, when detailed rules were
 prescribed for the preparing and eating of food.
 Dogen's Tenzokyokun sets forth such detailed rules as:
        ・Employing five preparation methods (raw, boiled, broiled, deep-fried, and steamed)
        ・Employing five types of taste (sweet, spicy, sour, bitter, and salty)
        ・Making dishes using five colors (red, white, green, yellow, and black)
        ・Making use of foodstuffs without waste.




                                                                                                        73
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           They rarely follow all of the rules today
Chapter1

            Vegatarian fare is called shojin ryori in Japanese. Shojin means devoted training in Buddhism,
           under disciplines used by Buddha, and is one of the great methods that leads to enlightenment.
            One of the shojin teachings says that luxurious foods should be avoided and recommends a simple
           diet. Because of the Buddhist discipline of forbidding the slaughter of animals, they say that dishes
           should be prepared using only crops, beans, and vegetables with no meat or fish.
            Various schools of Buddhism invented their original types of vegetarian fare, and many new ideas
           were incorporated into this cuisine with time.
            Kobo Daishi conveyed the method for manufacturing tofu from Tang China. At that time, it was
           converted into koya-dofu , or freeze-dried bean curd, as kept as food for severe winters.
            Gan-modoki , a dish that is made to resemble meat or fish, has been introduced into this vegetarian
           fare. The basis idea behind this fare is to minimize seasonings to draw out the natural taste of the
           food, and to use food without producing any waste.




           25)Bathing culture
            They say that Japanese public baths
           originated in temples. Bathrooms, built
           for monks' ablutions, or for cleansing the
           statues of Buddha, were opened to public
           and that is how public bathing is said to
           have begun. The bathing culture started
           with“gratuitous provision of baths”as
           a form charity offered by temples. The
           oldest existing public bath is the Oyua
           within the Todaiji Temple in Nara.
            In the ancient piece of literature called
           Nichiren Goshoroku , dated 1266, you can
           find a description of a“public bath”.
           There is another mention of a public
           bath in the Gion Shigyo Nikki , written in
           1321, kept at the Yasaka Shrine in Kyoto,
           but the details of the baths at that time
           remain unknown.
            At the beginning of the Edo period,
           Yoichi, a man from Ise, opened a public
           bath near the Zenigame Bridge in Edo in
           1594. The bath was a steam bath called an
                                                            Kodakara no Yu, a typical public bath in traditional Tokyo, is out of
           Ise-buro . This form of bath changed into
                                                                                   use now, but kept open for display purposes.
                                                                          (Photo: Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum)



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the todana-buro bath, and then to the zakuro-guch bath . The bathing culture flourished in the Edo




                                                                                                             Chapter1
period when many public baths were opened and bathing became more sophisticated.
 In 1877, people learned from the natural hot springs how to create a public bath that could
accommodate a larger amount of hot water. This also made public baths much cleaner than the
zakuro-guchi , which were banned when further advancements had been made in creating public
baths.
 In the Taisho period, tiled bathrooms were popularized, and in the Showa era, they introduced                       
water taps, which led to much cleaner bathing areas and more convenient public bathing. After that,
there wasn’t much change in public baths, and more households came to have their own bathrooms
during the post-war high-growth period, which contributed to the steady declination of public baths.
 Public baths are an essential element of the Japanese mass culture. They were in their prime
during the Edo period and were loved by people in the Meiji and Taisho periods as well, when temple-
like designs and pictures of Mount Fuji were used to decorate the baths, and in the Showa period,
when further advancements were made. Ordinary people socialized in the baths, and families enjoyed
talking while taking baths together. Children also mixed in with the neighbors, and it became a place
for learning social etiquette. Today, the number of such traditional public baths has been reduced
greatly.




Traditional Therapies around the World
26)Traditional Chinese medicine
 “People in Shang Ku know Tao, follow yin and yang, are familiar with regimens, eat and drink
moderately, lead a regular life, live long lives, and eventually die around the age of 100”(Shang Ku
Tien Chen Lun in Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen ). This saying represents the ideals and characteristics
of Chinese medicine. Tao is a universal principle and the esoteric focus of Taoism. Yin and yang form
one of the most fundamental concepts in ancient China. They teach that you should have a daily
regimen of eating and drinking and a way of living. This will help you live out your natural life, and
pass away after you have reached the age of 100. This thinking bears a spirit of perfect prophylaxis
and self-support that may be regarded as the quintessence of Oriental medicine, that is,“preventing
         and
diseases” “curing pre-disease conditions”.
 With respect to the relationship of chi with yin and yang, yin and yang are thought to be two
extremes of energy that activate everything, and chi is the medium for that energy. The energy exists
in minerals as well as animals and plants. The vibration of the environment where you live fluctuates
and changes just as a day is comprised of daytime and nighttime, which correspond to yin and yang.
You can fully adapt to the changes in the environment as long as you are healthy. This is because
your chi and the chi around you are in harmony. If disharmony occurs, you will get a disease. Chi
medicine helps people recover from having a diseased chi.
 It is interesting to look at the relation between wu xing and chi. Wu xing is the oldest Chinese




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           theory of recognition alongside yin and yang. Some say that it originated in India. The energy that
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           forms all substances can be divided into five types: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. The relation
           among these can be explained by the creative cycle and the controlling cycle. In the creative cycle,
           which represents conversion, wood overcomes earth, earth overcomes water, and fire overcomes metal.
           Chi works in various forms through this cycle.
            Huang Di Nei Jing , the oldest Chinese medical book, was written earlier than Chuang-Tzu . (Some
           say they were written around the same time). Huang Di Nei Jing states that“a form is the home to
           life, that chi fills life, and that God controls life”. It asserts that human life will retain a form that
           indicates a human, and that life acts within that form, and chi makes life substantial, while the spirit
           controls life. It is chi as energy that allows life to exist, and also allows the spirit that controls life to
           exist, so that the human body can exist as a venue for the practical action of life.
            The concept of the (meridian) is most characteristic of Chinese medicine. Chi flowing in meridians
           is called meridian chi. You can stay healthy as long as your meridian chi flows smoothly.
            Ideas about blood are classified into two thoughts peculiar to Chinese medicine, together with
           chi. Blood is the foundation of all vital activities, and appears in the physical form of blood. It is
           considered to be a substance for carrying nutrients to tissues and organs.


                                                  12 meridians:..... Belonging to organs inside and running along
                                                                     the limbs and joints outside

                                  Meridian        12 divergent meridians: .... Vital activities branching from the
                                  n                                            meridian and returning to collaterals

                                                  8 extra meridians: ...... Branches of meridians

                 Route
                                                  15 meridians:...... Key great meridians

                                                  Collaterals: ......... Route branches
                                  Collateral
                                  s
                                                  Minute collaterals: ....... Branches of collateral


                                                  Superficial collaterals: .......Collaterals on the surface of the body




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27)Thai medicine




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 Treatments offered at spas in Thailand have a close tie with traditional Thai medicine, said to have
been founded by Jivaka Kumar Bhaccha, who was the physician in charge of Buddha about 2,500
years ago, and who is also called the Father of Thai medicine. Thai medicine is collection of ancestral
wisdom that has been carefully recorded and handled for subsequent generations for centuries.
Traditional Thai medicine examines the body as a whole. Emphasis is placed on the harmony between
the body and nature as the key to health. Everything in nature is comprised of four elements: earth,                  
water, wind, and fire. Thais believe that humans and other creatures take these four elements from
nature as food, beverages, and breath, to keep a balance among the four elements within the body. 
 Thai medicine specialists consider you to have a disease when the balance among the four elements
is lost. A disease is a state of disharmony among the body, mind and spirit. Accordingly, they think
that a disease should be treated by normalizing the disharmony in the body, with the help of nature.
Representative traditional Thai medical treatment is a combination of ancient Thai massage and
herb-based therapies.




Ancient Thai massage
 This is the most popular and best known treatment
offered at Thai spas. Proper massages alleviate pains,
cure joint stiffness, address muscle tension and give a
refreshing feeling. Some foreign people, being fascinated
by its mysterious aspects, take special training to
introduce the fabulous art of ancient Thai massage
into their countries. Some stone monuments at the
educational facilities at the Wat Pho Temple in Bangkok
have the doctrines carved on them. Nuad Peng Boran,
or ancient Thai massage, was developed in the ancient
Siamese Kingdom about 2,500 years ago. Nuad means
touching the body with a desire to treat the person and
Boran derives from a Sanskrit word referring to“ancient
times, sacredness, and respect”.                                       Photo: Tourism Authority of Thailand




 For your reference, the following shows how much              is
                                                 “Thai massage” provided in Japanese facilities.




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                               “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                        [Source:
                                                   Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



           Thai herbs
            Thai herbs called samunphurai are indispensable for the Thai people. Used widely, they range
           from foods used for daily cooking to treatments of very specific diseases. Decoctions of Thai herbs are
           used to cure many different diseases. Essential oils made with Thai herbs are also very important
           for beauty and health. With a diverse range of applications, Thai herbs have been proven to be very
           helpful as an alternative medicine to alleviate various symptoms.
            Treatments using herbal balls called Luk Pra Kob in Thai are used in massage since they calms
           the nerves and promote blood circulation. The herbal ball is made by tightly wrapping herbs and
           spices inside calico or cotton cloth and dampening it with hot water or steam before use. Herbal balls
           effectively alleviate muscular pain including pains that come from exercising. The treatment works
           well to relieve pains in any part of the body, stimulating blood circulation and refreshing the surface
           of skin.
            For your reference, the following shows how much“herbal ball”massage is offered by facilities in
           Japan.




                             “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                      [Source:
                                                  Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



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28)Jamu ‒ Indonesian traditional medicine




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 Indonesia is a vast nation of islands
where each region has its own unique
culture and peoples.       The Javanese
kingdom of Mahajapahit was the golden
age in Indonesian history. This 12 th
ce nt ury kingdom was under Hindu-                                                                                  
Buddhist rule. Afterward, Islam prevailed
on the islands of Sumatra and Java.
Today, Muslims account for 90% of the
total Indonesian population. When the
Mahajapahit army moved its headquarters,
they formed a unique religion called
“Balinese Hindu Dharma”, in which
Balinese native animism was mixed with
Hindu, Buddhism, and Javanese primitive religions. They enshrined Hindu gods all over Bali, to heal
the hearts of visitors. Many modern spas have been opened on that island, which is one of the leading
spots for tourists seeking the healing practices of the East.
 Om swasti astu means“May the gods bless you”. This is what the therapist utters, with hand on
the heart, before initiating Balinese treatment. Therapists pray, believing that the gods bring health
to guests via the body and hands of the therapists. These gestures and utterances form the beginning
of all healing treatment that guests receive at Balinese style spas.
 Javanese style treatments have been developed with unique adaptations to the Islamic culture of
Indonesia. The Javanese medical care system incorporates jamu and has a rather holistic approach,
while the Balinese focuses on healing. The term jamu refers to a type of system, handed down on
the island of Java, that uses several hundred variations of herbal medicines. Said to have originated
during the Shailendra dynasty (750-832), jamu is described in the book, Oba(i)t Asli Indonesia . Jamu
medicines are prepared according to the persons' stage of life. These medicines have been handed
down to the current generation, and have helped the people of the area improve their health.




29)Ayurveda
 Ayurveda , thought to be the oldest traditional therapy in India, has had a great influence on other
Asian countries.
 Ayurveda developed from the minds of the sages who meditated long in their search for truth.
These masters transmitted their thoughts orally to their disciples for thousands of years, and the
thoughts were finally put down in writing in the form of Sanskrit poems. Most of this early ayurveda
knowledge has survived, although many of the texts have disappeared with time.




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            It is said that this knowledge welled up
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           naturally through the sages' instinctive
           perceptions of the universe. The sages
           saw that this consciousness was energy,
           and they classified this energy into five
           basic principles or elements. The five
           elements (ether, air, fire, water, and earth)
           form the most important part of ayurveda
           as a science.
            These sages believed that in
           the universe in its original form,
           consciousness was not exteriorized but                         Illustration:Kairali Ayurvedic Health Resort Pvt. Ltd
           was in a disintegrated state which causes the delicate vibration called aum , which is the mute sound
           of the universe. This vibration was what first brought about the element ether. When the movement
           began, its fine motions, like the wind, produced air. The movements of the wind caused friction, which
           delivered heat. Particles of thermal energy came together and generated intense light, which brought
           about the element of fire.
            Ether emerged as air, which also turned into fire. The heat of the fire melted something having
           the element of ether and changed it into liquid form, and this is how the element water appeared.
           Further melting produced the element earth. This is how ether was transformed into the four other
           elements - air, fire, water, and earth.
            The element earth created all organic life - humans, animals, and vegetation including medicinal
           herbs. Earth also created inorganic substances including metal.
            These five elements created all substances and are said to be the origin of all that exists.
            The human being is a small universe within the universe of nature. The five elements exist in all
           their forms in each and every person.
            The five elements are manifested as not only the physiological functions of the human body but also
           as the functions of the five human senses. This means that the five elements are directly connected
           with the human power of perceiving the world outside itself and therefore related to the actions of the
           five sensory systems.
            The five elements or ether, air, fire, water and earth are linked with hearing, touch, vision, taste,
           and smell respectively, as shown in the following table:

                  Five elements, sensory organs and its effects
                       Element                 Sense      Sensory organ             Effect           Organ of action

                           Ether              Hearing         Ear                 Language           Mouth organs
                                                                                                  (tongue, mouth, and
                                                                                                      vocal cords)
                            Air               Touch           Skin                 Holding               Hands

                           Fire               Vision          Eye                  Walking                Feet

                           Water               Taste         Tongue              Reproduction           Genitals

                           Earth               Smell          Nose                Excretion               Anus




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 The five elements of ether, air, fire, water, and earth are expressed in the human body as three




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fundamental principles or elements known as dosha . The element of ether in the body called vata
(vata-dosha in Sanskrit) is expressed in combination with the elements of ether and air and the
elements of fire and water to become the element of fire called pitta . The elements of earth and water
are expressed through the element of water within the body called kapha .
 All three elements (vata, pitta , and kapha ) have charge over all biological, psychological, and
pathophysiological functions of the human body, heart, and consciousness. These elements serve as                        
basic components and protective barriers for living organisms in a normal physiological state while
they are involved in the onset of diseases if their balance is disturbed.
 Tri-dosha is associated with the occurrence of physiological desires or individual food tastes (flavors
and temperature). Dosha is also associated with the generation, maintenance, and destruction of
body tissues, and the excretion of waste matters from the body. It is also involved in such emotions
as fear, anger, and strong desire, as well as sublime feelings including understanding, sympathy, and
affection. Dosha serves as a mental and physical element for the human. Many different ayurveda
therapies have developed from the tri-dosha theory, including panchakarma (body purification), yoga,
meditation, herbal therapy, diet therapy, and a type of lifestyle improvement.
 Some examples of panchakarma are oil massage and the treatment called shirodhara , which
developed in India and is used widely in spas today.




Abhyangam
 Locally, oil massage is referred to as abhyangam . When the body is massaged with warmed oil,
the oil penetrates deeply into skin, smoothening the skin and its deeper tissues, conditioning the
muscles, promoting blood circulation, activating the metabolism, eliminating toxins in the body, and
decomposing fat. Herbal oil is always used for massaging. In India, sesame oil is not used as is.
Massage oil is prepared using roots, peel, flowers, and the leaves of herbs that contain ingredients
with the highly curative powers. Sesame oil, coconut oil, caster oil, and refined butter are used as
carrier oils.
 Ayurveda recommends using oil massage every day as the best way to maintain a youthful
appearance. Massage relaxes the body, removes dirt, and helps you to achieve harmony between the
body and the mind. If massage is sustained over a longer time, it makes the body highly resistant to
disease, restores physical strength, and conditions the skin. It also relieves stress and helps ensure
long life by giving you a healthier body.
 When your body has been massaged with warmed oil, it opens its circulation routes and promotes
sweating, which increases the penetration of the oil. After the massage, the body is wash with herbal
powder. The oil residue is not necessary for the body, because it contains toxins that were released as
a result of sweating. The oil residue should not be left on the skin, because if it is, the skin will absorb
it again, and this will lead to indigestion, a feeling of heaviness in the stomach, drowsiness, and
constipation.




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           Dhara(shirodhara)
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            Dhara is a treatment in which warmed herbal oil,
           medicinal milk, butter milk, or herbal extracts are poured
           continuously onto the forehead. There are many different
           types of this treatment, which has been used especially
           for pain or tension in the face, head, neck, and shoulders.
           When dhara treatments are given, the body is relaxed,
        
           and its immune system is reinvigorated. It also regulates
           blood circulation, stimulates the metabolism, and
           detoxifies the body. The penetrating power of its active
           oil and herb ingredients enhances and activates nerve
           functioning.


                                                                           Photo:Kairali Ayurvedic Health Resort Pvt. Ltd




           30)Unani medicine
            Greek medicine was introduced into Persia via Egypt and then translated into Arabic. Unani
           medicine became known for its unique qualities in the 9th century when Razi (850-925) wrote Colliget
           and Ibn Sina (980-1037) wrote The Canon of Medicine . The philosophy behind unani medicine
           proposes that the universe consists of four elements: fire, air, water, and earth, as described below.
            Fire, the element connected to the sun or the flame, has the attributes of being light and rising
           upward. Its properties are heat and dryness. This element generates heat that dries substances. Its
           function is to harmonize moisture (water and air) and coldness (water and earth).
            Air, also known as ether, serves as the origin of all life, with attributes that make it superior to fire
           and inferior to water. The properties of air are heat and moisture. Functionally, it suppresses the
           heat from the element of fire.
            The attributes of water are that it is lighter than earth and heavier than air. The properties of
           water are moisture and coldness. Its function is excretion. Water discharges waste matter that is
           generated by the metabolism via each of the body circulatory routes.
            Earth is absolutely heavy, and has the attribute of deciding the forms of all qualities in nature.
           Earth is positioned low. Its properties are dryness and coldness.
            Functionally, it harmonizes the moisture of water and the excess heat of fire.
            This is the outline of the theory of the universe behind unani . This philosophy is reflected in the
           body fluid theory of unani medicine, in which the human body has four types of bodily fluids including
           blood and gall.
            Blood is the basis of life, and has the best quality among human body fluids. Its properties are
           moisture and heat, and it is compared to air. Blood mainly exists in the liver and bone marrow.
            Gall is light yellow and tastes very bitter. Its properties are heat and dryness, and it is compared to
           fire. Gall helps digestion and is stored in the gallbladder.




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 Mucus is derived from food and beverages taken into the body. Its properties are moisture and




                                                                                                             Chapter1
dryness, and it is compared to water. Mucus is stored mainly in the lungs, but it moves around inside
the body.
 Black bile is black in color and has a sour taste. Its properties are dryness and coldness. It
maintains the forms and natures of organs of the body, and is compared to earth. Black bile is stored
in the spleen.
 The unani theories about the universe bodily fluids derive from ancient Greece. Greek in origin,                     
unani medicine is a traditional Arabian medicine that incorporates ayurveda and other medical
traditions based on“Greek medicine”, like that from ancient Mesopotamia.




31)Greek medicine
 Hippocrates (468-377 B.C.) is known as the“Father of Medicine”. He was the first important
medical thinker in all history. Without relying on magic or rituals, Hippocrates developed a scientific,
holistic medicine in Greece by basing his medical treatment on results. It was recorded that he
used about 400 kinds of herbs and taught about the importance of fresh air, exercise, and a good
diet. Hippocrates thought that everything could be explained through the five basic elements: ether,
air, fire, water, and earth. He also thought the characteristics of each individual person could be
explained by using the four body fluids (blood, mucus, gall, and black bile), which are derived from
the five basic elements. He believed that the proportion of these fluids in the body determined the
person's disposition and constitution.
 Hippocrates thought that disease was not a punishment from the gods, as his ancestors had
believed, but a result of an imbalance among the elements that are the building blocks for everything
in nature.
  Another famous Greek physician was Theophrastus (372-286 B.C.), a friend and a pupil of
Aristotle. He took over Aristotle's garden and library. Theophrastus wrote Enquiry into Plants,
which is the oldest book on plants. He writes about the uses of 500 plants for treatment as well as the
properties of different oils and spices.
 The Roman army disseminated knowledge as well as herb seedlings around Europe. Madonna
lilies, for example, were passed from one army camp to another, and used as medicine for injuries.
Garlic was considered important for its sterilizing and tonic effects. Ancient Romans discovered ways
of using aromatic flowers and herbs for fragrances and fragrant oils, which played key roles in their
bathing rituals.
 Avicenna (or Ibn Sina) (980-1037) wrote The Canon of Medicine , which was a collection of all the
knowledge of the time about the nature of diseases, natural medicines, aromatic plants, and medical
theories. In the 3rd century, the Alexandria School invented a distiller and a distillation method for
extracting essential oils from aromatic plants. This was an important innovation in the history of
aromatherapy.




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            The golden age of floristics began with the advent of the Renaissance. During the beginning of this
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           period, great books from the past were translated and adapted. This age saw a peak in the issuing of
           beautiful floristic books with many botanical illustrations.
            When the study of science was just dawning, people focused on all the exciting progress being
           made in medicine, botany, and chemistry. In 1628, William Harvey discovered the mechanism of
           blood circulation in the body. That made the older body fluid theory out of date. People started to
           think of the human body as a machine and of disease as a failure of the mechanical structure of that
           machine. Rapid advancements were made in sciences such as anatomy and physiology after they
           were separated from psychology and religious studies.
           (Source: Anne McIntyre, The Complete Floral Healer: Healing Power of Flowers Through Herbalism, Aromatherapy,
           Homeopathy and Flower Essences )




           32)Lomi lomi
            Auntie Margaret systematized and spread knowledge about lomi lomi , which had to be practiced
           by individuals in different places after the Hawaiian religion was abolished. She practiced one of
           the many lomi lomi procedures. Each of the many variations has its own methods. For example,
           Maui produced the lua type, taught by Bura, and a temple style lomi lomi is native to Kauai. What
           they all share is the underlying Hawaiian spirit. The people of ancient Hawaii looked for signs of
           rain by smelling the wind, welcomed rain as something warm and gentle, appreciated that rain
           gave them water and helped crops and livestock, and believed that the heavens gave them rain
           and that the earth and ocean gave them food. They prayed with fear and awe, convinced that the
           heavens, the ground, and the ocean protected them. This is the aloha spirit, or Hawaiian cosmic
           philosophy. Under the pagan belief in nature and the earth, people relied on the gods as a matter
           of fact if someone became ill, had a bad condition, or was injured. The kahuna was an oracle who
           was capable of controlling mana , or the energy of nature and the earth. The kahuna prayed that the
           people would be blessed, participated in politics, and helped keep people healthy. The oracle devoted
           himself to preserving people's health and curing ill or injured people with the power of nature and
           the earth. Curing diseases involved rituals. These sublime acts could to be performed only by the
           kahuna . People who were called kahuna and specialized in various fields by serving different gods
           and conveying the power of these gods, belonged to the upper class, which was followed by the ali'i
           monarch class and the ali'i nui grand monarch class. Literature tells us that the kahuna were divided
           into various specialties and among those who specialized in medical treatment, there were those who
           could diagnose illnesses, those who used medicinal plants, those who did bone-setting, and those
           who practiced lomi lomi . These were ancient Hawaiian medical practices. Ritual forms varied by
           place, but basically, the kahuna prayed, touched or kneaded the affected site, placed their hands over
           patients, used warmed stones, pressed the body with wooden sticks, and had people who were ill drink
           brewed herbs. These ancient lomi lomi practices are respected as the origin of modern lomi lomi .




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33)Vietnamese medicine




                                                                                                             Chapter1
 Vietnamese medicine has had a long history. Vietnamese people used to call their medicine thuoc
nam (southern medicine) and Chinese medicine thuoc bac (northern medicine). Today they refer
to Don y (eastern medicine), which is combination of their ancestral medicine and the influences of
Chinese medicine.
 Vietnamese medicine and Chinese medicine have long had an influence on each other. It was
recorded that Chinese people in the 2 nd century B.C. brought such drugs as longan, ling-zhi                         
mushrooms, and sweet flags back to China with them from Vietnam. From the 10th century, the
medicine trade between Vietnam and China was more active. It is quite well known that displaced
Chinese persons ran the drug preparation business in Vietnam when the dynasty collapsed. The
Vietnamese people are said to have developed their own Vietnamese-Chinese type of medicine around
the 15th century to better suit their own constitutions. The medical books, written in Chinese and chũ
nôm , the Vietnamese language used by private persons from around the 15th century, discussed those
drugs and therapies that were most suited to the Vietnamese constitution.
 In modern times, the book called The Fisherman and Woodsman Dialogues on Medical Arts , written
by Nguyen Dinh Chieu, contributed to the popularization of this type of medicine. The late President
Hô Chí Minh encouraged medical professionals to put more emphasis on traditional Vietnamese
 ´



medicine and linked it with modern medicine.
 “Our ancestors accumulated abundant precious experiences of curing diseases with the Vietnamese-
Chinese medicine. To broaden our medicine, we should make efforts to study traditional medicine and
connecting it to modern medicine.”
 Vietnamese medicine incorporates traditional massage. Unlike acupressure, it does not involve
pressurization of points. It does not involve stretching or stimulation of sen, like Thai massage. It
also involves a kneading that is more like pinching the skin, to directly stimulate subcutaneous fat.
In many place around Vietnam there Vietnamese massage is offered in combination with Vietnamese
herbal saunas and most of those who seek these treatments are male.




34)Khmer medicine

 From the 9th to 14th centuries,
the Khmer (Angkor) Empire played a
pioneering role in politics and culture in
Southeast Asia while generally setting the
direction for the region. Angkor Wat, the
Hindu stone temple erected over thirty
years early in the 12th century, tells of the
prosperity of the times.
 During its prime, the Khmer Dynasty




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           occupied a part of the northeastern area of the current Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam.
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            Epigraphs tell that the medical practice in the Khmer Dynasty made use of drugs from medicinal
           plants, as well as spells and prayers employing Buddhist figures.
            Today, you can find spas based on such traditional therapies in Cambodia.
            Cambodian herbs including turmeric, kaffir lime, lemon grass, and ginger, have a wonderful effect
           on health. These herbs may be used together with honey.
            Herbal ball treatments are one of the most popular offerings at these spas.




           35)Laotian medicine
            Like Thailand, Laos has its own history of treatments using medicinal plants and massage based
           on sen (routes). Many Laos-made pharmaceutical products available at pharmacies are traditional
           drugs prepared from these medicinal plants. Those pharmacies handle only traditional medicines are
           still very popular these days. A large number of medicinal plants are sold at markets, and are used
           generally in daily living. The hom ya pun muang lao is a type of sauna that is prepared with the use
           of medicinal plants characteristic of Laos. The sauna room is filled with the steam from boiling herbs.
           While it was used in temples as a treatment for various diseases, the Red Cross and others have
           recently opened a number of such herbal saunas, and they are increasing in number. Visitors enjoy a
           cup of herbal tea in the sauna. This style of treatment is becoming popular among foreigner visitors.
           Medicinal plant formulations vary by place. Common to all saunas today are the leaves called bai
           nad , hua si gai (lemon grass), and bai vic (eucalyptus), all of which are known for their refreshing
           qualities.




           36)Traditional medicine of the Philippines
            The origin of traditional Philippine
           medicine goes back to around the 8 th
           century. Philippine medicine, long handed
           down as the traditional medicine of the
           Philippines, is a unique combination of
           Chinese medicine, ayurveda and Greek
           medicine. Its holistic concepts are still
           put to practice in many villages, although
           these practices were clamped down on
           during the Spanish colonial times. They
           form the foundation for today's spa
           culture. They have the massage therapy




            86
                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

called hilot , which is a sort of dynamic body-work. They also do a kind of foot care that has its origin




                                                                                                               Chapter1
in the ethnic group living in mountains. In this type of foot treatment, massage is provided with
two long bamboo sticks after the feet are treated with herbs or clay. The treatment makes the skin
beautiful, relieves foot fatigue, and conditions the balance in the body.
 Lots of virgin coconut oil is produced in Philippines. Containing lauric acid, which is a saturated
fatty acid, the oil strengthens the immune system and also works favorably on the brain. If you
put virgin coconut oil onto skin, it will regulate its natural-scientific balance and protect the skin                 
from infections. It also promotes scalp health, preventing dandruff and making hair shiny. When
it is taken as food, it will easily turn into energy but not easily change into fat. The oil is carefully
extracted from fresh coconuts at low temperature. Because of its various medicinal benefits, it is used
for making supplements, and helps improve health. Anyone can benefit from this oil as long as they
know about it.
 The Philippines is a“rich storehouse of plants and living things”. There are as many as 13,500
species of plants and 4,951 species of marine creatures, birds, and mammals on these islands. You
can see all types of creatures in the Philippines. The spa industry in the Philippines has been rapidly
growing recently. They believe that healing is generated from harmony with nature, and that good
health can be obtained through a good balance among mind, body and spirit.




37)Other ethnic medicines
Tibetan medicine
 ibetan medicine originates with Indian ayurveda and Buddhism. The elder Yutok Yonten Gonpo,
the physician to the king of Tibet, translated the classics on ayurveda into Tibetan, establishing the
foundation for classic Tibetan medicine in the 8th century B.C.
 In the 12th century, the Yutok Yonten Gonpo the Younger enlarged and revised the translation to
include Chinese medicine and unani medicine. He also had the Goo-Shee (Four Medical Tantras)
completed. Like ayurveda , Tibetan medicine follows the tri-dosha theory [where rlung corresponds
to vata (wind), tee-pa [mKhris-pa ] to pitta (fire) and bad-kan to khapha (water)] in its diagnosis
and treatment. Treatments are mainly based upon herbal medicines, supplemented with Chinese
medicine including acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, and moxa acupuncture.


Other
 Traditional medicines also developed in Latin America through the Incas and Mayas civilizations.
There are rich resources of medicinal herbs in Latin America, and in the areas along the Amazon
River in particular. Traditional methods of using medicines have been inherited from generation to
generation since the birth of Incas and Mayan civilizations. One of these medicines is paffia , also
known as the revitalizer Brazilian ginseng. The Peruvian ginseng called maca has similar properties




                                                                                                        87
             Introducing Japan's spa industry

            and is highly appreciated in the mountainous Andes region of South America.
Chapter1




            < Trends in spa services in Japan > 
             According to the questionnaire in the report on the FY 2006“Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa
            Service Professionals”issued in July 2007, Japanese spa facility service menus commonly offer
                                                                                                         “facial
            treatments”(46.5%),“aromatherapy”(41.0%),“commercially available cosmetic sales”(40.6%),
           “reflexology”(35.5%), and“other types of acupressure”(34.0%).
             Among top 15 services, they focus on the“bedrock bath”(12.1%),“original cosmetic sales”(9.8%),
           “individual program planning”(8.6%),“thalassotherapy”(8.2%),“facial treatments”(7.4%), and
           “aromatherapy”(7.4%).
            “Facial treatments”and“aromatherapy”are the most common, as many of these facilities focus
           on such treatments. Spa facilities haven't focused much on“other types of acupressure”, however,
            although these kinds of treatment are now popular.




                               “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                        [Source:
                                                   Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




             Among these treatments, spas are most interested in focusing on or introducing the“bedrock bath”
            (12.1%), followed by“original cosmetic sales”(9.8%),“diet programs”(9.0%),“individual program
            planning”(8.6%), and“thalassotherapy”(8.2%).




            88
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry




                                                                                                              Chapter1
                                                                                                                      




       “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
[Source:
                           Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




                                                                                                       89
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           Requirements 1 (National certifications)
Chapter1

           <Medical Doctors> (Medical Practitioners)
            Requirements            1.   Completed a regular course of medicine and graduate from a university
                                         that complies with the School Education Law;
            for taking the
                                    2.   Passed the preliminary examination for the national examination for
            examination                  medical practitioners, and intern in medical service or public health for
                                         at least one year;
                                    3.   Graduated from a medical school overseas or obtain of an overseas
                                         medical license; possess academic ability and practical skills that
                                         the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare deems equivalent to or
                                         greater than requirements (1) or (2) above and sufficient to take the
                                         examination; or
                                    4.   Deemed by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare to have obtained
                                         a medical license in accordance with provisions of the Medical
                                         Practitioners Law as stated in Clause 1, Article 17 on special measures
                                         to apply to the government ordinances of the Ministry of Welfare
                                         concerning the reversion of Okinawa.


                                             Those of high school graduate age or       Have passed the preliminary exam for the
                                           older who are eligible to enter university    national exam for medical practitioners




                                               Have completed a six-year university       Those with at least one-year of medical
                                                     medical school course                    service or on-the-job training




                                                            Took the national examination for medical practitioners



                                                                        Two years of clinical training



                                                                    Medical Doctor (Medical Practitioner)



            Examination             Once a year

            Organizer               Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare

            Universities that       Nearly 70 universities nationwide
            have a school of
            medicine




            90
                                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

<Registered Dietitians> *Dietitian's licenses are granted by prefectural governors.




                                                                                                                                Chapter1
 Requirements           Among those who are eligible to enter university, those who have:
 for taking the
 examination            1.   Obtained a dietitian's license after being trained at a registered
                             dietitians' training facility for four years;
                        2.   Obtained a dietitian's license after being trained at a dietitians'
                             training facility for two years, and have at least three years of practical
                             experience;
                        3.   Obtained a dietitian's license after being trained at a dietitians'
                             training facility for three years, and have at least two years of practical                                
                             experience; or
                        4.   Obtained a dietitian's license after being trained at a dietitians' training
                             facility for four years, and have at least one year of practical experience



                                                            High school graduation



                                Completed a four-year                        Dietitians' training facility
                                course at a dietitians'        Two years            Three years              Four years
                                  training facility            of training          of training              of training


                                                          Obtained dietitian's license


                                                                At least            At least two         At least one
                                                              three years            years of              year of
                                                              of practical           practical            practical
                                                              experience            experience           experience


                                      Qualified to take the national examination for registered dietitians


                                            Took the national examination for registered dietitians


                                                     Obtained registered dietitian's license




 Examination            Once a year

 Organizer              Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare

 Registered             119 schools nationwide
 dietitians' training
 schools




                                                                                                                           91
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           <Physical Therapists>
Chapter1

            Requirements             Satisfied the provisions of Article 56 of the School Education Law to be
            for taking the           eligible to enter university, and received education and skills training at a
            examination              school authorized by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and
                                     Technology or at a vocational school authorized by the Minister of Health,
                                     Labor and Welfare for at least three years.



                                               大学に入学する事のできる者                            ・ 外国の理学療法に関する学校若しく
                                                   (高卒以上)
                                                                                          は養成施設を卒業

                                                                                        ・ 外国で理学療法士の免許に相当する
                                               文部科学大臣または厚生労働大臣                            免許を得た者
                                                 が認定した養成校に入学                            上記いずれかの条件ののち、厚生労働大
                                                    3年以上修業                              が左記載の条件(養成校での修学)と同
                                                                                        以上の知識と技術を有すると認定した者



                                                                             受験資格取得


                                                                     理学療法士国家試験 受験
                                                                    (筆記試験、口頭及び実技試験)


                                                                                    合格


            Examination              Once a year                         理学療法士 資格取得

            Organizer                Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare

            Physical                 67 four-year universities, 2 three-year junior colleges, 75 four-year colleges
            therapists'              including vocational colleges, and 74 three-year colleges including vocational
            training schools         colleges
                                     * The number of training schools of this kind has increased in recent years.




            92
                                                                        Introducing Japan's spa industry

<Health & Fitness Instructors>




                                                                                                           Chapter1
 Requirements         1.   Health nurses and registered dietitians
 for taking the       2.   Graduated from a four-year sport science university or a sport science
 examination               course at a faculty of education
                      3.   Licensed practical nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists,
                           or medical technologists who graduated from a four-year university or
                           have worked as a fitness instructor for at least one year
                      4.   Dietitians, licensed vocational nurses, masseurs/masseuses, massagers,
                           acupressure therapists, acupuncturists, moxibustionists, or judo
                           therapists who graduated from a four-year university or have worked as                  
                           a fitness instructor for at least two years
                      5.   Graduated from a sport science junior college or from a two-year sport
                           science vocational school and have worked as a fitness instructor for at
                           least two years
                      6.   Graduated from a four-year university or a one-year sport science
                           vocational school other than those specified in (2) above, and have
                           worked as a fitness instructor for at least three years after graduation
                      7.   Have a degree to be a health exercise practical instructor and have
                           worked as a fitness instructor for at least one year after obtaining the
                           degree
                      8.   Deemed as having skills equal to or greater than those in any of the
                           requirements (1) to (7) above
                      9.   Graduated from a health fitness instructors' school


                             ① 保健師、管理栄養士                                                  健康運動指導士
                                                                                            養成校
                             ② 4年制体育系大学(教育学部体育学系を含む)卒業者
                             ③ 看護師、  理学療法士、作業療法士又は臨床検査技師の
                               場合、 4年制大学卒業者または1年以上運動指導に従
                               事した経験のある者
                             ④ 栄養士、  准看護師、あん摩マッサージ指圧師、はり師、
                               きゅう師又は柔道整復師の場合、  4年制大学卒業者ま
                               たは 2 年以上運動指導に従事した経験のある者
                             ⑤ 体育系短期大学又は体育系専修学校(2 年制)卒業者
                               であって 2 年以上運動指導に従事した経験のある者
                             ⑥ ②にあげる大学以外(4 年生)又は体育専修学校(
                               年制)の卒業者であって、 卒業後 3 年以上運動指導に
                               従事した経験のある者                1
                             ⑦ 健康運動実践指導者の称号を有する者であって、   称号
                               取得後 1 年以上運動指導に従事した経験のある者
                             ⑧ ①~⑦までと同等以上の能力を有すると認められた
                               者、他



                             健康運動指導士養成講習会(24 単位~120 単位)を受講
                                 (受験資格によって取得単位が異なる)


                                                                認定試験


                                                財団法人健康・体力つくり事業団に登録
 Examination          Twice a year

                                                           免許の交付
 Organizer and        Japan Health Promotion & Fitness Foundation
 registrar
                                                     健康運動指導士の称号を取得



                                                                                                    93
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           <Masseurs/Masseuses, Massagers, Acupressure Therapists, Acupuncturists and Moxibustionists>
Chapter1

            Requirements             Satisfied the provisions of Article 56 of the School Education Law to be
            for taking the           eligible to enter a university, and received education and skills at a school
            examination              authorized by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and
                                     Technology or at a vocational school authorized by the Minister of Health,
                                     Labor and Welfare for at least three years.
                                      Candidates with significant visual disorders must satisfy the provisions
                                     of Article 47 of the School Education Law to be eligible to enter a high
                                     school; and are required to have received education and skills at the above-
                                     mentioned kind of school or other training facility for at least three years for
        
                                     masseurs/masseuses, massagers, and acupressure therapists and for at least
                                     five years for acupuncturists and moxibustionists.


                                                                     大学に入学する事のできる物(高卒以上)

                                                          文部科学大臣または厚生労働大臣が認定した養成校に入学
                                                                    3年以上修業


                                                                                   受験資格取得


                                                                                     国家試験

                                                                                       合格


                                                            あん摩マッサージ指圧師・はり師・きゅう師 名簿に登録


                                                                                    免許の交付



            Examination              Once a year

            Organizer and            Foundation for Training and Licensure Examination in Anma-Massage-
            registrar                Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion




           94
                                                                                   Introducing Japan's spa industry

<Judo Therapists>




                                                                                                                      Chapter1
 Requirements          Satisfied the provisions of Article 56 of the School Education Law to be
 for taking the        eligible to enter a university, and received education and skills at a school
 examination           authorized by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and
                       Technology or at a vocational school authorized by the Minister of Health,
                       Labor and Welfare for at least three years.

                                                          大学に入学する事のできる物(高卒以上)

                                              文部科学大臣または厚生労働大臣が認定した養成校に入学                                                      
                                                        3年以上修業


                                                                        受験資格取得


                                                                           国家試験

                                                                             合格


                                                           財団法人柔道整復研修試験財団に登録


                                                                          免許の交付


 Examination           Once a year

 Organizer and         Foundation for Training and Licensure Examination in Judo Therapy
 registrar

 49 judo therapists'   School name                      URL                                      Phone
 schools               Hokkaido College of Judo         http://www.jusei.or.jp/                  011-642-0731
                       Therapy
                       Nippon Engineering               http://www.neec.ac.jp/                   0143-88-0888
                       College of Hokkaido
                       Kita-Tohoku College of           h t t p : / / w w w . e c h n a . n e . j p / 019-686-2466
                       Oriental Medicine                ~harikyu/
                       Sendai Bonesetting               http://www.jusen.ac.jp/                       022-258-6222
                       College of Medical
                       Science
                       Akamon Oriental                  http://www.akamon.ac.jp/                 022-222-8349
                       Medicine College
                       Fukushima Iryo School            http://www.f-iryo.ac.jp/                 024-933-0808
                       College
                       Maebashi College of              http://www.ist.ac.jp/                    027-253-1205
                       Oriental Medicine
                       Ohkawa Institute, School         http://www.ohkawa.jp/                    042-974-8880
                       of Medicine and Welfare
                       College of Saitama               http://www.csj.ac.jp/                    048-831-0260
                       Jyusei
                       The Japan School of              http://www.hanada.ac.jp/                 03-3461-4740
                       Judo-Seifuku Therapy
                       To k y o T h e r a p e u t i c   http://www.kuretake.ac.jp/               03-3341-4043
                       Institute
                       Daito of Medical                 http://www.daito.ac.jp/isen/             03-5399-7853
                       Technology
                       Teikyo College of Medical        http://www.gaku-oki.ac.jp/               03-3377-7220
                       Technology
                       Nittai Jusei College             http://www.nittai-j.ac.jp/               03-5717-6161




                                                                                                                 95
           Introducing Japan's spa industry


                                   Ryotokuji Gakuen Medical http://www.ryotokuji.ac.jp/
                                   Nihon Health and                    College                         03-3846-5151
Chapter1

                                   N i h o n I k a g a k u S o g o http://www.ikagaku-sogo.org/        03-5850-3500
                                   Gakkai
                                   C h u o h I r y o u G a k u e n http://www.chuoh-med.com/           03-5604-3100
                                   Professional School
                                   Tokyo College of Sports http://www.tsr.ac.jp/                       03-5696-9090
                                   and Recreation
                                   N i p p o n E n g i n e e r i n g http://www.neec.ac.jp/            0426-37-3111
                                   College of Hachioji
                                   N i h o n H e a l t h a n d http://www.niken.jp/                    03-5835-1456
                                   Medical College
                                   N i h o n I g a k u J u s e i http://www.jusei-sinkyu.com/          03-3208-7741
                                   Shinkyu College
                                   Nihon Igaku Jusei                                                   03-3912-7000
                                   College
                                   Yamano Medical College http://www.yamano-mc.jp/                     03-3378-0111
                                   K a n t o J u d o T h e r a p y http://www.kanto-jusei.ac.jp/       042-529-6660
                                   College
                                   K a n a g a w a C o l l e g e o f http://www.kanto-jusei.ac.jp/     042-740-7222
                                   Judo Therapy
                                   H o k u s h i n e t s u J u s e i http://www.kijima.ac.jp/          076- 2 51-
                                   College                                                             2265
                                   Hamamatsu Medical                   http://www.morishima.ac.jp/     053-585-1333
                                   Care Institute
                                   Yoneda Jusei College                http://www.yoneda.ac.jp/        052-562-1210
                                   C h u w a V o c a t i o n a l http://www.chuwa.ac.jp/               0587-23-5235
                                   College of Oriental
                                   Medicine
                                   K a n s a i V o c a t i o n a l http://www.kansai.ac.jp/senmon/     06-6699-2222
                                   College of Medicine
                                   Yukioka School of Allied http://www.yukioka.ac.jp/                  072-621-0881
                                   Health Professions
                                   Meiji School of Oriental http://www.meiji-s.ac.jp/                  06-6381-3811
                                   Medicine
                                   Ams Jusei Gakuin                    http://www.ams-jusei.jp/        06-6947-0800
                                   Heisei Medical College              http://www.heisei-iryo.ac.jp/   06-6454-1500
                                   M o r i n o m i y a C o l l e g e http://morinomiya.ac.jp/          06-6976-6889
                                   of Medical Arts and
                                   Sciences
                                   N i s h i N i h o n J u d o http://www.yashima.ac.jp/               06-6762-1248
                                   Seifuku College
                                   R i s e i s h a C o l l e g e f o r http://www.riseisha.ac.jp/      06-6305-6592
                                   Medicine and Sports
                                   Osaka Orin Medical                                                  06-6266-9449
                                   College
                                   K a n s a i H e a l t h a n d http://www.kanken.ac.jp/              0797-22-7221
                                   Science College
                                   R a n a i s s H e a l t h & http://www.renaiss.ac.jp/               0748-88-6177
                                   Medical College
                                   Kyoto Academy of Health http://www.kyoto-eisei.ac.jp/               075-672-1106
                                   Science and Technology
                                   B u t s u g e n M e d i c a l http://www.butsugen.or.jp/iryou/      075-342-3399
                                   College
                                   Asahi College of Medical http://asahi.ac.jp/                        086-214-5214
                                   Art and Sciences
                                   IGL Medical College                 http://www.igl.or.jp/iryo.htm   082-849-5001
                                   Shikoku Medical College http://www.459.ac.jp/                       0877-41-2320
                                   Fukuoka Jusei College               http://www.jusei.ac.jp/         092-833-6120
                                   Fuokuoka Iken                       http://www.iken.ac.jp/          092-262-2119
                                   Daichi Medical Rehabirit http://www.dmr.ac.jp/                      092-738-7823
                                   Ation College


           96
                                                                       Introducing Japan's spa industry

<Beauticians and Barbers>




                                                                                                          Chapter1
 Requirements        Those who were trained at and graduated from a barbers/beauticians'
 for taking the      training facility authorized by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare for
 examination         a specified period
                          1 Day course of two years or more; night course of two years or more;
                             or correspondence course or three years or more
                          2 Candidates who have completed one year or more of on-the-job
                             training must have taken a day course for one year or more, a night
                             course for one year and four months or more, or a correspondence
                             course for two years or more.                                                        
                                       厚生労働大臣が指定した養成施設に入学
                                   (昼間:2 年以上、夜間:2 年以上、通信:3 年以上)


                                                          受験資格取得


                                                     筆記試験/実技試験


                                       筆記試験のみ合格の場合   実技試験のみ合格の場合
                                       筆記試験合格証明書交付   実技試験合格証明書交付
                                      (次回に限り筆記試験免除) (次回に限り実技試験免除)


                                                  実技試験                          筆記試験試験

                                                                    不合格

                                                      合格(合格証書交付)

                                                             免許申請


                                                  理容師名簿・美容師名簿に登録
 Examination         Twice a year at prefectural venues and specified schools

 Organizer           Barbers and Beauticians Examination and Training Center
                                                        免許証交付

 Barbers/            Nearly 200 schools nationwide. For more information on these schools, see
 beauticians         the website of the Japan Center for Hairdressing and Beauty Education at
 training schools    http://www.ribikyoiku.or.jp/

 Remarks             <Registered beauticians/barbers>
                     1.  As stated in Article 11-4 of the Barbers Law and Article 12-3 of the
                         Beauticians Law, one who opens a barber shop or a beauty salon that
                         employs at least two barbers/beauticians must employ a registered
                         barber/beautician for the barber shop/beauty salon to ensure good
                         hygienic control of the barber shop/beauty salon.
                     Certification for managing barbers and managing beauticians may be
                     granted to those who have worked as a barber/beautician for at least three
                     years after obtaining a barber's/beautician's license and have completed a
                     course specified by the governor of the relevant prefecture in compliance
                     with standards provided by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare.

                     The course shall consist of the following two subjects:
                    (1)public health and    (2)hygienic control of a barber shop/beauty salon




                                                                                                   97
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           Requirements 2 (Public certifications)
Chapter1

           <Cooks>
            Requirements            1. Have engaged in cooking professionally for at least two years at a school
            for taking the              lunch facility, restaurant, seafood distributor, or delicatessen; or
            examination             2. Have received at least one year of training at a cook training facility, such
                                       as a vocational college, authorized by the Minister of Health, Labor and
                                       Welfare may be eligible for certification when they file a license application
                                       with the governor of the relevant prefecture after graduating from the
                                       above-mentioned facility/college. 

                                                      中学校卒業                       厚生労働大臣が認定した調理師養
                                                                                  成施設(専門学校など)で 1 年以
                                                                                  上修学
                                               2年以上給食施設、飲食店、魚介
                                               類販売業、そう菜製造業等で調理
                                               の業務に従事
                                                                                                 卒業
                                                       受験資格


                                                     調理師試験

                                                         合格

                                                       住所地の各都道府県知事に調理師免許を申請

                                                                          免許取得
            Examination             Twice a year

            Organizer               Health control sections of the prefectural government


           <Bathing Instructors>
            Requirements            None
            for taking the
            examination
                                                          温泉入浴指導員養成講習会を受講する
                                                                             2 日間


                                                                              試験


                                                                              合格


                                                                 温泉入浴指導員名簿に登録


            Organizer               Japan Health & Research Institute
                                                                         修了証を交付

            Remarks                 Bathing instructors teach common and proper use of spas, engage in safety
                                    control and emergency treatment, and give advice on everyday practices.




            98
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

Requirements 3 (Private certifications)




                                                                                                              Chapter1
<Clinical psychotherapists>
 There are no national certifications for counselors or psychotherapists in Japan today. For
this reason, private organizations and a variety of academic societies have established their own
certifications for a variety of psychotherapy and counseling jobs. Among these certifications, the most
well-known is that granted by the                                                        for
                                 “Japanese Certification Board for Clinical Psychologists” “clinical
psychotherapists”, which is regarded as equivalent to official public certification.                                    
 Certifier              Japanese Certification Board for Clinical Psychologists
                       http://www4.ocn.ne.jp/~jcbcp/

 Requirements          1.   New Class 1 graduate school: Have graduated from a Class 1 graduate
 for taking the             school authorized by the Board and satisfied the requirements for taking
 examination                the examination. No post-graduate experience of working as a clinical
                            psychotherapist is required.
                       2.   Former Class 1 graduate school: Have graduated from a Class 1
                            graduate school authorized by the Board and satisfied the requirements
                            for taking the examination. The requirements include post-graduate
                            experience of working as a clinical psychotherapist for at least one year.
                       3.   New Class 2 graduate school: Have graduated from a Class 2 graduate
                            school authorized by the Board and satisfied the requirements for taking
                            the examination. The requirements include post-graduate experience of
                            working as a clinical psychotherapist for at least one year.
                       4.   Former Class 2 graduate school: Have graduated from a Class 2
                            graduate school authorized by the Board and satisfied the requirements
                            for taking the examination. The requirements include post-graduate
                            experience of working as a clinical psychotherapist for at least two years.
                       5.   Graduates from a specialty graduate school: Have graduated from
                            a special degree course in clinical psychology or its equivalent at a
                            graduate school that complies with the School Education Law.
                       6.   Have an international career in education equal to or greater than 1 or
                            3 above, or have at least two years of experience working as a clinical
                            psychotherapist.
                       7.   Have obtained a medical license and have at least two years of
                            experience working as a clinical psychotherapist after having obtaining
                            their license.

 Examination            Once a year

 Graduate schools       Nearly 100 or more Class 1 graduate schools
 to train clinical      Nearly 30 Class 2 graduate schools
 psychotherapists




                                                                                                       99
           Introducing Japan's spa industry

           <Ajesthe Authorized Estheticians>
Chapter1

           This is the representative qualification for Japanese estheticians.


            Certifier                 Association Japonaise des Estheticiennes (Ajesthe) http://www.ajesthe.jp/

            Qualification [1]         Certified Total Esthetic Advisors play social and leadership roles.
            Certified Total           To qualify to take the examination, candidates must be official members of
            Esthetic Advisor         Ajesthe and must satisfy one of the following requirements:

                                     1.   Have received education/training at an Ajesthe authorized school for at
                                          least 1,000 hours and have at least one year of practical experience as an
                                          official member;
                                     2.   Have passed the CIDESCO examination and have at least one year of
                                          practical experience as an official member; or
                                     3.   Certified estheticians who have at least three years of practical
                                          experience as an official member


            Qualification [2]         Certified Estheticians occupy the core of the industry.
            Certified                 To qualify to take the examination, candidates must be official members of
            Esthetician              Ajesthe and must satisfy one of the following requirements:

                                     1.   Those who became an Ajesthe member by receiving education/training at
                                          an Ajesthe authorized school for at least 300 hours;
                                     2.   Those who became an Ajesthe member by completing an Ajesthe
                                          correspondence course or graduating from an Ajesthe authorized school;
                                          or
                                     3.   Have at least three years of practical experience and became a member
                                          of Ajesthe through the recommendation of a director
                                     * Candidates who have received education/training at an Ajesthe
                                     authorized school for at least 1,000 hours, or those who have completed a
                                     CIDESCO school course before joining Ajesthe can be registered without
                                     taking the examination.

            Qualification [3]         Certified Facial Estheticians possess the basic facial esthetics skills.
            Certified Facial         To qualify to take the examination, candidates must have mastered facial
            Esthetician              esthetic treatment techniques and satisfy one of the following requirements:
                                     -
                                     1. Have at least six months of practical experience;
                                     2.   Have graduated from a barbers/beauticians school; or
                                     3.   Have completed at least 60 hours of an esthetic course at an Ajesthe
                                          authorized school or Ajesthe official barbers/beauticians school


            Ajesthe authorized       Nearly 110 schools nationwide
            schools




           100
                                                                         Introducing Japan's spa industry

<CIDESCO International Esthetician>




                                                                                                            Chapter1
 This is the representative qualification and international standard for estheticians. Estheticians
with this qualification can build a professional career in many countries around the world.
 CIDESCO Nippon has nearly 1,800 individual members, making CIDESCO Nippon one of the
world's most prominent CIDESCO organizations.


[CIDESCO-affiliated countries]                                                                                       
Headquarters: Switzerland (Zurich)
Branches: Australia A/B, Austria, Canada, Republic of Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, United Kingdom A/B, Greece, China, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,
Latvia, Malaysia, Holland, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden,
Switzerland, United States, South Korea
 Certifier              CIDESCO-NIPPON http://www.cidesco-nippon.or.jp/

 Qualification [1]      1.   Have completed at least 1,200 hours of a CIDESCO course at an
 International              international CIDESCO authorized school and, at the same school,
 Diploma                    have passed the CIDESCO school international examination (written
                            and practical) upon graduation. Within two years after graduation, the
                            candidate is required to have 600 hours of practical experience before
                            receiving the International Diploma.
                       2.   Estheticians with at least three years of practical experience are
                            required to pass the post-graduate CIDESCO international examination.

                       <Requirements for taking the post-graduate CIDESCO international
                       examination>
                           ○ Have at least three years of practical experience after becoming a
                              Certified Esthetician
                            ○ Be an official member of Ajesthe and a Certified Esthetician
                            ○ Have knowledge and skills equal to those acquired after completing
                                at least 1,000 hours of an Ajesthe Certified Esthetician course or
                                equivalent
                            ○ Have passed the first examination and complete the 40-hour course
                                organized by CIDESCO Nippon, given at an international CIDESCO
                                authorized school after passing the first examination (written),
                                and are deemed eligible to take the postgraduate CIDESCO
                                international examination




                                                  CIDESCO 国際試験合格者(ディプロマ保持者)
                                                               または
                                                    CIDESCO 国際試験に合格した直後の受験者


                                                          CIDESCO 国際認定校にて
                                                 1. 最低 90 時間の所定のカリキュラムの履修
                                                 2. 最低 90 時間のホームスタディーを終えた者


                                                   CIDESCO 国際認定校で実施される試験に合格


                                                        CIDESCO 本部が実施する試験に合格


                                                                 国際ディプロマ取得                         101
           Introducing Japan's spa industry


           Qualification [2]         Candidates must have either passed the CIDESCO international
Chapter1

           Advanced                 examination, and be a diploma holder, or passed the latest CIDESCO
           Diploma:                 international examination. To obtain this qualification, these candidates
           Aromatherapy             must have completed at least 90 hours of a specified curriculum at an
           Diploma and Spa          international CIDESCO authorized school and at least 90 hours of home
           Therapy Diploma          study, and must have passed the examination conducted by an international
                                    CIDESCO authorized school by taking practical and theoretical tests and
                                    submitting a case history. To receive the International Diploma, candidates
                                    must pass the examination conducted by the CIDESCO headquarters,
                                    consisting of a 150-minute practical test, a 120-minute theoretical test, and
                                    an appraisal of a case history submitted in advance.
        


                                                             CIDESCO 国際試験合格者(ディプロマ保持者)
                                                                          または
                                                               CIDESCO 国際試験に合格した直後の受験者


                                                                      CIDESCO 国際認定校にて
                                                             1. 最低 90 時間の所定のカリキュラムの履修
                                                             2. 最低 90 時間のホームスタディーを終えた者


                                                              CIDESCO 国際認定校で実施される試験に合格


                                                                   CIDESCO 本部が実施する試験に合格
           International           School name                    URL                          Phone
           CIDESCO                 Kansai Beauty College          http://www.b-pro.ac.jp/      06-6942-6220
           authorized schools                                               国際ディプロマ取得
           (As of February,        Kozu Beauty College            http://www.kozu.ac.jp/       06-6633-7474
           2008)                   Kokusaibunka Technical College http://www.kokusaibunka.com/ 042-321-0002
                                   of Hair design, Kokubunji
                                    Kokusaibunka Technical        http://www.kokusaibunka.com/ 03-3461-3361
                                    College of Hardesign, Shibuya
                                    Kokusai Hairdressing &        http://www.kokusai-           03-5850-7201
                                    Beauty Art Vocational         riyoubiyou.ac.jp/
                                    College, No. 3
                                    Takara International Esthetic http://www.takarabelmont.     06-6641-5645
                                    College, Osaka                co.jp/esthecollege/
                                    Takara International Esthetic http://www.takarabelmont.     03-3403-2450
                                    College, Tokyo                co.jp/esthecollege/
                                    Takigawa Esthetic College, http://www.takigawa.co.jp/       03-5820-8877
                                    Tokyo                         gakuin/
                                    Chuichi Beauty College       http://www.chunichi-biyou. 052-565-1123
                                                                 com/
                                    Hollywood Fashion & Beauty http://www.hollywood.ac.jp/  03-3408-5020
                                    University
                                    Marie Louise Holistic Beauty http://www.maribi.jp/      092-761-7137
                                    Academy


                                    <To become an international CIDESCO authorized school>
                                    The CIDESCO headquarters, based in Zurich, Switzerland, inspects
                                    estheticians' schools and authorizes the ones that satisfy its global
                                    standards. The headquarters accepts applications biannually and sends
                                    inspectors to schools.




           102
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

<International Cosmetic & Aesthetic Management (ICAM)>




                                                                                                              Chapter1
 This is the global standard for esthetics.
 Prominent in the field of cosmetology for many years, France offers national examinations for
estheticians and other professionals in the esthetics business. These qualifications had been limited
to France until the foundation of International Cosmetic & Aesthetic Management (ICAM) in October
2000. Authorized by the French government, ICAM is intended to function as the international
center for examinations in these fields. Established later, ICAM JAPAN became a limited liability                     
intermediate corporation in July 2005.
 ICAM Japan is engaged in education, and licensing, in many other fields besides esthetics including
makeup application, nail care, coloring, aromatherapy, and reflexology.


 Certifier               ICAM Japan http://www.icam.jp/

 Types of               <General Division>
 qualification           ○ Total Beauty Category
                        This general division for esthetics and art involves overall whole-body
                        beauty care from a three-directional approach: the interior, the exterior and
                        the heart.

                        Advanced Level 3 Beauticians, Advanced Level 2 Beauticians, Advanced Level 1
                        Beauticians

                        ○ Esthetics Category
                        ith their whole-body beauty care knowledge and skills, professionals in this
                        category diagnose clients' mental and physical conditions through counseling
                        and other examinations and design suitable esthetic treatments for each
                        client. Skilled in everything from clinic treatments to home care techniques,
                        and also demonstrating a deep knowledge and skills in aromatherapy and
                        thalassotherapy, they are able to satisfy a wide range of demand.

                        Estheticians and Advanced Estheticians

                        ○ Healing Category
                        Professionals in this category have extensive knowledge and skills in
                        aromatherapy, herbal therapy, reflexology, and other types of natural
                        therapies. They adapt their procedures to the client's physical conditions
                        and requests and give advice on health improvements.

                        Master General Therapists, Advanced General Therapists and General Therapists

                        ○ Specialty Category
                        • Makeup artists • Nailcare specialists • Colorists • Aromatherapists •
                        Reflexologists • Herb therapists • Beauty consultants

                               実務経験、十分な知識や技術が                    知識や技術を基礎から身につけたい方
                               ある方

                                ICAM JAPAN 入会手続き                 認定校、または認定講座校で受験に
                                                                 必要なコースを受講

                                 ライセンス試験受験申込
                                                                 コースサーティフィケート試験を受験
                                          書類選考
                                                                    コースサーティフィケート取得
                            (選考試験:トータルビューティ部門のみ)

                                                                     ICAM JAPAN 入会手続き
                                              合格
                                                                                                     103

                                                   ライセンス試験 受験資格取得
                                                ICAM JAPAN 入会手続き         認定校、または認定講座校で受験に
                                                                         必要なコースを受講

                                                ライセンス試験受験申込
           Introducing Japan's spa industry
                                                                        コースサーティフィケート試験を受験
                                                     書類選考
           Types of
Chapter1

           qualification                                                      コースサーティフィケート取得
                                              (選考試験:トータルビューティ部門のみ)

                                                                              ICAM JAPAN 入会手続き
                                                        合格

                                                             ライセンス試験 受験資格取得

                                                                   ライセンス試験受験

                                                                         合格


                                                                      諸手続完了

                                                                     ライセンス取得




           ICAM certified            School name                        URL                       Phone
           schools
                                    Nihon Business School, Sapporo     http://www.nbs-sapporo.   011-642-0511
                                                                       net/
                                    Nihon Designer Art College,        http://www.ndg-s.ac.jp/   022-299-1641
                                    Sendai
                                    Moi Japan Beauty College           http://www.moijapan.com/ 022-257-2210
                                    Festa International College, Chiba http://www.holis.jp/school/ 043-222-4640
                                    Festa International College,       http://www.holis.jp/school/ 048-859-6817
                                    Omiya
                                    Cubic Design Academy               http://www.takanoyuri- 03-5304-1380
                                                                       academy.com/cubic/
                                    Festa International College, Yoyogihttp://www.holis.jp/school/ 03-5365-3361
                                    Festa International College,      http://www.holis.jp/school/ 03-6418-1381
                                    Harajuku
                                    Art & Therapy Academy Bju Bju, http://www.strois.co.jp/       026-223-8260
                                    Nagano
                                    Festa International College,      http://www.holis.jp/school/ 0565-36-0662
                                    Toyota
                                    Kokusai Business Gakuin,          http://www.khbg.jp/         0776-67-6093
                                    International Pet Business
                                    College, Health & Beauty Faculty
                                    α Japan Beauty College School     http://www.a-japan.ac.jp/ 079-282-8282
                                    Guide
                                    Festa International College, Osakahttp://www.holis.jp/school/ 06-6258-7258
                                    Festa International College,       http://www.holis.jp/school/ 082-243-1074
                                    Hiroshima
                                    Fukuoka Beauty College             http://www.fbc.ac.jp/     0942-32-3809
                                    Festa International College,       http://www.holis.jp/school/ 092-762-1375
                                    Fukuoka                                                        092-726-4955
                                    A's International College                                      0942-36-5073
                                    Art & Therapy Academy Bju Bju,     http://www.strois.co.jp/    096-211-1500
                                    Kumamoto
                                    Asahi Gakuin, Saga Girl's High     http://www.asahigakuen. 0952-24-5341
                                    School College                     ac.jp/sagajoshikou/




           104
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

<Aromatherapy Proficiency Examination>




                                                                                                              Chapter1
 Many associations provide education and grant certifications independently.
 The most well-known certification organizations are the“Aroma Environment Association of Japan”
and“Natural Aromatherapy Research and Development”.


 Certifier        Aroma Environment Association of Japan      Natural Aromatherapy Research and
                   URL: http://www.aromakankyo.or.jp/                   Development
                                                              URL: http://www.nardjapan.gr.jp/
                                                                                                                      
 Certifications   ・   Aromatherapy Proficiency                 ・   Aroma Advisor
                     Examination Levels 1, 2                 ・   Aroma Instructor
                 ・   Aromatherapy Advisor                    ・   Aroma Trainer
                 ・   Aromatherapy Instructor                 ・   Aromatherapist
                 ・   Aromatherapist                          ・   Aromatherapist Trainer


Other aromatherapy certifiers

 Name                                             URL                                     Phone

                                                  http://homepage3.nifty.com/             0485-28-2828
 Japan Society of Aromatherapy
                                                  aroma-gakkai/

                                                  http://www.jaa-aroma.or.jp/             03-5413-1260
 Japan Aromacoordinator Association


                                                  http://www.aromanist.com/               03-3542-8011
 International Aromanist Association


                                                  http://www.first-plan.info/              052-933-5293
 International Aromatherapy Institute


                                                  http://www.phyto-aromatherapy.          0561-61-2186
 Japan France Aromatherapy Association            jp/

                                                  http://www.inta-j.org/
 International Natural Therapy Association


                                                  http://www.jmaa-aroma.com/              03-5227-1836
 Japan Medical Aromatherapy Association


                                                  http://www.woa.jp/
 World Organization of Aromatherapy in Japan




                                                                                                     105
            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           < Spa-related laws >
Chapter1



           1.Hygiene laws and laws to sustain a comfortable living environment
            The Basic Environment Law, the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, the law on the proper
           management of services related to environmental health, the Food Sanitation Law, the Public
           Bathhouse Law, the Law on Control and Improvement of Amusement and Entertainment Businesses,
        
           the Hotel Business Law, the Cosmetologists Law, the Barbers Law, the Hot Spring Law, the Health
           Promotion Act, and the Fire Service Law




           2.Hygiene laws and laws to prevent specific diseases, help people maintain
           and improve their health, and receive medical care
            The Community Health Law, the Health Insurance Act, the Cook's Law, Dietitian's Law




           3.Pharmaceutical business laws and laws to control production and
           marketing of medical drugs, medical supplies, cosmetics, and other
           substances
            The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, the Pharmacists Law, the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances
           Control Law, the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law


           4.Laws to protect consumers
            The Commercial Law, Civil Law, the Specific Trade Law, Installment Sales Law, the law to prevent
           misleading gifts and descriptions, the law on small claims lawsuits, the Consumer Contract Act, the
           Product Liability Law, prefectural ordinances, and the law to protect personal information




           5.Medical laws and laws to ensure proper medical practices at hospitals,
           clinics, and other medical institutions
            The Medical Service Law, the Medical Practitioners Law, the Law for Practitioners of Massage,
           Finger Pressure Therapy, Acupuncture, and Moxa Cauterization, the Physical Therapists Law, the
           Occupational Therapists Law, the Judo Therapists Law, and the law to encourage construction of
           designated buildings for the aged and the disabled




            106
                                                                             Introducing Japan's spa industry


Table 2: History of spa-related industries 




                                                                                                                Chapter1
4th Century Yunomine Onsen, the oldest spa in Japan, opens

784       Oyuya is built in the premises of Todaiji Temple. This is the
          model for public bathhouses that follow Buddhist doctrines.

1266      Public bathhouses described in Nichirengoshoroku [Nichiren's
          Doctrine].

1594      Iseno Yoichi opens a public steambath.                                                                        
          Public bathhouses begin to flourish, peaking from the Edo to
          the early Showa periods.

1886      The Health Bureau of the Interior Ministry publishes Japan's
          first national research on spas.

1905      Barber/beautician Kentaro Shibayama introduces the
          technique of facial massage 

1911      Takarazuka Shin-onsen (new spa), the forerunner of
          Takarazuka Family Land, opens.

1927      Tokyo Yokohama Railroad launches spa services at
          Tsunashima.

1932      Kawatana Public Spa opens after taking over use of spa and
          mineral spring.

1935      The Japanese Society of Balneology, Climatology, and Physical
          Medicine is established. (placed as the 19th sub-division of the
          Japanese Association of Medical Sciences)

1947      The Barbers and Cosmetologists Law is enacted.

1948      The Hot Spring Law is promulgated.

1952      Miyoka Shibayama opens the first esthetic salon.

1955      Funabashi Health Center opens—the first of its kind in Japan. Japan enjoys high economic
                                                                       growth from 1955 to 1970.
1957      Heiwajima Onsen Kaikan (spa facility) opens.

1957      Rakuraku-en Spa opens.

1957      The Barbers and Cosmetologists Law is separated in two.

1958      Kanazawa Health Center opens, consisting of a zoo, an
          entertainment theater, and a large bathhouse. With the
          addition of an aquarium five years later, the Kanazawa
          Health Center was renamed Sunny Land and became the
          largest amusement park in the prefecture.

1962      Arima Health Center opens. In 2001, the Arima View Hotel
          annex launches a day-trip spa service.

1966      Joban Hawaiian Center opens.                                       Unprecedented long-term
                                                                             prosperity lasts from 1966 to
1968      Tokujiro Namikoshi's acupressure segment gains a large             1970.
          following on TV.                                                   Tourism boom. Traditionally
                                                                             confined to domestic travel,
1969      Tokyo Athletic Club, Japan's first athletic club, opens.            Japanese tourists begin
                                                                             to extend their choices to
                                                                             overseas destinations.
1970      The Japanese phrase kenko sangyo (health industry) is              1970 Osaka Expo
          invented.

1970      DESCO-NIPPON is established.




                                                                                                       107
           Introducing Japan's spa industry


           1971        Control over the Hot Springs Law is transferred from the
Chapter1

                       Ministry of Welfare to the Environment Agency, opening the
                       door to use spas for sightseeing and leisure.

           1971        Rakuraku-en Spa closes.

           1971        A swimming school opens at Daiei Leisure Land.

           1972        The average Japanese life span reaches 70.                      1972 Kakuei Tanaka
                                                                                       advocates the“remodeling” of
           1972        CIDESCO NIPPON Japan Estheticians Association                   the Japanese Archipelago.
                       established—Japan's first organization of estheticians

           1973        Golfing boom, health boom begins. Chinese matrimony vines, 1973 An oil crisis leads to
                       apricots, tea mushrooms, chlorella, litchis, and other plants skyrocketing prices
                       are increasingly used for health improvements (-1979).

           1975        Trim Campaign and Leisure Development Center
                       In Norwegian,“trim”   means keeping a ship in a good balance.
                       The aim of Trim Campaign is for people to improve their
                       health and recover their physical/mental balance.

           1976        Running becomes very popular. The number of participants
                       in the Ome Marathon doubles.

           1976        Central Sports Club opens their own swimming facility.

           1977        Funabashi Health Center closes.

           1977        Japan joins the International Federation of Estheticians
                       (INFA).

           1978       “The Japan Total Beauty Association” established, with the
                                                          is
                      aim of popularizing esthetics.

           1978        The Ministry of Welfare puts forth the “National Health
                       Initiative”. While the existing healthcare administration
                       focuses on medical care, the initiative attaches greater
                       importance to preventive medicine and introduces educational
                       activities to improve health and detect disease earlier. The
                       room runner, hanging-type fitness equipment, natural houses,
                       and yoga become popular. Popularity grows for golf, skiing,
                       and marine sports.

           1979        Seibu opens a sports store.                                     1979 – 1983 The second oil
                                                                                       crisis
           1979        Hakuba-mura National Sanitarium (kurhaus) opens.

           1980        The National Association of Health Foods is established.        Lack of development on the
                       Sports drinks and functional foods become popular.              service side that was needed
                                                                                       for resort development leads
           1980        CIDESCO international convention is held in Tokyo.              to the failure of the Japan
                                                                                       remodeling plan. This triggers
           1981       “The Japan Electrolysis Society”    establishes a“national       calls for the inclusion of more
                       liaison association of esthetic industries”.                    services, including information
                                                                                       services, in all industries
           1981        Kenneth H. Cooper, the originator of aerobics, comes to
                       Japan.

           1982        Studio NAFA opens. Aerobics boom.

           1983        Heiwa-jima spa facility closes.

           1984        Japanese people achieve greatest longevity in the world.

           1985        Spas become popular and begin to attract many group visits.
                       Open-air baths gains popularity.




           108
                                                                      Introducing Japan's spa industry


1986    Aromatherapy becomes popular.




                                                                                                         Chapter1
1987    Thalassotherapy becomes popular.

1988    The rush to open fitness clubs peaks.

1988    The Ministry of Welfare puts forth the“second National
        Health Initiative: Active 80 Health Plan”. “The Functional
                            is
        Foods Conference” formed. The boom in resort
        development begins.
                                                                                                                 
1988    Heiwajima Kurhaus opens.                                      1989 Emperor Hirohito dies.
                                                                      Consumption tax is introduced.
1989    The Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare begins to           Green Summit. Stock prices
        certify both exercise and spa types of
                                             “health improvement      soar more than ever before.
        facilities”.

1990    Yakuzen (medicinal cuisines) becomes popular.                 1990 A global environment
                                                                      convention is held at the
                                                                      White House. Japan becomes
                                                                      an aging society

1990   Joban Hawaiian Center is renamed    “Spa Resort Hawaiians”. The 1990s is also referred to
       “Spring Park”  opens.                                         as the“Lost Decade”.
                                                                     The bubble economy collapses
1992                                              is
       “Japan Esthetique Research Foundation” established after in the early 1990s.
        approval by the Ministry of Welfare. The foundation conducts Economic depression grows
       research on esthetic industries.                              worse in the late 1990s

1992    Thalassa Shima, Japan's first full-scale thalassotherapy
        center, opens.  

1992   The Environment Agency announces its plan to popularize        1993 Crown Prince Naruhito
       “ecotourism”from the following year.                           marries Masako Owada

1993    Unzen Spa House, a third-sector multipurpose sanitarium, is
        completed.

1995    Kur Resort Yubunesawa opens.                                  11995 The yen begins to
                                                                      weaken against the dollar.

1996    Sky Spa Yokohama opens in a large commercial building
        complex.

1996    APPI spa Patio, a comprehensive resort facility, opens.

1996    Super Sento Gokuraku-yu opens in Furukawa.

1997   “Thermes Marins Du Pacifique”opens.                             1997 Asian currency crisis

1997   All Japan Total Beauty Union, an intermediate organization
       authorized by the Ministry of Welfare, is established. All
       Nippon Esthetic Association is formed.

1999   The rock bathhouse“Tagajo Tentei-no-yu”opens.                  1999 “Local promotion
                                                                      coupons”are launched

2001   Hakone Kowaki-en Yunessun opens.                               2001 The Koizumi Cabinet
                                                                      starts. Simultaneous terrorist
2001                                    is
       “Japan Estheticians Association” renamed “Association          attacks occur in the United
        Japonaise des Estheticiennes”(Ajesthe).                       States.

2002   It is announced that the spa industry is to be included in     2002 Salt Lake City Olympic
       the                                             in
           “Japan Standard Industry Classification” accordance         Games, The FIFA World Cup
       with the governance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and    is hosted by Asian countries
       Communications.                                                for the first time.




                                                                                                109
           Introducing Japan's spa industry


           2003       Oedo-Onsen-Monogatari opens.
Chapter1


           2003       Spa LaQua natural spa opens in the Tokyo Dome area.          2003 Tokaido Shinkansen
                                                                                   begins to stop at Shinagawa
           2003       Miura-yu opens a bathhouse in Gumyoji featuring water        Station.
                      taken from the depth of the sea.

           2003      “Annyonoyu”foot bathing service starts in Yumoto.

           2003       Grand Hyatt introduces“NAGOMI Spa & Fitness”.
        
           2003       Royal Park Shiodome Park introduces the“Mandara Spa”.

           2004      “Yomiuri Land Oka-no-yu”, a mixed bathing facility, opens in 2004 Athens Olympic Games,
                     an amusement park.                                           Bank of Japan notes undergo
                                                                                  the first design change in 20
           2004      An ISPA convention is held in Japan.                         years.

           2005       Yokohama Minato-mirai Manyo Club opens.                      2005 Aichi Expo, Central
                                                                                   Japan International Airport
           2005       Four Seasons Hotel Tokyo at Chinzan-so launches“YU, the      opens
                      Spa at Four Seasons” .
           2005       Mandarin Oriental Tokyo launches ”The spa at Mandarin
                      Oriental Tokyo”.

           2006       Club Med opens a spa named     “Ulu in the Kabira Vacation   22006 Heaviest snowfall in
                      Village of the Island of Ishigaki”.                          18 years, Livedoor scandal,
                                                                                   Princess Akishino gives birth
           2007       Daspa Shin-Yokohama, a rock bathing house, closes.           to Prince Hisahito.

           2007       An explosion occurs at“Shiespa”, a women's spa facility
                      located in Shoto, Shibuya.

           2007      “Dalla”, a women's rock bathing yoga facility, opens.         2007 The scandal involving
                                                                                   missing pension records comes
           2007       Ajesthe and CIDESCO-NIPPON become independent.               to light., the scandal involving
                                                                                   false descriptions on food
           2007       The Peninsula Tokyo opens.                                   labels comes to light, crude oil
                                                                                   prices soar. Postal services
           2007       The Ritz-Carlton Tokyo opens.                                are privatized. The Fukuda
                                                                                   Cabinet is inaugurated.
           2007       The Association of Relaxation Promotion is established.

           2008       Zaboo, a natural spa in Roppongi, closes.




           110
                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry


2.The Development of the Unique Japanese Spa




                                                                                                                   Chapter1
Culture
1)The origins of the Japanese spa ‒ hot springs culture goes back to
 ancient times                                                                                                             
 The origins, or prototype for hot springs
therapy can be traced back to the age of
the gods. When you visit an area that has
housed a hot springs resort since ancient
times, you can not only enjoy the benefits
of the hot springs but also see how hot
springs have been written about for many
years. Both the Chronicles of Japan
and The Ancient Chronicle say that the
emperors themselves used the hot springs.
“The three most famous hot springs since
ancient times”, based on such historic
                                                                          “three ancient Japanese hot springs”
                                                Dogo Hot Spring, one of the
 literature, are the“Iyo no Yu”(Dogo Hot
                                                                       (Photo: Dogo Onsen Ryokan Association)
 Spring in Aichi prefecture), the“Muro no
Yu”(Shirahama Hot Spring in Wakayama
prefecture), and the“Arima no Yu”(Arima
Hot Spring in Hyogo prefecture). Literature
has indicated that“hot springs therapy”
became popular among ordinary people
after the Empress Jingu had some injured
soldiers cured at the Uba Hot Spring in
Kyushu. Hot springs therapy has had such
an ancient history in Japan.


 Kusatsu Town is very well known for its
                                                 Dr. von Bäelz (left) (Photo: Kusatsu Onsen Tourism Association)
hot springs and for the song that begins,
“Kusatsu yoitoko ichido wa oide [Kusatsu is a nice place; you should come here once])”. Some
say the Kusatsu Hot Springs were discovered when the god Yamato-takeru was returning from a
campaign in the east during the Yamato Dynasty, over 1800 years ago. Others say that the monk
 Gyoki opened the hot springs in the Nara period. Dr. Erwin von Bäelz from Germany studied the hot
 springs therapy practiced at Kusatsu. He came to Japan in 1876 on the invitation of the Japanese
 government. Called the“Father of Western medicine in Japan”, he contributed greatly to the
medical world in Japan. Dr. von Bäelz was fascinated with the environment around Kusatsu, and




                                                                                                         111
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           he admired the quality of its world-class
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           spa resort. He had a strong interest
           in the special qualities and mysterious
           benefits of the hot springs, which cannot
           be found in Europe. After investigating
           and surveying jikan-yu (timed bathing),

           the way of bathing peculiar to Kusatsu,
           he presented the effectiveness of jikan-
           yu at an academic meeting in Germany.
           Dr. von Bäelz instructed people at the
           Ikaho and Hakone Hot Springs about hot                 Jikan-yu (Photo: Kusatsu Onsen Tourism Association)
           springs medicine and the development of
           spa resorts. In 1880, he wrote The Japanese Mineral Spring Theory , in which he gave a definition
           of an ideal spa resort, asserted the importance of“air, environment, and nature”, and proposed the
           necessity of exercise to cure disease. Kusatsu not only attracts many tourists, but many people also
           go there to try to cure their illnesses.




           2)Modern hot springs ‒ From a therapeutic bathing place to a tourist spa
           ‒ the prosperity of the onsen ryokan [hot springs inn]
            Japan's first nationwide hot springs survey was conducted in 1886, and the Health Bureau of
           the Interior Ministry issued a report entitled Nihon Kosen-shi [Japanese Mineral Springs Report].
           Capitalism developed rapidly during the Meiji period in Japan. At this time, Japanese spa resorts
           grew from being mere therapeutic bathing places to being sites for convalesce and healing. During
           the ensuing Taisho period, some wealthier families built country estates around such hot springs as
           Atami and Hakone, and some of the spa resorts became populous recreation spots.
            In the more recent Showa period, many people in the cities visited spa resorts because the new
           arrangement of railway networks made travel more convenient. The spa resort areas that showed
           the greatest growth in popularity around this time include Minakami (on the Joetsu train line), Gero
           (Takayama line), Hakone (Odakyu line)
           and Kinugawa (Tobu railway). Many of
           these resorts accepted evacuee children
           and treated injured soldiers during the
           World War II.
            The objectives of the Hot Spring Law,
           enacted by the Ministry of Health and
           Welfare in 1948, are to preserve the hot
           springs, ensure their appropriate use,
           and assist them in contributing to the
           enhancement of public welfare (Article 1).
                                                                     (Photo: Nashigi Onsen Nashigi-kan and Haseo-tei)




            112
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

The law defines a“hot spring”as warm




                                                                                                              Chapter1
water, mineral water, steam, and gas
(excluding natural gas comprised mainly
of hydrocarbon) that gushes out of ground
and has a temperature or substances that
are defined in a separate table. This law
defines“hot springs sources”as those hot                                                                               
springs that have not yet been detected
(Article 2).
 Hot springs came into use as means of
enhancing people's welfare by providing
                                                                                     (Photo: Hakone-Ginyu)
for their rest, cure, and convalesce. Hot
spring proprietors also began to put
up notices displaying the components,
contraindications, and cautions for bathing
and drinking using the hot springs water.
 Japan enjoyed unrestrained economic
growth from the latter half of the 1950s
throughout the 1960s. During the period
of high economic growth (from 1955 to
1970 (16 years)), the country attained an
annual 9.8% rise in GNP. Spa resorts
also became hugely popular during this
time. The economy was good, and as                         (Photo: Nashigi Onsen Nashigi-kan and Haseo-tei)

many people visited spa resorts, accommodation facilities grew larger. More modern buildings were
constructed in many spa resorts, and the number of hot spring inns made of reinforced concrete
increased. In 1971, the Hot Spring Law jurisdiction was transferred from the Ministry of Health and
Welfare to the Environment Agency. Spa resorts were permitted to have guests come for sightseeing
and leisure purposes. Many spa resorts were transformed from therapeutic bathing places to a tourist
spots. Buses became as popular as railways. Many tourists got together in large groups to visit spa
resorts in large buses. Many of the spa resorts served as amusement areas, attracting primarily
male visitors. Around this time, too, most hot springs baths began to add water to, heat, circulate,
or sterilize the hot springs water, even though most people expected hot springs water to be 100%
natural.
 A hot spring boom occurred around 1985. Influenced by the bubble economy, people who went to
spa resorts sought first-class Japanese-style inns. Such guests tended to travel in smaller groups.
There were more small groups of working girls, who up until then had been a rather rare sight at
these resorts. Many spa proprietors invested a lot in constructing outdoor baths, which became very
popular. Since then, however, such facilities have endured hardships because of the long-term decline
in the number of guests.   




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              Introducing Japan's spa industry


             3)Onsen ryokan [hot springs inns] and spas
Chapter1


              Operating rates of major Japanese-style inns around Japan dropped from 48.3% in 1991 to 39.8% in
             2003 (Hotel , Sangakusha). Large-scale inns with 100 rooms or more had even lower operating rates.
             Hotel analyzed the issue as follows:
              “The local economy is stagnant. Consumers have changed a lot. The numbers of large groups that
             came for parties have fallen dramatically, and more people are travelling in smaller groups. During
             the bubble economy, many inns invested in building extensions and constructing party facilities,
        
             which caused them to run up heavy debts. Management did not respond fast enough to the changes
             in the times because it is usually small-scale private businesses that run hot springs inns.”
              Under such circumstances, businesses involved in the“revitalization of resorts”began proactively
             acquiring inns that had gone bankrupt.
              Recently, a few successful hot springs
             inns have introduced spa treatment
             facilities and employed therapists
             (estheticians).
              Hakone-Ginyu, for example, which
             was established in 1951, introduced spa
             treatments 14 years ago. Their directly-
             run treatment facilities offer exclusive,
             original services. They also began offering
             daytime spa treatments to those customers
                                                                              Spa treatments at the facilities directly run by Hakone-Ginyu
             who are unable to stay in their facilities
                                                                                                                   (Photo: Hakone-Ginyu)
             overnight.
              The following two hot springs spa inns have introduced spa treatments carried out by therapists
             (estheticians):
            ・Myojin-kan: founded in 1931; Tobira Hot Spring; spa treatment facilities introduced in 2003
            ・Beni-ya: founded in 1928; Yamashiro Hot Spring; Muka-yu spa treatment facilities introduced in
              September 2006




           Spa treatments at the Muka-yu facility in Beni-ya, known for its          Spa treatments at Myojin-kan, which offers phytotherapy-
                        use of medicinal plants (Photo: Muya-yu, Beniya)                               based procedures (Photo: Myojin-kan)




              114
                                                                                    Introducing Japan's spa industry

 Questionnaire-based survey on businesses claiming to be“spa”facilities operating at hot springs




                                                                                                                       Chapter1
inns and spa resorts (facilities considered to be offering spa services) (Ministry of Economy, Trade
and Industry report on the FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals;
           “METI questionnaire-based survey”)
hereinafter,
 Seventy facilities, out of 539 valid responses, answered they were hot spring inns. The survey
results showed that 88.5% of the respondents answered that“it was hard to say which gender was
dominant among customers”, followed by 10.1% who answered that“females were their main                                         
customers”. A look at age groups shows that customers in their“50s”are dominant at 43.3%,
                         “60s”, at 28.4 percent. The average revenue per customer is 8,188 yen.
followed by those in their




                           (     )                                     (    )




                 “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
          [Source:
                                     Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



 Respondents operating hotel facilities account for 66.7%, or over a half. The average size for the
facilities is 2,481.9 m2, and their average capacity is 403.6 persons. The yearly average number of
visitors was 130,191 in FY2005.
 Looking at how many facilities employ spa therapists, the survey showed that 15.5% of the facilities
employ therapists, and the average number of therapists employed per facility is 11.8. They also
responded that they plan to employ an average of 8.9 staff in the next five years.




                                         66.7                                                    15.5

                                           2,481.9                                                     11.8
                                            5                                                       1
                                        33,000                                                    25
                                            403.6                                                      8.9
                                            1                      5                                2
                                        5,000                                                     20
           2005                          130,191
                  “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
           [Source:
                                      Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




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             Introducing Japan's spa industry

             The service most commonly offered is“commercially-available cosmetic sales”(30.0%), followed by
Chapter1

           “other types of acupressure”and“facial treatments”(27.1% respectively). Most facilities (10.0%) say
            they would like to focus on“bedrock baths”.




        




                                 “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                          [Source:
                                                      Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]


             Taking a look at the qualifications held by the therapists employed by these facilities, most were
           “certified practitioners of acupressure and massage”(11.4%), followed by“certifications related to
            aromatherapy”(8.6%),“certified exercise trainers”, and“estheticians accredited by the Association
            Japonaise des Esthéticiennes”(5.7% respectively).




                   11.4       8.6      5.7      5.7     4.3      2.9      2.9     1.4      1.4     1.4      1.4      1.4


                                  “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                           [Source:
                                                       Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




             116
                                                                                     Introducing Japan's spa industry
 Among the respondents, 61% agreed or tended to agree with the statement that they would employ




                                                                                                                        Chapter1
foreign spa therapists. The facilities also answered that they were ready to have average 21% of their
employees be foreign therapists.




                                                                                                                                




                  “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
           [Source:
                                      Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




4)Hotel industry and spas
 Despite reaching 4.944 trillion yen in 1991 due to the rapid growth during the bubble economy, the
market size of the accommodations industry in Japan dropped to 3.313 trillion yen in 2004 because of
the decline in popularity of the Japanese-style inn. The Western-style hotel business seems to have
recovered after a drop in the first half of the 1990s. Many Western-style hotels, however, are in an
unfavorable situation, suffering“unfavorable legacies”left by the bubble economy. When the bubble
was fully inflated, the hotel industry was said to play a major role in the service-oriented economy
attained after Japan's high-speed economic growth. People made lots of money if they owned a hotel
or two.
 After the bubble burst, though, foreign hotels began opening and grew favorably, including the
Park Hyatt Tokyo, The Westin Tokyo, and the Four Seasons Hotel Tokyo at Chinzan-so. Japanese
Western-style hotels, on the other hand, started to close down, sellout, or go into bankruptcy. Many
hotel chains run by railway and airline companies were restructured in the year 2000, and foreign
capital funds began merging and acquiring hotels to open many new foreign-financed hotels. Many
new hotels appeared in the re-developed areas in Tokyo, including the Conrad Tokyo in Shiodome; the
Mandarin Oriental, Tokyo; The Ritz-Carlton, Tokyo; and The Peninsula Tokyo. All of these famous
luxury hotels are equipped with spa facilities.
 Such hotels have been the main contributors to the popularization of spas worldwide. The
Mandarin Oriental has been very successful with its own original spa brand.




                                                                                                               117
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

            Revenue per available room (RevPAR), which serves as an important benchmark for foreign-
Chapter1

           affiliated hotels, indicates sales per available guest room. Enabling comparisons of sales per available
           room, RevPAR has elements of the occupancy rate and the average daily rate (ADR), although the
           ADR becomes lower despite a high occupancy rate and vice versa. Spas have the potential to elevate
           RevPAR notably. If a guest staying at a hotel uses any of its spa services (e.g. fitness, treatments, and
           spa cuisine), then the profit per guest will rise.
        




                                                            Spa treatments offered at the Mandara Spa,Royal Park Shiodome Tower
                                                                          (Photo: Mandara Spa at the Royal Park Shiodome Tower)




           City center hotels
            Of the 539 facilities that responded to the METI questionnaire-based survey, 18 facilities answered
           that they run a“city center hotel”. When asked which gender was dominant among their customers,
           most (44%) responded that“they did not particularly target either gender”. The second most
           common answer was that they targeted“mainly women”(38.9%). The dominant age group is visitors
           in their“30s”(52%), followed by those in their“40s”and“50s”(17 .6% respectively). The average
           revenue per customer is 13,861 yen.




                                       (       )                                         (      )




                               “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                        [Source:
                                                   Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




            118
                                                                                    Introducing Japan's spa industry

 Judging by the outline of the facilities, over half of the respondents, accounting for 66.7%, offer




                                                                                                                        Chapter1
services where customers stay overnight. The average area of the facilities is 927.5 m2, and their
average capacity is 49.1 persons. Their average annual number of visitors was 37,420 in FY2005.
 Most of the survey respondents (64.7%) indicate that they employ spa therapists, and the average
number of such employees is 8.6. They also responded that they plan to employ an average of 7.8 staff
in the next five years.

                                                                                                                                

                                             66.7                                                           64.7

                                                 927.5                                                            8.6
                                                 53                                                            3
                                            3,388                                                            20
                                                                                                                  7.8
                                                 49.1
                                                                           5                                   3
                                             2           260
                                                                                                             20
            [Source:
           2005 “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                                           37,420
                                       Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



 The most commonly provided services are“aromatherapy”and“facial treatment”(77.8%
respectively), followed by“reflexology”(55.6%). Among top 15 services, most (11.1%) would like to
provide on“aromatherapy”.




                 “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
          [Source:
                                     Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry

            Most therapists working at the facilities have“aromatherapy certificates”and“CIDESCO
Chapter1

           certification”(27.8% respectively). They are followed by an“estheticians accredited by the Association
           Japonaise des Esthéticiennes”(27.8%).




        



                     33.3    33.3    27.8      16.7       16.7    16.7    11.1     5.6     5.6    5.6   5.6     %

                              “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                       [Source:
                                                       Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




            City center hotels are a little less willing to employ foreign spa therapists (53.3%“agree”or“tend
           to agree to their employment”), compared with the overall average rate (61.7%). They are ready to
           have an average 11% of their employees be foreign therapists.




                             “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                      [Source:
                                                      Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




            120
                                                                                   Introducing Japan's spa industry

Resort hotels




                                                                                                                           Chapter1
 Spas have been introduced into resort hotels
as well as city center areas. The word“spa”
is often included in the keywords for hotel
openings and renovations. Many different
spas have been opened. Resorts have a charm
peculiar to their own locality and offer an                                                                                        
environment that cannot be enjoyed in an
urban area. Japan is surrounded by sea in all
directions and has rich hot spring resources
and a favorable climate. With such a natural
environment, Japan has a great deal of
potential to further develop resort spas.


 According to the METI questionnaire-based
survey, 28 respondents answered that they
run“resort hotels”.
 Most (46.4%) answered that“they target
female customers”, and the same rate of
the respondents answered“they did not
particularly target either gender”. 
 Most respondents said that they target
customers in their“30s”(34.6%), followed by              The Windsor Hotel Toya Resort & Spa, a representative first-rate

those in their“40s”(30.8%) and their“50s”                      resort hotel (Photo: The Windsor Hotel Toya Resort & Spa)

(23.6%). The average revenue per customer is 10,963 yen.




                      (     )                                        (     )




                          “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                   [Source:
                                                                         Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



 Taking a look at the outline of the facilities, almost all (96.2%) respondents answered that they
accept overnight guests. The average area of the facilities is 65,165 m2, and the average capacity




                                                                                                               121
             Introducing Japan's spa industry

            is 101.8 persons. The average annual number of visitors was 27,770 in FY2005. In terms of
Chapter1

            employment, 62.5% of the facilities employ spa therapists. The average number of employees is 6.1,
            and they plan to employ an average 5.6 staff in the next five years.




                                                            96.2                                                        62.5

                                                               6,516.5                                                       6.1
                                                               50                                                         2
                                                80,767                                                                  14
                                                                                                                             5.6
                                                               101.8
                                                                                            5                             2
                                                           3             500
                                                                                                                        20
                             “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                       Source:
                         2005                               27,770
                                                  Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



             “Facial treatment”is most commonly offered (75.0%), followed by“aromatherapy”(64.3%), and
           “commercially-available cosmetic sales”(50.0%). Of the top 15 services offered, respondents indicated
            that they would like to provide                   and
                                           “facial treatments” “aromatherapy”(14.3% respectively).




                            “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                      Source:
                                                 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



             Most therapists working at spas have“aromatherapy certification”(42.9%), followed by
           “reflexologists”(21.4%) and“estheticians accredited by the Association Japonaise des Esthéticiennes”




             122
                                                                                      Introducing Japan's spa industry

 (14.3%).




                                                                                                                         Chapter1
                                                                                                                                 


            42.9      21.4       14.3       10.7       7.1        7.1        3.6        3.6        3.6         %


                    “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
              Source:
                                         Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]


  When asked whether they employ foreign spa therapists, 52.6% said that“they would agree”, or
“tend to agree”, to employ them. Resort hotel spas are fairly willing to employ foreign spa therapists,
 compared with the overall average (61.7%). They are ready to have an average 21% of their employees
 be foreign therapists.




                   “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
             Source:
                                        Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




                                                                                                                   123
            Introducing Japan's spa industry


           5)Development of hot bath facilities
Chapter1


            First opened in the Chukyo area in the
                                                           温泉法          温泉、鉱泉      日帰り温泉
           1990s,“super-sized bathhouses”grew in
                                                                        普通公衆浴場(銭湯) 物価統制令を受け、入浴料金が定め
           number in mainly urban districts because
                                                                                                    サウナ
           different industries could easily enter the    公衆浴場法                                     健康ランド、ヘルスセンター、温泉
           business and raise high profits by utilizing                  その他公衆浴場                     クアハウス
           unused assets.
                                                                                                    スーパー銭湯
                                                           岩盤浴
            Conventional bathhouses usually provide
                                                         足湯
           ordinary baths, herbal baths, and electric baths. They are also equipped with a weight scale and
           a massaging machine. The first super-sized bathhouses had sauna facilities, which were charged
           separately. Now, super-sized bathhouses are fitted with various types of equipment. This is a popular
           business to have because it can be run without business hour constraints or legal restrictions.


            Personality and individuality count
           today, and consumers prefer more relaxing
           facilities. The most popular types of
           new facilities are the rather posh super-
           sized bathhouses and day trip hot springs
           facilities.
            In 2003, Oedo Onsen Monogatari,
           Spa LaQua, and other large-scale hot
           spring facilities were opened in central
           Tokyo. Even larger than the super-sized
           bathhouse, these facilities are generally
                                                             Large-scale day trip hot spring facilities: Oedo Onsen Monogatari
           located next to amusement parks, have
                                                                                   (Photo: Oedo-Onsen-Monogatari Co., Ltd.)
           theme parks built around them, or serve
           as large-scale facilities with many tenants
           including restaurants and relaxation
           sites. Whereas target customers had
           been families that stay for several hours,
           facilities now offer more than just hot
           baths in order to target young people and
           young couples and youngsters.




                                                                        Large-scale day trip hot spring facilities: Spa LaQua
                                                                                           (Photo: Tokyo Dome Corporation)




            124
                                                                              Introducing Japan's spa industry

Modern bedrock baths




                                                                                                                   Chapter1
                       “bedrock baths”
 Records have shown that
were already known for their warm stone
therapy—one of the world's oldest therapies,
found in ancient China in the B.C. times.
 Tamagawa Hot Springs in Tajiri Town,
Akita Prefecture, has been considered the                                                                                  
origin of bedrock therapy in Japan.
 This hot spring is highly reputed for
its benefits of activating the metabolism,
restoring autonomic nerve balance, and
improving conditions and preventing
                                                                           Bedrock bath (Photo: Aqua Enterprise)
diseases.   More facilities have been
introducing indoor bedrock therapy using
black silica stone, radium stone, or holostone instead of“hokutolite”, which has been difficult to
obtain because it has been declared a natural treasure.


2003:          Bedrock bath facilities open in leased buildings in urban areas.
2004:          Number of facilities in leased buildings increases rapidly.
        (This happened because the mass media reported that managing bedrock bath
               facilities does not require any technical knowledge, or much capital investment or high
               running cost.)
2005:          Introduced into hot bath facilities (few users initially)
2006:          Users of facilities in leased buildings decrease because of a hygiene management
               notice in the media.
2007:          The above decrease continues while the popularity of bedrock baths among users of
               hot bath facilities increases. Hot bath facilities offering unlimited use periods begin to
               appear.
               Twenty percent of hot bath facility users want the facilities to include bedrock baths.
Jan. 30, 2007: Six bedrock bath businesses and three private facility owners from Fukuoka, Saga,
               Kagoshima, Yamaguchi, and Shimane file an appeal with the Fukuoka District Court
               against Shogakukan, Inc. and Kobunsha Co., Ltd., claiming a compensation of
               11,000,000 yen per business/owner.
Feb. 20, 2007: Japan Stone Plate Sauna Organization established.
2008:           Recently, hot bath facilities have become available 24 hours a day. The number of
                elderly users has risen.


 Bedrock baths are becoming one of the standard services at hot spring facilities. Some hot spring
facilities have recently introduced jimjil-bang, the Korean-style sauna. Neither bedrock baths nor
jimjil-bang requires the introduction of personal service, and as long as customers are interested in




                                                                                                          125
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           these treatments, they can ensure a high rate of use.
Chapter1




           Treatments at hot spring facilities
            Hot spring facilities have body care equipment, reflexology, and skin scrub treatments, and they
           have been introducing simplified esthetic treatments and ancient Thai massage increasingly.
        
            Such treatment equipment isn't really feasible for low-grade hot spring facilities that charge 300
           to 500 yen for use. Facilities that charge over 1,500 yen, however, may benefit from the treatment
           equipment because they expect customers to stay for several hours.


            Among the METI survey respondents, 25 answered their facility was a“super-sized bathhouse/
           health farm”. The highest portion of respondents answered that“they did not target either men or
           women”                                    “mainly women”
                 (76.0%), followed by those who target             (16.0%). The most targeted age group
           is those in their“40s”(43.5%), followed by those in their“50s”(26.1%). The average revenue per
           customer is 2,780 yen.




                                      (        )                                       (   )




                            “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                      Source:
                                                   Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]
            The average area of the facilities is 10,805.4 m2, and their average capacity is 536.1 persons. Their
           annual number of visitors was 280,522 for FY2005.
            As for employment, 31.8% of the facilities employ spa therapists. The average number of employees
           is 40.3, and they plan to employ 20.8 staff in five years.




                                                                     9.5                                                  31.8

                                                                     10,805.4                                                40.3
                                                                     100                                                    5
                                                                167,881                                                   100
                                                                                                                             20.8
                                                                       536.1
                                                                                                5                           2
                                                                 6             2,700
                               “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                         Source:                                                                                          100
                              2005                   Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]
                                                                   280,522


            126
                                                                                   Introducing Japan's spa industry

 “Peeling (skin scrub)”(72.0%) is the most common treatment offered today, followed by“facial




                                                                                                                      Chapter1
treatments”(64.0%), and“bedrock baths”(60.0%). Among the 15 services commonly offered, most
facilities would like to provide“bedrock bath services”(28.0%).




                                                                                                                              




                “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
          Source:
                                     Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




 Most of the therapists are“certified practitioners of massage and acupressure”(16.0%), followed by
those with“aromatherapy certification”(12.0%).




                             16.0      12.0       8.0        8.0       8.0       4.0        4.0        %
                “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
          Source:
                                     Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




 Fifty percent of the facilities say that they would (answered“agree”or“tend to agree”) employ
foreign spa therapists. This rate is lower than the overall average (61.7%). The facilities answered
that they would allow foreign spa therapists to total 15% of their employees.




                                                                                                             127
           Introducing Japan's spa industry
Chapter1




        



                            “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                      Source:
                                                 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




           6)Esthetic industry and spas
            The term“esthetic”is widely known
           among Japanese consumers. The scale of
           the industry is expanding every year, but
           there are no laws or acts that define the
           term and the scope of business.
            Outside Japan, a spa is thought to be
           something like a day spa, beauty spa,
           salon spa, or slimming spa. That would
           mean that the esthetic salon would be
           the counterpart in Japan.           Esthetic
           salons were the first to introduce                                                         Photo: Fuji Beauty Co., Ltd.

           thalassotherapy into Japan.




           History of the esthetic industry in Japan
            The first esthetic salon appeared in Japan around the Meiji period, when the facial massage was
           introduced into Japan from the United States. Kentaro Shibayama, a barber and beautician, learned
           facial massage techniques from Dr. W. Camblue, an American physiologist. Shibayama introduced
           facial massage into the service menu at his beauty salon in Yokohama in 1905. After the war, in
           1952, Miyoka Shibayama, Kentaro's daughter, opened a new salon that provided a full range of
           esthetic services such as facial care, body care, and makeup based on authentic esthetic techniques
           that she learned in France. Her salon ignited an esthetic service craze. Many esthetic salons were




           128
                                                                              Introducing Japan's spa industry

opened, and the term“esthetician”came into use.




                                                                                                                    Chapter1
There were no legal definitions for esthetic procedures
when the Cosmetologists Law was enacted in 1957.
 In 1970, the 24th Comité International d'Esthétique
et de Cosmétologie (CIDESCO) conference was held,
and the Japan branch was officially registered with the
international conference. In 1972, CIDESCO-NIPPON                                                                           
was set up as“Japan's first estheticians' association”.
CIDESCO is a worldwide estheticians' organization
that was established in Belgium in 1946 with a view to
providing global standards in knowledge, techniques,
equipment, and tools relating to esthetic services, as
well as makeup and cosmetic studies. This upgraded
                                                                                           CIDESCO-NIPPON
the overall level and promoted esthetic procedures,
                                                                            (provided by CIDESCO-NIPPON)
making them popular on a global scale. CIDESCO-
NIPPON reinforced education in esthetic techniques and theories and arranged for correspondence
courses and qualifications for estheticians in order to ensure the sound development of the esthetic
industry, social awareness, and to upgrade the estheticians who were to play an important role in the
industry. The organization is actively engaged in popularizing esthetic services and in propagating
sound practices in esthetic services.
 From the 1980s, as more women began to work, they became more fashion and beauty conscious.
Women became more involved in presenting themselves beautifully as people began to put more
importance on having individuality and lifestyle. As society became more and more stressful, toward
the 21st century, women wanted healthier skin, better figures, and mental and physical relaxation.
They came to expect more from esthetic procedures.




Esthetic salons and spas
 Pursuing beauty is very satisfying
to women. Although the economy has
stagnated somewhat, women are still
becoming more conscious about beauty.
Young women in particular enjoy using
makeup and styling their hair to make
themselves look more beautiful. When
women get older, they try to attain inner
beauty, and their physical beautification
efforts become more centered on anti-aging
remedies. Physical health is indispensable
in the quest for inner beauty and
                                                         Takano Yuri Cleopatra Kan (Photo: Fuji Beauty Co., Ltd.)




                                                                                                          129
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           attaining a more youthful appearance. These days, more men have become concerned about the same
Chapter1

           quest. The pursuit of beauty is a timeless theme. In Japan, esthetic salons help people pursue these
           goals. The current scale of the esthetic market is said to be around 400 billion yen.
            Recently, some“esthetic salons”have been converted into spas. Now offering spa services
           simultaneously, esthetic salons in Japan are becoming more sophisticated and going beyond the
           conventional forms of the business. Complex facilities have been opening up everywhere.
            
            With one of the largest service menus in the industry, Fuji Beauty Co., Ltd. runs the“Takano Yuri
           Cleopatra Kan”, an esthetic salon that provides accommodations. Featuring ayurveda treatments,
           the salon has hair esthetic rooms, VIP rooms (including rooms for male customers), esthetic rooms,
           guest rooms, a restaurant, a spa section, and a lounge. The Takano Yuri brand, one that offers high
           quality techniques and superior hospitality and equipment, operates a chain of 121 esthetic salons,
           with about 200,000 regular customers. The esthetic industry market has become saturated, and the
           clientele has become quite diverse. Many people have tried esthetic services now. Client diversity has
           encouraged the company to segment target customers and keep the right number of salons to provide
           customers with better services.
            With“beauty-wellness”(meaning that
           beauty is based on wellness) as their
           corporate philosophy, Beauty Top Yamano
           Co. Ltd. has an internal qualification
           system for beauty wellness planners.
           They promote the expansion of esthetic
           and fitness business domains in the beauty
           industry. They have been consigned to
           run a salon for hair, esthetic, and fitness
           services at“The Barrington House
           Bajikoen”, a high-grade nursing home for
           the elderly, which opened in May 2006.
            
            “Targeting customer satisfaction”as
           their corporate philosophy, Socie World
           Co., Ltd. has opened and operates salons
           for the more stylish set.           Under its
           theme of“becoming healed and beautiful
                                      as
           through the power of water” the theme,
           “Beauty Avenue Socie”operates healing
           beauty spas that use water treatments
           to help women get rid of their stress and
           draw out their inner beauty. Situated                        Socie World at Pan Pacific Yokohama Bay Hotel Tokyu
           in prestigious locations such as the            Top: head spa; bottom: swimming pool (Photo: Socie World Co., Ltd.)




            130
                                                                                       Introducing Japan's spa industry

Yurakucho Seibu, Shinjuku Takashimaya Times Square, and Pan Pacific Yokohama Bay Hotel Tokyu,




                                                                                                                               Chapter1
their salons serve as urban oases. These salons support the beauty and health of urban women, and
aim to become places where women can return to nature and use the power of water to recognize their
innate beauty and relax their bodies and minds, based on the three concepts of beauty, relaxation, and
wellness.
 Shape Up House Co., Ltd. has years of experience managing esthetic salons for men. They operate
over 60 salons around Japan under the“Dandy House”brand.                                                                               
 After the year 2000, large-scale esthetic chains began to introduce service menus for men and
develop this form of the business.


 Most said that“they target mainly female customers”(66.7%), followed by“those who target only
females”(26.7%). The most common target age group is people in their“30s”(80.0%), followed by
those in their“20s”(13.3%). The average revenue per customer is 17,361 yen. No respondents offer
accommodations.




                                                                               (   )
                              (     )




                  “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
            Source:
                                        Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]

 The average area of the facilities is 118.8 m2, and their average capacity is 7.8 persons. The
average annual number of visitors was 2,002 in FY2005. As for employment, 35.7% of the facilities
employ spa therapists. The average number of employees is 19.3, and the facilities plan to employ
10.7 staffs in five years.




                                                 0.0                                                     35.7

                                                     118.8                                                        19.3
                                                     25                                                       3
                                                 264                                                         50
                                                                                                                  10.7
                                                       7.8
                                                                           5                                  2
                                                 3           20
                                                                                                             20
                  “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
            Source:
                2005                                 2,002
                                        Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



                                                                                                                         131
             Introducing Japan's spa industry

            “Facial treatments”
                               are the most common (93.3%) today, followed by sales of
                                                                                     “commercially-available
Chapter1

            cosmetics”(80.0%), then“thalassotherapy”,“epilation”, and“aromatherapy”(73.3% respectively).
            Among the top 15 most common services, most said they would like to provide“sales of original
           cosmetics”(33.3%).




        




                              “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                        Source:
                                                   Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



            The qualification most commonly held by therapists working at these facilities is that of an
           “esthetician accredited by the Association Japonaise des Esthéticiennes”(60.0%). This is followed by
           “estheticians accredited by the All Nippon Esthetic Association”(53.3%),“CIDESCO certifications”,
            and“aromatherapy certifications”(26.7% respectively).




                                “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                          Source:
                                                     Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



             When asked whether they would employ foreign spa therapists, 53.9% of the facilities said that they
            would accept (answered“agree”or“tend to agree”) foreign spa therapists. This rate is lower than
            the overall average (61.7%). They said that they are ready to have foreign spa therapists total 15% of
            their employees.




            132
                                                                                    Introducing Japan's spa industry




                                                                                                                       Chapter1
                                                                                                                               

                “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
          Source:
                                     Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




7)Fitness industry and spas


History of fitness clubs
 The swimming school is the precursor to the fitness club in Japan. In 1971, Daiei Leisure Land
opened a swimming school, followed by NAS in 1973 and People in 1974. In 1976, the Central
Sports Club opened swimming facilities. These businesses led the swimming school industry, which
expanded rapidly. Around this time, Japan experienced a series of sports booms. Many of them
occurred as a response to influxes of American culture. Jogging, jazz dancing, and tennis, for example,
became popular after being introduced from the United States. Renaissance Inc. started as a tennis
school business in 1979. In 1981, Dr. Kenneth Cooper came to Japan to popularize aerobics, a term
that he himself invented. After the NAFA aerobics studio was opened in Harajuku, Tokyo in 1982,
aerobics became highly popular among young Japanese women. Japan was introduced to many
aspects of the American fitness style.
 'In the late 1980s, Japan experienced a bubble economy, and the fitness club industry enjoyed a
great deal of growth. Three leading players in the swimming school industry (Central Sports, People,
and NAS) converted their businesses into total fitness clubs that targeted adults in the way they built
their gyms and studios around their existing swimming pools. Large-scale companies from other
industries (Suntory's Tipness opened in 1987) entered the market because of its growth rate and the
healthful image of the industry. In 1988, a record 224 sports clubs opened—the highest annual number
ever in the industry. The Japanese fitness club industry entered a somewhat stagnant phase after the
collapse of the bubble economy in 1991, despite an unprecedented boom involving the yearly opening
of 200 new clubs from 1985 to 1989. In late 1994, however, some fitness clubs started to show an
improvement in performance, and the number of newly facility openings rose again.
 The collapse of the bubble economy led to a serious economic slump, which contributed to a fall in
membership and an overall decrease in profits for fitness clubs.




                                                                                                              133
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

            After the economic stagnation around
Chapter1

           1991, some fitness clubs improved their
           performance, and the number of club
           openings grew again in late 1994. This
           comeback is attributable mainly to good
           locations, bottleneck solutions for facilities,
           and the setting of reasonable charges that
           correspond to equipment and services
           offered, as well as enhanced efficiency in
           development and operations. Successful
           fitness clubs raised profitability when
           their proactive promotions, advertising,
           and marketing dramatically increased
           membership. They were able to create
           more substantial programs and services
           and cut costs at the same time. The
           fitness club market kept expanding yearly
           by about 1.5% until 2000. In spite of this
           expansion, the market size and growth                          Photo: Fitness Online, Club Business Japan, Inc.

           rate came to a halt again, and even shrank
           for a year or two. Fitness clubs introduced
           membership systems, with different types
           of membership that use different facilities
           at different hours. These memberships
           attracted new members temporarily, and
           this changed the atmosphere of the clubs,
           which had been unable to maintain their
           membership numbers. Reflecting on this
           failure, some of the fitness clubs tried to
           enhance customer satisfaction, through
           more elaborate mass customization, and                                          Photo:Chiva-som(Thailand)
           ensure quality-oriented management and
           operations to boost the average revenue
           per customer. They have yet to see any obvious outcomes. The fitness club industry is one of those
           few service industries that are striving to get ahead in the sluggish Japanese economy. The industry
           has been supported by middle-aged and elderly people who are becoming more health conscious. As
           Japanese society ages rapidly, its people are experiencing longer lives and rising individual medical
           expenses. The ratio of fitness club members in their 40s is increasing, and currently accounts
           for about 50%. Middle-aged and elderly people tend to visit fitness clubs very often. This helps
           some fitness clubs achieve a 25 to 30% utilization rate. This shows that more people have a better
           impression of fitness clubs and are interested in using them.




            134
                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

 The fitness club market status quo




                                                                                                               Chapter1
  In Japan, fitness clubs are generally similar, regardless of the scale of the company running them.
 They do not target different types of customers or have unique concepts. Ninety percent of the
 fitness clubs target general consumer and operates three types of facilities: gyms, swimming pools,
 and studios. The recent slump in the industry may mean that the conventional business model is
 becoming somewhat outdated and that a new business model is needed to create demand, enhance
 satisfaction, and satisfy customer needs.                                                                             
  The“White Paper on Leisure”issued in July 2007 reports that the fitness club market grew for four
 consecutive years, and achieved a 6.2% year-on-year increase, to 427 billion yen when the number of
 its facilities rose by 500 during the year.
 People often talk about the role of fitness
 clubs these days when they discuss the
 introduction of the new medical health
 checkup system. The outlook for the four
 major businesses that occupy 50% of the
 market is not very positive. Membership
is dropping since they cannot attract young
women, who have served as the main
target group for the past ten years. The
greatest damage has been done to those
 facilities that have had a higher portion
 of young female members in their 20s and
 30s. Large-scale fitness clubs are“all
 wondering where the young women have
 gone”. Perhaps they have gone off to yoga
 schools, spas, home training, or golf.
  In light of Japan's low birth rate and
 aging society, many fitness clubs began to
 target the middle-aged and elderly about
 five or six years ago. They added programs
 designed for the middle-aged and elderly,                                          Photo: Megalos Co., Ltd.
 including aquabics and other swimming
 pool exercises, stretching classes in the studios and slow-paced training sessions. The average age of
 members rises every year. Several years ago, elderly people and housewives were the main visitors
 in the daytime on weekdays, and young members used the facilities chiefly in the evenings and on
 weekends. Some have said that more young women are reluctant to use the swimming pool because
“they consider it rather unhygienic, and they think it's too much of a bother to get changed”. Young
 women these days prefer facilities that feature esthetic and spa services or offer one-on-one gym
 training to those that have a swimming pool. Fitness clubs for female members only have also opened
 up for those more self conscious women“who don't like to be stared at”.




                                                                                                      135
            Introducing Japan's spa industry

            In 2007, one woman in her 20s, who uses the hit DVD, Billy's Boot Camp , withdrew her membership
Chapter1

           from her fitness club. “It took her two hours to get to the fitness club, so she could not go very often.
           It's a waste of money if you cannot go there frequently. She was also bothered about traveling around
           without makeup after exercising. She was told about home training, which can be done at any time,
           and no matter what you wear.” Fitness clubs can't find any clear reasons to attract young women
           anymore. They suppose that“diversifying their health and beauty services will open up more options

           for their members”. Some believe that the“aging of their membership has meant that their facilities
           no longer have that special feel to them”, and that“their programs are no longer attractive to
           customers”.
            Many of the fitness clubs have been silent about what will happen with the designated health
           checkup and designated health guidance system, in which they will play the role of providing exercise
           guidance. Many facilities are planning to use standard diet programs and“watch the trends”.
           Fitness clubs wonder whether they will be able to provide the requisite services and guidance.


            With its significant corporate membership, Konami Sports & Life Co., Ltd. (Minato Ward, Tokyo) is
           planning to handle the“special health care guidance program”in terms of through IT-based health
           management tools, its nationwide network of facilities, and staff training. They plan to offer the
           “6WEEKS (personal coaching) program”, to encourage improvements in exercise, nutrition, and
           lifestyle, and utilize the features of the“Kenshin Keikaku [medical checkup planning] Web”, which
           uses pedometer, dietary, and other data for IT-based central health management.
            Central Sports Co. Ltd. (Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo) will offer a“metabolic syndrome improvement
           course”, which involves counseling, semi-personal coaching, a two-week low-calorie diet, and
           metabolic syndrome checkup. They will also develop more courses and enhance their alliances with
           clinics.
            Megalos Co., Ltd. (Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo) will offer its“Body Revolution Metabo Camp”for women
           who want to slim down. The program consists of a 12-week, 24-session course based on muscle
           training, aerobic training, and seminars. Members can take part in this entertaining credit-system
           program lesson by lesson.
            With thirteen clubs in Tokyo, Sportsplex
           Japan (Minato Ward, Tokyo) began early
           to offer services that combine medicine
           with fitness. Six of their fitness clubs have
           clinics, and at other clubs, members can
           receive physician instructions over an IP
           phone. Clinics share data on all members
           and provide fitness-related medical services
           to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. Their
           files, called Coordinate Sheets, include how
           often the member uses the fitness club,
           what health risks were discovered for the                                          Photo: Megalos Co., Ltd.
           individual during admission counseling,




            136
                                                                                    Introducing Japan's spa industry

actual program reservations, set goals, selected exercise programs, a history of the member's various




                                                                                                                          Chapter1
physical compositions, their pulse rate, physical condition, suppleness, past blood test results, and
other details from physician counseling. Physicians fill in the files. They believe that they can
achieve a certain level of guidance even if the physician does not specialize in sports medicine.
 Since“Curves”landed in Japan, the circuit-type format has rapidly increased in popularity. Now,
about ten companies rival each other in running circuit-type fitness clubs. At of the end of 2007, the
number of such fitness clubs in Japan had increased to 1,000 because people had become more aware                                  
of what they need to do to avoid metabolic syndrome. Operating 60% of all of such fitness clubs in
Japan,“Curves”continues to open 20 to 30 clubs a month. Some of these fitness clubs are located
within large-scale facilities and provide a space for circuit training. Some forecast that the market
will grow to 36 billion yen, with 3,000 clubs.


 Among METI survey respondents, thirteen answered they run“fitness/sports facilities”. Most“do
not target either gender”                    “mainly women”
                         (92.3%). A few target             (7.7%). The most commonly targeted
age group is those in their“50s”(54.5%), followed by those in their“30s”(27.3%). The average
revenue per customer is 3,807 yen.




                       (     )                                    (     )




                 “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
           Source:
                                      Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]
 A look at the outline of the facilities shows that 8.3% offer only services for customers staying
overnight. The average area of these facilities is 2294.3 m2, and their average capacity is 239.7
persons. The average annual number of visitors was 168,774 in FY2005. When asked about
employment, 16.7% of the facilities answered that they employ spa therapists. They had an average
number of 8.6 employees and plan to employ 12.0 employees in five years.




                                                   8.3                                                        16.7

                                                    2,294.3                                                        8.6
                                                    25                                                          2
                                                  9,866                                                       17
                                                     239.7                                                         12.0
                                                     4                       5                                  12
                                                  1,000                                                       12
                  2005 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
             Source:
                   “FY                           168,774
                                         Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]

                                                                                                                137
             Introducing Japan's spa industry

             The most commonly provided services are“fitness training”(84.6%), followed by“aerobics”and
Chapter1

           “weight machines”(76.9% respectively). Of the top 15 most common services offered, most of the
            facilities answered that they would like to provide“yoga”(30.8%).




        




                           “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                     Source:
                                                 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



            The qualification most commonly held by therapists working at spas is that of a“health fitness
            instructor”(61.5%), followed by“health fitness programmers”(53.8%), and“reflexologists”and a
           “practitioners of massage and acupressure”(15.4%).




                         61.5    53.8     15.4    15.4     7.7      7.7     7.7      7.7       7.7   7.7        %


                     “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
               Source:
                                                    Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



             When asked about employing foreign spa therapists, 50.0% said that they would (answered“agree”
            or“tend to agree”) employ them—a lower rate than the overall average (61.7%). They said that they
            are ready to have foreign spa therapists total 10% of their employees.




            138
                                                                                      Introducing Japan's spa industry




                                                                                                                           Chapter1
                                                                                                                                   


                    “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
              Source:
                                         Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




 8)Developing Japanese spa market
 Relaxation facilities
  Some businesses these days have been successful at attracting customers by providing massage,
 acupuncture, moxibustion, bodywork, and chiropractic treatment in an atmosphere of a beauty salon,
 and by offering straightforward services such as quick massages and foot point massages. Under
 the theme of“encouraging open minds”,
 Factory Japan Corporation has focused
 on developing the communications and
 hospitality skills of its staff. This training
aims at calming people down when they
are experiencing any anxieties or other
problems. When people are treated with an
“open mind”, the benefits of the treatment
are enhanced. Factory Japan is opening
facilities that will combine their original
bodywork with yoga. Sixty to 80% of its
customers visit their salons by appointment,
enabling them to operate their business
efficiently.
 Bodywork Corporation runs“Spa
Raffine”, which offers the combination of
 bedrock baths and a relaxation salon. They
 are planning to open salons, about 33                           Relaxation through bodywork provided at Karada Factory
                                                                                      (Photo: Factory Japan Corporation)




                                                                                                                  139
             Introducing Japan's spa industry

            m2 wide, within railway stations, using
Chapter1

            the station salon business model called
           “Station Style Raffine”. They will also
            open a salon at the“Riraku no Mori”
            within Namco Nanjatown, an urban
            indoor theme park. Namco Ltd. is also

            engaged in the consigned operation of
           relaxation facilities within hot springs
            facilities (e.g. Spa LaQua, owned by Tokyo
            Dome Corporation). They offer relaxation
           services with full treatment menus to
            meet diversified needs.                                                     Relaxation treatment at Spa Raffine
                                                                                           (Photo: Rebirth Tokyo Co., Ltd.)
             The“Relaxation Contact Association became the Association of Relaxation Promotion”in December
            2007 after repeated discussions about its sound development and the promotion of relaxation services.




           【Association of Relaxation Promotion Ethics Code, established on December 11, 2007】
            Article 1:       Members should be sincere in following the articles prescribed separately.
            Article 2:       Members should comply with the Medical Practitioners Law, the Pharmaceutical
                             Affairs Law, the Law for Practitioners of Massage, Finger Pressure, Acupuncture and
                             Moxacauterization, etc. and other related laws and regulations.
            Article 3:       Members should provide services in accordance with the service standards set forth
                             by Association of Relaxation Promotion, as stated on the reserve side of the association
                             enrollment application form.
            Article 4:       Members should realize maxim profit for consumers.
            Article 5:       Members should do their best to run the association.
            Article 6:       Members should keep secret any information that they learn in the course of running
                             the association.
            Article 7:       Members should provide services in accordance with the definition of relaxation as set
                             forth in the articles. Members must not make it appear, in advertisements or in their
                             operations, that they are offering massage or other medical treatments.
            Article 8:       Members may not request any unjust rewards.
            Article 9:       Members should bear their share including the costs prescribed by the association.
            Article 10:      Members should make efforts to develop the association, cooperate with other
                             members and contribute to the development of the industry in accordance with
                             this code, the articles and the service standards.




             140
                                                                             Introducing Japan's spa industry

【Association of Relaxation Promotion】




                                                                                                                Chapter1
 Outline of the service standards, established on December 11, 2007


 ■ Purpose of preparing service standards: What is relaxation?
  The Association of Relaxation Promotion defines“relaxation as“resting”,“following pastimes”,
 and“unwinding”. They define relaxation services as those that provide a space for the freeing of the
 body and mind from daily stress through the five senses and the use of fingers to stimulate the body”.                   
  The value that we should supply for customers is to ease the five senses, and provide relaxation
 and relief from stress. This is entirely different from therapeutic practices, such as massage. No
expressions must be used to confuse customers in this matter. Be proud that you are able to attain
customer satisfaction through offering relaxation. Observe the service standards. Try to boost the
 awareness that relaxation services are a safe and reliable service industry.


 ■ Advertising standards
 □ Prohibition of the word“massage”
・Do not use the word“massage”in any promotions or advertisements. The term may not be used
either as a noun or as a verb.


□ Prohibition of expressions that can be associated with medical treatment
・Do not use any expressions that can be associated with medical treatment or any expressions that
 can possibly be construed as such, in any promotion or advertisement. Expressions such as“curing/
 healing/treating any symptom/disease”, which can be associated with therapeutic benefits, may not
 be used.


 □ Clear presentation of duration and prices of services
・The duration and prices of relaxation services should be clearly presented.


 ■ Techniques and procedural standards
 □ The Association of Relaxation Promotion prohibits the following procedures as dangerous:
 •   Manipulative procedures that give strong pressure instantaneously (prohibited as a dangerous
     under the instructions of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
 •   Any movements to reposition or correct skeletal placement or which have a jarring effect on
     the spine (prohibited as dangerous under the instructions of the Ministry of Health, Labor and
     Welfare)
 •   Acts that can produce any trauma (prohibited because such acts apply to surgical operations
     under Article 17 of the Medical Practitioners Law)
 •   Other acts that may be considered dangerous


 □ The association warns members that the following procedures require caution:
 •   Procedures involving stamping with the feet (risk of after effects caused by excessive stimulation)
 •   Procedures using the tip of the elbow or knee (risk of a trouble caused by excessive stimulation)




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               Introducing Japan's spa industry

           •      Procedures performed by a male practitioner on the subclavical muscles, muscles between the ribs,
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                  or the chest muscles of a female client (risk of sexual harassment)
           •      Procedures provided by a practitioner of the opposite sex to the adductor muscle of the thigh or to
                  a site within 10 cm of the groin (risk of sexual harassment)
           •      Procedures using any equipment (manual procedures to be performed, as a rule)


        
           ■ Client exclusion and separation criteria
           □ For the safety of clients, the association prohibits provision of services clients if a client:
           •      Has a fever;
           •      Is frequently drunk;
           •      Has a sprained back, a fracture, a bruise, or a sprain;
           •      Is considered to have a skin inflammation or infection (because frictional stimulation can
                  exacerbate symptoms);
           •      Has severe osteoporosis;
           •      Has anamnesis of a cardiovascular/cerebrovascular disorder; or
           •      Is attending a clinic/hospital and has no permission for the procedure from the physician.


           □ The association asks members to exercise caution when providing services, to secure safety of clients, if
           a client:
           •      Is pregnant (a high level of caution required for early stages of pregnancy due to high risk)
           •      Has just had a surgical operation.




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                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

Store




                                                                                                               Chapter1
 Aveda is a brand that has a triune vision of
pursuing improvements in beauty, health, and
the global environment. It has been influenced by
ayurveda, which uses the person's natural healing
power to maintain a sound mind and body. The
Aveda Lifestyle Salon and Spa Minami-Aoyama is a                                                                       
two-storey building with a basement floor, and has
a total floor area of 546 m2. The Aveda Experience
Center, offering a full range of Avera products, and
the Pure Café, which provides organic food dishes,
are on the 1st floor. The Aveda Lifestyle Salon (104
m2), a hair salon, is on the 2nd floor, and The Aveda
Lifestyle Spa (113 m2) is on the basement floor.
 
 Spas and other facilities are appearing that offer
combinations of“products”and“procedures”.
They offer custom skin products for different times
of day and ways to regulate the mind and body.




                                                                                   Photo: Aveda Corporation



Department stores
 
 The“Isetan Beauty Park”, a general urban spa salon, was opened as the joint project of Isetan and
the Shiseido Group in 2004.The salon consists of the following four facilities:


1.   The“Beauty Park Salon Shiseido”, a
     hair salon
2.   The“Beauty Park Spa Decleor”, a spa
     under a French aromatherapy cosmetic
     brand
3.   The“Beauty Park Café Half Sweets”,
     a café
4. “Theethart”, a teeth whitening salon


 The facility was created to promote
relaxation and offer damage treatment.                                        Photo: Isetan Company Limited




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           At the hair salon, beauticians shampoo
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           the client's hair while the client is seated
           normally, not reclining. This type of a
           shampoo chair places no stress on the
           hairdresser or the customer. In addition
           to hair cuts and hair dying, customers may
           order a head spa service involving scalp
           massage in area that has been set aside for
           that purpose. Of the five spa rooms, one
           is a VIP room. Male customers may only
           to be served in the VIP room. The Beauty
           Park Café Half Sweets offers currently                             Isetan Men's Day Spa (Photo: Isetan Company Limited)
           popular raw food as well as organic food.
            In September 2007, the uppermost floor of eight-storied“Isetan Men's department store”was
           completely renovated and converted into the“Isetan Men's Residence”—a special spa for men that is
           offered as a place for relaxation. The floor is divided into four zones, labeled relaxing, dining, library,
                                                      is
           and around the home. “Isetan Men's Day Spa” placed behind a customized supplement section and
           a natural relaxing product section. Offering procedures that make use of“water”and“hands”, it
           provides over 30 different treatments and attracts many repeat customers.


            The following summary of the major characteristics of spa facilities in Japan was made possible by
           METI questionnaire-based survey.




                                CIDESCO                                              CIDESCO



                                                                          .




                            “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                      Source:
                                                 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]



            144
                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry

 For your reference, the following shows the facilities that are likely to continuously employ spa




                                                                                                               Chapter1
elements.
<Private facilities>
 •Beauty salons         •Barbers                 •Therapy practitioners
 •Esthetic salons       •Fitness clubs           •Relaxation facilities
 •Large-scale shopping malls                     •City center hotels
 •Resort hotels         •Hot spring inns         •Day trip hot springs                                                 
 •Resort facilities     •Aromatherapy salons •Thai massage salons
 •Ayurveda salons       •Independent facilities •Cosmetic surgery departments or clinics


<Public facilities>
 •Nursing facilities    •Clinics          •Hospitals
 •Acupuncture and moxibustion practitioners
 •Health promotion facilities accredited by Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare
 •Health promotion hot springs facilities accredited by Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare
 •Community sports facilities/sports complexes in communities




  It is widely believed that spa facilities in Japan will attract more attention because they will
take part in promoting health tourism—a new type of tourism that has come into demand recently.
They will take part by opening fitness clubs and medical spas that satisfy medical and beauty-related
needs (such facilities are expected to play a role in helping people avoid metabolic syndrome after the
introduction of the designated health checkup and designated health guidance system), and they will
limit their offerings to those visiting on day trips. In order to handle the changes brought about the
low birth rate and the aging of society, there will also be an increased need for experience-based travel
and the motorization of tourist places.
 In 2007, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry published the“results of its FY 2006 Study
on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals”. In 2008, they carry out an investigation to
determine the status quo of the domestic spa service industry, as well as forecast the future market
situation and predict the qualitative/quantitative personnel needs for spa therapists. They will collect
and summarize the information on the acceptance of Thai spa therapists in a FY2007 service industry
productivity upgrading support study (survey and research to discuss the acceptance of Thai spa
service professionals). This will aid an understanding of the human resource needs in Japan, clarify
staff requirements and help to prepare the basic materials to discuss the possibility of accepting
human resources from Thailand. The results of the METI questionnaire-based survey on acceptance
of foreign spa therapists are as follows:


・Acceptance of foreign spa therapists
 Eleven facilities (61.2%) said that“they would employ foreign spa therapists”while twelve (38.8%)
        “they would not”. This is a difference of 22.4 points.
said that




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             Introducing Japan's spa industry

             Among reasons for agreement cited,“recruitment of human resources having techniques that are
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           rare in Japan”(63.4%) was the dominant answer, followed by“upgrading the level of spa services in
           Japan”(55.4%), and“revitalizing the work place”(36.6%).
            The dominant reason for disagreement is“difficulty in communicating”(64.1%), followed by
           “differences in lifestyle practices and values”(53.1%), and“concern about troubles with customers”
            (48.4%).
        




                             “FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals issued in July 2007”,
                       Source:
                                                  Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry]




             Many spas are being opened in different locations: independent facilities, salons within shopping
            malls, department stores, hotels, resort facilities, and hot springs inns. It is important to conduct
            sufficient marketing research and set clear customer targets in advance in order to open new spas and
            operate them successfully. Now is a time when people must have the ability to come up with concrete
            proposals as well as the ability to make such preparations.
             You may have heard the term“lohas”. This term was created in the United States as an acronym
            for a“Life of Health and Sustainability”. It refers to a lifestyle where people are aware of the
            importance of wellness and building a sustainable society. If you claim you have a lohas lifestyle,
            it means that you are leading a healthful and environmentally friendly life, focusing on the future,
            rather than taking the short view.
             Spas should make people aware, through experience, of the importance of visiting spas routinely to
            enhance their quality of life.




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                                                                           Introducing Japan's spa industry

 The“report on FY 2006 Study on the Acceptance of Thai Spa Service Professionals”, dated July 27,




                                                                                                              Chapter1
2007, gives the following overview of the Japanese spa service industry:




[Overview of Japanese spa service industry]
(1)Market size (estimated)                                                                                            
 The market size in 2006 is approximately 560 billion yen. There are approximately 1,300 stores,
employing approximately 3,300 spa therapists.


(2)Growth potential in 5 years (estimated)
 The number of stores will increase by about 360 (27.7%). The number of those employed as spa
therapists will increase by about 2,500 (75.7%).


(3) Types of spa facilities
 Spa services are most frequently provided at“hot springs inns”, followed by“other independent
           “resort hotels”, and
facilities”,                   “super-sized bathhouses and health farms”.


(4)Qualifications held by spa therapists
 A high rate of therapists have aromatherapy certifications, or qualifications as reflexologists and
estheticians accredited by the Association Japonaise des Esthéticiennes, followed by those with such
national certifications as practitioners of massage and acupressure, practitioners of acupuncture, and
practitioners of moxibustion.


(5)Provision of spa services
 The most commonly provided services are“facial treatments”and“aromatherapy”. The facilities
would also like to provide such services more than others. They prefer not to provide“acupressure”,
while it already commonly provided.




[Issues relating to the future development of the spa service industry]
(1) It is important for the industry to have a common understanding about the definitions of“spa
services”and the scope of the business.


(2) It is effective to discuss the qualification systems and education systems that will satisfy future
                                                             “spa services”
industrial needs since the relationship between the details of             and qualifications are not
clear.


(3) It is important for the industry to build a career development system that has a more mid- to
long-term view, for example, promoting spa therapists to specialists or managers.




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           (4) It would be effective to employ more foreign spa therapists from overseas if sufficient manpower
Chapter1

           cannot be recruited domestically as the spa service industry grows.




        




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                                                                            Introducing Japan's spa industry


3.Market Trends in Japanese Spa Products




                                                                                                               Chapter1
                (Cosmetics)
 According to the“Functional Beauty Products – Marketing Handbook 2007”, a research report by
Fuji Keizai Co., Ltd., the general cosmetic product market was worth 2214.3 billion yen in 2006 (year-
on-year rise of 0.2%) and is forecast to be worth 2218.9 billion yen in 2007 (year-on-year rise of 0.2%).              
 Looking at the performance results for 2006, year-on-year increases were achieved in three
categories: eye & lip makeup (year-on-year rise of 1.6%), skin care (year-on-year rise of 0.7%) and
hair care (year-on-year rise of 0.6%). Sales dropped in body care, base makeup, men's cosmetics, and
fragrance. Fragrances underwent the sharpest decline, of 3.5%. In 2007, only two categories grew in
sales: skin care and eye & lip makeup.




< Sales trends by channel >
 Catalog sales continued to expand,
showing the highest growth in the
overall cosmetics market, thanks to
enhancements in tools to meet demand
and place orders, including Internet
mobile communications.          Different
industries have also entered the business.
Brands were once considered inadequate
to compete in the bricks-and-mortar
business and that now base their business
on catalog sales have successfully
attracted a wide range of customers
by upgrading the functionality of their
products and effectively combining
advertising activities with various
media. Many brick-and-mortar-based
                                                                               Photo: Bb Laboratories Inc.
businesses are starting to compete with
their rivals by positioning themselves as catalog sales businesses.


 In 2006, sales rose over the previous year in both brick-and-mortar stores and catalog sales
businesses. They rose by 20% for catalog sales businesses because of their remarkable growth.
Brick-and-mortar store sales dropped from the previous year in channels other than drugstores and
cosmetics & miscellaneous goods stores, which continued to mark favorable sales. Department stores
sales also dropped, when management practices, after several years of expansion, gave them less




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            Introducing Japan's spa industry

           power to attract customers. Although door-to-door sales remained sluggish, the catalog sales business
Chapter1

           kept up a favorable performance as different industries entered the market thanks to low costs and
           the abolition of complicated distribution routes including wholesalers. Existing players enhanced their
           products and advertising. Catalog sales are compensating for the decline in door-to-door sales, and
           contributing to the expansion of the market as a whole.


        


           < Notable concepts >
           1)Catalog sales in the skin care business
            The business started when Fancl Corporation entered the market in 1980. The market grew,
           expanding from mail order shopping to online shopping, thanks to raised awareness among consumers
           influenced by word-of-mouth websites and publications in related magazines. Without limiting their
           targets to busy or working women, catalog sales in the skin care market have attracted a wide range
           of customers, elevating the ratio of the whole skin care market. Skin care market catalog sales are
           expected to grow by 5% annually until 2008 or so, while the skin care market as a whole is expected to
           grow by less than 1 percent. The share of skin care market catalog sales is likely to grow further.


           2)Hair care business gets products that are a little more expensive but have higher functionality
            Some shampoos, conditioners and hair packs, costing from 700 to 1,000 yen, for example,“Asience”
           (Kao Corporation),“Tsubaki”(FT-Shiseido),“Ichikami”(Kracie Home Products, Ltd.) and“Segreta”
           (Kao Corporation), have been introduced into the market and advertised as being slightly more
           expensive but having higher functionality. This brought about a shift in consumer needs, toward the
           more expensive products. The average unit price of these products was expected to rise 15.2% in 2007,
           and continue to rise a further 7.0% in 2008.
            
           3)Skin care business
            The demand for”anti-aging products (to improve the signs of age, including wrinkles and the
           loosening and discoloration of the skin)”has risen because Japan has become an aging society and
           more middle-aged and elderly have become conscious about their skin. Now that the children of the
           baby boomers are in their 30s and a higher percentage of the population is becoming concerned about
           age-related skin problems, demand is expected to increase. A growing number of“anti-aging”skin
           products include“skin whitening”effects.


           4)Body care
                                                 “fragrances and aroma”products as well as special products
            There has been high growth in sales of
             “delicate skin”. L'occitane and other lifestyle brands are increasing their sales of
           for                                                                                  “moisturizers”.
           These lifestyle brands have contributed to a higher awareness of the aromatherapeutic effects of




           150
                                                                                                Introducing Japan's spa industry

fragrance products. Other brands have also successfully met the demand for high value added aroma




                                                                                                                                     Chapter1
products.
 




< Actual imports of cosmetics into Japan >                                                                                                   
 According to the Cosmetic Importers Association of Japan, cosmetic product (excluding toiletries
such as toothpaste and soap) imports in 2006 amounted to approximately 165.4 billion yen, which was
a slight rise from the previous year (163.6 billion yen in the previous year; a year-on-year increase of
101.1%). There was slight growth again, as in 2005.
 Looking at cosmetic imports as a whole, the two big exporters remained at the top: imports from
France were 55.2 billion yen (53.4 billion yen in the previous year; a year-on-year increase of 3.4%)
and those from the United States were 36.3 billion yen (39.1 billion yen in the previous year; a
year-on-year decrease of 7.2%). There was a slight drop in imports from the United States for two
consecutive years. The third importer was China, with 14.9 billion yen (a year-on-year increase of
17.3%), followed by Italy, with 9 billion yen (a year-on-year increase of 1.1%), Germany, with 6.4
billion yen (a year-on-year decrease of 1.5%), the UK, with 6 billion yen (a year-on-year increase of
17.6%), Switzerland, with 2 billion yen (a year-on-year increase of 5.3%), Taiwan, with 1.7 billion yen (a
year-on-year decrease of 15.0%), and Belgium, with 1.5 billion yen (a year-on-year increase of 21.0%).

List of statistical chart, Statistical Survey on Trends in Production by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
(Chemical industry statistics)
                                   Cosmetics                  Makeup products (kg)                 Specific use products (kg)
                      (Value of Shipments: million yen)
Month and year
                                   Perfume, Hair care Production       Sales      Inventory   Production     Sales      Inventory
                      Cosmetics     Eau de     products   Quantity    Quantity    Quantity    Quantity     Quantity     Quantity
                                    Cologne


2004                   1,422,141       5,507    395,178   4,813,881   4,490,064     755,368   15,578,323   14,637,130    2,076,072
2005                   1,505,637       5,719    406,855   4,827,531   4,729,254     790,274   15,346,780   14,534,296    2,436,404
2006                   1,499,725       5,219    409,430   4,881,323   4,670,074     822,673   17,408,592   17,457,901    2,328,876
FY2005                 1,508,639       5,463    410,061   4,797,615   4,680,124     842,219   14,990,508   15,083,586    3,201,015
FY2006                 1,500,409       5,158    405,521   4,865,544   4,685,315     799,851   18,734,802   18,707,491    3,405,645
2006 July to Sep         375,845       1,112    104,924   1,306,314   1,280,762     879,527    3,448,011    4,083,761    2,481,169
       Oct. to Dec.      391,218       1,799    108,195   1,130,972   1,129,179     822,673    3,173,536    3,347,970    2,328,876
2007 Jan. to May         353,239         962     90,557   1,148,051   1,089,722     799,851    6,711,751    5,734,850    3,405,645
       Apr. to June      379,468       1,035    106,374   1,117,202   1,119,197     766,666    6,736,320    6,355,511    3,473,511
       July to Sep.      376,919         993    109,172   1,280,913   1,251,055     813,987    3,962,719    4,812,831    2,741,386
2006 Sep.               122,751         344      35,441    378,214     381,482      879,527    1,271,394   1,133,217    2,481,169
       Oct.             130,280         728      35,031    394,708     392,865      882,050     804,892      985,723    2,334,841
       Nov.             120,074         722      33,569    374,731     341,025      877,654     876,641    1,053,180    2,197,884
       Dec.             140,863         348      39,595    361,533     395,289      822,673    1,492,003   1,309,067    2,328,876




                                                                                                                               151
Chapter 2




                          Chapter 2
              Import and Marketing of Spa Products




            152
                                                           Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


1.Procedures for Importing Spa Products
into Japan
 First, importers need to know which products cannot be imported or are difficult to import
into Japan.




                                                                                                              Chapter2
1.Products that cannot be imported into or marketed in Japan

 The importation of these products is banned or strictly controlled. Needless to say, the importation
of narcotics, guns, obscene items and fake brand goods is banned under the Customs Tariff Law.
Animals, plants and products derived from animals or plants and farm products that are subject to                     
the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) under
the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Law cannot be imported either. Some of the special
kinds of herbs or suchlike contained in spa products need to be inspected before being imported.
Some medical drugs, cosmetics and food cannot be imported into Japan due to control on ingredients
and other concerns. Some products cannot be used in Japan due to a difference in standards. For
example, home electric appliances used in spas have different voltages, outlet configurations and
other particulars. Videotapes that comply with different standards cannot work even if imported into
Japan.


< CITES >
 The objective of CITES is to protect endangered animals and plants. It controls international
transactions and specifies these animals and plants in treaty annexes that concern the control
of transactions. Amendments to annexes I and II are discussed at biennial meetings where
representatives of CITES countries gather. Each of these countries is allowed to submit an
amendment plan for Annex III. In Japan, an amendment to the annex becomes effective when it
appears in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’official gazette as the Ministry’s announcement.


<Trademark Rights>
 Products that are made without the approval of the party who owns the intellectual property rights,
so-called imitations or fake-brand goods, are generally referred to as products that infringe intellectual
property rights, and include products that infringing patent rights, utility model rights, design rights,
trademark rights, copyrights and neighboring rights, circuit layout rights and breeder’s rights.
 Article 21 of the Customs Tariff Law bans the import of goods infringing intellectual property rights.
 In Japan, commercial law rights accrue when an application filed with the Japan Patent Office
in compliance with the Trademark Law is registered. However, commercial law rights do not apply
in any countries outside Japan. Commercial registration requires the relevant types of product, in
addition to the relevant trademark, to be specified in it. These products may be the likes of cosmetics




                                                                                                       153
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           and soap, for example. Registered trademarks can be exclusively used within the scope of the
           designated products. Trademark owners are empowered to ban any other party from selling products
           that have a similar trademark. Trademark rights last for ten years after registration, and the
           registration can be renewed every ten years. In this way, the trademark rights can continue.
            It is possible to import into Japan spa-related products that are made and marketed overseas
           provided that the trademark of the relevant products is not registered in Japan. Otherwise it could
           infringe other trademark rights.
Chapter2




           2.Products that entail lengthy procedures
        
            Some products, such as cosmetics, require a marketing license to be obtained or an import
           inspection to be undertaken before distribution.
            To facilitate transportation and import procedures, the imported foods, tableware and Notification
           Form for Importation of Foods (Food Sanitation Law) must be submitted to the food inspection
           department of a quarantine station located in a major port in Japan so that the department can
           conduct an inspection. In addition, the submission of a list of ingredients may be required after
           inspection.
            Even if no public inspection by the country of Japan is required, products that require importers to
           take responsibility for ensuring compliance with standards are increasing. Unless the standards are
           satisfied, importers could receive repeated complaints or even be sued for product liability.
            According to Japanese law, items that are subject to import restrictions must be granted permission
           or approval or undergo an inspection before clearing customs. The following is a list of laws
           concerning import restrictions and domestic marketing, as well as products to which the laws apply.


                  < Japanese Laws on Imports >

                  Export and import

                   Pharmaceutical Affairs       Cosmetics, medical drugs, quasi-drugs, medical

                   Food Sanitation Law          Food, additives, tableware


                  Export/import quarantine

                   Plant Protection Law         Bulbs, plants, cut flowers, seeds, fruits, vegetables etc.


                  Distribution in Japan

                   Electrical Appliance and
                                                Electrical goods, wiring materials and tools etc.
                   Material Safety Law




            154
                                                         Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


     Indication related
      Law for Preventing
      Unjustifiable Lagniappes and             Products of all kinds
      Misleading Representation


                           Spa-related goods                                Applicable law
                                                                        Food Sanitation Law,




                                                                                                            Chapter2
       Food, supplements, tea, herbal tea, tableware
                                                                        JAS Law
      Fresh fruits and vegetables, dried herbs                         Plant Protection Law

      Medical drugs, medical supplies, cosmetics                       Pharmaceutical Affairs
                                                                       Household Goods Quality
      Clothing, towels, linen
                                                                       Labeling Law
                                                                       Electrical Appliance and
                                                                                                                    
                                                                       Material Safety Law,
      Home electric appliances, spa fixtures and supplies
                                                                       Household Goods Quality
                                                                       Labeling Law

      Essential oils, decorations, containers




3.Restrictions on transport
 Restrictions apply to international mail and couriers concerning the types of items or size. Items
that are subject to many restrictions, that require temperature control or that exceed the standard
size or weight have to be treated as air/sea cargo and require the importer to independently
undertake customs procedures or assign it to a custom broker. These products also require delivery
arrangements to be made in Japan.




4.Post-import costs
 After importing products, the costs for inspections and other procedures, freight charges, insurance
and the cost of disposing of unsold products may have to be considered.




5.Indications on products marketed in Japan
 Clothes, food, home electrical appliances and other products that are required to have Japanese
indications must have such indications in compliance with the Law. Besides being a translation of a
foreign language, the Japanese indications must be accurate and comply with the Law.




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             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


            6.In the import business, all commodities are subject to taxation


            ◎ Even samples must be assigned an estimated price.
             The import business is about selling imports to traders and general consumers for business
            purposes.
             In the import business, therefore,“all commodities are subject to taxation.” Import procedures are
Chapter2




            required whether you buy a much less expensive product priced one dollar or so, or buy a product that
            for which you have not yet decided to sign a contract.
             For example, the importation of inexpensive portable items into Japan requires an import
            application form to be issued in the airplane and an invoice to be filled in and attached. The invoice
            may serve as a bill of lading, a written claim and a record of purchase.
             An invoice may be substituted in the form of a receipt, which may be added to documents submitted
            at customs clearance.
             An application must also be filed for samples that are provided free of charge or are intended for
            advertising or demonstration. For example, you may include the following statement on an invoice:
           “The imported item is a sample only and has no commercial value”. Nevertheless, you would have to
            indicate the price to facilitate duty assessment.
                    Therefore, you must write an estimated price in the Price space even if the item is not
            intended for sale.
             To import samples for advertising or demonstration purposes, you may write:
                                                  "Sample ‒ No Commercial Value"
            and specify the estimated price in the Price space.




            156
                                                                 Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

  The following covers Japanese laws concerning each spa-related item to be imported in more detail. These items
 do not include medical drugs or medical supplies.


 2.Products that Fall under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law such
 as Cosmetics, Soap, Massage Oils and Toothpaste




                                                                                                                    Chapter2
(1) Pharmaceutical Affairs Law
  As stated in Article 1, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law“is aimed at putting in place the regulations
 necessary to ensure the quality, effectiveness and safety of medical drugs, quasi-drugs, cosmetics and
 medical instruments, and to improve health and hygiene by taking the actions necessary to facilitate
 the research and development of medical drugs and medical instruments that are in particular
 demand in medical practice.”
                                                                                                                            
  To fulfill the above aims, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law is enforced in Japan and strictly controls
 the importation of cosmetics and other spa requisites.




(2) Definition of Cosmetics, etc.
  “According to Clause 3, Article 2 of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, cosmetics are substances
 that work gently on the body and that are intended to be applied or sprayed onto the body or used
 in other similar ways for the purpose of cleaning, beautifying and/or enhancing the attractiveness of
 the human body, changing the user’s appearance in a positive way and/or keeping the skin or hair
 healthy.”
  This is the legal definition of cosmetics. Massage oil, shampoo, rinse, lipstick and everything
 else used at a spa, other than medical drugs, that may be applied to the skin can be referred to as
 cosmetics. Quasi-drugs are generally regarded as medicinal cosmetics and are also designated by the
 Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare.
 “Quasi-drugs refer to substances that are categorized into any of the following definitions, that work
  
 gently on the human body and are not a mechanical appliance; or that are equivalent to these. Quasi-
 drugs also refer to those designated by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, and do not refer to
 those intended for uses that are restricted in medical drugs even though the above requirements are
 satisfied.”



 1)Quasi-drugs provided by the Law
  1.  Quasi-drugs are used for any of purposes (a), (b) and (c) below and are not a mechanical appliance or
         suchlike:
         (a) To prevent nausea or other kinds of discomfort or to prevent bad breath or body odor
         (b) To prevent heat rashes, sores or suchlike
         (c) To prevent hair loss, restore hair or remove hair




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            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

                   (d) To eradicate rats, flies, mosquitoes or other equivalent creatures and to ensure the good health of
                     human beings or specific animals; and are not a mechanical appliance




           2)Quasi-drugs specified by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare(in
           accordance with the Ministry’s announcement No. 14 in 1961, the Ministry’s announcement No. 202 in
           1995, the Ministry’s announcement No. 31 in 1999 and the Ministry’s announcement No. 285 in 2004)
Chapter2




            1. Cotton, including paper cotton, intended for hygienic purposes
            2. Quasi-drugs that fall under any of the following and work gently on the human body
                   (1) Products intended to eliminate stomach discomfort
                   (2) Anti-snoring medication
                   (3) Sanitary drugs whose active ingredients are mainly calcium, except those mentioned
                      in (18) below
                   (4) Gargles
                   (5) Stomachic drugs except those mentioned in (1) or (26)
                   (6) Mouth and throat drugs except those mentioned in (19)
                   (7) Agents used when wearing soft contact lenses
                   (8) Disinfectants except those mentioned in (14)
                   (9) Anti-chilblain and anti-chapping drugs except those mentioned in (23)
                   (10) Evacuants
                   (11) Digestants except those mentioned in (26)
                   (12) Products intended to nourish and strengthen the body
                   (13) Sanitary drugs whose active ingredients are mainly a crude drug
                   (14) Products intended to disinfect or protect the surface of the skin that has been scratched,
                      cut, punctured, blistered or injured in another way
                   (15) Medicines for intestinal disorders except those mentioned in (26)
                   (16) Hair dyes
                   (17) Disinfectants for soft contact lenses
                   (18) Products intended to supply vitamin or calcium during physical labor, or intended for
                      middle- and old-aged persons
                   (19) Products intended to eliminate discomfort in the throat
                   (20) Agents for permanent waves
                   (21) Anti-nasal congestion drugs (external medicine only)
                   (22) Sanitary drugs containing vitamins, except those mentioned in (12) or (18)
                   (23) Products intended to eliminate chapping, heat rashes, sores, corns, calluses, chapping of
                      the hands or feet or hand dryness
                   (24) Intended to prevent acne, roughness or dryness of the skin, rashes, chilblains and other
                      skin problems or to disinfect the skin or the mouth, in addition to the purposes stated
                      in Clause 3, Article 2 of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law
                   (25) Bath salts
                   (26) Products that fall under at least two of (5), (11) and (15)
                   (3) 2. above refers to medicinal cosmetics and medicinal toothpaste.




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                                                                 Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


 The law classifies the effects of cosmetics and quasi-drugs.


 3)Effects of cosmetics
(1)Clean the scalp and hair                         (2)Give off a scent to control the odor of the hair or scalp
(3)Keep the scalp and hair healthy                  (4)Make the hair straight and stiff
(5)Moisten the scalp and hair                       (6)Keep the scalp and hair moist
(7)Make the hair supple                             (8)Make the hair easy to comb




                                                                                                                     Chapter2
(9)Keep the hair lustrous                           (10)Add luster to the hair
(11)Eliminate dandruff and itching                  (12)Control dandruff and itches
(13)Supplement and keep moisture and oil in the hair
(14)Prevent the hair from breaking, splitting or fragmenting
(15)Retain a hairstyle                              (16)Eliminate static electricity from the hair
(17)Clean the skin (by removing dirt)               (18)Prevent acne and heat rashes (through cleaning)
(19)Keep the skin in a good condition               (20)Keep the skin texture in a good condition                            
(21)Keep the skin healthy                           (22)Prevent roughness and dryness of the skin
(23)Tighten the skin                                (24)Keep the skin moist
(25)Supplement and keep moisture and oil in the skin         (26)Keep the skin supple
(27)Protect the skin                                         (28)Prevent the skin from becoming dry
(29)Soften the skin                                          (30)Make the skin taut
(31)Add luster to the skin                                   (32)Smooth the skin
(33)Facilitate shaving                                       (34)Maintain a good skin condition after shaving
(35)Prevent heat rashes (powdered cosmetics)                 (36)Prevent sunburn
(37)Prevent spots or freckles after sunburn                  (38)Add a scent
(39)Protect the nails                                        (40)Keep the nails healthy
(41)Keep the nails moist                                     (42)Prevent roughness of the lips
(43)Maintain a good texture of the lips                      (44)Keep the lips moist
(45)Keep the lips healthy
(46)Protect the lips and prevent the lips from becoming dry
(47)Prevent roughness that results from dried lips           (48)Smooth the lips
(49)Prevent cavities (toothpaste applied before brushing the teeth)
(50)Keep the teeth white (toothpaste applied before brushing the teeth)
(51)Remove tartar (toothpaste applied before brushing the teeth)
(52)Clean the mouth (toothpaste)                             (53)Prevent bad breath (toothpaste)
(54)Remove grime from the teeth (toothpaste applied before brushing the teeth)
(55)Prevent tartar from settling (toothpaste applied before brushing the teeth)

 Note:   “Supplement and keep” may also be regarded as either “supplement” or “keep” individually.
 Note:   The Japanese words hifu and hada are both translated as “skin.”
 Note:   Descriptions in parentheses are not included in the effects and involve limitations with consideration of
         how the product is used.




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           Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


           4)Classification of the effects of medicinal cosmetics
              Types of product                                          Effects
                                      Prevent dandruff and itchiness
                                      Prevent the hair and scalp from giving off a sweaty odor
           1.Shampoo                  Clean the hair and scalp
                                      Keep the hair and scalp healthy
                                                                               Choose either of the tow
                                      Make the hair supple
                                      Prevent dandruff and itchiness
Chapter2




                                      Prevent the hair and scalp from giving off a sweaty odor
                                      Supplement and keep the hair moisturized
           2.Rinse
                                      Prevent the hair from breaking, splitting or fragmenting
                                      Keep the hair and scalp healthy
                                      Make the hair supple                    Choose either of the tow
                                      Treat rough and dry skin
                                      Treat heat rashes, chilblains, chaps and acne
                                      Prevent oily skin
                                      Prevent rashes after shaving
           3.Face lotion
                                      Prevent spots and freckles after sunburn(Note 1)
                                      Prevent flushes after sunburn or snow-tanning
                                      Keep the skin clean and taut.Keep the skin in a good condition.
                                      Keep the skin healthy and moist
           4.Cream, milky             Treat rough and dry skin
           lotion, hand cream,        Treat heat rashes, chilblains, chaps and acne
                                      Prevent oily skin
           cosmetics oil
                                      Prevent rashes after shaving
                                      Prevent spots and freckles after sunburn(Note 1)
                                      Prevent flushes after sunburn or snow-tanning
                                      Keep the skin clean and taut.Keep the skin in a good condition.
                                      Keep the skin healthy and moist
                                      Protect the skin and prevent it from drying
                                      Prevent rashes after shaving
           5.Shaving agents
                                      Protect the skin and facilitate shaving
                                      Prevent the skin from drying after sunburn or snow-tanning
                                      Prevent sunburn and snow-tanning
           6.Sunblock
                                      Prevent spots and freckles after sunburn(note 1)
                                      Protect the skin
                                      Treat rough and dry skin
                                      Prevent acne
                                      Prevent oily skin
           7.Pack                     Prevent spots and freckles after sunburn(Note 1)
                                      Prevent flushes after sunburn or snow-tanning
                                      Make the skin smooth
                                      Clean the skin
                                      <Mainly consisting of disinfectants. This category also includes those
                                      mainly containing anti-inflammatory agents>
           8.Medicinal soap        Clean and disinfect the skin
           including face-washing  Prevent body odor, sweaty odor and acne
           agents                 <Those mainly containing anti-inflammatory agents>
                                       Clean the skin, prevent acne, rashes after shaving and dried skin




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                                                                 Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

   Note 1) Depending on the mechanism, “Control melanin formation and prevent spots and freckles” may also
      be acceptable.
   Note 2) Irrespective of the above, products whose claims are focused only on the classification of the effects of
       cosmetics (see page 159) are not regarded as quasi-drugs.


   Facts that can be indicated and advertised as part of the cosmetics’benefits must fall within the
scope of the abovementioned effects and within the effects of the relevant product.
   Indication and advertisements concerning benefits for makeup, such as“preventing makeup




                                                                                                                       Chapter2
exfoliation”,“keeping small wrinkles inconspicuous”and“making the skin fresh and young”; and
of usability factors like“a refreshing feeling” “invigoration”
                                               and            may be acceptable as long as it is not
 false.




                                                                                                                               


(3)Importation of Cosmetics into Japan
 The importation and marketing of cosmetics in Japan require a“manufacturing license”and a
                                 to
“manufacturing/marketing license” be obtained.
 As stated in Articles 13 and 21 of the abovementioned law, requirements for obtaining a
“manufacturing license”include the establishment of structural standards of the relevant
 manufacturing facility regarding packing, indication and storage; establishment of applicants’ requirements;
and the appointment of a chief engineer. According to Article 12 of the Law, Good Quality Practice
(GQP) and Good Vigilance Practice (GVP) are included in the requirements for obtaining a
“manufacturing/marketing license”and the appointment of a manufacturing/marketing supervisor is
also required.
 As provided in Articles 12, 13, 12-2, 14, 17, 18, 19-2 and 23 of the Law, omitting the name of an
 ingredient from indications on cosmetics requires premarketing approval and manufacturing and
marketing approval for each item.
 According to Articles 17 and 18, Clause 2 of Article 42, Article 61 and Articles 51 to 57 pursuant
to Article 62, manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics require a manufacturing and marketing
notification to be submitted in advance for the purposes of clearly indicating the item(s) to be produced
 and marketed. The produced and marketed products must also satisfy the standards for cosmetics
 and suchlike.
  Importing cosmetics requires an import notification form for manufacturing and marketing (Article
94 of the Rules)or a notification form for manufacturing and importation (Article 95 of the Rules) to be
filled in and submitted to the director of the relevant regional bureau of health and welfare prior to
customs clearance. As an equivalent for manufacturing licenses in Japan, overseas facilities making
quasi-drugs are required to obtain certification while overseas facilities making cosmetics are required
to make notifications.
 As stated in Article 61 and Articles 51 to 57 pursuant to Article 62, it is not necessary to obtain a




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            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


           marketing license when marketing cosmetics in Japan. However, it is necessary to observe the laws
           and regulations on the handling of cosmetics.



           (4)Manufacturing License

            As stated in Articles 13 and 21 of the Law, the manufacture of cosmetics for business use requires
           that a manufacturing license be obtained. A manufacturing license may not be granted if:
Chapter2




                   [1] The candidate licensee fails to satisfy material requirements regarding construction,
                      equipment and suchlike; or
                   [2] The candidate licensee is subject to any of (a) to (e) of No. 3 of Article 5 (human
                      requirements) regarding an applicant and a chief engineer.


            Manufacturing licenses for cosmetics are given to each relevant manufacturing facility in
           accordance with the following two classifications as stated in Clause 2, Article 13 of the Law, Clause 4,
           Article 26 of the Rules and Notification No. 0709004-3 of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau
           dated July 9, 2004.
                   [1] Facilities that are engaged in all or part of the manufacturing process of cosmetics except
                      those mentioned in [2] (Classification: general)
                   [2] Facilities that are concerned only with packing, indication or storage in the                 
                        manufacturing process of cosmetics (Classification: packing/indication/storage)
            Importing and marketing cosmetics in Japan are classified under [2] above.



           1)Material Requirements
             The abovementioned classification [2] (packing/indication/storage) for manufacturing licenses
           involves the following material requirements. Classification [1] involves other requirements.



              【Construction and equipment standards for manufacturing facilities】
               
                   Construction and equipment of manufacturing facilities of cosmetics manufacturers
                   classified into packing etc.
             1.   Fixtures and installations to keep the products and materials cleanly and safely are required.
             2.   The floor area needs to be large enough for the manufacturing operation to be done properly.
             3.   Equipment and devices to test and inspect products and materials are required. However, this does not
                  apply where other test/inspection equipment of the manufacturer or of another test/inspection agency
                  is used to conduct the relevant test or inspection under the manufacturer’s own responsibility, with no
                  problem expected from this.




           ・ Concerning partial assignment of manufacturing ( 10 (2) of Notification No. 0709004-3 of the
           Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated July 9, 2004)
            The old law stated that tests and inspections necessary for manufacturing control and quality
           control must be conducted in the relevant manufacturing facility. As long as the test can be properly




            162
                                                          Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


conducted with regard to GMP, however, assigning it to an outside testing facility may be acceptable.
  Similarly, it should be allowed to assign tests and inspections on medical drugs, medical devices,
quasi-drugs and cosmetics to which GMP does not apply to an outside agency as long as the relevant
manufacturer can ensure the validity of the test or inspection.



2)Human Requirements




                                                                                                             Chapter2
1)Applicants’requirements
   As stated in No. 3, Clause 2 of Article 13 of the Law, a license may not be granted if the submitted
  application form or, if the application form is submitted from a corporation, an official of the
  corporation who handles related duties falls under any of the reasons of disqualification.
       (a) Less than three years after being revoked the license in accordance with Clause 1 of
         Article 75
       (b) Less than three years after completing or being exempted from imprisonment or severer                     
         punishment
                  “Exempted”may result from prescription, amnesty or the expiration of
         probation period.
       (c) Less than two years after violating the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, the Narcotics and
         Psychotropics Control Law, the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Law or
         other Pharmaceutical Affairs Law or a prescription that is based on any of the above
         laws. This does not apply to those falling under (a) or (b).
       (d) Grown-up wards or those addicted to narcotics, marijuana, opium or stimulant drugs
       (e) Physically or mentally disabled persons who the ordinance of the Ministry of Health,
       Labour and Welfare deems incapable of properly handling work of the manufacturer


   As stated in Notification 19 of the Planning Division of the Pharmaceutical Bureau dated March
          “an official of the corporation who handles related duties”
  31, 1982,                                                         refers to any of the following:
     (1)       For joint-stock corporations and limited companies
               A director who represents the company or is in charge of the work concerning the
               license affairs on the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. In a manufacturing company for
               example, the director in charge of manufacturing operations may fall under this
               definition.


       (2)     For cooperatives
               All directors. Inspectors do not fall under this definition.


       (3)     For limited partnerships
               All of the unlimited partners unless otherwise specified in the articles of association


       (4)     For unlimited partnerships
               All staff members unless otherwise specified in the articles of association


       (5)     For foreign companies
               A representative as defined in Article 479 of the Commercial Law




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            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


           2) Appointment of a chief engineer
            Articles 17 and 23 of the Law and the ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
           require cosmetics manufacturers to install a chief engineer at each of their manufacturing facilities
           for the purpose of ensuring on-site control of cosmetics manufacturing.
            To eliminate the possibility of health-related problems, Clause 6, Article 17 of the Law requires
           the chief engineers of cosmetics manufacturing facilities to supervise staff members working in the
           facility, to maintain the equipment, cosmetics and other goods of the facility and to exercise the
           necessary care concerning other tasks at the facility.
Chapter2




            The manager or chief engineer of a cosmetics manufacturing facility is required to record facts
           about manufacturing, tests and other management issues for the facility and, if the effective period
           or the time until which the medical drugs etc. concerning the relevant record can be used must be
           recorded, to keep the records for three years, which includes the effective period and one subsequent
           year. However, this does not apply where other provision of the ordinance or other pharmaceutical
           ordinance requires such records to be created and kept. (Article 90 of the Rules)


                  【Requirements for Chief Engineers】(Clause 2, Article 91)

                   The person must:
                     1.   Be a pharmacist,
                     2.   Have completed a pharmaceutical or chemical course at a junior high or high school under
                          the previous system or equivalent as a minimum,
                     3.   Be engaged in the manufacture of medical drugs or cosmetics for at least three years after
                          taking pharmacy- or chemistry- related subjects at a junior high or high school under the
                          previous system or equivalent as a minimum, or
                     4.   Be certified by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare to have a level of expertise and
                          experience that is at least of the level of Item [3] above.




            Concerning [3] above, chief engineers of manufacturing companies engaged in the packing,
           indication or storage only may add the experience of warehousing/shipping, packing and indication
           work at separate warehouses for import marketing companies operating under the pre-amended
           Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.
            “Certified by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare to have a level of expertise and experience
           that is at least …”mentioned in [4] above refers to people who, for example, are for practical purposes
           engaged in the manufacture of medical drugs or cosmetics for at least five years, irrespective of their
           academic background.




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                                                             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

(5)Manufacturing and Marketing License


  After the amendment to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law took effect in April 2005, a licensing system
 for companies engaged in manufacturing and marketing was established. The objective was to clarify
 product liability in the market, improve post-marketing safety activities and ensure international
 consistency by separating manufacturing-related activities from the ongoing manufacturing
 companies that consist of both manufacturing- and marketing-related activities, and by establishing




                                                                                                                Chapter2
 a new category for a licensing system, namely manufacturing and marketing, where licensees are not
 supposed to have their own manufacturing facilities. 
  As stated in Clause 12, Article 2 of the Law,“manufacturing and marketing”concerns
 manufacturing, etc. (i.e. assigning manufacturing, not assigning manufacturing. This also applies
 below) or selling, leasing or providing imported medical drugs (except drug substances), quasi-drugs,
 cosmetics or medical devices.
  Only those who are licensed by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare according to the types
                                                                                                                        
 of quasi-drugs or cosmetics are allowed to engage in manufacturing and marketing of quasi-drugs or
 cosmetics for business purposes. To ensure good practice in manufacturing and marketing without
 causing problems with regard to health and hygiene, Articles 12 and 12-2 of the Law specify Good
Quality Practice (GQP) and Good Vigilance Practice (GVP) as license requirements.
 In addition, it is necessary to appointment a manufacturing and marketing supervisor to engage in
quality control and post-manufacturing and marketing safety control.
  In consideration of the above, licensing a manufacturing and marketing company involves the
 following requirements.


  [1] GQP: compliance with the standards stipulated in Ordinance 136 of the Ministry of Health,
      Labour and Welfare (2004) in the quality control procedures
  [2] GVP: compliance with Ordinance 135 of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2004)
      in the procedures of post-manufacturing and marketing safety control
  [3] Compliance with human requirements concerning an applicant or a manufacturing and marketing
      supervisor




 1)GQP (Good Quality Practice)
  Good Quality Practice (GQP) is based on the so-called“GQP Ordinance”, namely Ministerial
 Ordinance on Standards for Quality Control of Drugs, Quasi-drugs, Cosmetics and Medical Devices
 (2004, Ordinance No. 136), and is regarded as the requirements for manufacturing and marketing
 companies accompanying the shift to the license system for these companies. In this way, GQP is also
 intended to facilitate clarification of product liability in the market.


【Outline of the Standards】
  Besides Chapter 1 (General Rules: Aim and Definition) applicable to all parties concerned, the GQP
 guidelines for companies producing and marketing quasi-drugs or cosmetics include the following
 provisions.




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             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


            1.   Appointment of a quality assurance supervisor as stated in Article 17
            2.   Documents and duties related to quality control procedures as stated in Article 18
            3.   Application related to Article 19: duties of a manufacturing and marketing supervisor,
                 organizations and staff members concerned with quality control and duties of a quality control
                 supervisor
             
           【Principles of Operation】
             Japanese prefectures provide principles of operation of the GQP Ordinance. Japan Cosmetics
Chapter2




            Industry Association publishes the“guidelines for good quality practice for manufacturing and
            marketing of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics and other kinds of quasi-drug”. This is regarded
            as the common guidelines to manufacturing and marketing companies.



        
            2)GVP (Good Vigilance Practice)
             As with GQP, Good Vigilance Practice (GVP) was established as the so-called“GVP Ordinance”in
            accordance with the Ministerial Ordinance on Standards for Post-marketing Safety Management for
            Drugs, Quasi-drugs, Cosmetics and Medical Devices (2004, Ordinance No. 135). Accompanying the
            shift to a license system for manufacturing and marketing companies, the establishment of GVP was
            intended to clarify product liability in the market, improve post-marketing safety activities and ensure
            international consistency.
             The statements of GVP are classified into different types of risk. Chapter 4 includes more simplified
            requirements and thus applies to Level 3 products entailing very small risk, namely quasi-drugs,
            cosmetics and general medical devices.


           【Principles of Operation】
             Japanese prefectures provide principles of operation of the GVP Ordinance. Japan Cosmetics
            Industry Association publishes the“guidelines for good safety practices for the manufacturing and
            marketing of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics and other quasi-drugs”. This is regarded as the
            common guidelines for manufacturing and marketing companies.




            3)Supplement (GMP on Cosmetics etc.)
             The amendment to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law enforced in April 2005 states that Good
            Manufacturing Practice (GMP) does not apply to medicated or non-medicated cosmetics or other quasi-
            drugs except the kinds of quasi-drug that require particular care in manufacturing control and quality
            control specified in the ordinance of the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare. However, this does
            not mean that cosmetics etc. do not need to be controlled under GMP. GMP items are subject to GMP
            compliance testing. Concerning non-GMP items, manufacturing companies are supposed to“guarantee
            the validity through on-the-spot testing”. The operation of GMP should be based on the voluntary
            GMP standards provided by the Japan Cosmetics Industry Association.




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                                                                   Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


4)Human Requirements
1)Applicants’qualifications
The required qualifications for applicants for manufacturing and marketing companies are the same
as those for manufacturing companies(See page 163).


2)Appointment of a manufacturing and marketing supervisor
 In compliance with the ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, cosmetics
manufacturing and marketing companies are required to appoint a manufacturing and marketing




                                                                                                                      Chapter2
supervisor to ensure good quality control and post-manufacturing/marketing safety control for
cosmetics. (Clause 1, Article 17 of the Law)
 As stated in Clause 2, Article 17 of the Law and Article 87 of the Rules, cosmetics manufacturing
and marketing supervisors must observe the following rules:


   a. Remain well-informed about the Laws and practical affairs concerning quality control and                                
      post-manufacturing/marketing safety control, and impartially and appropriately fulfill the
      supervisory duties.
   b. Where deemed necessary in ensuring impartiality and accuracy of the relevant duties,
      submit documents expressing the supervisor’s opinions to manufacturing and marketing
      companies. Retain copies of the documents for five years.
   c. Maintain close contact with the person responsible for quality control of cosmetics
      (hereinafter referred to as the safety control supervisor).


      【Requirements for manufacturing and marketing supervisors】 Clause 2, Article 85 of the Rules)
                                                               (
        A cosmetics manufacturing and marketing supervisor must satisfy any of the following
        requirements. The person must:

       [1] Be a pharmacist,
       [2] Have completed a pharmaceutical or chemical course at a junior high or high school under the
          previous system or equivalent as a minimum,
       [3] Be engaged in the manufacture of medical drugs or cosmetics for at least three years after taking
          pharmacy- or chemistry- related subjects at a junior high or high school under the previous system
          or equivalent as a minimum, or
       [4] Be certified by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare to have a level of expertise and
          experience that is at least of the level of Item [1], [2] or [3] above.


 “Certified by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare to have a level of expertise and experience
that is at least …”mentioned in [4] above refers to people who, for example, have experienced the role
of a marketing supervisor for medical drugs (except Article 86 of the Rules), advanced management
medical devices, or management medical devices irrespective of school background. (Notification No.
0709004-2-11 of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated July 9, 2004).


3)Appointment of a safety control supervisor or a quality assurance supervisor
 A cosmetics safety control supervisor and a quality assurance supervisor must satisfy the following
requirements.  




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               Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

                 [1] Capable of appropriately and smoothly fulfilling duties to ensure safety, and
                 [2] Does not belong to a department involved in the marketing of cosmetics and is unlikely to impede the
                     appropriate and smooth fulfillment of other safety-related duties.




           (6)Other Necessary Procedures
Chapter2




           After an amendment to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in April 2005, procedures for importing
           cosmetics were significantly changed. Before that, the relevant reporting only required a“document
           for the marketing of imported cosmetics”. Based on government notices concerning


           •     The handling of medical drugs etc. that do not require manufacturing or marketing approval after
                 the enactment of the amendment to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (Notification No. 0331015 of
                 Evaluation and Licensing Division of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated March
                  31, 2005);
           •      The scope of overseas quasi-drug and cosmetics manufacturers (Notification No. 0331018 of
                 Evaluation and Evaluation and Licensing Division of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau
                 dated March 31, 2005); and
           •     The handling of import reports on medical drugs etc. (Notification No. 0331004 of Compliance and
                 Narcotics Division of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated March 31, 2005),


           “Manufacturing and Marketing Report”,“Foreign Manufacturer/Distributor Report”and“Report
           of Import for Manufacturing and Marketing”must be filled in and submitted. This also requires
           application forms to indicate the following information. 


                 1 Manufacturing after obtaining classification permission requires this blank area to be filled in.
                 2 Enter“Cosmetics”under Classification.
                 3 For Process, specify the scope of the process that the relevant classification permission applies
                     to and that is conducted at the relevant manufacturing facility. The following is a list of
                     manufacturing processes to which classification permission applies.


            Classification                                         Process
                               Grinding, weighing, notching, powder processing, mixing, dissolution, kneading,
                               cresting, spray-drying, capsule filling, soft capsule forming and filling, rounding,
                Cosmetics
                               coating, filtration, suspension, emulsification, concentration, drying, ointment, casting,
                               painting, cutting, filling, soaking, gas filling, sealing, packing, indication
            Note: Product samples, doctors’samples and test samples can be imported provided they do not
                     exceed a limited quantity. Where the required documents are presented to the customs house,
                     samples exceeding the specified quantity may be imported after the importer obtained the
                     certificate of pharmaceutical inspection by submitting documents to a pharmaceutical inspector.


                      For details, contact the pharmaceutical department in your prefecture.




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                                                        Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


1)Manufacturing and Marketing Report
 As stated in Article 14-9 of the Law and Article 70 of the Rules, cosmetics distributors intending to
sell and make cosmetics are required to submit a Manufacturing and Marketing Report to the governor
of the prefecture where an office with the distributor’s main functions is located. The report must be
divided into different items. Making and selling imported cosmetics also require a Manufacturing and
Marketing Report to be submitted.




                                                                                                           Chapter2
2)Certification and Reporting by Overseas Manufacturers (Foreign
Manufacturer/Distributor Report)
 Because medical drugs and medical devices imported into Japan are distributed within Japan,
Article 13-3 of the Law allows overseas manufacturers manufacturing products exported to Japan to
be certified by the Japanese Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare for the purpose of ensuring safety
of the products marketed in Japan and preventing hazards to health and hygiene. Such certification is               
the requirement for manufacturing and marketing companies to obtain manufacturing and marketing
approval.


< Exceptions for cosmetics >
 Overseas cosmetics manufacturers that are not required to obtain approval stated in Article 14 of the
Law are exempted from the application and inform the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare of the
name or address of the person who is going to make and sell or make the relevant cosmetics overseas,
and the name and address of the office of the person.
 Importing into Japan raw materials of cosmetics (bulk or semi-manufactured goods) that were made
overseas requires the name of the exporting manufacturer to be reported. To import more than one
raw material of cosmetics mentioned in 1, manufacturers of the respective materials must be reported.
(Notification No. 0331018 of Evaluation and Licensing Division of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety
Bureau dated March 31, 2005 and Japan Cosmetics Industry Association Q&A 43 dated May 10, 2005)
Either way, imports via an overseas manufacturer who is concerned in packing, indication or storage
alone do not require the reporting on the relevant manufacturing and marketing business.



3)Reporting of Importation for Manufacturing and Marketing
 Regulation authorities need to keep informed about imports so that they can prevent unapproved
medical drugs from being imported. For this reason, manufacturing and marketing companies or
manufacturing companies importing, making and selling or manufacturing products are required to
fill in and submit a Report of Import for Manufacturing and Marketing (Article 94 of the Rules) or
Manufacturing and Import Report (Article 95 of the Rules) to the director of the regional bureau of
health and welfare before going through customs formalities.




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             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


           (7)Major Legal Regulations

            As stated in Articles 17, 18 and 69 of the Law and Article 62-2 of the Rules, importers must inform
           the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare of a study report documenting the possibility of hazardous
           effects of specific cosmetics within 30 days after the importer learned it.
            According to Article 68-8 of the Law, occurrences of infectious diseases possibly resultant from use
           of the imported biobased product must be followed by a study of the product in accordance with the
           knowledge obtained from latest theses and other sources. The results of the study must be reported to
Chapter2




           the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare on a regular basis.
            Predetermined rules apply in the stages of development, manufacturing and marketing,
           distribution, use and manufacturing. All of these stages are systematically monitored. The Ministry
           of Health, Labour and Welfare (including other organization assigned by the Ministry) or the
           prefectural government sends a pharmaceutical inspector to manufacturing facilities, sales offices and
           shops for on-the-spot inspections. This is intended to maintain consistency in the quality, indications
           and other elements of cosmetics. Furthermore, the inspectors’scope extends to advertising
           activities in order to ensure safety in the supply of cosmetics by preventing defective cosmetics, false
           representations, exaggerated advertisements and suchlike. (Articles 66 to 77 of the Law)


           < Biobased Products >
            As defined in Clause 9, Article 2 of the Law, biobased products refer to medical drugs, quasi-drugs,
           cosmetics or medical devices that are made (or itemized. The same applies below) from or with
           something that derived from human beings or other organisms including plants. After a discussion
            with the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council, the Ministry of Health, Labour and
            Welfare has designated biobased products and elicits extra care on the part of the users with regard to
            health and hygiene.


           < Requirements for Biobased Products >
             [1] The requirements concern actions that must be taken when materials that are derived from
                  humans or other organisms and are designed for medical drugs, quasi-drugs, cosmetics and
                  when medical devices are used in the manufacturing process. Biobased products also refer to
                  products, including cosmetics, that have the same ingredients and dosage forms as those already
                  specified as a biobased product.
             [2] The requirements do not apply to products that are not directly exposed to the human body.
             [3] Handling of human- or animal-derived ingredients
                      Combining human- or animal-derived ingredients must comply with the Standard for
                     Biological Ingredients. “1 Standard for Ruminant-Derived Ingredients”of Standard No.
                     4: General Rules of Animal-Derived Ingredients apply to materials derived from cattle and
                     other ruminants. However, this is subject to change if the number of countries in which BSE
                     is prevalent increases. Please keep updated on this.


           < Special Biobased Products >
            As defined in Clause 10, Article 2 of the Law, special biobased products are a kind of biobased
           products that necessitates actions to prevent the occurrence or spread of hazards to health and
           hygiene after the product is distributed, leased or provided. The Minister of Health, Labour and




            170
                                                           Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


Welfare has designated special biobased products after a discussion with the Pharmaceutical Affairs
and Food Sanitation Council.


< Indication of All Ingredients >
 In April 2001, a new system requiring indication of all ingredients was introduced and the approval
system was, in principle, abolished. This led to drastic deregulation. The amendment was intended
to provide consumers with more choice in accordance with their continually diversifying demands,
while keeping the consumers adequately informed.




                                                                                                              Chapter2
 The classification-based approval system was abolished. In its stead, regulations with the use
of a list of prohibited or restricted ingredients and a list of acceptable ingredients for addition to
ingredients like antiseptics, ultraviolet absorbents and photosynthetic pigments were launched,
just as they were in western countries. In addition, a new system requiring the indication of all
compounded ingredients was launched. (2000, Notices No. 330, 331 and 332 of the Ministry of Health
and Welfare and Notification No. 990 of the Pharmaceutical Bureau)                                                     


(8)Standards for Cosmetics
 Since April 2001, the prohibition and restriction on addition of ingredients other than antiseptics,
ultraviolet absorbents and tar pigments (hereinafter referred to as the“Negative List”) and the
restriction on the addition of antiseptics, ultraviolet absorbents and tar pigments (hereinafter referred
to as the“Positive List”) for cosmetics have been regarded as Cosmetics Standards in accordance
with Notice No. 331 of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (2000). The addition of ingredients
that do not contravene any provision of the Cosmetics Standards may be allowed if the company
takes responsibility in ensuring the safety of the ingredients and in choosing them. (Notification
No. 331 of the Ministry of Health and Welfare dated September 29, 2000; Notification No. 990 of
the Pharmaceutical Bureau; Notification No. 163 of Evaluation Division dated March 6, 2001; and
Notification No. 220 of Compliance and Narcotics Division)


1)Raw materials overall
 Raw materials of cosmetics, including the impurities they contain them and those that are at risk of
causing infection, must not carry with them any hazard with regard to health or hygiene.


2)Negative List
   a. It is unacceptable to add any of the ingredients included in Appendix 1 to ingredients other
      than antiseptics, ultraviolet absorbents and tar pigments. The addition of ingredients included
      in Appendix 2-1 must be limited to the quantity specified on the box corresponding to the
      maximum content per 100 grams. The addition of ingredients included in Appendix 2-2 must
      be limited to the quantity specified on the box corresponding to the maximum content per
      100 grams depending on the type of the cosmetics or what they are used for. As long as these
      prohibitions and restrictions are not violated, companies are allowed to choose, at their own
      responsibility, the ingredients other than antiseptics, ultraviolet absorbents and tar pigments to
      be included.




                                                                                                       171
           Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan




             b. Cosmetics must not contain the ingredient in medical drugs except ingredients intended for use
                 as additive only. However, the ingredients of medical drugs that are contained in any of the
                  cosmetics that have already been approved by March 31, 2001 or in any of the medical drugs
                  included in the Comprehensive Licensing Standards of Cosmetics by Category (February, 1961,
                  Notice No. 15 of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, shown in an appendix) may be included
                 in cosmetics as long as they are limited to within the quantity of ingredients acceptable for
                 approval or within the quantity of ingredients specified in the Comprehensive Licensing
Chapter2




                 Standards of Cosmetics by Category.


           3)Positive List
             a. The use of antiseptics and ultraviolet absorbents must be limited to those included in Appendix
                 3 (antiseptics) or Appendix 4 (ultraviolet absorbents). They must each fall within the respective
                 maximum quantity per 100 grams.
                 “Cosmetics that are not used for mucous membranes and are drained with dirt”in Appendices
                 3 and 4 applies to cosmetics, so-called cleaning cosmetics, that are designed solely to wash away
                                                                        in
                 dirt. “Cosmetics that may be used for mucous membranes” the same table refers to cosmetics
                 applied along the eyelashes solely for makeup purposes, cosmetics used solely to protect the lips
                 or enhance the effect of makeup, and the so-called eyeliner cosmetics, lip cosmetics and mouth
                 cosmetics used to clean the mouth or prevent bad breath.


             b. Antiseptics refer to those contained in cosmetics for the purpose of inhibiting the growth
                  of microorganisms in the cosmetics. Antiseptics do not include those designed to prevent
                 essential oils, alcohol or other products from decaying. Ultraviolet absorbents refer to those
                  that specifically absorb ultraviolet rays and those contained in cosmetics for the purpose of
                  protecting the skin or hair from the hazardous effects of ultraviolet rays. Ultraviolet absorbents
                  do not include those contained solely for the purpose of protecting the product from ultraviolet
                 rays.


             c. Usually it is unrealistic to assume that any of the components shown in Appendix 3 or 4 are
                 contained for other effects than those of antiseptics or ultraviolet absorbents. If this is the case,
                 regulations on the compounding restriction should be followed.


             d. The use of tar pigments must comply with provisions of Article 3 of the Ordinance Specifying
                 the Types of Tar Pigments Acceptable for Use in Medical Drugs etc. (Ordinance 30 promulgated
                 in 1966). However, Red No. 219 and Yellow No. 204 may be acceptable only to cosmetics that
                 are used for the hair or nails only, irrespective of provisions of ordinances.

                                                              【Legal Pigments】
                         Japanese name       FDA name                     CI Number     Color Index name
                         Brown No. 201       D & C Brown No. 1            C.I. 20170    Acid Orange 24
                         Black No. 401       (D & C Black No. 1)          C.I. 20470    Acid Black 1
                         Violet No. 201      D & C Violet No. 2           C.I. 60725    Solv. Violet 13
                         Violet No. 401      D & C Violet No. 2           C.I. 60730    Acid Violet No. 43
                         Blue No. 1          FD & C Blue No. 1            C.I. 42090    Food Blue 2
                         Blue No. 2          FD & C Blue No. 2            C.I. 73015    Acid Blue 74




           172
                                                    Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

Blue No. 201         D & C Blue No. 6                C.I. 73000     Vat Blue 1
Blue No. 202                                         C.I. 42052     Acid Blue 5
Blue No. 203                                         C.I. 42052     Acid Blue 5
Blue No. 204         D & C Blue No. 9                C.I. 69825     Vat Blue 6
Blue No. 205         D & C Blue No. 4                C.I. 42090     Acid Blue 9
Blue No. 403                                         C.I. 61520     Solv. Blue 63
Blue No. 404         [Phthalocyaninato(2-)]copper    C.I. 74160     Pig. Blue 15
Green No. 201        D & C Green No. 5               C.I. 61570     Acid Green 25
Green No. 202        D & C Green No. 6               C.I. 61565     Solv. Green 3
Green No. 204        D & C Green No. 8               C.I. 59040     Solv. Green 7
Green No. 205                                        C.I. 42095     Acid Green 5




                                                                                                       Chapter2
Green No. 3          FD & C Green No. 3              C.I. 42053     Food Green
Green No. 401        (EXT.D & C Green No. 1)         C.I. 10020     Acid Green 1
Green No. 402                                        C.I. 42085     Acid Green 3
Yellow No. 201       D & C Yellow No. 7              C.I. 45350     Acid Yellow 73
Yellow No. 202-(1)   D & C Yellow No. 8              C.I. 45350     Acid Yellow 73
Yellow No. 202-(2)                                   C.I. 45350     Acid Yellow 73
Yellow No. 203       D & C Yellow No. 10             C.I. 47005     Acid Yellow 3
Yellow No. 204       D & C Yellow No. 11             C.I. 47000     Solv. Yellow 33
Yellow No. 205                                       C.I. 21090     Pig. Yellow 12                             
Yellow No. 4         FD & C Yellow No. 5             C.I. 19140     Acid Yellow 23
Yellow No. 401       (EXT. D & C Yellow No. 5)       C.I. 11680     Pig. Yellow 1
Yellow No. 402                                       C.I. 18950     Acid Yellow 40
Yellow No. 403-(1)   EXT.D & C Yellow No. 7          C.I. 10316     Acid Yellow 1
Yellow No. 404                                       C.I. 11380     Solv. Yellow 5
Yellow No. 405                                       C.I. 11390     Solv. Yellow 6
Yellow No. 406       (EXT.D & C Yellow No. 1)        C.I. 13065     Acid Yellow 36
Yellow No. 407       (EXT.D & C Yellow No. 3)        C.I. 18820     Acid Yellow 11
Yellow No. 5         FD & C Yellow No. 6             C.I. 15985     Food Yellow 3
Orange No. 201       D & C Orange No. 5              C.I. 45370     Solv. Red 72
Orange No. 203       (D & C Orange No. 17)           C.I. 12075     Pig. Orange 5
Orange No. 204                                       C.I. 21110     Pig. Orange 13
Orange No. 205       D & C Orange No. 4              C.I. 15510     Acid Orange 7
Orange No. 206       D & C Orange No. 10             C.I. 45425     Solv. Red 73
Orange No. 207       D & C Orange No. 11             C.I. 45425     Acid Red 95
Orange No. 401                                       C.I. 11725     Pig. Orange 1
Orange No. 402       (EXT. D & C Orange No. 3)       C.I. 14600     Acid Orange 20
Orange No. 403       (EXT. D & C Orange No. 4)       C.I. 12100     Solv. Orange 2
Red No. 102                                          C.I. 16255     Acid Red 18
Red No. 104-(1)      D & C Red No. 28                C.I. 45410     Acid Red 92
Red No. 105-(1)                                      C.I. 45440     Acid Red 94
Red No. 106                                          C.I. 45100     Acid Red 52
Red No. 2            (FD & C Red No. 2)              C.I. 16185     Acid Red 27
Red No. 201          D & C Red No. 6                 C.I. 15850     Pig. Red 57-1
Red No. 202          D & C Red No. 7                 C.I. 15850     Pig. Red 57
Red No. 203          (D & C Red No. 8)               C.I. 15585     Pig. Red 53
Red No. 204          (D & C Red No. 9)               C.I. 15585     Pig. Red 53(Ba)
Red No. 205          (D & C Red No. 10)              C.I. 15630     Pig. Red 49(Na)
Red No. 206          (D & C Red No. 11)              C.I. 15630     Pig. Red 49(Ca)
Red No. 207          (D & C Red No. 12)              C.I. 15630     Pig. Red 49(Ba)
Red No. 208          (D & C Red No. 13)              C.I. 15630     Pig. Red 49(Sr)
Red No. 213          (D & C Red No. 19)              C.I. 45170     Basic Violet 10
Red No. 214                                          C.I. 45170     Solv. Red 49
Red No. 215          (D & C Red No. 37)              C.I. 45170     Solv. Red 49
Red No. 218          D & C Red No. 27                C.I. 45410     Solv. Red 48
Red No. 219          D & C Red No. 31                C.I. 15800     Pig. Red 64
Red No. 220          D & C Red No. 34                C.I. 15880     Pig. Red 63(Ca)
Red No. 221          (D & C Red No. 35)              C.I. 12120     Pig. Red 3
Red No. 223          D & C Red No. 21                C.I. 45380     Solv. Red 43
Red No. 225          D & C Red No. 17                C.I. 26100     Solv. Red 23
Red No. 226          D & C Red No. 30                C.I. 73360     Vat Red 1
Red No. 227          D & C Red No. 33                C.I. 17200     Acid Red 33
Red No. 228                                          C.I. 12085     Pig. Red 4




                                                                                                173
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

                         Red No. 230-(1)     D & C Red No. 22                C.I. 45380     Acid Red 87
                         Red No. 230-(2)                                     C.I. 45380     Acid Red 87
                         Red No. 231                                         C.I. 45410     Acid Red 92
                         Red No. 232                                         C.I. 45440     Acid Red 94
                         Red No. 3           FD & C Red No. 3                C.I. 45430     Acid Red 51
                         Red No. 401         (EXT. D & C Red No. 3)          C.I. 45190     Acid Violet 9
                         Red No. 404                                         C.I. 12315     Pig. Red 22
                         Red No. 405                                         C.I. 15865     Pig. Red 48
                         Red No. 501                                         C.I. 26105     Solv. Red 24
                         Red No. 502                                         C.I. 16155     Food Red 6
                         Red No. 503                                         C.I. 16150     Acid Red 26
Chapter2




                         Red No. 504         FD & C Red No. 4                C.I. 14700     Food Red 1
                         Red No. 505                                         C.I. 12140     Solv. Orange 7
                         Red No. 506                                         C.I. 15620     Acid Red 88




           3)Other notes
        
              a. Based on the Cosmetics Standards, the current system would function on the assumption
                   that the companies concerned assume related responsibilities. Manufacturers must
                   ensure the safety of the material at their own responsibility before deciding for or against
                   allowing the material to be included. In addition, documents on the safety of compounded
                   ingredients or products must be collected, created and kept by the manufacturer.
              b. Compounding 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (also known as DMDM hydantoin) or
                   N,M”-methylenebis [N’-(3-hydroxymethyl 2,5-dioxo-4-Imidazolidinyl)urea] (also known
                   as imidazolidinyl urea) included in Appendix 3 of the Cosmetics Standards requires a note
                   for purchasers and users to be included with the product. The note should read,“Keep
                   the product away from infants and small children and from people who are sensitive to
                   formaldehyde.”


           Appendix 1 Prohibited Ingredients:Partial amendments to Notice No. 389 of the Ministry
           of Health, Labour and Welfare (2002), No. 240 (2003) and No. 158 (2004) 



               1    6-acetoxy-2,4-dimethyl-m-dioxane
               2    Antihistamines except amino-ether type antihistamines like diphenhydramine
               3    Hormones and their derivatives except estradiol, estrone and ethynyl estradiol
               4    Vinyl chloride monomer
               5    Methylene chloride
               6    Bismuth compounds except bismuth oxychloride
               7    Hydrogen peroxide
               8    Cadmium compounds
               9    Sodium perborate
               10 Chloroform
               11 Acetic progrenolone
               12 Dichlorophene
               13 Mercury and its compounds
               14 Strontium compounds




           174
                                                          Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

    15 Sulfamide and its derivatives
    16 Selenium compounds
    17 Nitrofuran compounds
    18 Hydroquinone monobenzyl ether
    19 Halogenated salicylanilide
    20 Vitamin L1 and L2
    21 Bithionol
    22 Pilocarpine




                                                                                                             Chapter2
    23 Pyrogallol
    24 Inorganic fluorine compounds
    25 Pregnanediol
    26 Procaine and other local anesthetics
    27 Hexachlorophene
    28 Boric acid
    29 Formalin
                                                                                                                     
    30 Methyl alcohol




Appendix 2 (Restricted ingredients) (Notice No. 158 of the Ministry of Health, Labour
and Welfare (2001) and partial amendment to Notice No. 370 (2004))


1.Compounding the following ingredients is subject to restrictions that apply to all kinds of cosmetics.
                              Ingredient                                Maximum content per 100 g
Allantoin chlohyl hydroxy aluminum                                     1.0 g
Cantharides tincture, ginger tincture or capsicum tincture             1.0 g as a total
Phenyl salicylate                                                      1.0 g
Polyxyethylene lauryl ether (8 – 10 E.O.)                              2.0 g

2. Compounding the following ingredients is subject to restrictions with regard to the kinds of cos-
    metics or what they are used for.
                            Ingredient                                 Maximum content per 100 g
Aerosols
  Zirconium                                                         Cannot be compounded
Soap, shampoo and other kinds of cosmetics that are washed away
at one time.
  Thiram                                                            0.50 g
Kinds of cosmetics that are not washed away at one time, unlike
soap, shampoo and suchlike
  Undecylenic acid monoethanolamide                                 Cannot be compounded
  Thiram                                                            0.30 g
  Zinc phenolsulfonate                                              2.0 g
  2-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl) benzotriazole                        7.0 g
  Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate                                        Cannot be compounded




                                                                                                      175
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           Cosmetics that are applied on the head, mucous membranes, the
           mouth or other parts and contain fatty lower monohydric alcohols.
           Those containing the abovementioned alcohol solely for the pur-
           pose of dissolving the ingredients of the cosmetics are not included
           in this category.
             Estradiol, estrone or nithinyl estradiol                             20,000 IU as the total amount
           Cosmetics that are not applied to the head, mucous membranes
           or the mouth and do not contain fatty lower monohydric alcohols.
           Those containing the abovementioned alcohol solely for the pur-
           pose of dissolving the ingredients of the cosmetics are included in
           this category.
Chapter2




             Estradiol, estrone or nithinyl estradiol                             50,000 IU as the total amount
           Cosmetics applied to the head only
             Aminoether-type antihistamines                                       0.010 g
           Cosmetics other than those applied to the head only
             Aminoether-type antihistamines                                       Cannot be compounded
           Toothpaste
             Lauroylsarcosine sodium                                              0.50 g
             Diethylene glycol                                                    Cannot be compounded
           Those used for the emulsification of beeswax or white beeswax
             Borax                                                                0.76 g (only applicable where the
                                                                                  content of beeswax or white bees-
                                                                                  wax is a half or less of that)
           Those used for purposes other than emulsification of beeswax or
           white beeswax
             Borax                                                                Cannot be compounded


           3.Compounding the following ingredient is subject to restrictions with regard to the kinds of cosmetics
           (Note)
                                                                                  Maximum content per 100 g
                                                                        Cosmetics that   Cosmetics that   Cosmetics that
                                                                        are not used     are not used     may be used
                                      Ingredient                        for mucous       for mucous       for mucous
                                                                        membranes        membranes and    membranes
                                                                        and are washed   are not washed
                                                                        away             away
           Ubidecarenone                                                     0.03            0.03

           Note: The blank space means that the ingredient cannot be compounded into the kind of cosmetics
                  written above the box.


           Appendix 3 (Antiseptics)  (Partial amendment to Notice No. 393 of the Ministry of Health,
           Labour and Welfare (2004))
           1. Compounding the following ingredients is subject to restrictions that apply to all kinds of cosmet-
              ics.
                                      Ingredient                                  Maximum content per 100 g
           Benzoic acid                                                         0.2
           Benzoate                                                             1.0 as a total
           Alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride                               0.20
           Photosensitizers                                                     0.0020 as a total
           Chloro-cresol                                                        0.50
           Chlorobutanol                                                        0.10
           Salicylic acid                                                       0.20




            176
                                                         Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

Salicylate                                                            1.0 as a total
Sorbic acid and sorbate                                               0.50 as a total
Dehydroacetic acid and dehydroacetate                                 0.50 as a total
Trichlorohydroxydiphenylether (also referred to as triclosan)         0.10
Paraoxy benzoic acid ester and its sodium benzoate                    1.0 as a total
Phenoxyethanol                                                        1.0
Phenol                                                                0.10
Sodium lauryl diethylenediaminoglycinate                              0.030
Resorcin                                                              0.10




                                                                                                            Chapter2
2. Compounding the following ingredients is subject to restrictions with regard to the kinds of cos-
    metics (Note 1).
                                                               Maximum content per 100 g
                                                                       Cosmetics that
                                                   Cosmetics that                       Cosmetics
                                                                       are not used for
                                                   are not used for                     that may be
                     Ingredient                                        mucous mem-
                                                   mucous mem-                          used for mu-
                                                                       branes and are
                                                   branes and are                       cous mem-
                                                                       not washed                                   
                                                   washed away                          branes
                                                                       away
Zinc, ammonia, silver composite-substituional zeo-
                                                            1.0               1.0
lite (Note 4)
Benzoic pantothenyl ethyl ether                                             0.30            0.30
Isopropylmethylphenol                                                       0.10            0.10
Cetylpyridinium chloride                                    5.0               1.0           0.010
Benzalkonium chloride                                                      0.050           0.050
Benzethonium chloride                                      0.50              0.20
Chlorhexidine hydrochloride                                0.10              0.10          0.0010
2-Phenylphenol                                                              0.30            0.30
2-Phenylphenol sodium                                      0.15              0.15
Silver–copper zeolite (Note 5)                              0.5               0.5
Chlorhexidine gluconate                                                    0.050           0.050
Cresol                                                    0.010             0.010
Chloramine T                                               0.30              0.10
Chloroxylenol                                              0.30              0.20            0.20
Chlorphenesin                                              0.30               0.30
Chlor-hexidine                                             0.10              0.050          0.050
1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin                       0.30
Alkyl isoquinolinium bromide                                                0.050          0.050
Thianthol                                                  0.80               0.80
Thymol                                                    0.050              0.050        (Note 2)
Trichloro carbanilide                                                        0.30           0.30
Parachlorophenol                                           0.25               0.25
Halocarban                                                                   0.30           0.30
Hinoki thiol                                                                 0.10          0.050
Zinc pyrithione                                            0.10              0.010          0.010
Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (Note 6)                       0.02               0.02           0.02
Polyaminopropyl biguanide                                   0.1                0.1            0.1
Methylisothiazolinone                                      0.01              0.01
Methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazoli-
                                                           0.03
none solutions (Note 3)
N,N”-methylenebis [N’-(3- hydroxymethyl-2,
                                                           0.03              0.03
5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl) urea]
Dimethylaminostyryl heptyl methyl thiazolium
                                                         0.0015             0.0015
iodide




                                                                                                     177
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


               Note 1: A blank space means that the corresponding ingredient cannot be compounded into
                        the kind of cosmetics specified at the top of the column. A circle ( ○ ) means that the
                        corresponding ingredient can be compounded without restriction.
               Note 2: Only the kinds of cosmetics that are used for mucous membranes and for the mouth can
                        be compounded.
               Note 3: This refers to a solution containing 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (1.0 - 1.3%)
                        and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (0.30 - 0.42%).
               Note 4: This refers to an ingredient containing 0.2% - 4.0% silver and 5.0% - 15.0% zinc when
Chapter2




                        heated at a very high temperature.
               Note 5: This refers to an ingredient containing 2.7% - 3.7% silver and 4.9% - 6.3% copper when
                        heated at a very high temperature.
               Note 6: This kind of ingredient cannot be compounded into an aerosol solution.


        
           Appendix 4 (Ultraviolet absorbents)(complete amendment to Notice No. 158 (2001) and
           partial amendments to Notices No. 234 (2001), 389 (2002) and 370 (2004) of the Ministry of Health,
           Labour and Welfare)


           1.Compounding the following ingredients is subject to restrictions that apply to all kinds of cosmetics.
                                        Ingredient                                  Maximum content per 100 g
           Homomenthyl salicylate                                                  10
           2-cyano-3,3-diphenyl propanoic-2-hydrochloric acid 2-ethylhexyl ester 10
            (also referred to as octocrylene)
           Glyceryl ethylhexanoate dimethoxycinnamate                               10
           Para-amino-benzoic acid and its esters                                   4.0 as the total quantity
           4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane                                  10

           2. Compounding the following ingredients is subject to restrictions with regard to the kinds of cos-
               metics (Note 1).
                                                                          Maximum content per 100 g
                                                              Cosmetics that Cosmetics that         Cosmetics
                                                              are not used for are not used for that may be
                                Ingredient
                                                              mucous mem-       mucous mem-         used for mu-
                                                              branes and are branes and are         cous mem-
                                                              washed away       not washed away branes
           4-(2- β -glucopyranosiloxy)propoxy]- 2-hydroxyben-
                                                                     5.0                5.0
           zophenone
           Salicylic acid octyl                                       10                10               5.0
           2,5-diisopropyl methyl cinnamate                           10                10
           2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl] benzoic acid
                                                                     10.0              10.0
           hexylester
           Cinoxate                                                                    5.0              5.0
           Dihydroxy dimethoxybenzophenone                            10                10
           Dihydroxy dimethoxybenzophenone disulfonic acid
                                                                      10                10
           sodium
           Dihydroxybenzophenone                                      10                10
           Dimethico-diethylbenzal-malonate                          10.0              10.0             10.0




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                                                         Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-
                                                           7.0                 7.0
1,3-pentandion
Ethylhexyl dimethoxybenzylidene dioxoimidazoli-
                                                           3.0                 3.0
dine propionate
Tetrahydroxybenzophenone                                   10                  10              0.050
Terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid                  10                  10
2,4,6-tris[4-(2-ethylhexyl oxycarbonyl) anilino]-
                                                           5.0                 5.0
1,3,5-triazine
Isopentyl trimethoxycinnamate trisiloxane                  7.5                 7.5               2.5
Drometrizole trisiloxane                                  15.0                15.0




                                                                                                             Chapter2
Paradimethylamino benzoic acid amyl                        10                  10
Paradimethylamino benzoic acid 2-ethylhexyl                10                  10                7.0
Mixture of isopropyl methoxycinnamate and diiso-
                                                           10                  10
propyl cinnamate ester (Note 2)
Paramethoxy cinnamate 2-ethylhexyl                         20                  20                8.0
2-hydroxy-4-methokiribenzophenone                                             5.0               5.0
Hydroxy methoxybenzophenone sulfonic acid and                                                   0.10
                                                       10 (Note 3)        10 (Note 3)
its trihydrate                                                                                (Note 3)               
Hydroxy methoxybenzophenone sulfonic acid so-
                                                           10                  10                1.0
dium
Phenylbenzoimidazol sulfonic acid                          3.0                 3.0
Ferulic acid                                               10                  10
2,2’-methylen bis (6-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-
                                                          10.0                10.0
4-(1,1,3,3,-tetramethylbutyl)phenol)

    (Note 1) A blank space means that the corresponding ingredient cannot be compounded into
            the kind of cosmetics specified at the top of the column. A circle (  ) means that the
            corresponding ingredient can be compounded free of restriction.
    (Note 2) This refers to an ingredient containing 72.0 – 79% isopropyl methoxycinnamate, 15.0 -
            21.0% 2,4-diisopropyl cinnamate ethyl and 3.0 - 9.0% 2,4-diisopropyl cinnamate ester
            methyl.
    (Note 3) Total quantity as hydroxy methoxybenzophenone sulfonic acid



Ingredients of medical drugs that can be compounded into cosmetics
 The following are ingredients of medical drugs that were shown to be acceptable for inclusion in
cosmetics as a result of investigation based on Notification No. 0325022 of Evaluation and Licensing
Division of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated March 25, 2004.
Scope of approved ingredients of cosmetics
                                                                  Maximum content per 100 g
                                                      Cosmetics that Cosmetics that Cosmetics
                                                      are not used for are not used for that may be
                      Ingredient
                                                      mucous mem-      mucous mem-      used for mu-
                                                      branes and are branes and are cous mem-
                                                      washed away      not washed away branes
* dl-Camphor                                                  4.0             4.0            (1.0)
* DL-Pantothenyl alcohol                                     ()              8.0           (0.30)
* D-Pantothenyl alcohol                                      ()              3.0           (0.30)
* l-Menthol                                                   7.0             7.0            (1.0)
  N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine                                        9.00            9.00           (0.20)
* β -Glyeyrrhetinic acid                                    (0.80)            0.5            1.25
* γ -oryzanol                                                ()             1.25           (0.20)




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           Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           * Allantoin                                                  (0.50)             0.3
             Sulfur                                                      1.62             1.62
             Arginine hydrochloride                                       5.0              5.0              5.0
           * Orange oil                                                   ()              ()              1.0
           * Caffeine                                                     2.0              2.0
             Solubilized sulfur                                           0.3              0.3
           * Glycyrrhiza extract                                         (8.0)              4.3           (2.0)
           * Sodium guaiazulene sulfonate                                 0.10             0.10         (0.010)
           * Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate                                (0.80)              0.5          (0.20)
           * Chlorhexidine gluconate solution                            0.225            0.225         (0.050)
Chapter2




             Synthetic hydrotalcite                                         1                1              1
             Saiko extract BS                                             3.0               3.0
           * dl- α -tocopheryl acetate (Note 2)                           ()             3.03            3.03
           * Salicylic acid methyl                                        5.0              5.0           (0.10)
             Dihydroxy aluminium aminoacetate                              1                 1              1
             Bismuth subgallate (also referred to as Dermator)            1.0              1.0
             Solubilized sulfur                                          2.00             2.00
           * Benzyl nicotinate                                           0.20             0.20
             Biosulfur F                                                  5.0              5.0
           * Pisaporol                                                  1.2000           1.2000         0.7905
             Lard                                                        69.0             69.0
             Myrrha extract                                             1.0000           1.0000         1.0000
           * Medicinal carbon                                             2.0              2.0
             Fossilia ossis mastodi powder                                 10               10
           * Zinc sulfate                                                10.0             10.0
             Rokujo tincture M                                          3.0075           3.0075

                 Note 1: Ingredients indicated with an asterisk above were included in the old standards.
                 Note 2: Parenthesized numbers are reference information indicating the quantities of ingredients
                        specified in the old standards.
                 Note 3: Keeping consistency of the above data partly concerns differences in use.
                 Note 4: All kinds of dl- α -tocopherol derivatives are converted into dl- α -tocopherol and the
                        total quantity is calculated as dl- α -tocopherol.


                 Note: On May 24, 2007, thioctic acid was added to the list of ingredients of medical drugs that
                        can be compounded into cosmetics. Thioctic acid can be compounded into cosmetics that
                        are not used for mucous membranes in the quantity of 0.01 g per 100 g.




           Recent notifications designed to ensure safety in the use of cosmetics are summarized as follows.


           < Notification No. 0726001 of Safety Division of Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated July 26,
           2004 >
           Safety actions on medical drugs, quasi-drugs and cosmetics containing ingredients derived from the root
           of Rubia tinctorum or madder
            The production, importation or marketing of medical drugs or other substances containing“madder
           pigment”extracted from the root of Rubia tinctorum must be stopped. The production or importation
           of medical drugs or other substances derived from a product similar to                is
                                                                                 “madder pigment” subject to




           180
                                                           Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


autonomous restraint.


< Notifications No. 0916001 and 0916003 of the Compliance and Narcotics Division of the Pharmaceutical
and Food Safety Bureau dated September 16, 2004 >
Permanent liquids for eyelashes
 Up to the present, no quasi-drug for permanent waves has been approved for application on other
parts than hair. Permanent wave agents advertised for non-hair use are unapproved and unlicensed
quasi-drugs. The practices of companies making such products must be carefully monitored and




                                                                                                              Chapter2
supervised.
 Similar kinds of guidance should also be given where the unapproved use of approved or licensed
permanent wave agents is advertised.


< Notification No. 0906001 of Safety Division of Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated September
6, 2006 >                                                                                                             
Indication of caution for users of hair cosmetics containing henna or henna-derived substances
 Hair cosmetics and hair-washing cosmetics containing henna or henna-derived substances must
carry an indication of caution about its use.。


 Be sure to confirm that the ingredients of the cosmetics satisfy the cosmetics standards at the time.



Matters Relating to the High-pressure Gas Safety Law
 The importation of spray-type and other types of aerosol product requires a certificate documenting
that the High-pressure Gas Safety Law does not apply to the product. More specifically, the law is
considered inapplicable where the test report created by the importer as specified evidence that the
importer satisfies the requirements provided by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry in its
notification.



Other notes
 Based on the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, domestically referred
to as the Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified
Substances and Other Measures, aerosol products containing fluorocarbons are unacceptable.




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            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


           Changes in Cosmetics Regulations
                                           (Regulation Details)
            Law No. 197 in 1948             ・ Cosmetics become subject to the regulations of the
                                              Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.
            (Establishment of the           ・ The registration system requiring each cosmetics
            former Pharmaceutical             manufacturing location and import and sales office to be
            Affairs Law)                      registered is launched.
                                            ・ Harmful cosmetics and inappropriate representations
                                              concerning cosmetics are controlled.
Chapter2




                                            ・ Misrepresentation and extravagant advertisements are
                                              prohibited.
            Law No. 145 in 1960             ・ Requirement to assign representative practitioners is
            (Establishment of the           ・ Requirement to obtain permits for each product item is
            current Pharmaceutical            introduced.
            Affairs Law)                    ・ Requirement to obtain approval for cosmetics containing
                                              designated ingredients is introduced.
                                            ・ Requirement to obtain approval for cosmetics containing
                                              designated ingredients is introduced.
            August, 1967                     (Establishment of standards based on Clause 2, Article 42
                                             of the Law.)
                                            ・ Cosmetics quality standards are established (Ministry of
                                              Health, Labour and Welfare Notification No. 321)
                                            ・ Cosmetics material standards are established (Ministry of
                                              Health, Labour and Welfare Notification No. 322)
            September, 1980                 ・ Requirement to indicate expiry date is introduced.
                                            ・ Requirement to indicate designated ingredients is
                                              introduced.
            July, 1986                       (Introduction of permit systems based on cosmetics types)
                                            ・ Type-based permit standards are established
                                              (Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau Notification 2 No. 678).
            March, 1994                     ・ Category-based permit systems are introduced.
            April, 1994                     ・ Notification of cosmetics ingredients requiring approval
                                              is revised.
                                            ・ Type-based approval systems are introduced.
            April, 1995                     ・ Authority to grant permits is given to prefectural
                                              governors.
            June, 1995                      ・ FD application systems are introduced.
            March, 1996                     ・ The handling of parallel import cosmetics is specified.
            March, 1997, 1998, 1999         ・ The Type-based permit standards are revised.
            April, 2001                     ・ Approval systems are, in principle, abolished.
                                            ・ The system requiring cosmetic manufacturers to indicate
                                              all the ingredients of their products is introduced.
                                             (Establishment of standards based on Clause 2, Article 42
                                             of the Law)
                                            ・Cosmetics standards are established (Ministry of Health,
                                              Labour and Welfare Notification No. 331).
            平成 17 年4月                       ・Permits for manufacturing are separated from permits for
                                              manufacturing and sales.
                                            ・GQP and GVP are introduced.




           182
                        Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan




                  化粧品




                                                                           Chapter2
全成分表示を行う                                全成分表示を行おう
化粧品                                        としない化粧品




                                       製造承認(法第 14 条)
                                    外国製造承認(法第 19 の 2)
                                                                                   


                        許可の基準 (法第12条、 第12条の 2)
                               GQP、GVP


   製造販売業の許可             製造販売の基準 (法第17条)
    (法第12条)                    総括製造販売責任者

                        遵守事項 (法第18条)
   製造所(営業所)毎                 手続き等
   許可更新(5 年毎)
                         届 出 (法第19条)
                              休廃止届、 変更届等

                         甲請手数料 (法第78条)



 製造販売届(法第 69 条)
   全成分表示を行う
   化粧品の場合のみ




                                                                    183
             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan




           (9)Representation of Cosmetics

            1)Description on containers
             In accordance with Article 61 of the Law, the following matters must be specified on the containers
            or packages that directly contain the cosmetics.
             Where these containers or packages are prepared for retail distribution, and where the necessary
Chapter2




            matters specified on these containers and suchlike directly containing the cosmetics are not visible
            through the external container or package, the same matters need to be specified on the external
            container or package (Article 51 that should be applied in a similar manner to Article 62 of the Law).



           (1)Name of the party involved in the manufacture or the company name of the manufacturer, and their
            address
             The name of the party that is approved (company name for corporations) and address (address of
            the major site [representative manufacture and sales manager] that is approved for manufacture and
            sales business in the case of corporations) must be specified. Please note that it may be different from
            the address of the main office for registration.)


           (2)Name
             The sales name that is approved or reported for manufacture and sales must be specified. If
            the name is approved or reported in kanji, it is not appropriate to specify it in Roman characters,
            katakana or hiragana, or to partially omit it.


            3)Production Number or Production Symbol
             For the Product Number or Production Symbol, the number or symbol that uniquely identifies the
            lot must be specified. It is acceptable to specify the number or symbol that identifies the production
            date or lot (Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Notification 44 dated February 8, 1961)


            4)Indication of all ingredients
             [1] For cosmetics, all ingredients must be indicated to provide complete information and to facilitate
                   the consumer’s choice (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Notification No. 332, Notification
                   No. 990 of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated in September 29, 2000)


             [2] Notes for indicating all ingredients (Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau Notification No. 163,
                   Compliance and Narcotics Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau No. 220 dated
                   March 6, 2001)
                   a. The Japanese name of the ingredients needs to be specified. Please note that the list of
                      names of cosmetic ingredients for representation prepared by the Japan Cosmetic Industry
                      Association and other references need to be used to avoid causing the consumers any
                      confusion.




             184
                                                             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

      b. The names of the ingredients must be specified in the order of the amount included in the
         product, from large amount to small amount. However, this regulation does not apply to
         ingredients that account for 1% or less of the product and coloring agents. These ingredients
         can be specified in any order.
      c. It is unnecessary to indicate accompanying ingredients (including impurities) that are
         included in the product in quantities that are insufficient to have any effect (so-called
         carryover ingredients.)
      d. For mixed materials (so-called pre-mix), it is necessary to specify each mixed ingredient.




                                                                                                                Chapter2
      e. It is necessary to specify extracted substances and extract solvents or diluted solvents
         separately. However, if the solvent and suchlike does not remain in the end product, this
         requirement does not apply.
      f. When an essence is used as an agent to add a fragrance, it is possible to indicate“fragrance.”


  [3] Cosmetics applicable to the exemption rules of small containers
                                                                                                                        
       If all the ingredients are indicated in documents that are not supplied with the product
      as specified in Item 4, Article 225 of the Regulations, the fact that relevant documents are
      available must be specified in the container and package that directly contains the cosmetics
      (Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau Notification No. 163, Compliance and Narcotics Division,
      Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Notification No. 220 dated March 6, 2001).


  [4] Preservatives
       If the product contains 1.3-dimethyrol-5.5-dimethylhydantoin (also known as: DMDM
      hydantoin) or N.N-methylenebis (N’-(3-hydroxymethyl-2.5-dioxo-4 imidazolidinyl) Urea) (also
      known as: Imidazolidinyl Urea), as listed in Appendix 3 of the Standards for Cosmetics, it is
      necessary to specify a precautionary note at the time of import and use,“Not suitable for use by
      infants and people who are sensitive to formaldehyde.”


(5)For cosmetics designated by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, the following items are
 defined as cosmetics for which it is necessary to indicate the expiry date

  a. Cosmetics containing ascorbic acid, esters, or salts or enzymes thereof
  b. In addition to the cosmetics listed in the preceding Item, cosmetics of which the nature and
      quality may change within three years manufacture or importation even if stored under
      appropriate conditions

  Cosmetics whose nature and quality remain stable for more than three years after manufacture or
 importation when stored under appropriate conditions are excluded from the regulation for indicating
 expiry date (Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare Notification No. 166 dated September 26, 1980,
 Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Notification No. 1330 dated October 9, 1980)
  The purpose of indicating the expiry date of cosmetics is to specify the final date that the product’
 s nature and quality is guaranteed provided it is stored in the form of a final packaged product under
 the storage conditions for the regular distribution of cosmetics. Manufacturers (or import distributors)




                                                                                                         185
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           must set a reasonable expiry date based on the data obtained through the stability tests.
            A determination must be made concerning whether or not the nature and quality of the cosmetics
           is stable by focusing not only on the changes in the designated ingredients, but also impairment to
           the nature and quality of the overall cosmetics. Specifically, reference shall be made to the following
           examples.
              (Examples of impairments)
                        [1] Moldy
Chapter2




                        [2] Ingredients that are significantly separated in the case of emulsified cosmetics
                        [3] Emitting a foul odor
                        [4] Significantly discolored
                        [5] In the case of cosmetics that are in a solution of alcohol, water or suchlike, a
                            significant amount of sediment
                        [6] Ingredients that are separated, with harmful substances created
                        [7] Except where cosmetics are used as stabilizers, the content and titer of the
                            ingredients, such as ascorbic acid and enzymes, are significantly reduced due to
                            separation and volatilization


            The expiry date shall be indicated down to the month. The indication“13.7”refers to July in the
           thirteenth year of Heisei, and shall be indicated together with an expression such as“expiry date”
           (Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Notification No. 1330 dated October 9, 1980).


           (6)Others

            If standards are specified for cosmetics in accordance with Clause 2, Article 42 of the Law, there is
           no specific matter as of today that must be specified in the container or package that directly contains
           the cosmetics.
            Matters that need to be specified in accordance with Item 7, Article 61 of the Law (Regulations
           Article 221) include the name of the party who is approved for foreign exemption, the country in which
           the party resides, as well as the name and address of the assigned manufacturer/distributor.




           2)Description of attached documents, etc.
            The directions, dose, and other necessary precautionary notes for use and handling need to be
           specified in the documents supplied with the cosmetics (explanatory leaflets, etc.) or on the container
           and package (Article 52 that should be applied in a similar manner to Article 62 of the Law).
            Approved cosmetics need to specify directions and dose in accordance with the approved directions
           and dose as a rule. There are some cosmetics whereby, if the generic term is specified, such as lipstick
           or shampoo, general users would understand how to use them. In this case, the directions and dose
           do not have to be specified in the supplied documents. However, they need to be specified for such
           products as hair rinses, bath salts, facial packs and liquid tooth cleaning agents (Pharmaceutical and




            186
                                                                Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

  Food Safety Bureau Notification No. 1330 dated October 9, 1980).
   Other necessary precautionary notes for use and handling are designed to ensure the appropriate
  use and storage, and they shall be specified when needed. Note the following points when specifying
  them (Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau Notification No. 1330 dated October 9, 1980):
           (a) The precautions shall be specified in order of importance.
           (b) Especially important portions, such as the titles, shall be clear, for example, by using a sans-
              serif font.




                                                                                                                   Chapter2
           (c) The precautions shall consist of simple expressions that are easy to understand.
           (d) The details shall be scientifically correct, and an effort shall be made to provide additional
              explanations indicating a reason or background for why the information is needed.
           (e) When the precautions are deleted or changed, they shall be done on an adequate basis.



   Precautionary notes concerning the use of cosmetics shall be specified in accordance with the                           
  voluntary standards for representation created by Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (January 5,
  1978).




  3)Exemption from representation
 (1)In the event that space is limited on the container or package that directly contains the cosmetics
   In the case of the cosmetics listed below, if the matters indicated in each aforementioned Item of
  Article 61 of the Law cannot be specified due to space restrictions on the container or package that
  directly contains the cosmetics, and if the material in Column A in the table below are specified on the
  external container or package, the descriptions on the container and suchlike that directly contains
  the cosmetics may be omitted (proviso of Article 61 of the Law, Regulations Article 221 that should be
  applied in a similar manner to Regulations Article 228).
        (a) Cosmetics directly contained in the container or package holding 2 cc or less
        (b) Cosmetics directly contained in a container of more than 2 cc but 10 cc or less, which is made
             of glass or other similar material of 10 cc or less, and with the descriptions directly printed
             on it


                     Column A                                           Column B
Descriptions on the container or package directly             Exemption from representation
containing cosmetics
Name of the party involved with manufacture       Either of the following items may be specified
and sales or company name of the manufacturer/ alternatively.
distributor, and their address                    [1]Short name of the manufacturer/distributor
                                                  [2]Trademark of the manufacturer/distributor registered
                                                     under the Trademark Law (Law No. 127, 1959)

Production Number or Production Symbol                Can be omitted
Expiry date                                           Can be omitted




                                                                                                            187
              Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           Name, etc. of the party who is approved for Either of the following items may be specified
           foreign manufacture                         alternatively
                                                       [1]Short name of the party who is approved for foreign
                                                          exemption
                                                       [2]Trademark of the party who is approved for
                                                          foreign exemption, which was registered under the
                                                          Trademark Law
Chapter2




            (2)Exemption where the area for the representation is exceptionally limited
              Where the area for the representation on the container or package that directly contains the
             cosmetics is exceptionally limited, and where it is impossible to provide the descriptions clearly under
             the exemptions in Column B aforementioned, and where approval has been given by the Minister of
             Health, Labour and Welfare, and where the matters specified in each Item of Article 61 of the Law
             are specified on the external container or package, the descriptions on the container and suchlike that
             directly contain the cosmetics may be omitted (proviso of Article 61 of the Law, Clause 2, Article 221 of
             the Regulations that should be applied in a similar manner to Regulations Article 228). 


            (3)Exemption from indicating the ingredients
              If the ingredients prescribed in Item 4, Article 61 of the Law are indicated for the cosmetics in the
             manner indicated in any of the following items, the descriptions on the container or package that
             directly contain the cosmetics may be omitted (proviso of Article 61 of the Law, Regulations Article 225
             that should be applied in a similar manner to Regulations Article 228).
                    a. On the external container or package
                    b. On a tag or display card attached to the container or package that directly contain the
                      cosmetics
                    c. In documents supplied with the container or suchlike that directly contain the cosmetics,
                       where there is no external container or package (“external boxes”), and where the
                       container directly contains 50 grams or 50 ml or less of the cosmetics
                    d. In documents supplied with the external boxes, or documents and a display card supplied
                       with the container or suchlike that directly contains the cosmetics, where there are external
                      boxes, and where the container directly contains 10 grams or 10 ml or less of the cosmetics


              Documents supplied with the product include those that are not adhered to the container, but are
             limited to those that can be taken home together with the product at the time of purchase. Display
             cards permitted under Item C include those that are not attached to the container, but are limited
             to those that have been provided so that the ingredients can be confirmed at the time of purchase
             (Notification No. 990 of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated September 29, 2000).
              In the event that all ingredients are indicated in documents supplied with the product that are not
             attached to the container, the fact that relevant documents are available must be specified on the
             container or package that directly contains the cosmetics (Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau Notification
             No. 163, Compliance and Narcotics Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau No. 220 dated
             March 6, 2001).




              188
                                                           Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


(4)Notes concerning representation
 When indicating statutory material on the container that directly contains the cosmetics, the
following matters need to be noted in addition to all items indicated above.



   [1] Clear description
    The statutory material must be indicated in a clear location compared to other characters,
   articles, figures and designs, and the material must be indicated clearly and precisely in Japanese




                                                                                                              Chapter2
   so that people who purchase medicated or non-medicated cosmetics generally and use them can
   read and understand the material easily (Article 53 of the Law that should be applied in a similar
   manner to Article 60 and Article 62).



   [2] Matters prohibited in the description                                                                          
    Neither medicated nor non-medicated cosmetics must not indicate matters that may cause
   misrepresentation or misunderstanding concerning the product, unapproved effects or directions
   and dose or expiry date that may have risks of hygiene in the attached document or the container
   or package (including internal package) (Article 54 of the Law that should be applied in a similar
   manner to Article 60 and Article 62).
    The range of the effects of the cosmetics was revised in Notice No. 1339 of the Director-General of
   the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau dated December 28, 2000 (See page 159)
    Where this is actually applied, the matters to be noted are as follows:
       (a) Matters that can be indicated and advertised as the benefits of the cosmetics shall be
            within the range prescribed on page 159, and the range that is applicable to the product.
       (b) Other than the benefits listed in the table, it is acceptable to indicate and advertise
                                                                  “reduce the visibility of fine
            makeup benefits, for example,“your makeup lasts longer,”
            wrinkles,”and“makes your skin dewy moist,”and texture, such as“makes the skin
            refreshed and pleasant”provided they do not run counter to the facts (Compliance
            Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau No. 123 dated October 9, 1980).



   [3] Representation in accordance with the rule of fair competition
    In addition to representation based on the rules of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, the following
   rules of fair competition apply to cosmetics based on the Law for Preventing Unjustifiable
   Lagniappes and Misleading Representation:
       (a) Rules of fair competition concerning the representation of cosmetics
       (b) Rules of fair competition concerning the representation of cosmetic soap
        (c) Rules of fair competition concerning the representation of toothpaste




                                                                                                       189
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


            Representation of the content of cosmetics is prescribed in the rules of fair competition concerning
           the representation of cosmetics. The outline is given below:


           【The rules of fair competition concerning the representation of cosmetics】
                    [1] Name by type
                    [2] Retail name
                    [3] Name of the party involved with the manufacture and sales or company name of the
                        manufacturer/distributor, and their address
Chapter2




                    [4] Content
                    [5] Production Number or Production Symbol
                    [6] Expiry date for cosmetics designated by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare
                    [7] Ingredients designated by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare
                    [8] Country of Origin
                    [9] Precautionary notes for use or storage concerning cosmetics prescribed in the
                        Regulations for Enforcement
                    [10]Place of contact for inquiries


            The content of the above is specified as follows by Article 5, Regulations for Enforcement of the rules
           of fair competition:


                【Article 5, Regulations for Enforcement (Content)】
                 In accordance with the rules in Item 4, Article 4 of the Regulations, the content (excluding
               containers or packaging materials; the same applies below) shall be indicated based on the
               standards below:
                    [1] The weight, volume or quantity of the content shall be indicated. The term“g”or
                      “gram”shall be used for weight,“mL”or“milliliter”for volume, and the number
                        of articles and suchlike for quantity.
                    [2] The average weight or volume shall be indicated. However, the minimum volume
                        can be used if that is indicated.
                    [3] When the content is indicated as an average, the tolerance between the indicated
                        content and the actual content on the negative side shall be within -3%.
                    [4] If cosmetics have content of 10 grams or 10 milliliters or less (“small-volume
                        cosmetics”), it is possible to omit the representation of the content.
                    [5] If the quantity is 6 items or less, and the quantity can be identified easily without
                        opening the package, it is possible to omit the representation of the quantity.
                    [6] When the content of small-volume cosmetics is indicated, the average content of
                        10 units must not exceed -3% of the indicated content. Also, tolerance between
                        the indicated content and the actual content on the negative side shall be within
                        -9%.
            
             【Article 5 of the Regulations for Enforcement for the first Standards for Implementation】
              The letters“ml”may be used to indicate milliliters.




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                                                          Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


  [4] Representation of patents
   It is possible to indicate the phrases“process patent”or“manufacturing process patent,”and
  the patent number and matters concerning patented invention in parallel correctly (Compliance
  Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau No. 309 dated October 30, 1964).)




                                                                                                             Chapter2
(10)Advertisement

 Advertisements for medicated or non-medicated cosmetics are regulated by Article 66 of the
Law and the Advertising Standards for Medicines (Notice No. 1339 of the Director-General of the
Pharmaceutical and Food Safety dated October 9, 1980).
 In addition, industrial organizations such as the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association make                          
agreements concerning voluntarily regulated cosmetic advertisements to ensure appropriate
advertisements. Cosmetics manufacturers/distributors that are not members of industrial
organizations need to respect these agreements concerning the voluntary regulations.


1)Article 66 of the Law 
    (a) Prohibition of misrepresentation and extravagant advertisements
          No one shall make misrepresentations or extravagant advertisements, specify them or
          circulate them, irrespective of whether referring to the name, manufacturing processes,
          benefits or suchlike of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics that are expressly or indirectly
          referred to.
    (b) If a misleading article is advertised, indicated or circulated indicating that doctors or other
          parties guarantee the benefits of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics. This shall apply to
          the preceding clause.
    (c) No one shall imply improper notions concerning medicated or non-medicated cosmetics or use
          documents or drawings that are deemed obscene.


 This Article shall apply to everybody, without being limited to manufacturers, distributors or
suchlike. This Article shall also apply to newspaper publishing companies, magazine publishing
companies, and TV broadcasting stations that receive requests for advertisements and that make
these advertisements.


2)Advertising standards for medicines
 These standards are designed to ensure the appropriateness of advertisements, thereby preventing
harmful effects in relation to hygiene by medicines and suchlike. These standards stipulate matters
to be observed so that general consumers will not misuse or abuse them, and so that trust will not be
impaired (Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau No. 1339 dated October 9, 1980).


3)Agreements concerning voluntarily regulated advertisements in the industry
    (a)   Agreements concerning voluntarily regulated prizes in corporate advertisements by the




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            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


                     Japan Cosmetic Industry Association and suchlike (Compliance Division, Pharmaceutical
                     and Food Safety Bureau No. 117 dated July 17, 1965)
               (b)   Agreement concerning voluntarily regulated advertisements for cosmetics and toothpastes
                     (Compliance Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau No. 53 dated May 15, 1967)
Chapter2




           (11)Administrative Measures
           Penalties
           1)Penalties in accordance with Article 84 of the Law
            If one of the following items applies, the guilty party shall receive a custodial sentence not exceeding
           three years or a fine not exceeding three million yen. This penalty may be applied in conjunction with
           other penalties.


               (1)   A party who is engaged in the manufacture or sales of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics
                     without a permit (violation of Clause 1, Article 12)
               (2)   A manufacturer/distributor of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics who engages in the
                     manufacture or sales without appropriate approval, or without approval for changes in
                     approved matters (violation of Clause 1 or Clause 9, Article 14)
               (3)   A party who sells/provides medicated or non-medicated cosmetics that are imitations or
                     manufactured (imported) items without a permit, or a party who stores them for the purpose
                     of selling or providing them, or displays them (violation of Article 56 that should be applied
                     in a similar manner to Article 60 and Article 62)
               (4)   A party who sells and/or provides defective medicated or non-medicated cosmetics, or a
                     party who manufactures, imports, stores or displays them for the purpose of selling them or
                     providing them (violation of Article 56 that should be applied in a similar manner to Article
                     60 and Article 62)
               (5)   A party who sells and/or provides medicated or non-medicated cosmetics using defective
                     containers and suchlike, or a party who manufactures, imports, stores or displays them for
                     the purpose of selling or providing them (violation of Clause 2, Article 57 that should be
                     applied in a similar manner to Article 60 and Article 62)
               (6)   A party who violates an urgent order to suspend sale or suchlike in accordance with Article
                     69-3
               (7)   A party who violates the orders of disposition and recall as specified in Clause 1, Article 70,
                     or a party who declines, avoids or evades disposition or other measures in accordance with
                     Clause 2 of the same Article



           2)Penalties in accordance with Article 85 of the Law
            If one of the following items applies, the guilty party shall receive a custodial sentence not exceeding




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                                                             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


two years or a fine not exceeding two million yen. This penalty may be applied in conjunction with
other penalties.
    (1)    A party who sells and/or provides medicated or non-medicated cosmetics with incorrect
           information indicated on the container that directly contains them or on documents supplied
           with the product, or a party who stores or displays for the purpose of selling or providing
           them (violation of Clause 1, Article 55 that should be applied in a similar manner to Article
           60 and Article 62)
    (2)    A party who violates regulations of reports such as extravagant advertisements and suchlike




                                                                                                                Chapter2
           (violation of Article 66)
    (3)    A party who violates an order to suspend sale as specified in the rules of Clause 1, Article 75


3)Penal regulations in accordance with Article 86 of the Law
 If one of the following items applies, the guilty party shall receive a custodial sentence not exceeding
one year or a fine not exceeding one million yen. This penalty may be applied in conjunction with                        
other penalties.
    (1)    Manufacturers/distributors of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics who violate the
           obligation to assign representative manufacturers and sales managers, and manufacturers/
           distributors of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics who violate the obligation to assign
           representative practitioners (violation of Clause 1 and Clause 5 of Article 17)
    (2)    A party who violates the disposal of facilities for which there is a prohibition of use based on
           the rules of Article 72
    (3)    A party who violates an order to change representative practitioners (Article 73)


4)Penalties in accordance with Article 87 of the Law
 If one of the following items applies, the guilty party shall be sentenced to a penalty of 500,000 yen
or less.
    (1)    A party who violates a reporting obligation such as suspension and abolition (violation of
           Article 19)
    (2)    A party who does not make a report in accordance with the rules of Clause 1 or Clause 3,
           Article 69, or makes a false report, rejects an onsite inspection or recall and removal in
           accordance with the rules of Clause 1 or Clause 3 of the same Article, disrupts or make a
           false report, or fails to answer questions without due reason or gives a false reply
    (3)    Manufacturer/distributor of medicated or non-medicated cosmetics that violate the orders of
           inspection in Article 71
 


Others 
 For the importation from preferential beneficiary countries and suchlike (including special
preferential beneficiary countries), the preferential duties systems may apply. Please check with
customs. If preferential duties apply, it is necessary to obtain certificates for the preferential country
of origin for export, which is issued in such preferential beneficiary countries. (This is not required if
the total value is 200,000 yen or less.)




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            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


           (Supporting Laws)
           Custom Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Custom Tariff Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Temporary Tariff Measures Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Compliance and Narcotics Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety ・
           Bureau, Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
           High Pressure Gas Safety Law: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Division, Agency for Natural Resources
           and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/Law ・for
Chapter2




           Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Representation: Consumer-related Trade
           Division, Trade Practices Division, Economic Affairs Bureau, Fair Trade Commission http://www.jftc.
           go.jp/
           Montreal Convention (Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of
           Specified Substances and others): Office of Fluorocarbons Control Policy, Global Environmental Issues
           Division, Global Environment Bureau, Ministry of environment http://www.env.go.jp/
           Montreal Convention (Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of
           Specified Substances and others): Ozone Layer Protection Office, Basic Industries Bureau, Ministry of
           Economy, Trade and Industry http://www.meti.go.jp/


           (Related Organizations)
           Compliance and Narcotics Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Health, Labour and
           Welfare Ministry 03-5253-1111 http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
           Nuclear and Industrial Safety Division, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of
           Economy, Trade and Industry 03-3501-1511 http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/
           Ozone Layer Protection Office, Basic Industries Bureau, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
           03-3501-1511 http://www.meti.go.jp/
           Office of Fluorocarbons Control Policy, Global Environmental Issues Division, Global Environment
           Bureau, Ministry of environment 03-3581-3351 http://www.env.go.jp/
           Consumer-related Trade Division, Trade Practices Division, Economic Affairs Bureau, Fair Trade
           Commission 03-3581-5471 http://www.jftc.go.jp/
           Cosmetic Fair Trade Council 03-5472-2533 http://www.cftc.jp/
           Prefectural Pharmaceutical Division
           Customs (Tokyo) 03-3529-0700 http://www.customs.go.jp




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                                                        Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


 3.The Compliance of Import Procedures with
 the Food Sanitation Law

(1)The importation of foods and suchlike
  Based on safety concerns, Article 27 of the Food Sanitation Law requires food importers to report




                                                                                                           Chapter2
the importation of foodstuffs. Article 27 of the Food Sanitation Law stipulates that anyone who
intends to import foods, additives, instruments, containers or packages for sale or other commercial
use shall notify the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare of each importation as provided by the
 Ministry’s ordinance. The article prohibits foods and suchlike that have been imported without
 notification from being sold.
        Notification Forms for the Importation of Foods is sent to the Ministry of Health, Labour and
                                                                                                                   
 Welfare Quarantine Station.
        Upon receiving the notification, the Quarantine Station’s food sanitation inspectors ensure
that the importation complies with the Food Sanitation Law.




 1)Procedures for import notification
        1.Fill in the Notification Form for the Importation of Foods.




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             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

                     2.Some of the blanks in the import notification form must be filled in completely.


                     3.After filling in the import notification form and the other required documents, send them
                          to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Quarantine Station that controls the port
                          at which the importation arrives. Currently, import notifications for foods and drinks
                          directed to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare can be made either in hard copy
                          or electronic copy. However, online notifications require that the computer be registered
Chapter2




                          with the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in advance.




            2)Inspection by the Quarantine Station of the Notification Forms for the
            Importation of Foods
              1.On receiving the notification, the food sanitation inspector at the Quarantine Station of the
                   Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare checks the importation to make sure that it complies
                   with the Food Sanitation Law.


             The inspection concerns the particulars listed below and is based on the information entered in
            the relevant Notification Form for the Importation of Foods, such as the exporting country, imported
            items, producer, production site, raw materials, production procedures and the use of additives.
                    ○     Compliance with production standards provided in the Food Sanitation Law
                    ○     Validity of the standards for the use of additives
                    ○     Absence of toxic and hazardous substances
                    ○     Whether the producer or production site had a sanitation problem in the past
           (Click on the link below to view the standards for foods and additives on the JETRO website: http://www.jetro.go.jp/jpn/
           regulations/guidebook/index.html/)



              2.   The importation that the inspector deems as needing a further check shall undergo an
                   inspection order, administrative inspection and other inspections. The results of the inspection
                   are considered in confirming that the importation complies with the Food Sanitation Law.


              3.   The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Quarantine Station issues a notification certificate
                   on foods and drinks that the inspector deems legal. This is followed by the remainder of the
                   customs procedure.


              4.   Foods and drinks that the inspector deems illegal cannot be imported to Japan. The Ministry
                   of Health, Labour and Welfare Quarantine Station informs the relevant importer of the details
                   of the violation. Thereafter, the importer is required to follow the Quarantine Station’s
                   directions.


              5.   Systems to streamline and speed up the procedures for import notifications have been
                   introduced.



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                                                                    Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


3)Systems to streamline and speed up the procedures for the notification
of imported foods

    System                                                      Description
 Prior           A notification concerning all foods and drinks can be accepted from seven days before the date that
 notification     the freight is scheduled to arrive. A notification certificate is immediately issued before the arrival of
                 the freight or after it is delivered. This does not apply to imports that need to be inspected.

 Planned         To repeatedly import specific foods or drinks, an import plan may be submitted at the time of the




                                                                                                                            Chapter2
 importation     first import. If the plan is deemed acceptable, the subsequent importation of the relevant foods and
                 drinks can be exempted from notification obligations for a specified period.

 Acceptance      If the importation has already been inspected by a public agency in the exporting country and if
 of results of   a document indicating the inspection results is attached to the imported foods, the Quarantine
 inspection by   Station’s inspections on the relevant freight may be waived. However, this does not apply to
 an overseas     bacteria, mycotoxin and other substances that could alter during transportation.
 public agency   (For information on standards for foods and additives, click on the following link to go to the JETRO
                 website: www.jetro.go.jp/jpn/regulations/guidebook/index.html/)
 Continuous      To import specific foods and drinks repeatedly, an inspection report may be attached to the first
                                                                                                                                    
 importation     importation. If the product is judged acceptable after the review of the inspection report, the
 of the same     subsequent importation of the relevant foods can be exempted from inspection obligations for a
 foods           specified period.
 Prior           If prior confirmation is obtained that the imported foods or drinks comply with the Food Sanitation
 confirmation     Law and relevant foods or drinks and their producer/processor are registered, the registered foods
 on imported     and drinks ay be exempted from import inspections for a specified period. However, this does not
 foods           apply to foods and drinks that are subject to inspection or monitoring related to an inspection order.
                 The notification is immediately followed by the issuance of a notification certificate.




4)Compliance with the Food Sanitation Law in handling incoming
overseas mail
 Importation of foods and drinks via international mail for sale or other commercial purposes
requires an import notification to be made in compliance with the Food Sanitation Law.
 The foods and drinks include foods, additives, instruments, containers, packages and little children’
s toys.
 The above requirement is based on Article 27 of the Food Sanitation Law that says anyone that
intends to import foods, additives, instruments, containers or packages for sale or other commercial
purposes shall notify the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare of each of the imports as provided
in the Ministry’s ordinance. This is because the handling of imports depends on how the product
is imported and in what quantity. After the mailed freight arrives in Japan, a notice on customs
procedures for the receipt of overseas mail, the so-called“arrival notice,”is issued by customs,
followed by the customs procedure. If the imported product is intended for sale or other commercial
use in Japan, an import notification must, in compliance with Article 27 of the Food Sanitation Law,
be sent to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Quarantine Station that controls the area
where the freight is kept.




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             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan




                                         Prior          The quarantine station’s imported food office
                                      consultation      offers prior advice.
                                                                              Notification Form for Importation of Foods
                                                                              Other related documents including:
                                      Prepare documents related to
                                           import notification                   Documents to explain raw materials,
                                                                                   components or production processes
                                                                                 Sanitation certificate, if necessary
                                                                                 Report of examination results, if necessary
                                    Freight arrives
Chapter2




                                        Notify         Fill in and submit the Notification Form for Importation of Foods and
                                      importation      other necessary documents or use the online notification form


                                                                          Further inspection
                                         Quarantine station’s                 is needed
                                             inspection                                                                           Registered inspection
                                                                                           Quarantine station
                                                                                                                                         agency
                           No further inspection is needed                                                            Ordered
                                                                               Monitoring                            inspection
                                                                                   Products that did not      Or           Quarantine station
                                                                                   pass the monitoring test
                                                                                   are collected.
                                                                                                                   Administrative
                                                                                                                    inspection



                                                                                                   Pass                   Fail


                                     Import notification certificate is
                                                 issued.

                                       Customs
                                       procedure                                                                    Disposal
                                                                                                              Reshipment and others
                                      The imported foods are
                                       distributed in Japan.




           (2)Importation of teas and herbal teas
            < Outline of the Procedures >
             Because the Food Sanitation Law also applies to teas, the importation of teas requires that a
            notification be made. Herbal tea or other kinds of tea that are only dried may be subject to restriction
            by the Plant Protection Law. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law may apply to imports partly made from
            materials that can only be used for medical drugs.


            < Import procedures >
            1)Customs classification
             The domestic classification of customs classifies teas as follows
                   (1)   Green tea, black tea, oolong tea and other kinds of tea obtained from small trees




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                                                          Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

             botanically categorized into Genus Thea, Item 0902
       (2)   Mate, Item 0903
       (3)   Herbal tea like those with medicinal effects, Item 1211
       (4)   Blended herbal tea and suchlike, Item 2106


 The classification of teas is very complex. Some teas may belong to other classifications. For this
reason, contact the customs house for details on the classification.




                                                                                                             Chapter2
2)Food Sanitation Law
 The Food Sanitation Law requires tea importers to fill in and submit the Notification Form for the
Importation of Foods to the quarantine station’s imported food office located at the port or airport
whose customs through which the product will pass. The notification form is inspected and, if the
sanitary inspection is deemed necessary, the relevant product goes to a bonded area and undergoes                    
an inspection before a decision is made concerning its importation. The law specifies standards of
residual chemicals, which is considered the tea component standards. If a problem is identified during
inspection, the product may be reshipped, fumigated or disposed of.
 Teas sold in a container/package are required to carry label indications that comply with the Food
Sanitation Law.
 As stated in Clause 3, Article 11 of the Food Sanitation Law, the positive list system has been
enforced with regard to restrictions on residual chemicals and suchlike since May 29, 2006.




3)Law Concerning Standardization and Proper Labeling of Agricultural
and Forestry Products (JAS Law)
 The law requires products to carry indications that comply with the quality indication standards.
Imported products are required to indicate the place (country) of origin. After the introduction of
organic food certification, only products that comply with the organic JAS standards are allowed to
use terms like         in
              “organic” their label indications.




4)Plant Protection Law
 Because of the law, unheated and unprocessed herbal teas, mate or suchlike may be subject to
plant quarantine depending on the state of the product. Contact the quarantine station for details.
If the Plant Protection Law applies to the imported product, an“application form for the inspection
of banned plant importation”must be filled in and submitted to the plant quarantine station
immediately after the product arrives at the specified port/airport. The application form must be
accompanied by an inspection certificate issued by the government of the exporting country.
 If the product fails the inspection due to detection of vermin, an order to fumigate, dispose of or
reship the product is issued.




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            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


           5)Pharmaceutical Affairs Law
            The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law applies to imported foods containing components that are
           acceptable for use only in medical drugs and that claim medical benefits.
            The importation and marketing of such products as a business require the company to obtain a
           production and marketing license and approval for each item in accordance with the Pharmaceutical
           Affairs Law. If the imported product is to be packed, attached with indications and stored before
           being shipped to the market, a production license is required. Marketing such products also requires
Chapter2




           indications that comply with the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.
            For details, contact the pharmaceutical department in your prefecture.




           6)Importation and customs clearance
            Fill in and submit an“import (tax payment) declaration form”along with an invoice, bill of lading
           (B/L), insurance statements and other related documents to the customs house. An“import permit”is
           issued after the inspection and tax payment at the customs house.




           7)Preferential duties
            Preferential duties may apply to some teas imported from less developed countries including
           the so-called least developed countries. Contact the customs house for details. The application of
           preferential rate requires the certificate of preferential origin to be obtained at the time of export. The
           certificate is supplied by the less developed country. The certificate is not required if the total price is
           200 thousand yen or less.




           8)Other notes
               (1)    In addition, indications on sold products include those concerning the Health Promotion Law
                      (formerly the Nutrition Improvement Law) that provides regulations about the indications of
                      nutritional components and heat value. Concerning the country of origin for black teas and
                      green teas, the Law for Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Representation
                      requires the country of origin for pan-fired teas to be indicated.
               (2)    The Law for Promotion of Sorted Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging
                      requires aluminum cans, steel cans and plastic bottles to carry a label indication to identify
                      the materials. The law also requires businesses, including importers, to recommercialize
                      dumped containers like bottles.


                     For details, contact the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.




            200
                                                            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

(The above descriptions are based on the following laws).
Custom Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
Custom Tariff Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
Temporary Tariff Measures Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
Food Sanitation Law:Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
JAS Law: Ministry of Agriculuture, Forestry and Fisheries http://www.maff.go.jp/
Plant Protection Law: Ministry of Agriculuture, Forestry and Fisheries http://www.maff.go.jp/
Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare http://www.mhlw.go.jp/




                                                                                                               Chapter2
Health Promotion Law: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
Law for Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Representation: Japan Fair Trade
Commission http://www.jftc.go.jp/
Law for Promotion of Sorted Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging: Ministry of
Economy, Trade and Industry http://www.meti.go.jp/
                                                                                                                       
(Related organizations)
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare 03-5253-1111 http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
Ministry of Agriculuture, Forestry and Fisheries 03-3502-8111 http://www.maff.go.jp/
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry 03-3501-1511 http://www.meti.go.jp/
Customs (Tokyo) 03-3529-0700 http://www.customs.go.jp/
Fair Trade Commission 03-3581-5471 http://www.jftc.go.jp/


* As of January 2007




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             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


           (3)Procedures for taking the required inspections on imported tableware


            < Outline of the Procedures >
             Imported tableware is categorized into“containers”stated in the Food Sanitation Law. For such
            products to be sold, displayed or used in other commercial applications, they must undergo and pass
            an inspection conducted by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare or equivalent, to determine if
            they comply with the standards provided by the Food Sanitation Law.
Chapter2




             Inspections based on the Food Sanitation Law may involve premarketing samples or imported
            products. To minimize the risks and uncertainties associated with imports, the safety of premarketing
            samples should be confirmed by a designated inspection agency before the samples are imported.
            Because the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare authorizes the inspection results reported by the
            exporting countries’designated agencies, obtaining an inspection certificate from such an agency at
            the time of importation saves the imported products from having to undergo an inspection in Japan
            for items that have already been inspected overseas, even though the Japanese law requires the items
            to be included in inspections.


             The following are procedures for conducting inspections on premarketing samples.


                1.   Ask the exporter to send, via international courier, EMS or suchlike, a sample of the
                     tableware that is going to be imported. If the imported tableware is available in many
                     different materials, colors or sizes (container depth), all of these sample types need to be
                     obtained.


                2.   Without unpacking the sample obtained, bring it to the Ministry of Health, Labour and
                     Welfare’s food inspection division, namely the quarantine station, that is nearest to the
                     location at which the imported products will arrive.


                3.   The food inspection division or the quarantine station checks the sample and specifies the
                     inspection items by analyzing the material, color, size and other factors. Seal the package of
                     the sample so that it can be carried to an inspection agency.


                4.   The importer brings the sample to the inspection agency designated by the Ministry of
                     Health, Labour and Welfare and requests an inspection of the specified items.


                5.   After a hygiene test, the designated inspection agency issues a certificate. Present it to the
                     abovementioned food inspection division of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and
                     confirm whether the result of the hygiene test is acceptable. If the sample is shown to be
                     hygienically acceptable, equivalent products can be imported.




             202
                                                            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

    6.   Concerning a hygiene test at the time of importation of a product, submitting the certificate
         of the preceding sample inspection to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare’s food
         inspection division allows the importation to be declared without having to undergo an
         inspection. Thereafter, the certificate may be used for a considerable period to import the
         same products from the same exporter except where the product has undergone changes or
         improvements in terms of the material, color, size or other attribute.




                                                                                                               Chapter2
 The period and cost of inspection depend on material and other inspection items. The period of an
inspection generally ranges from three to ten days. Inspection costs generally range from 10,000 yen
to 30,000 yen. All costs are borne by the importer.


 Detailed inspection procedures depend on the material, color, size and other attributes of the
tableware. A 24-hour elution test with lead, cadmium etc. on ceramic tableware may be conducted
according to three types: plates that are 2. 5 centimeters or greater in depth and can hold less than
                                                                                                                       
1.1 liters of liquid; plates that are 2.5 centimeters or greater in depth and that can contain 1.1 liters or
more of liquid; and plates that are 2.5 centimeters or less in depth and that cannot contain any liquid.


 Test items for synthetic resin-derived tableware depend on what the product is made from.
Substances like water, alcohol and acetic acid are used for elution tests with evaporated residues,
heavy metal, phenol, formaldehyde and suchlike. For details of the standards, contact the Ministry of
Health, Labour and Welfare’s food inspection division or a designated inspection agency.




Related laws:
Food Sanitation Law, Food Sanitation Law, Enforcement Ordinance, Food Sanitation Law,
Enforcement Regulations
http://www.jetro.go.jp/jpn/regulations/guidebook/pdf/free/food-j.pdf


Related organizations:
Food inspection page on the website of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare http://www.mhlw.
go.jp/topics/yunyu/tp0130-1.html
Quarantine
http://www.forth.go.jp/
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/yunyu/tp0130-1e.html


Links:
Specifications, standards and testing methods for foodstuffs, implements, containers/packaging, toys
and detergents
http://www.jetro.go.jp/jpn/regulations/guidebook/pdf/free/testing-j.pdf
A list of public inspection agencies located in exporting countries




                                                                                                        203
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/yunyu/5/index.html


           Inspection agencies: Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation
           http://www.jffic.or.jp
           Japan Inspection Association of Food and Food Industry Environment
           http://www.jiafe.or.jp/
           Japan Food Hygiene Association
Chapter2




           http://www.n-shokuei.jp/
           Japan Food Research Laboratories
           http://www.jfrl.or.jp/


           References:
           Practices related to food importation Japan Food Hygiene Association
        
           * As of February 2007




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                                                            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


4.Import Procedures for Towels and Linen
< Outline of the Procedures >
 Basically the importation of linen involves no restriction. However, the marketing of linen in Japan
is subject to restrictions of the Household Goods Quality Labeling Law.


< Import Procedures >




                                                                                                               Chapter2
1)Duty classification
 Linen is classified into different uses, organizations, fiber types and suchlike.
 This applies to linen that is made from fiber for spinning and weaving and is easy to wash. This
type of linen includes bed linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen linen, all of which can be classified
into Item 6302. This category also includes cloth that can be cut into towels or other fringed products.               
Laced table centers (a piece of cloth that is put at the center of the table surface) or thick and rough
cleaning cloth are not included.



2)Household Goods Quality Labeling Law
 The Household Goods Quality Labeling Law requires marketed or displayed products to have a label
indicating fiber composition, procedures for handling home washing machines etc. , and the name,
address or phone number of the individual indicated.


3)Other indication-related notes
 The Law for Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Representation bans products
sold in Japan from carrying false or misleading indications of the place of origin.


4)Preferential duties
 Preferential duties may apply to imports from less developed countries, including the least
developed countries. For details, contact the customs house. The application of a preferential rate
requires a“certificate of preferential origin”to be obtained at the time of export. The certificate is
supplied by the less developed country. The certificate is not required if the total price is 200,000 yen
or less.


5)Customs clearance
 Fill in and submit an“import (tax payment) declaration form”along with an invoice, bill of lading
(B/L), insurance statements and, where applicable, other documents mentioned above to the customs
house. An import permit is issued after the inspection and tax payment at the customs house.




                                                                                                        205
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           (The above descriptions are based on the following laws).
           Custom Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Custom Tariff Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Temporary Tariff Measures Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry http://www.meti.
           go.jp/
           Household Goods Quality Labeling Law: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry http://www.meti.
Chapter2




           go.jp/
           Law for Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Representation: Japan Fair Trade
           Commission http://www.jftc.go.jp/


           (Related organizations)
           Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry 03-3501-1511 http://www.meti.go.jp/
           Local Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry
           Customs (Japan) 03-3529-0700 http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Fair Trade Commission 03-3581-5471 http://www.jftc.go.jp/




           206
                                                             Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


 5.Importation of Aroma-related Products

(1)Types of prior permission and approval for marketing of imported
 aroma-related products and application procedures




                                                                                                                Chapter2
  The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law divides aroma-related products into the following categories:
          [1]   Quasi-drugs: Medicinal cosmetics, medicated soap, bath agents intended to alleviate
                eczema etc.
          [2]   Cosmetics: Soap, face lotion, perfume etc.
          [3]   Medical instruments: Acupuncture/moxibustion instruments, home electric treatment
                devices, magnetic treatment devices, etc.                                                               
  Importation and marketing of aroma-related products that fall under any of the abovementioned
 classification of cosmetics, quasi-drugs or medical instruments require a production and marketing
 license to be obtained.


  Among aroma candles, incense and suchlike, the so-called miscellaneous aroma goods that the
 Pharmaceutical Affairs Law classifies into none of the above categories are subject to no specific
 restriction and can be imported as miscellaneous goods.




(2)Import procedures for essential oils

  Importation of essential oils requires an import notification to be made in compliance with the Food
 Sanitation Law. Essential oils with claims of medicinal benefits require procedures in compliance
 with the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. Essential oils that are applied to the skin are categorized as
“cosmetics”according to the classification of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and require a license for
 the manufacture and marketing of cosmetics. In addition, notification of production and marketing is
 mandatory for each item imported. Other uses of essential oils, mostly as the so-called miscellaneous
 aroma goods, are subject to no specific restrictions. These products can be imported as miscellaneous
 goods.


 < Import Procedures >
 1)Duty classification
  Essential oils are aromatic substances that are made by collecting and refining a variety of plants.




                                                                                                         207
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           Mostly volatile, essential oils can be used as raw materials in perfume, foods and other industries.
           Item 3301 does not include natural oleoresin (Item 1301) or plant extract or plant- or animal-derived
           coloring agents (Item 1302).


           2)Preferential duties
            Preferential duties may apply to some products imported from less developed countries including
           the so-called least developed countries. Contact the customs house for details. Application of the
Chapter2




           preferential rate requires a“certificate of preferential origin”to be obtained at the time of export.
           The certificate is supplied by the less developed country. The certificate is not required if the total
           price is 200,000 yen or less.


           3)Other notes
            The Law for Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Representation bans excessive
           lagniappes and exaggerated or false indications that could be misleading to consumers.


           (The above descriptions are based on the following laws).
           Custom Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Custom Tariff Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Temporary Tariff Measures Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
           Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Compliance and Narcotics Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety
           Bureau, Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
           Food Sanitation Law: Law and Regulation Section, Planning and Information Division,
           Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare http://www.mhlw.
           go.jp/
           Law for Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Representation: Consumer-related
           Trade Division, Trade Practices Department, Economic Affairs Bureau, Japan Fair Trade Commission
           http://www.jftc.go.jp/


           (Related organizations)
           Compliance and Narcotics Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Health, Labour and
           Welfare Ministry 03-5253-1111 http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
           Prefectural pharmaceutical sections
           Kanto-Shinetsu Regional Bureau of Health and Welfare 048-740-0800 http://kouseikyoku.mhlw.go.jp/
           kantoshinetsu/
           Kinki Regional Bureau of Health and Welfare 06-6942-4096 http://kouseikyoku.mhlw.go.jp/kinki/
           Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) 03-3506-9437 http://www.pmda.go.jp/
           Customs (Tokyo) 03-3529-0700 http://www.customs.go.jp/tokyo/
           Consumer-related Trade Division, Trade Practices Department, Economic Affairs Bureau, Japan Fair
           Trade Commission 03-3581-5471 http://www.jftc.go.jp/
           Cosmetic Fair Trade Council 03-5472-2533




            208
                                                            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


 6.Home Electric Appliances in General

 < Outline of the Procedures >
  Importation and marketing of home electric appliances in Japan are subject to restrictions in
 accordance with the Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law. The Household Goods Quality
 Labeling Law applies to some of these products.




                                                                                                               Chapter2
 < Import Procedures >
 1)Food Sanitation Law
  Juicers, coffee makers, rice cookers and other home electric appliances to which foods or drinks
                                                                                                                       
 are directly exposed are subject to restrictions of the Food Sanitation Law. Importation and customs
 clearance of these products require Notification Form for Importation of Foods to be filled in and
submitted and a hygiene test to be undergone.


 2)Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law 
  The law provides national technical standards for products that the ordinance categorizes into
“electric appliances”. Compliance with the standards and other obligations that businesses must
follow in production, importation and marketing stages are also stated in the law.
 Businesses that are going to manufacture or import the so-called“special electric appliances”
are required to submit a“launch notification”within 30 days before the launch of the production or
 import. To ensure compliance with product technical standards, businesses are required to take a
compliance test conducted by a“test agency”or equivalent registered with the Minister of Economy,
Trade and Industry, and to receive and keep the“compliance certificate”.
 To manufacture or import non-special electric appliances, businesses are required to submit a
launch notification to the director of the relevant bureau of economy, trade and industry within 30
 days before the launch of the production or import. Based on self-confirmation, the businesses are
 also required to 1) ensure compliance of their products with the technical standards, 2) conduct tests, 3)
 record the tests and 4) keep the test records.
  The sale or display of home electric appliances for sales purposes is unacceptable unless the product
 bears the required label indications.




 3)Law Regarding the Rationalization of Energy Use
  In accordance with the law, importers of more than the specified quantities of products to which the
 top runner system applies are required to achieve at least the best energy efficiency of products that
 are currently in the market. (The top runner system is intended to determine standards for energy




                                                                                                        209
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           consumption efficiencies in compliance with the Law Regarding the Rationalization of Energy Use).
           For details, contact the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.


           4)Household Goods Quality Labeling Law
            The seventeen items for which the Household Goods Quality Labeling Law stipulates the
           applications of the electric machinery and appliances quality indication regulations are required to
           carry indications such as precautions for use.
Chapter2




           5)Japanese Radio Law
            Some of the devices using a current at a frequency of 10 kHz or higher are required to
           have procedures for model check or model specification. For details, contact the bureau of
           telecommunications.
                   Model check・・・Microwaves, electromagnetic induction-heating cookers, etc.
                   Model specification・・・Ultrasonic cleaners, conveyable intercoms, etc.


           6)Water Supply Law
            The law requires built-in dishwashers and other water-supply devices that are connected to the
           water pipes to comply with the ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This is
           because of considerations of the effects on equipment like water pipes and on households.


           7)Building Standard Law
            Because of concern about the possible effects on water pipes and other kinds of equipment as well as
           other households, the Building Standard Law requires apartment houses and other kinds of housing
           complexes to indirectly drain water from a dishwasher, washing machine and suchlike.


           8)Law for Recycling of Specified Kinds of Home Appliances
            The law requires producers and importers to collect and recycle used home electrical appliances.
           Currently this applies to five items including television sets, refrigerators, air-conditioners, washing
           machines and freezers.


           9)Fair competition agreements
            The Law for Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Presentation includes two
           optional agreements concerning home electrical appliances: the“fair competition agreements about
           indications on home electrical appliances”and the“fair competition agreements about restrictions
           on lagniappes in production industries”. The agreements require the producers and importers to
           indicate the name and address of the company, product name, specifications, precautions for use, notes
           on repairs and guarantee period.




            210
                                                            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan


10)Customs clearance
 Fill in and submit an“import (tax payment) declaration form”along with an invoice, bill of lading
(B/L), insurance statements and other related documents to the customs house. An import permit is
issued after the inspection and tax payment at the customs house.


(The above descriptions are based on the following laws.)
Custom Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/




                                                                                                               Chapter2
Custom Tariff Law: Japan Customs http://www.customs.go.jp/
Food Sanitation Law: Law and Regulation Section, Planning and Information Division,
Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare http://www.mhlw.
go.jp/
Law Regarding the Rationalization of Energy Use: Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Energy
Efficiency and Conservation Division, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry http://www.enecho.                        
meti.go.jp/
Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law: Product Safety Division, Consumer Affairs Department,
Commerce and Information Policy Bureau, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry http://www.meti.
go.jp/
Household Goods Quality Labeling Law: Commerce and Information Policy Bureau, Product Safety
Division, Consumer Affairs Policy Division, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry http://www.
meti.go.jp/
Japanese Radio Law: Radio Policy Division, General Affairs Division, Telecommunications Bureau,
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications http://www.soumu.go.jp/
Water Supply Law: Water Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
Building Standard Law: Law and Regulation Unit, Building Guidance Division, Housing Bureau,
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism http://www.mlit.go.jp/
Law for Recycling of Specified Kinds of Home Appliances: Information and Communication Electronics
Division, Commerce and Information Policy Bureau, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry http://
www.meti.go.jp/
Law for Preventing Unjustifiable Lagniappes and Misleading Presentation: Consumer-related Trade
Division, Trade Practices Division, Economic Affairs Bureau, Fair Trade Commission http://www.jftc.
go.jp/


(Related organizations)
Law and Regulation Section, Planning and Information Division, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety
Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare 03-5253-1111 http://www.mhlw.go.jp/
Water Division, Health Service Bureau 03-5253-1111
Product Safety Division, Consumer Affairs Department, Commerce and Information Policy Bureau,
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry 03-3501-1511 http://www.meti.go.jp/
Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Division, Ministry of




                                                                                                        211
            Procedures for Importing Spa Products into Japan

           Economy, Trade and Industry 03-3501-1511 http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/
           Information and Communication Electronics Division, Information Policy Bureau, Ministry of
           Economy, Trade and Industry 03-3501-6944 http://www.meti.go.jp/
           Radio Policy Division, General Affairs Division, Telecommunication Bureau, Ministry of Internal
           Affairs and Communications 03-5253-5873 http://www.soumu.go.jp/
           Regional Bureau of Telecommunications
           Home Electric Appliances Fair Trade Conference 03-3591-6023 http://www.eftc.or.jp/
           Consumer-related Trade Division, Trade Practices Division, Economic Affairs Bureau, Fair Trade
Chapter2




           Commission 03-3581-5471 http://www.jftc.go.jp/
           Law and Regulation Unit, Building Guidance Division, Housing Bureau, Ministry of Land,
           Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 03-5253-8111 http://www.mlit.go.jp/
           Customs (Japan) 03-3529-0700 http://www.customs.go.jp/


           * As of October 2007




           212
Reference




                  Reference
                          




            213
             Reference [1] List of Industrial Organizations


             Reference [1] List of Industrial Organizations
            Esthetics related
            Name                         Contact                           Remarks
            CIDESCO-NIPPON               TEL:03-3263-5826                  The organization strives to eliminate the
                                         FAX:03-3263-5827                  disparity between countries in terms of
                                         URL:http://www.cidesco-nippon.    expertise, skill, materials and instruments
                                         or.jp/                            concerning esthetics, makeup and cosmetology.
                                                                           The organization also strives to enhance the
                                                                           international standard and disseminate and
                                                                           promote esthetics around the world.
            association japonaise des    TEL:03-3234-8496                  The association is involved with a wide range
            estheticiennes               FAX:03-3234-8498                  of activities, including training to develop
                                         URL:http://www.ajesthe.jp/        estheticians and enhance their skills, the
                                                                           licensing of certified estheticians, industrial
                                                                           activities to establish esthetics to earn the
                                                                           trust of consumers, and international exchange
                                                                           activities with foreign countries, such as
                                                                           CIDESCO.
Reference




            Japan Esthetic               TEL:03-3230-8002                  The organization was formed to protect consumer
            Organization                 FAX:03-3230-8003                  interest and sound development of the esthetic
                                         URL:http://www.esthe-npo.org/     industry.
            All Nippon Esthetic          TEL:03-5501-1801                  The organization was formed mainly by the
            Association                  FAX:03-5501-1805                  managers of major esthetic salons.
                                         URL:http://www.esthesite.com/
            Japan Esthetic               TEL:03-3837-5510                  The association was formed to enhance the
            Industrial Association       FAX:03-3837-5530                  safety of equipment and cosmetic products used
                                         URL:http://www.jeia.gr.jp/        in esthetic salons.
            Japan Esthetic Research      URL:http://www.jerf.or.jp/        The foundation conducts research of esthetics
            Foundation                                                     with the approval of the Ministry of Health,
                                                                           Labor and Welfare.
            All Japan Total Beauty       TEL:03-5297-6881                  The union was formed to provide mutual
            Union                        FAX:03-5297-6882                  development in cooperation with union members
                                         URL:http://www.ajtbu.or.jp/       from small salons.
            Japan Total Beauty           TEL:03-3444-2740                  The association provides instructions to shop
            Association                  FAX:03-3446-0603                  managers so that they can manage salons in a
                                         URL:http://jtba.gr.jp/            manner that enables them to earn the trust of
                                                                           consumers.
            Japan Electrolysis           TEL:078-391-6676                  The society conducts research into improvements
            Society                      FAX:078-391-2168                  in electrical cosmetic epilation specialists and
                                         URL:http://www.jes-world.com/     effectiveness of electrical cosmetic epilation.

            Japan Esthetic               TEL:03-3569-0837                  The association strives to enhance the social
            Association                  FAX:03-3569-0838                  significance and value of esthetics and electrical
                                         URL:http://www.e-jea.net/         cosmetic epilation in Japan, establish the basis
                                                                           of professional work, improve the status of
                                                                           estheticians and electrical cosmetic epilation
                                                                           specialists, and make a contribution to society.
            Biyoukiki Anzen Fukyu-       TEL:03-6226-6863                  The organization was formed to promote the
            kai                          FAX:03-6226-6864                  safe use of beauty equipment and chemicals,
                                         URL:http://www.biyoanzen.or.jp/   and it was certified as a designated non-
                                                                           profit corporation by the Tokyo Metropolitan
                                                                           Government in April 2002.
            Japan Society For Estetic    TEL:03-5524-2877                  The society strives to improve the reliability
                                         FAX:03-5524-2878                  of the esthetics industry and its social status,
                                         URL:http://www.js-e.jp/           cooperate with related organizations such as the
                                                                           Japan Esthetic Organization and the All Nippon
                                                                           Esthetic Association, and collaborate with related
                                                                           industries, including the medicinal industry.




            214
                                                                  Reference [1] List of Industrial Organizations

International Cosmetic &   TEL:03-5114-1738                   The organization issues an international license
Aesthetic Management       FAX:03-5114-1736                   representing certification by the I.C.A.M. France
                           URL:http://www.icam.jp/            headquarters so that professionals will focus
                                                              on international standards and the overall
                                                              industry will develop. It engages in a wide range
                                                              of activities to establish the training system to
                                                              develop professionals.

Japan Nailist              TEL:03-3500-1580                   The association works on the development of
Association                FAX:03-3500-1608                   nailists and related personnel by promoting
                           URL:http://www.nail.or.jp          courses in nail skills and licensing systems,
                                                              provision of the latest information on nail
                                                              services by the association’s publication,
                                                              research and development into nail theory
                                                              and techniques, and support for employment
                                                              opportunities in the nail industry overall.


Beauticians/barbers related
Name                       Contact                            Remarks
All Japan Beauty Shop      TEL:03-3379-4111                   Only one industrial organization nationwide,




                                                                                                                   Reference
Owner’s Federation         URL:http://www.riyo.or.jp/         with union members in 47 prefectures organized
                                                              by beauty shop owners.

All Japan Beauty Shop      TEL:03-3379-2064                   Only one beauty salon network consisting of
Owner’s Federation         FAX:03-3370-8917                   80,000 shops throughout Japan, approved by the
                           URL:http://www.biyo.or.jp/         Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare
Hair Dresser Training      TEL:03-5532-1161                   The center conducts examinations for beauticians
Center                     URL:http://www.sb.rbc.or.jp/       and barbers, and manages registrations. 
                           main/
Japan Center for           TEL:03-3370-3311                   The center works on instructions for and the                 
Hairdressing and Beauty    FAX:03-3370-8877                   implementation of correspondence courses for
Education                  URL:http://www.ribikyoiku.or.jp/   hairdressing and beauty training, research
                                                              into hairdressing and beauty training as well
                                                              as research and development for teaching
                                                              materials, the development of instructors for
                                                              training facilities, and support for the training
                                                              activities provided by instructors.


Spa related
Name                       Contact                            Remarks
Nippon Spa Association     TEL:03-3831-2624                   The association works on activities to
                           FAX:03-5807-3019                   disseminate knowledge concerning spas, and
                           URL:http://www.n-spa.org/          training to enhance the standards of spa service
                                                              providers to create an environment in which
                                                              members of the public feel confidence about
                                                              using the facilities.

Japan Sauna Spa            TEL:03-5275-1541                   The association strives to improve equality
Association                FAX:03-5275-1543                   amongst sauna shop owners, disseminate
                           URL:http://www.sauna.or.jp/        correct knowledge about saunas, develop sound
                                                              sauna business principles, and improve the
                                                              environment and hygiene.

Japan Spa Association      TEL:03-3794-7699                   The association engages in activities to identify
                           URL:http://www.spajapan.net/       guidelines for the sound development of the
                                                              Japanese spa industry, its operation, the services
                                                              it provides, the space and the facilities. The
                                                              association also promotes the development of
                                                              human resources in the spa industry.




                                                                                                           215
             Reference [1] List of Industrial Organizations

            Fitness related
            Name                         Contact                           Remarks
            Fitness Industry             TEL:03-5207-6107                  The organization is approved by the Ministry
            Association Of Japan         FAX:03-5207-6108                  of Economy, Trade and Industry. It actively
                                         URL:http://www.fia.or.jp/          provides information in the form of seminars
                                                                           and bulletins to develop Japan’s private fitness
                                                                           industry. The organization conducts research
                                                                           and studies every year.
            Japan Federation Of          TEL:03-5256-1861
            Health & Sports              FAX:03-5256-1865
                                         URL:http://www.sporen.or.jp/
            Aqua Dynamics Institute      TEL:045-544-9098                  The institute provides training and equipment
                                         FAX:045-544-9390                  for aqua exercise instructors. A total consulting
                                         URL:http://www.aqua-adi.co.jp/    and planning company specializing in water
                                          

            Japanese massage and others
            Name                         Contact                           Remarks
            Foundation For               TEL:03-3847-9887                  The foundation conducts examinations for
Reference




            Training And Licensure       FAX:03-3847-9886                  masseurs/masseuses, massagers, acupressure
            Examination                  URL:http://www15.ocn.ne.jp/       therapists, acupuncturists, and moxibustionists.
                                         ~ahaki/
            Oriental Medicine            TEL:03-3432-0258                  The association approved by the Minister
            College Association          URL:http://www.toyoryoho.or.jp/   of Health, Labor and Welfare. It conducts
                                                                           research into Japanese massage, European
                                                                           m as s age, a cup re s sur e , ac upunc t ur e, an d
                                                                           moxibustion education, research and
                                                                           development of teaching materials and
                                                                           reference books, and development and training
                                                                           of school instructors.
            Japan Acupuncture &          TEL:03-3985-6771                  The association promotes acupuncture and
            Moxibustion Association      FAX:03-3985-6622                  moxibustion, conducts medical research into
                                         URL:http://www.harikyu.or.jp/     acupuncture and moxibustion, establishes
                                                                           research institutes and clinics, promotes the
                                                                           acupuncture and moxibustion business and
                                                                           operates the association’s premises. The
                                                                           association strives to improve the quality of
                                                                           acupuncturists and moxibustionists, provides
                                                                           mutual support for its members, develops
                                                                           acupuncturists and moxibustionists, and
                                                                           manages the training centers and schools.


            Judo-therapists
            Name                         Contact                           備 Remarks
            Foundation For               TEL:03-5652-3323                  The foundation conducts license examinations
            Traning And Licensure        FAX:03-5652-3324                  in Judo therapy and engages in administrative
            Examination In Judo          URL:http://www.zaijusei.com/      work related to the registration of licenses.
            Therapy
            The Japan Association Of     TEL:03-5405-1690                  The association works on training instructors
            Judo-Seihuku Colleges        FAX:03-5405-3790                  at schools engaged in the training of Judo-
                                         URL:http://homepage2.nifty.com/   therapists, improves requirements and other
                                         juusei/                           quality-related aspects, conducts research into
                                                                           training details and methods, and develops
                                                                           teaching materials, including textbooks and
                                                                           reference books.
            Japan Judo Therapist         TEL:03-3821-3511                  The association holds all Japan boys’Judo
            Association                  URL:http://www.shadan-nissei.     competitions to promote the sound development
                                         or.jp/                            of young people, cooperates in disaster rescue
                                                                           and prevention training, and engages in
                                                                           volunteer rescue activities for various sporting
                                                                           events.




            216
                                                             Reference [1] List of Industrial Organizations

Japanese Society Of Judo   TEL:03-5603-9057               The society is engaged in holding meetings
Therapy                    FAX:03-5603-9058               for the reading of research papers and lecture
                           URL:http://www4.famille.       meetings, publishing the society’s journals,
                           ne.jp/~jjjt/                   scientific books and materials, implementing
                                                          research and studies, engaging in research and
                                                          activities related to special subcommittees,
                                                          cooperating with Japanese and related overseas
                                                          scientific societies, engaging in the lifework
                                                          education of members, licensing certified Judo-
                                                          therapists, and promoting research.
Japan Judo Therapist       TEL:03-3821-3511
Union                      URL:http://www.niseiuni.com/




                                                                                                              Reference
                                                                                                                      




                                                                                                      217
             Reference [2] List of Industrial Organizations


             Reference [2] List of Industrial Organizations
            (1)日本のスパ産業概説
            ・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
             井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋
            ・『季刊誌「creabeaux」No,51(2007)「日本のスパの発展と今後」』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 丸山智規著 
             より引用抜粋
            ・『The Spa』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 ハンネロール・R・レヴィ、リチャード・R・バージル著/北川 毅 
             訳 より引用抜粋

            1)統合医療
            ・                                                                     』服部かおる著 より
             『フラワーロード服部内科 HP(http://www.hattori-naika.com/shinryou_alternative.htm)
             引用抜粋
            『標準エステティック学 理論編Ⅰ』日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティシャン協会教育研究委員会著作
            ・                                                                              ・
             監修 より引用抜粋

            2)補完・代替医療
            ・                                                   』
             『日本補完代替医療学会 HP(http://www.jcam-net.jp)より「補完代替医療とは?」 日本補完代替医療学会著 
Reference




             より引用抜粋

            3)ウエルネス
            ・『NPO 法人健康と温泉フォーラム HP(http://www.onsen-forum.jp/)                「温泉保養地環境の形成」        (http://www.  
                                                                                           』
             onsen-forum.jp/enterprise/hoyochigakukoza/group-environment/environment01.html) 中 田 裕 久 著  よ り 引 用
             抜粋

            4)栄養療法 
            ・山口 武 著 より引用
            <栄養士>
            ・『標準エステティック学 理論編Ⅰ』 日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティシャン協会教育研究委員会著
             作・監修 より引用抜粋

            5)理学療法
            ・『標準エステティック学 理論編Ⅱ』日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティック協会教育研究委員会著作・
             監修 より引用抜粋
            <理学療法士>
            『標準エステティック学 理論編Ⅰ』日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティシャン協会教育研究委員会著作
            ・                                                   ・
             監修 より引用抜粋

            6)運動療法
            ・『スパ ベーシックブック スパ アドバイザー検定準拠』NPO 法人日本スパ振興協会発行 NPO 法人日本スパ振
             興協会著
            ・『インド ヨガ&ヘルス インクレディブル・インディア』インド政府観光局著作・発行 より引用抜粋
            『季刊誌「creabeaux」No,52・No,53(2007)
            ・                               「エステティシャンのためのルーシーダットン・ヨガ教室」』フレグラ
             ンスジャーナル社発行 岩原いづみ著 より引用抜粋

            7)様々な手技療法
            『標準エステティック学 理論編Ⅰ』日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティシャン協会教育研究委員会著作
            ・                                                                                          ・
             監修 より引用抜粋
            <西洋式リフレクソロジー><東洋式リフレクソロジー><マニュアル ・ リンパ ・ ドレナージ>
            ・『標準エステティック学 技術編Ⅱ』日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティック協会教育研究委員会著作・
             監修 より引用抜粋
            ・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
             井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋
            <アスレチックマッサージ(スポーツマッサージ)>
            ・『The Spa』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 ハンネロール・R・レヴィ、リチャード・R・バージル著 北川 毅 
             訳 より引用抜粋
            <スウェディッシュ>
            ・『季刊誌「creabeaux」No,46(2007) 「実践サロンワークでのスキルアップ」              』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 小
             山和か把著 より引用抜粋
            ・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
             井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋
            <エサレンボディワーク(エサレンⓇマッサージ / ボディワークの記述)>
            ・                                           』Esalen® Massage and Bodywork Association・ 日 本 事
             『EMBA * JAPAN  HP(http://www.embajapan.org/)




             218
                                                          Reference [2] List of Industrial Organizations

 務局著 より引用抜粋

8)水治療法その他の理学療法
<水治療法>
・『スパ ベーシックブック スパ アドバイザー検定準拠』NPO 法人日本スパ振興協会発行 NPO 法人日本スパ振
 興協会発行著 より引用抜粋
<電気療法>
『標準エステティック学 理論編Ⅱ』日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティック協会教育研究委員会 著作
・                                                      ・
 監修 より引用抜粋

9)瞑想
・『インド ヨガ&ヘルス インクレディブル・インディア』インド政府観光局著作・発行 より引用抜粋

10)ストレスマネージメント
・                                                      』洗足ストレスコーピング・
 『洗足ストレスコーピング・サポートオフィス HP(http://www.stress-coping.com/)
サポートオフィス著 より引用抜粋

11)美容法
 <エステティック>
 『
・「標準エステテイック学 理論Ⅰ「第一章エステテイック概論」」日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティッ
 ク協会教育研究委員会 著作・監修 より引用抜粋




                                                                                                           Reference
12)音楽療法
・『季刊誌「creabeaux」No,31(2007)「サロンと音との関わりーより効果的な音を求めて」』フレグランスジャーナ
 ル社発行 小山和か把著 より引用抜粋

14)気候療法
・『NPO 法人健康と温泉フォーラム HP(http://www.onsen-forum.jp/)               「温泉保養地環境」   (http://www.onsen-  
                                                                          九州大学名誉教授 畑病院顧
 forum.jp/enterprise/hoyochigakukoza/group-environment/environment03.html)
 問 矢永 尚士著 より引用抜粋
<森林療法>
・『NPO 法人日本森林療法協会 HP(http://www.janis.or.jp/users/bigrock/)          』NPO 法人日本森林療法協会著 より                            
 引用抜粋

15)同種療法
・『アロマテラピー事典』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 パトリシア・デービス著 より引用抜粋

16)植物療法
・『アロマテラピー事典』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 パトリシア・デービス著 より引用抜粋
<ハーブ療法>
・『女性のためのハーブ自然療法』産調出版発行 アン ・ マッキンタイア著 より引用抜粋
<芳香療法>
・『女性のためのアロマテラピー』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 マギーティスランド著 高山林太郎訳 より引用
 抜粋
・『花のもつ癒しの魅力 フラワーヒーリング図鑑』産調出版発行 アン ・ マッキンタイア著 より引用抜粋
・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
 井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋
<花療法>
・『花のもつ癒しの魅力 フラワーヒーリング図鑑』産調出版発行 アン ・ マッキンタイア著 より引用抜粋
<園芸療法>
・『園芸療法研究会西日本 HP(http://www6.ocn.ne.jp/~htw)
                                          「園芸療法ってなに?」(http://www6.ocn.ne.jp/~htw/
whats.html)』より引用抜粋

17)クレイセラピー
・『アロマ&クレイセラピー』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 ロゼマリエ・イプマ著 高村日和訳 より引用抜粋

18)温泉療法・バルネオセラピー
・『隔月刊誌「aromatopia」No,54(2002)特集「代替医療としての温泉療法」        』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 柳
 沢 融氏著 より引用抜粋
・『特定非営利活動法人 健康保養ネットワーク HP(http://www.kenkou-hoyou.net/)  「温泉の効果」(http://www.
                                       』阿岸祐幸著 より引用抜粋
 kenkou-hoyou.net/kounou/thumbnail.html)
19)海洋療法
・『テルムマラン パシフィーク』カタログ 株式会社タラソシステムジャパン著作・発行  より引用抜粋

20)美容の歴史
『標準エステティック学 理論編Ⅱ』日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティック協会教育研究委員会 著作
・                                                   ・




                                                                                                   219
             Reference [2] List of Industrial Organizations

             監修 より引用抜粋
            ・                                    「美容文化社―昔ながらのお手入れ法」
             『てくてくねっと HP(http://www.tekuteku.net/)                 (http://www.tekuteku.
                            』有限会社てくてく著 より引用抜粋
             net/funori.html)

            21)あん摩・マッサージ・指圧・はり・灸
            ・『あん摩 マッサージ 指圧理論』移動の日本社発行 社団法人東洋療法学校協会編集 教科執筆小委員会著 より引
             用抜粋

            23)香道
            ・『日本文化いろは辞典 HP(http://iroha-japan.net/) 』株式会社四次元データ著 より引用抜粋
             
            24)精進料理
            ・『箸蔵寺 HP(http://www.hashikura.or.jp/)「菩薩心9号「精進料理」のお話」(http://www.hashikura.or.jp/  
             syoujin01.htm)』箸蔵寺著 より引用抜粋
            ・『金剛院 HP(http://www.kongohin.or.jp/)「ぱぱぱのれしぴ」(http://www.kongohin.or.jp/recipe.html)』金剛院著
             より引 用抜粋 

            26)中医学
            ・『伝統医学の世界』エンタプライズ発行 池上正治著 より引用抜粋 

            27)タイ医学
             『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
Reference




            ・
             井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋

            29)アーユルヴェーダ
            ・『現代に生きる アーユルヴェーダ』株式会社平河出版社発行 ヴァサント・ラッド著 上馬傷和夫訳 幡井勉監修
             より引用抜粋

            30)ユナニ医学
            ・『伝統医学の世界』エンタプライズ発行 池上正治著 より引用抜粋 

            31)ギリシャ医学
            ・『花のもつ癒しの魅力 フラワーヒーリング図鑑』産調出版発行 アン ・ マッキンタイア著 より引用抜粋

            32)ロミロミ
            『季刊誌「creabeaux」No,47(2007)「聞いて実践 サロンワークでのスキルアップ」』フレグランスジャーナル社発
            行 小山和か把著 より引用抜粋

            33)その他の民族医学
            ・『とやま健康パーク HP(http://www.toyama-pref-ihc.or.jp/)「伝統医学って何」(http://www.toyama-pref-ihc. 
             or.jp/mdcn/)』富山県国際健康プラザ著 より引用抜粋
            ・『季刊誌「creabeaux」No,51(2007)「日本のスパの発展と今後」         』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 丸山智規著 
             より引用抜粋

            日本のスパサービスの動向
            ・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
             井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋

            スパ関連産業史
            ・                                                   
             『フィットネス オンライン HP(http://www.fitnessclub.jp/)「日本のフィットネス産業史(http://www.   
                                                       」
             fitnessclub.jp/industry/history/nenpyo.html)』株式会社フィットネス オンライン著  より引用抜粋
             『
            ・「流行観測アクロス」          (1992.10)  「まづ健康!の戦後史」     』株式会社パルコ・シティ発行(「ACROSS」編集部   
             URL:http://www.web-across.com)たなかさとし著 より引用抜粋

            2. 日本独特のスパ文化の発展
            1)日本のスパの始まり・古来から続く温泉文化
            ・社団法人草津温泉観光協会観光カタログ より引用抜粋

            2)近代の温泉・湯治場から観光温泉地へ
            ・『社団法人日本温泉協会 HP(http://www.spa.or.jp/)「温泉百科」                                       』社
                                                        (http://www.spa.or.jp/hyakkka/frame.htm)
            団法人日本温泉協 会著 より引用抜粋
            3)温泉旅館とスパ
            ・『月刊誌「SPA & treatment」Vol.25(2007)「シリーズ業界研究1ホテル業界・旅行産業を知る」              』飛鳥出版株式会
             社発行 より引用抜粋 
            ・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
             井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋




             220
                                                     Reference [2] List of Industrial Organizations


4)ホテル産業とスパ
・『月刊誌「SPA & treatment」Vol.25(2007)「シリーズ業界研究1ホテル業界・旅行産業を知る」』飛鳥出版株式会
 社発行 より引用抜粋 
・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
 井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋

5)宿泊施設型以外の温浴施設の発展
・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
 井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋

6)エステティック産業とスパ
『標準エステティック学 理論編Ⅰ』日本エステティック協会発行 日本エステティシャン協会教育研究委員会著作
・                                                                              ・
 監修 より引用抜粋
『有限責任中間法人 CIDESCO - NIPPON HP(http://www.cidesco-nippon.or.jp/)
・                                                              』有限責任中間法人 CIDESCO
 - NIPPON 著 より引用抜粋
・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
 井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋
・『月刊誌「SPA & treatment」Vol.24(2007)「ビューティスパのトップランナー ソシエ・ワールドの戦略」             』飛鳥
 出版株式会社発行 より引用抜粋 
・『月刊誌「Diet & Beauty」No60(2007) 「百貨店のメンズ戦略 男が自分に投資する」             「スパ特集」スパの本当の




                                                                                                      Reference
 客は誰なのか』CMP ジャパン株式会社発行 より引用抜粋

7)フィットネス産業とスパ
・『フィットネス オンライン HP(http://www.fitnessclub.jp/)          』株式会社フィットネス オンライン著 より引用
 抜粋
・『フィットネス オンライン HP(http://www.fitnessclub.jp/)          「日本のフィトネスクラブ産業史「クラブマネジメ
 ント」誌通巻 33 号記事」                                                           』株式会社フィットネス オン
                   (http://www.fitnessclub.jp/industry/history/article.html)
 ライン著 より引用抜粋
『月刊誌「Diet & Beauty」No61(2008)
・                             「特集 ダイエット フィットネス<新健診制度は「静観」多くは既存ダイエッ             、
 トコースで対応>』CMP ジャパン株式会社発行 より引用抜粋
・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三                                                       
 井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋

8)発展する日本のスパ市場
・『季刊誌「creabeaux」No,51(2007)「日本のスパの発展と今後」』フレグランスジャーナル社発行 丸山智規著 
 より引用抜粋
・有限責任中間法人リラクセーション業振興協会 より引用抜粋
・『平成 18 年度「タイ・スパ・サービス専門技術者の受け入れに関する調査研究」報告書』経済産業省 委託先:三
 井情報株式会社総合研究所 より引用抜粋

日本のスパ関連プロダクツ(化粧品)の市場動向 チャンネル別販売動向 注目されるコンセプト
・『化粧品マーケティング要覧 2007 総括編』株式会社富士経済 著作・発行 より引用抜粋

日本への化粧品輸入実績
・CIAJ 日本輸入化粧品協会 資料より引用抜粋

第1章 スパ製品の輸入
・『化粧品・医薬部外品 製造販売ガイドブック 2006[増補]』薬事日報社発行 薬事審査研究会監修 より引用抜
 粋
・『すぐできて儲かる輸入ビジネス』株式会社かんき出版発行 編者:財団法人対日貿易投資交流促進協会 より引用
 抜粋

その他 参考
・定期刊行誌『美・悠・健』総合ユニコム株式会社発行




                                                                                              221
             Reference [3] Supporting Companies


             Reference [3] Supporting Companies
             参考① 業界団体一覧


            Cosmetic Importers Association of Japan
                     5-18-17, Kaseihin Kaikan, Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-0032
                     Tel: 03-3560-3041 URL: http://www.ciaj.gr.jp/


            CIDESCO-NIPPON
                     4th Floor, Kojimachi Building, 2-12, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083
                     Tel: 03-3263-5826 URL: http://www.cidesco-nippon.or.jp/


            Tokyo Dome Corporation
                     1-3-61, Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8575
Reference




                     Tel: 03-5800-9999 URL: http://www.tokyo-dome.jp/
                     <Spa LaQua>
                            1-1-1, Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0003
                            Tel: 03-3817-4173 URL: http://www.laqua.jp/


            Aveda Corporation
                     24th Floor, Sanno Park Tower, 2-11-1, Nagata-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6161
                     TEL: 03-5251-3541 URL: http://www.aveda.co.jp/
                     <Aveda Lifestyle Salon & Spa Minami-Aoyama>
                            5-5-21 Minami-Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo
                            Tel: 03-5468-5800 URL: http://www.aveda.co.jp/


            Isetan
                     3-14-1, Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0022
                     Tel: 03-5273-5320 URL: http://www.isetan.co.jp/
                     <ISETAN BEAUTY PARK2>
                            URL: http://www.isetan.co.jp/icm2/jsp/store/shinjuku/women/beautypark2/index.jsp


            Ooedo-Onsen-Monogatari Co., Ltd.
                     2-57, Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064
                     TEL: 03-5500-1126 URL: http://www.ooedoonsen.jp/


            Megalos Co., Ltd.
                     Shinjuku Nomura Building, 1-26-2, Nishi Shinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo
                     URL: http://www.megalos.co.jp/




             222
                                                                   Reference [3] Supporting Companies

Thalasso System Japan Corp.
       3-2-15, Takaracho, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0022
       TEL: 03-3271-2728 (Switchboard) URL: http://www.thalasso.jp
       <Thermes Marins Du Pacifique>
               Blue Berry Hill, 1920 Okitsu, Katsuura City, Chiba 135-0064
               TEL: 03-5200-0222
               (Reservation Center: Open from 9:00 to 18:00, closed on national holidays
               URL: http://www.thalasso.jp/tmp/


Royal Park Shiodome Tower Co., Ltd.
       1-6-3, Higashi Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8333
       TEL: 03-6253-1111 URL: http://www.rps-tower.co.jp
       <Mandara Spa Royal Park Shiodome Tower>




                                                                                                        Reference
               1-6-3, Higashi Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8333
               TEL: 03-6253-1180 URL: http://www.rps-tower.co.jp


Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum
       3-7-1, Sakura-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-0005
       TEL: 042-388-3300 URL: http://www.tatemonoen.jp/
                                                                                                                
Dogo-Spa Association
       6-8, Dogo-Yunomachi, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime 790-0842
       TEL: 089-943-8342 URL: http://www.dogo.or.jp/


Nashigi Onsen – Kijino-yado, Nashigikan, Haseotei
       Shukumeguri 285, Kurohone-cho, Kiryu-shi, Gunma 376-0143
       TEL: 0277-70-3030 URL: http://www.haseotei.com/


Rebirth Tokyo Co., Ltd.
       5th Floor, Mitsubishi UFJ Trust & Banking Ueno Building, 3-23-6, Ueno, Taito-ku,
       Tokyo 110-0005
       TEL: 03-3836-9940 URL: http://www.rebirth-tokyo.co.jp/


Tempusu Ginoza Development Corporation
       Kanna 1817, Ginoza-son, Kunigami-gun, Okinawa 904-1304
       TEL: 098-983-2323 URL: http://www.kanna-thalasso-okinawa.co.jp/
       <Kanna Thalasso Okinawa>
               Kanna 1817, Ginoza-son, Kunigami-gun, Okinawa 904-1304
               TEL: 098-983-2323 URL: http://www.kanna-thalasso-okinawa.co.jp/




                                                                                                 223
             Reference [3] Supporting Companies

            Kusatsu-Onsen Association
                   Kusatsu 3-9, Kusatsu-cho, Azuma-gun, Gumma 377-1711
                   TEL: 0279-88-0800 URL: http://www.kusatsu-onsen.ne.jp/


            Tokyu Sports Oasis
                   8th Floor, Mikami Building, 1-18-10, Wakabayashi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 152-0023
                   TEL: 03-5433-0386 URL: http://www.sportsoasis.co.jp/


            Musashino Honkan, Hakone Ginyu
                   Miyanoshita 100-1, Hakonemachi, Ashigara-gun, Kanagawa 250-0404
                   TEL: 0460-82-3355 URL: http://www.hakoneginyu.co.jp/


            Yamashiro Onsen Beniya Mukayu
Reference




                   55-1-3, Yamashiro-Onsen, Kaga-shi, Ishikawa 922-0242
                   TEL: 0761-77-1340 URL: http://www.mukayu.com/


            InterContinental Yokohama The Grand
                   1-1-1, Minatomirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 220-8522
                   TEL: 045-223-2222 URL: http://www.interconti.co.jp/yokohama/
        
            Myojinkan, Tobira Onsen
                   8967, Iriyamabe, Matsumoto-shi, Nagano 390-0222
                   TEL: 0263-31-2301 URL: http://www.tobira-group.com/myojinkan


            Factory Japan Co., Ltd.
                   31st Floor, Yokohama Landmark Tower, 2-2-1, Minatomirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama-shi,
                   Kanagawa 220-8131
                   TEL: 045-640-4188 URL: http://www.factory.japan.jp/
                   <KARADA factory>
                   URL: http://www.karada39.com/


            The Windsor Hotels International Co., Ltd.
                   17th Floor, Mita Kokusai Building, 1-4-28, Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073
                   TEL: 03-5427-3000 URL: http://www.windsor-hotels.co.jp/
                   <The Windsor Toya Resort & Spa>
                            Shimizu, Toyako-cho, Abuta-gun, Hokkaido 049-5722
                            TEL: 0142-73-1111 URL: http://www.windsor-hotels.co.jp/


            The Information Service Center for Food and Foodways
                   3rd Floor, Okajima Building, 7-14, Nihombashi-Tomizawa-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0006
                   TEL: 03-3665-0291 URL: http://www.e-shokuseikatsu.com




             224
                                                                   Reference [3] Supporting Companies

BB Laboratories Inc.
       10th Floor, Koshi-ichi Building, 6-19-16, Jingumae, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0001
       TEL: URL: http://www.bb-lab.com


Association of Relaxation Promotion
       URL: http://www.relaxation-net.jp


Fuji Beauty Co., Ltd. (Takano Yuri Beauty Clinic)
       Takano Yuri Rainbow Building, 3-37-5, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-0053
       TEL: 03-5304-1107 URL: http://www.takanoyuri.com


Socie World Co., Ltd.
       13th Floor, Shinjuku Daiichi Seimei Building, 2-7-1, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo




                                                                                                        Reference
       163-0755
       TEL: 03-3343-6431 URL: http://www.socie.jp


Beauty Top Yamano Corporation (Yamano Aiko Beauty School)
       2-6-12, Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0061
       TEL: 03-3561-1535 URL: http://www.beautytop-yamano.com
                                                                                                                
Life Lab, Ltd.
       Tanabe Building, 1-15-1 Nakamura-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 232-0033
       TEL: 045-242-0561 URL: http://www.lifelab.co.jp/


Axelsons Swedish School Japan
       5th Floor, EZE Building, 3-3-10, Minami-Semba, Chuo-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 542-0081
       TEL: 06-6244-4426 URL: http://www.axelson.jp/
       <Osaka School>
       5th Floor, EZE Building, 3-3-10, Minami-Semba, Chuo-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 542-0081
       TEL: 06-6244-4426
       <Tokyo School>
                 Magnolia House 201, 10-5, Daikanyama, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0034
                 TEL: 03-5459-7377


i-bach.com
       URL: http://www.i-bach.com




Veda Vie Customer Center
       3-19-3, Toyosaki, Kita-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 531-0072
       TEL: 0120-828228 URL: http://www.vedavie.jp




                                                                                                 225
             Reference [3] Supporting Companies

            Aqua Enterprise
                    Yamashita Building, 5-10-7, Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0004
                    TEL: 03-3433-4177 URL: http://www.aquaenterprise.co.jp


            Fitness Online Co., Ltd.
                    8th Floor, Shinsen QS Building, 20-25, Shinsen-cho, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0045
                    TEL: 03-5459-2841 URL: http://www.fitnessclub.jp


            Mandarin Oriental Tokyo
                    2-1-1, Nihombashi-Muromachi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8328
                    TEL: 03-3270-8800 URL: http://www.mandarinoriental.co.jp/tokyo


            Fragrance Journal Ltd.
Reference




                    1st Floor, Seibunkan Building, 1-5-9, Iidabashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0072
                    TEL: 03-3264-0125 URL: http://www.fragrance-j.co.jp


            CMP Japan Co., Ltd.
                    2nd Floor, Kanda 91 Building, 1-8-3, Kaji-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0014
                    TEL: 03-5296-1013 URL: http://www.cmpjapan.com/
        
            Takeshi Yamaguchi, Director of Life Clinic
                    100-1-501, Futoo, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 222-0031
                    TEL: 045-540-1032


            The Tourism Authority of Thailand
                    1600 New Phetchaburi Road, Makkasan, Ratchathewi, Bankok 10400, THAILAND
                    TEL: +66 02 250 5500 (120 automatic lines) URL: http://www.tourismthailand.org
                    <Tokyo Branch, TAT Japan Office>
                    2nd Floor, Minami-kan, Yurakucho Denki Building, 1-7-1, Yurakucho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
                    100-0006
                    TEL: 03-3218-0355
                    <Osaka Branch, TAT Japan Office>
                            3rd Floor, Technoble Yotsubashi Building, 1-6-8, Kitahorie, Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi,
                            Osaka 550-0014
                            TEL: 06-6543-6654, 6655
                    <Fukuoka Branch, TAT Japan Office>
                            6th Floor, Elgara, 1-4-2, Tenjin, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 810-0001
                            TEL: 092-725-8808
                            URL: http://www.thailandtravel.or.jp/




            226
                                                                  Reference [3] Supporting Companies

THE FARM AT SAN BENITO
       119 Barangay Topakan, Lipa City, Batangas, Philippines
       TEL: (63 2) 696-3795
       <Japan Sales Office (AMS)>
               TEL: 03-3401-1500 URL: http://www.je-web.com/thefarm


Chiva-som International Health Resort Co., Ltd.
       11th Floor, Modern Town Building, 87 Sukhumvit Soi 63m Bangkok 10110, Thailand
       TEL: +66 (0) 2711-6900 URL: http://www.chivasom.com
       <Kentos Network – Japan Agency for Chivasom International Health Resort>
               205 Calm Minami Aoyama, 4-16-16, Minami-Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0062
               TEL: 03-3403-5328 URL: http://www.kentosnetwork.co.jp/
               Reservation: 03-3403-5355




                                                                                                       Reference
Kairali Ayurvedic Health Resort Pvt. Ltd.
       120 Andheria Modh, Mehrauli, New Delhi – 110 030, INDIA
       TEL: 0091-11-26802106 URL: http://www.kairali.com
               <Oriental Spa Ayus – Japan Representative of Kairali Ayurvedic Health Resort>
               1702 Yamashita Koen Duplex Tower, 27, Yamashita-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi,
               Kanagawa 231-0023
                                                                                                               
               TEL: 045-640-0383 URL: http://www.ayus.co.jp


Aromavera Co., Ltd.
       41, 75 Soi Pattanakarn 64, Pattanakarn Road, Pravej, Bangkok 10250 Thailand
       TEL: +66 (0) 2722-0001-3 URL: http://www.aroma-vera.com




                                                                                                227
                 Appendix
                   第1章
Appendix




           228
                                                                                                  Appendix


Annatto(Bixa orellana L. )

 Another evergreen shrub that is originally from
tropical America, Annatto grows from 4m-8m tall and
has heart-shaped leaves. The flowers are white or
pale red. The fruits are 2-4cm in size and bright red
with hard hairs. As they ripen, their color changes to
dark red and the fruit opens and shows 20-30 seeds
like a pomegranate. The seeds are covered with aril-
lus, which produce an orange carotenoid pigment. The
main ingredients of the carotenoid pigment are bixin
and norbixin, which are yellow when acid and red
when neutral. Annatto is the only source of bixin in
the natural world. This compound is non-poisonous,
so it is used as an artificial color in cheese and butter.
Before Congo Red, an artificial aniline dye, became popular, annatto was commonly used as a fabric
dye.
 Annatto has been used as body paint by the aborigines in Africa for a long time. Currently Annatto
is used as a food coloring and in lipstick, etc.




                                                                                                               Appendix
The demand for Annatto as natural coloring matter in foods and lipstick is increasing. Annatto is
also used as a curative with effects of laxative, antifebrile, and to relieve kidney trouble. It also has
astringency activity, so it is used in some spa-goods.
 A precursor of bixin is lycopene which is well known as the element of red color in Tomato. Lycopine
is an antioxidant and it is reported that it controls incidence of a particular cancer. There is a possibil-
ity that a similar effect is achieved by taking the coloring matter of Annatto, and research in this area
                                                                                                                       
advances and is remarkable.




                                                                                                       229
            Appendix


           Avocado(Persea americana Mill.)

            Avocado is tropical evergreen tree of Lauraceae
           family. The origin is tropical America, and it is
           cultivated widely in tropical and sub-tropical regions.
           It can grow as tall as 25m tall, and each fruit may be
           50g-1.5Kg in weight. Fruit skin is green when young,
           turns black-purple as it ripens. Fruit skin can be
           easily peeled by hand because it is thin. The skin is
           slightly rough, similar to an alligator's back, so it is
           also called 'Alligator pear. The fruit shape varies from
           egg-shaped to pear, round, and oblong. Flesh becomes
           soft and the skin color shades into black as the fruit
           ripe. It is necessary to ripen the fruit for several days
           after harvest because fruit does not ripen on the tree.
           A large, round seed is at center of flesh that is from green-yellow to beige color and creamy.
            Avocado is called 'Forest batter', because it contains abundant fat, protein, and vitamin, but less
           than 1% sugar. Unsaturated fatty acid accounts for 80% of fat, which is about 20%. Avocado cultivated
           in high temperature region tends to be low in fat. For example, fat of the fruit from the Philippines
Appendix




           contains half as much fat as fruit from California. It is processed to dip, shake, and ice cream besides
           it usual use as a vegetable and a fruit. Fruit paste is used as a face pack or hair treatment pack. In
           Indonesia, leaf is used as a diuretic (Daun alpokat). Because the smell is similar to anis, leaf is used
           to wrap meat when roasting, or herb tea.
            Viscosity of avocado oil is higher than olive oil. Avocado oil is used for skin care, because it is
           outstanding for penetration and moisturizing. It has effects of relieving dry skin and keeping the skin
        
           soft. Because it contains abundant vitamin E/C, it is a useful anti-oxidation and whitener. However,
           avocado has protein similar to the protein that causes latex allergy. Therefore, people who have latex
           allergy must be cautious in using avocado.




            230
                                                                                                  Appendix


Balsam Pear(Momordica charantia L. )

 The Balsam Pear, which is also known as bitter gourd and bitter melon, is an annual creeper that
originated in India The young fruits are used for food
15-20 days after blooming. The size of fruits varies
from 5cm to 30cm depending on the species. Peri-
carp is used for food to provide a unique bitterness.
The pericarp has a number of projections, turns from
green to yellow when the fruits ripen, and tears open
when fully ripe.. It is said that fruits with pericarp
that has smaller projections and is greener is bitterer.
 Bitter melon is commonly used as a vegetable after
removing the young seeds and the spongy fruit fiber.
It gets less bitter after soaking in water or rubbing
with salt. When eaten raw, the texture is a little hard;
slicing it thin enables people to enjoy the texture. It
is eaten daily in Southeast Asia, China, Kyushu and
Okinawa in Japan as stir-fried, as a viand or as soup.
The pericarp is processed into fresh juice or tea as a




                                                                                                               Appendix
food supplement.
 The momordicine of balsam pear has stomach-set-
tling property, sleep-suppressing property, and insect
repellant property. Ground pericarp compress used
for fever or insect bites is an effective anti-febrile and
anti-inflammatory. The citrulline content - a kind of
                                                                                                                       
amino acid improves blood circulation and is diuretic.
Bitter melon is rich in hydro-soluble vitamins, such as
vitamin C, and some minerals, such as potassium and
therefore is very popular as a healthy vegetable. It is said that it helps recovery from heat exhaus-
tion, drains surplus salt, and is good in relieving fatigue. In addition, its ripe seeds are used as dietary
aides since they contain abundant conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which helps the activity of lipase, a
lipidolytic enzyme. Balsam seed tea is popular for its diet effect.




                                                                                                       231
             Appendix


            Banana(Musa sp. )

             A perennial herbaceous that is originally from
            tropical Asia, banana can grow as tall as 7m. The wild
            species are said to be Musa acuminata Colla from
            Malay Peninsula and Musa balbisiano Colla from
            Philippines and India. Wild species are not suitable to
            eat because they have a lot of hard seeds. Cultivated
            bananas are of 3 species, Musa sopientum Linn, M.
           cavendishii Lamb. and M. paradisiaca Linn., out of
            around 40 species of the genus.
             The young banana fruit is yellow green outside, and
            the flesh of fruit is of starchy material. The pericarp
            gets yellow as it ripens, it has some black spots called
           “sugar spots”appearing on its pericarp when fully rip-
            en. And In Musa sopientum Linn., the starch of fruits
            is converted into sugar, but in M. paradisiaca Linn.,
            the starch is not converted very much into sugar. The
            fruits are less sweet, bitter and hard to eat. Cooking
Appendix




            with heat helps the starch to be converted more into
            sugar. The taste gets sweeter like sour-sweet potato
            and has a light and dry texture. Cooking banana
            that was powdery is used as starch source in a part of
            country of Africa.
             Besides its fruits, Inflorescence called banana hearts and pith of pseudo stem are commonly used as
        
            vegetables in Southeast Asia.
             The fruits contain 21g sugar in 100g, which are digestive and absorptive. Some athletes eat bananas
            regularly for its energy-efficient active ingredient. Bananas are considered as a healthy food because
            they have B-complex vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber.
            They are processed into drink, as dried fruits, sweets, sour, also as an alcoholic drink. It can enjoy
            easily the homemade banana-liqueur and vinegar by soaking the banana that peels off the pericarp
            to spirits and vinegar in the home. It will be able to sense like tropical when you use them that sweet
            smell of banana adhered. Moreover, it is paid attention as a healthy drink because various nutritional
            contents in them.       
             Banana-extract was obtained by solvent extraction after the pectin enzyme treatment. Most of the
            banana smell that we usually smell is flavored artificially to compound as isoamyl acetate etc. Howev-
            er, a sweet smell of the banana that gives people the feeling of well-being is popular among everybody.
            The smell is used for not only food but also soap, the hair treatment, body cream and the tooth polish
            powder etc.




             232
                                                                                                  Appendix


Benzoin Tree  Styrax benzoin Dryand.) 
             (

 Benzoin tree is an evergreen tree in the Styraceae family. It grows as tall as 15-20m. It is distribut-
ed in Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Laos. Benzo-
in is famous as a fragrance and as medicine. Benzoin
Sumatra (S. paralleloneurum ) and Benzoin Siam (S.
tonkinensis ) are allied species, and they also produce
benzoin.
 Benzoin is the condensation of the sap into the tree
bark. Sap is secreted from a V-shaped incision in the
bark. Benzoin is obtained by condensate of sap, or by
steam distillation of bark. The quality of the resin is
different according to species, tree age, and timing
of collection. Resin from the benzoin tree is scarce on
the market; commercial resin is a mixture of Benzoin
Sumatra and cheap Damar resin. Original resin of
the benzoin tree and the resin of the natural hybrids                                    Photo:shigenobu AOKI
between Benzoin Sumatra take on yellow and brown color. The best resin for use as medicine is the
first resin of Benzoin Sumatra; it is milk white at first but changes to yellow and brown with the pas-




                                                                                                                Appendix
sage of time. Resin cannot be used as is, it becomes useful by dissolving it in hot water. It has a sweet
smell similar to vanilla which lasts a long time. Benzoin is not easy to volatilize, therefore it is used to
retain the fragrance of perfume.
 The main elements of benzoin are ester benzoate and cinnamic acid ester; and vanillin is a main el-
ement that influences its fragrance. Because the production of benzoin sumatra is large, but it’s con-
tent of vanillin is small (about 1%), it is believed that the quality of benzoin siam as fragrance is bet-
                                                                                                                        
ter than that of benzoin sumatra. Essential oil of benzoin excels in relieving respiratory diseases and
breathing and it facilitates meditation. Moreover because it has a calming effect, it improves problems
of nervousness, insomnia, anorexia and indigestion caused by stress. It is said to be more effective
for children than lavender. Additionally it is effective to relieve infectious urinary disease because it
has antibacterial and warming properties. Dry skin, chaps, chilblain, and itch are improved because
it prevents inflammation and promotes healing of injuries. External using such as aromatherapy and
steam aspiration are necessary to achieve the effects of benzoin. Benzoin dissolved in ethylene glycol
or alcohol is available, but the ethylene glycol preparation is less irritating than the alcohol prepara-
tion. It must not be used in situations that require concentration, because the smell is somnolent.




                                                                                                       233
            Appendix


           Black Rice(Oryza sativa L.) 

            Black Rice is an annual monocotyledon of the
           Gramineae family. Twenty or more species are distrib-
           uted from tropical to subtropical regions. The usual
           rice is one of those species; the genus is roughly clas-
           sified into Indica (O. sativa subsp. Indica Kato) and
           Japonica (O. sativa subsp. Japonica Kato) type. A lot
           of varieties are produced and thus there are tens of
           thousands of rice plant varieties all over the world.
           Black Rice is among those varieties. Care must be
           taken to avoid drifting of pollen during cultivation be-
           cause Black Rice is easily crossed with general variet-
           ies. Easily occurring abscission is also a concern with
           black rice.
            Because the anthocyanin red pigment is contained in chaff and bran, unpolished Black Rice has a
           dark-purple color. Polished black rice becomes purple by polishing rice to 50 percent; it takes on whit-
           ish color if more highly polished. There are Black Rice varieties in both Indica and Japonica; black rice
           has been used in many ASEAN countries and Japan. Because the purple color is not lost even during
Appendix




           cooking, if a small amount of Black Rice is mixed with White Rice, the mixture becomes pink as red
           rice. Colored rice has been used in festive dishes as red rice and in sweets for a long time. Black Rice
           pudding (Bubuh injin) is a dessert that is popular in Bali Island in Indonesia. Black Rice is stewed
           together with coconut sugar, and flavored by cinnamon and clove, and coconut milk is floated on it be-
           fore it is eaten. Whether hot or cold both are delicious.
            Black Rice contains protein, vitamin B1, B2, niacin (B3), vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, and zinc
        
           are contained in Black Rice; in larger amounts than in normal rice. Anthocyanin has anti-oxidative ef-
           fects and prevents arteriosclerosis by protection of blood vessels. Rice bran has been used for skin care
           for a long time, because it is said that a lot of vitamins contained in rice bran have the effect of whit-
           ening the skin, suppressing dryness and preventing dullness of skin. Recently, products that include
           rice such as soap, body cream, and scrub powder are popular as gifts. They are also used for body
           treatment in spas in Thailand, and in Bali Island in Indonesia.




            234
                                                                                                Appendix


Cacao(Theobroma cacao L. ) 

 An evergreen tree that is originally from tropi-
cal America, cacao can grow as tall as 4-11m. White
sweet flowers are 1.5cm in diameter, bloom directly
from the balk in countless numbers. It blooms
throughout years, but fruition 1 out of 200-300 flow-
ers. Cacao fruit is like a rugby ball, 15-20cm long, and
10cm in diameter. In a fruit, 20-50 seeds (2-3 cm long,
2cm diameter) covered with white mucus in 5 sectors
regularly, like a corn. White mucus is so sweet that
local children are fond of chewing. Pericarp is yellow
green when young, turns yellow to red as ripen.
 Cropped seeds are fermented, removed of mucus
and dried by sun-drying. The seeds after process are
called cacao beans. Cacao mass is a processed cacao
beans, roasted, removed of seed skin and germ, and
crush it to powder. Chocolate is a product which is
made from milk and sugar and cocoa butter and mold-




                                                                                                             Appendix
ed, cocoa is a product which is squeezing defatted ca-
cao mass. The fat in cacao mass is called cocoa butter,
which is used for margarine.
Ingredient:
 Cacao products are popular as healthy food because
they contain abundant polyphenol, dietary fiber, and
                                                                                                                     
mineral. Theobromin as bitterness element is a kind
of alkaloid, which is contained specifically in cacao, is
said to be effective to concentration, memory, cogita-
tion and anti-stress because it stimulates cerebral cortex. It is reported that the polyphenol controls
the active oxygen, prevents the LDL-cholesterol in the inside of the body from oxidizing, and controls
the progress of arteriosclerosis, and control of the mutation of DNA and preventing the appearance of
cancer. The bag, wrinkles and spots of the skin are prevented and revived by the polyphenol control-
ling the senescence according to the oxidation of the cell. It is used for cosmetic ingredient (Hand-
creams, lotion, etc.) that inclusion of caffeine that effective contraction and the excellent moisturizing
action besides.




                                                                                                     235
            Appendix


           Camphor(Cinnamomum camphora ) 

            Camphor is an evergreen tree which can grow up
           to 30m tall. It is native to Borneo and Taiwan, and is
           also cultivated in warm regions of south of Kanto in
           Japan. The tree is very strong, and trees have been
           known to live a thousand years occasionally. It is the
           source of insect repellent for clothes, and was used
           as a cardiotonic drug in the past. Camphor has the
           property of slow sublimation. It can repel insects for
           a long time if solid camphor is kept together with
           clothing. α -camphor (the main element of Camphor)
           is present everywhere in the plant tissue, but it is
           usually obtained by steam distillation from crushed
           xylem. Unrefined camphor is obtained from batches
           of 100Kg xylem, and refined camphor crystal can be obtained by distillation of unrefined camphor. At
           present the camphor found in mothballs is synthesized from α - pinene that is a component of pine
           essential oil. In addition, white camphor oil, yellow camphor oil and brown camphor oil are obtained
           from camphor oil by fractional distillation under reduced pressure. Camphor oil is carcinogenic, it con-
Appendix




           tains safrole that is the material of the synthetic drug (MDMA). White camphor oil and Borneo cam-
           phor oil which are low in toxicity are used for aromatherapy. Yellow and brown camphor oil contains
           more safrole than white camphor oil.
            Camphor oil has a clean smell with a sharp stimulation effect. The main elements of it are α -cam-
           phor, cineol, borneol, and safrol. It has effects of sharpening the mind and awakening from sleep be-
           cause Camphor oil stimulates the central nervous system. It is easy for Camphor oil to be absorbed by
        
           the skin, and it has effects of painkilling and cooling or warming by acceleration of blood circulation
           depending on the situation if applied externally by compress to an area of acute inflammation such as
           muscular pain or bruise. Because it has antibacterial activity, it is said to be effective for treatment of
           burns or acne, and for general prevention of infectious disease. It is necessary to avoid using camphor
           in high concentration and multi frequency, because it stimulates the nervous system. There is a possi-
           bility of causing convulsion and nausea when using it repeatedly. It should never be taken internally,
           only used externally. Its use should be avoided both by expectant mothers and by patients subject to
           epilepsy and asthma. It is necessary to use great care in handling camphor because it is highly inflam-
           mable.




            236
                                                                                           Appendix


Champac michelia(Michelia champaca L.) 

 Champac michelia is an evergreen tree that it
grows to 30m tall; it belongs to the Magnoliaceae
family. It is distributed throughout Tropical Asia and
East Asia, and it is cultivated in India, Indonesia,
and the Philippines. It produces many cream or or-
ange-colored flowers of 5-6cm diameter but the flow-
ers are inconspicuous among the large leaves. How-
ever the flowers are prized because of their profound
and sweet scent. The fragrance is especially strong at
night. The tree flowers through four seasons in tropi-
cal regions; in the temperate zone it blooms during
the summer season. In Japan it can be cultivated in
the south of the Kansai district.
 Champac michelia is treated as a sacred tree in
Hinduism. In Bali Island of Indonesia the flowers
are used as daily oblation for deities. Because it has
sweet fragrance, it is used to scent hair as is jasmine.




                                                                                                      Appendix
Essential oil is obtained by solvent extraction of flow-
ers using hexane; and the extract is used in perfume.
 The main elements of champac fragrance are cis -
linalool oxide, eugenol, linalool, benzyl acetate, and
nerolidol. The fragrance has high relaxation effect, so
it leads to a positive attitude, and relieves headache.
                                                                                                              
A mixture of a small amount of Champaca essential
oil with carrier oil is effective in prevention of rough-
ness when applied to the skin because it suppresses
dryness. It should not be used in high concentration because its fragrance is so strong.




                                                                                               237
               Appendix


           Cinnamon(Cinnamomum verum Presl) 

            Cinnamon is a tropical evergreen tree of the Lauraceae family. Its origin is India, Malaysia, and Sri
           Lanka. The color of its bark is light brown and has a sweet and spicy smell. Cinnamon is used widely
           in the tropics as spice. When grown in commerce it is
           pruned to a height of about 2m, although it grows nat-
           urally to about 10m. Cinnamon bark peeled off young
           branches and dried is called Cinnamon Bark. Several
           very thin barks rolled together are called Quill. Cin-
           namon has little sharp taste, but Cassia, which may
           be substituted for Cinnamon has a sharp taste and
           its odor is inferior to cinnamon. C. sieboldii Meissn.
           grown in Japan has a sharp taste and its odor is infe-
           rior to Cassia. Bark and root of C. seiboldii Meissn. Is
           famous as used in            -
                            “Yatsuhashi” a specialty of Kyoto.
               Cinnamon is one of the three major spices, cinna-
           mon, pepper, and cloves. Cinnamon is used to flavor
           food, cakes, and beverages. It is one of the indispensable spices for curry, and a component at WU-
           XIANG FEN (five-spice powder) used in China and Vietnam. Essential oil of cinnamon is obtained
Appendix




           by steam distillation of cinnamon bark, flower buds, and leaves. Essential oil made exclusively from
           leaves is called“Cinnamon leaf oil”and is used as a perfume and in medicine. Because this oil stimu-
           lates less than essential oil obtained from bark and flower buds, it is used for aromatherapy.
               The principal ingredients of Cinnamon essential oil are cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and safrole. Cin-
           namon essential oil strengthens and warms the body, and helps assimilation of food. In former times
           it was used as a preservative for mummies because of its excellent bactericidal effect. It removes
        
           warts, and in the past was given as a pain reliever during childbirth because of its effect of reducing
           fever and relieving pain. It also energizes tired mental processes. It is used in soap, facial cream, and
           body cream because of its mild astringent effect. There are reports that cinnamon decreases blood
           sugar level, cholesterol, and neutral fat. Therefore improvement of diabetics is expected. Cinnamon
           must not be used during pregnancy because it may cause miscarriage. Cinnamon essential oil must
           be diluted to about 1% because it may irritate skin or cause convulsion if used at higher concentration.
           .




               238
                                                                                                  Appendix


Citronella Grass(Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendl.)           
         

 Citronella Grass is a tropical perennial herb of
the Gramineae family. It is similar in appearance
to Japanese Plume Grass (M. sinensis Anderss); it
grows about 2m tall. Leaves which are 2 cm in width
and 90cm in length produce a faintly sweet fragrance
similar to lemon when cut. Citronella grass is native
to tropical Asia, and its main source is Sri Lanka; it
is also cultivated in Java and Malaysia. Citronella
Grass is used as a perfume plant. It is said that the
fragrance is stronger when cultivated in Java than
in Sri Lanka. Classification of Cymbopogon is as yet
unclear. Fragrance plants that belong to the same
genus and are closely related are collectively called
Citronella Grass. Essential oil can be extracted also                                 Photo:Kazuo YAMASAKI
from C. nardus var. mahapengiri (Java Citronella oil), C. flexuosus (East Indian oil), and C. martini
(Roxb.) Wat. (Parma Rosa oil) which are cultivated in Indonesia and India. It is said that the quality




                                                                                                               Appendix
of Java Citronella oil is higher than Citronella oil from Sri Lanka.
 Essential oil is obtained by steam distillation from the leaf. It is desirable to use dried leaves for
distillation because if fresh leaf is used extra time is required for distillation. This not only requires
extra fuel but also decreases the quality of the odor.
 The principal element of essential oil is geraniol, with citronellal in about the same amount.
l- borneol is also present. Geraniol has strong antibacterial effect and controls immune response.                     
d- citronellal has the same effect as geraniol, and in addition has the effect of insect repellant. The
antibacterial and insect repellancy effects have a long history of use and they have been widely used
in India and Malaysia. Moth damage can be prevented by storing fabrics with cotton soaked in a small
amount of citronella essential oil. Moreover, because it is of natural origin, it is possible to use it with
safety to protect pets from harmful insects. Citronella oil is used not only as a fragrance material but
also in processed goods such as cosmetics deodorants, insect repelling candles, incense sticks, and skin
lotion. In addition there are effects of pain relief, calming, and anti-depressant properties which lead
to a positive attitude, and relieve tension headache.




                                                                                                       239
            Appendix


           Clove Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill et Perry )
                (

            Clove belongs to the Myrtaceae family; it is a
           tropical evergreen tree which grows to about 4-7m,
           although sometimes height exceeds 10m. Wild species
           of clove are native from Mark Islands to Papua
           New Guinea. The cultivated species used as spice
           have been domesticated from wild species and are
           distributed widely in tropical regions. Ninety percent
           of the world's cultivated cloves are found in Sri Lanka,
           and a major source of clove in ASEAN countries is
           Indonesia. The red calyx tube that looks like a nail
           adheres to the tip of the branch. It is said that the
           English name 'Clove' was derived from 'clou' which
           means "nail" in French. Four inconspicuous white
           petals are hidden in the stamen because a lot of the
           white stamen spreads like a tassel in the center of the
           flower.
            The main uses of clove are for spice and fragrance.
Appendix




           . Flower buds are picked before flowering while still
           in green color, and then dried to brown by sunlight or
           heat. The odor is rapidly lost after flowering, but the
           clove becomes aromatic by drying. The sweet smell
           is similar to vanilla and spicy, and the sharp taste is
           very strong. The characteristic odor is long lasting.
        
            Dried flower bud is used as a spice for food, for
           flavoring liqueur, and in the mouth to prevent bad
           breath. The main element of fragrance is eugenol
           that has antibacterial, antivirus, and anodyne effects. In addition clove contains eugenol acetate and
           sesquiterpene. Clove oil obtained by steam distillation has vermicide effects and stomach settling
           properties. It is used as an anesthetic in dentistry and ophthalmology. In ASEAN countries, generally
           there is antibacterial and breath-freshening toothpaste containing clove and medicinal ointment
           effective for anodyne/ anti-inflammation uses. By making vapor containing clove oil using a vaporizer
           airborne bacteria and virus in air can be reduced with prevention of infectious diseases such as
           influenza. Garam is Indonesian tobacco containing clove oil popular among not only among local
           people but also for tourists. There are many varieties with different density of tar and flavor. The air is
           full of characteristic sweet smell where‘ Garam‘ is smoked, and when the smell is noticed one feels
           that he/she has arrived in Indonesia. Smelling the aroma of oil of clove results in positive thinking,
           better memory, relief of tension headache, and the pain of childbirth. Because the stimulation is
           strong, oil of clove must be diluted with carrier oil to about 1% for massage use.




            240
                                                                                               Appendix


Coconut palm(Cocos nucifera L. )


 Rising more than 20m tall, the coconut palm has
single upright trunk, with the apex having some large
pinnate compound leaves around 5m long in clumps.
The fruits are called“coconut ”and are 10-35cm
in diameter; yellow green when young, they turn
yellow, orange, and grayish brown as they ripen. The
mature fruits fall down naturally. Coconuts have
smooth water-shedding exocarp, fibrous mesocarp,
and hard endocarp like hull. There is albumen
inside the endocarp. The ratio of gelatinous fat layer
and waterish albumen milk and their usage differs
according to maturity. Generally, young fruits have
more milk, ripe fruits have firmer fat layer.
 Coconut palms have wide usage. Fiber form mesocarp is used for brush, mat, rope, etc. and
used as daily fuel. Coconut shell of endocarp is processed for plates and utensils, buttons, etc, and
very popular as souvenirs. Albumen milk is just like sport drink with young smell. It is said to be
biologically clean when its shell is opened, and people find it useful as natural drinking water. Flower




                                                                                                            Appendix
juice is very sweet, processed into palm sugar through heating, and vinegar or alcohol drink through
fermentation.
 Fat layer has bouncing texture and lightly sweet taste, and is eaten raw. Coconut milk is produced
by squeezing hard fat layers and is used as food seasoning. Copra, which is dried fat layer, is made
into margarine, soap, candles, even as dynamites. It is said that there are effects of keeping the
skin fresh and soft using coconut for skin care because Glycerin that is used for lotion for moisture               
retention, lauric acid and vitamin E are included for anti-oxidative effect in it.
 Coconut oil can be obtained by condensing the coconut milk. Coconut oil is used to dilute essential
oil because it is not oxidized easily, and it is often used as raw material of natural soap because
excellent to care for skin. Besides it is used as hair oil because it can keep the hair lithely. The
essential oil of high purity coagulates naturally at the room temperature level, but it returns to the
smooth liquid if warming it at body temperature. It doesn't contain the trans fatty acid that increases
the LDL cholesterol if it take voluminously, and it contain a lot of middle chain fatty acids that easily
metabolizes, so it has publicity as healthy cooking oil.




                                                                                                    241
            Appendix


           Common Basil Ocimum basilicum L. )
                      (

            Common Basil is an annual grass in temperate zones but it is a perennial in tropical areas. It is
           native to tropical Asia, and is cultivated throughout
           the world. There are many related species because
           it is hybridized and easily escapes to the wild. Basil
           has more than 150 species. Among all others Sweet
           Basil is much used as a cooking herb or spice because
           of its mild smell and taste. It is does not tolerate low
           temperature. It prefers sunny locations and well-
           drained soil.
            A lot of oil glands are present in backside of leaves.
           Spicy and fresh fragrance is produced by rubbing
           or chopping leaves. Basil is used as spice both fresh
           and dried. Products made of basil with vinegar and
           oil are also popular. Glucomannan is contained in
           basil seeds. Seeds absorb water quickly and become
           covered with a jelly-like substance when soaked in water. Dried seeds are sold in Southeast Asia and
           deserts made from seeds with coconut milk or syrup, fruits, etc. are very popular there. The seeds
Appendix




           are often used as dietary aides because they help to get the feeling of fullness when eaten in small
           amounts because of their abundant dietary fiber.
            Basil essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of leaves. Functional digestive improvement
           is expected when basil oil is eaten because its flavor has the effect of appetite improvement and
           activation of stomach and intestine function. It is also expected to improve the function of liver and
           gallbladder.It is expected to have the effect of relaxing and reducing aggression because of its main
        
           ingredients linalool, camphor and eugenol which produce an calming effect. It is also believed to
           assuage eating disorder and anorexia resulting from stress. It improves the function of respiratory
           organs, and functions similar to female hormone as an estrogen; it relieves the unpleasantness of
           menstruation. It is effective in relief of acne, because it controls the secretion balance of sebum, and it
           has the effect of an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial. For these reasons it is used as an ingredient
           in goods such as soap. Basil essential oil is used as repellent spray produced from natural botanical
           materials for application to the skin directly because of the repellent action of cineol that it contains.
           It is necessary to avoid using basil oil in high concentration because of its strong stimulation of the
           skin. It is necessary to dilute basil oil for use on skin and to avoid consecutive applications. Also, it
           stimulates menstruation so should not be used during pregnancy.




            242
                                                                                             Appendix


Coffee(Coffea L.)


 An evergreen shrub that is native to Ethiopia and
Sudan. Growing up to between 3~ 4.5m. The most
famous variety of coffee is 'Arabian Coffee (C. arabica
L.)' which covers 80% of the world coffee acreage,
and 'Robusta Coffee (C. canephora Pierr. ex Froeh)'
is 20% of the remainder. Coffee flowers are white
and have sweet scent, the fruits are round to oval,
and are green when young, red or purple when ripe.
Generally, each fruit contains two seeds. Coffee beans
are harvested between 8-9 months after blooming,
and the flesh and outer pericarp are removed by
processing either by a“wet method”or a“dry
method”. The raw coffee beans are roasted according
to the taste preferences of consumers.
 Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline are contented in
roasted coffee beans, which are kinds of caffeine and
tannin that cause bitterness, astringent taste, and




                                                                                                          Appendix
sourness. Brewed coffee is used as a beverage and
stimulant to keep the drinker awake. Coffee may
assist recovery from distress and beans. Beans and
grounds can be used to remove odors, because they
have excellent deodorant effect. Crushed coffee beans
are used as the scrub powder for body treatment in                                                                
the Spa. When used as scrub powder generally it is
blended with rice powder or others powders, and in
using it old keratin and darkness are removed from
the skin.
 Coffee essential oil is obtained by steam distillation from roasted beans. It is said that there
are about 900 compounds that compose the smell. The main elements are furfurylmercaptan,            β
-damasenone, sotolone, franeol and vanyline, respectively. These have the smells of the aromatics of
savory, sweet honey, maple syrup, caramel, and vanilla. It is added to food as coffee flavor and also
used for aromatherapy. Because the essential oil stimulates the central nervous system, feelings
become positive, and symptoms of depression can be relieved. Popularity of soap with essential oil is
not only for the body but also as kitchen soap, because it is not only aromatic but also has effects as
a deodorant. There is soap mixed into coffee powder used to scrub the skin. It is necessary to avoid
using such soap in high concentration and during pregnancy because its stimulation is strong.




                                                                                                  243
            Appendix


           Common Nutmeg(Myristica fragrans Houtt.)


            Nutmeg is an evergreen tree of the Myristicaceae family. It grows 10-30m tall. It is native to the
           Maluku islands; and is cultivated in Indonesia, East
           Africa, and the West Indies. It thrives best in tropical
           islands with oceanic climate. Oval leaf is 6-13cm in
           length; small white flowers are similar to a pot and
           the flowers do not have petals. Nutmeg is dioecious;
           the male plant has some male flowers, and female
           plant has a cluster of flowers hanging down formed by
           1-3 female flowers. Diameter of fruit is 3-9cm and the
           form is from spherical to long-oval in shape. There
           is a shallow vertical groove like that of a peach on
           the surface of the fruit. This groove splits open 5-6
           months after blooming; and then seeds appear in the
           split of the fruit. The seed is covered by a hard shell;
           diameter is about 3cm, and it is spherical or long
           oval in shape. The outside of this shell is folded by arillode that looks like a vivid red blaze. The seed
           that is removed from the shell and arillode is called nutmeg. Nutmeg is soaked in limewater and then
Appendix




           desiccated. The Arillode is called Mace which is also used as a spice. The fragrance of mace is milder
           and superior to nutmeg, so mace is traded at a very good price. Bombay Mace is substituted for mace,
           but the quality is quite different when used as a spice, so it is used mainly in herbal medicine.
            Nutmeg's principal use is as a spice. Because the flavor is easily lost, it should be ground just before
           using. It is especially compatible with meat cookery. Heating it increases its sweetness; after heating
           it is used in sweets and liqueur. Nutmeg butter is obtained by pressing seed, and it is also used to in
           sweets, for cooking, and in medicine.
            Nutmeg essential oil is obtained by steam distillation from seed. The main elements of nutmeg
           essential oil are myristicin, pinene, eugenol, and safrole. These have the effect of nerve paralysis,
           so have been used to relieve toothache. It is effective for intestinal properties, so small amounts of
           nutmeg seeds are sometimes added to stomach medicine. . Because it causes warming by stimulating
           the circulatory system, it relieves muscular pain and rheumatism. Because it functions like estrogen
           it relieves menstrual pain and menstrual cramps and induces childbirth by causing contraction of the
           uterus. It must not be used during pregnancy because it might cause miscarriage. Persons with heart
           disease must avoid using nutmeg because of its stimulation of the heart. Because long term use may
           cause neurosis, delirium, and convulsion, it is necessary to use nutmeg carefully.




            244
                                                                                                 Appendix


Garlic  Allium sativum L.)
       (


 Garlic is a perennial herb belonging to the
Liliaceous family. There are various opinions that the
origin of garlic is central Asia or India, this is unclear
because the wild species has not been found. Garlic is
widely cultivated in the Near East to Mediterranean,
India, Africa, China, and Korea. Plant height is about
60cm. The flat leaf is blue-green color, and its tip is
sharp. The round flower stalk is erect and 30-60cm
in length. There is an umbel at top of flower stalk,
sometimes bulbils are formed. Enlargement of scaly
bulb is accelerated if the flower stalk is removed when
it is in flower bud. The flower stalk can be used as
a vegetable. Underground, 4 to more than 10 scaly
bulbs radiate epiphytic, these bulbs are used for food. Scaly bulbs are covered by film that is white or
red-purple. Garlic likes cool climate, it does not do well in heat. It likes alkaline, well-drained soil in
a sunny location. When about two-third of stalk and leaf have died, the scaly bulb is harvested. It is
hung in an airy place on to dry and stored. It can be harvested in 7-8 months after planting, and is




                                                                                                              Appendix
propagated by planting the scaly bulb or bulbil.
 Smell of garlic is most strong and sharp among the genus Allium . The chief ingredient of garlic
smell is allysine. Garlic is odorless until scaly bulb is damaged. Allysine is easy to resolve, and changes
to substances including sulfide compounds that are more strong smelling. These characteristically
dissolve into oil which gives to dishes an appetizing smell and taste according to the volume used.
Compatibility of garlic with meat dishes is good, it is also used for cooking strong smelling materials               
or game meat. Dried garlic powder and garlic mixed with butter/cheese are popular. It is an essential
spice for flavored ketchup, sauce, and dressings.
 Garlic is a healthy food that contains abundant selenium and vitamin B1. Vitamin B1 relates to
energy metabolism, and selenium resolves lipid peroxide. Essential oil (Garlic oil) is obtained by
steam distillation from the scaly bulb. The main element of oil is the disulfide gerial that has the
effect of carcinogen control. It is also known to have high antioxidant effect. Moreover it is reported
that garlic has the effect of lowering cholesterol, prevention of thrombus syndrome by coagulation,
prevention of platelet sticking together, and lowering blood pressure. It has strong antibacterial and
antivirus effects and therefore prevents infectious disease, and it is effective in treatment of athlete’
s foot by external application. A salve that blends equal amounts of garlic, beeswax, and honey
has hair restoration effect. As for taking the essential oil by mouth, capsules are preferred because
stimulation to the body is strong. There is a possibility that the colic may be caused in babies if the
mother eats garlic in large quantities during nursing. People who take garlic should be careful not to
take excessive amounts of this material.




                                                                                                      245
             Appendix


            Ginger(Zingiber officinale Rosc. )


             Ginger is perennial herb that belongs to
           Zingiberaceae family. It can grow up well at high
            temperature humid, but not adapt at cold and dry
            latitude. Straight lush foriage grow up 60~90 cm.
            Spike flowers are wrapped in bloom green-yellow
            bracts. It can be used for ornamental use, but seldom
            bloom in temperate area. As it growth, rhizome at
            underground part become enlargement, and it is used
            in commerce.
             Taste, texture and fragrant of root differs by stage.
            White and smooth, with flesh fragrant and less spicy
            when young. It turns yellow and more spicy in taste
            and fragrant, have more fiber as it ripens. Ginger
            is also used as a flavoring for candy, cookies, crackers and cakes, and is the main flavor in ginger
            ale. Juice has function of protein coagulation. There is Ginger-milk pudding that coagulated milk by
            ginger juice in China.
             Zingeron and shogaol contented in ginger, which are said to be effective for detoxification,
Appendix




            perspiration, stomachic prosperity, to mellow the flavor of other materials, and anti-inflammatory.
            Ginger is often used as not only food but also herb medicine. Ginger has been used as a cold remedy,
            because it become warm up body temperature and accelerate perspiration. Chinese medicine
           “Gegentang”, traditional medicine for cold is very famous. In China, Ginger differentiates between
            fresh and dry. Former is used as medicine for nausea, cough, detoxification, or stomachic prosperity,
            and latter is for stomachache or stomachic prosperity.
            Ginger essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of root, which contains citral, limonene, and
            gingiberen. When smelling such a spicy smell it has effects of body and mind warming, mind healing,
            mind responsive and concentration rise. It relieves pain of rheumatism, arthritis, sprain, cramp, and
            etc. by using for massage. It improves the chilblain and kibe, because it has effect of improvement in
            blood circulation. It must avoid using for mucous membrane and delicate part, because it might be
            stimulate skin. After use, keep it in shade place.




             246
                                                                                                Appendix


Gum Tree(Eucalyptus L'Hérit. )


 Gum Tree is the general term for eucalyptus trees.
They are evergreen trees which include 400 to 500
species, which are divided into many different species
only within the closed environment of Australia. Gum
trees are found mostly in Tasmania and Australia.
Gum trees are tolerant to cold and dry environment;
and, the tallest ones grow close to 70m tall. They grow
rapidly and because they can also grow in worn out
alkaline soil, they are used quite often for large-scale
forestation projects. Leaf form changes from wide to
long and slender while the tree matures. Leaf stalk
is bare, and phyllotaxis changes from opposite into
alternate. Leaf color is grayish blue-green, and the oil
glands distributed on the leaf can be seen with the naked eye. Oil glands are damaged when kneaded
by hand, and the fragrance floats from leaves which are rubbed. Dried leaf is used as herb tea. Taste
is mild, sweet and fresh, it is said that drinking it has the effect of keeping blood pressure and blood
sugar levels normal. Strong tea is suitable for use as a gargle, and is effective in prevention of common




                                                                                                             Appendix
cold, influenza and other infectious disease, because its anti-bacterial and anti-virus action. Steam
inhalation can be done by using hot water was poured into flesh leaves. Steam that contains aroma
ingredients relieves sore throat and stuffy nose.
 The main substances of essential oil that can be extracted by steam distillation from the leaves are
citronellal and cineole. British pharmacopeia states that Gum tree's essential oil must include more
than 80-85% cineol. Cineol content is different among the species, and generally the high content oil                
has a crisp, sharp fragrance. This fragrance has the effect of elevating concentration while refreshing
the head. It is used as the base of inhalers that have refreshing, wake-up, and restorative effects.
Such inhaler was used by ASEAN country people in tropical regions for some years back. However,
recently they have become popular in Japan, and these products are produced and imported and sold
in Japan. Because of its have anti-inflammation effect, it alleviates symptoms of asthma, common
cold, and pollinosis, and if it is used externally it can repress inflammation of burns or insect bites.
It is mixed in antibacterial spray, antibacterial food sheet (to repress bacterial propagation), and
soap, etc, because it has good antibacterial properties and is a natural ingredient. It’s stimulation is
strong, it is said that bring it can cause death if 30ml of Gum tree essential oil is ingested at once. In
some cases, only 4-5ml has caused death. Therefore, it should not be used in high concentration, and
people who have symptom of hypertension or epilepsy should avoid using it at all.




                                                                                                     247
            Appendix


           Indian Lotus(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. )

            A perennial emergent plant native to Southeast Asia or China, lotus, in general, has a long history
           of being grown in lakes, lagoons, rice fields, and
           moats. It has a long, thin rhizome that hugs the
           ground horizontally. The enlarged head of the rhizome
           is the lotus root. The large leaf of almost 30cm
           diameter has a long leaf stalk and the leaf either
           floats on the water or sticks out into the air. The
           flowers also have long stalks that emerge from the
           water and these flowers have a light red color. The
           seeds are almost 1cm in diameter. When they are not
           mature the seeds have a yellow-green color. But when
           mature, they have a hard black seed coat. Seeds are
           contained inside an inverted cone shaped thalamus
           that looks like a beehive.
            The Indian lotus and Nymphaea lotus L. are quite
           often confused with each other, but the latter has
           notched leaves and the flowers bloom as if they were
Appendix




           floating on the water. Moreover, every part of the
           Indian Lotus is edible, while Nymphaea lotus L. is
           grown for ornamental purposes. The root, stem, and
           sprouts of Indian lotus are consumed as a vegetable;
           the leaves are used as substitutes for plates or used
           for wrapping food. The seed is very starchy and the
        
           less developed ones can be consumed raw and the
           mature ones are cooked before they are eaten. The
           plantlet is not eaten because it is bitter. Lotus tea
           adds the aroma of its stamen to green tea and is
           produced as a special product of Hanoi in Vietnam, and it is famous as a souvenir.
            The leaf, stamen, fruit, and seed contain alkaloids. The rhizome contains a lot of amino acids and
           it is known for having the effect on relieving diarrhea, arresting bleeding, alleviating fever, and
           revitalization. It is used as a herbal medicine. 
            Lotus oil is obtained by solvent extraction of flowers.Its fragrance is elegant, fresh and sweet,
           those who smell it feel happiness. It has subsidence action that settles the mind and it controls the
           balance of hormones. Moreover, it has moisturizing action,so when applied to the skin the skin is
           moistened and conditioned when massaged with it . It is widely enjoyed as perfume and incense and it
           is used as an ingredient for cosmetics, lotion, bath-salt and soap.




            248
                                                                                                  Appendix


Indian Mulberry,Noni(Morinda citrifolia L. )


 An evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia and
Australia and currently grown throughout the
tropical regions of the world such as Hawaii and
Southeast Asia, the Indian Mulberry also grows in
Japan in Okinawa and Ogasawara Islands. It grows
to 3m to 6m tall, and has large smooth hairless yellow-
green egg-shaped leaves. It produces white compound
flowers that then yield multiple fruit of about 4cm
long that have a cavity in the middle and look like
a hornworm because of their lumpy and lustrous
appearance. When it is still not fully developed, it has
a yellow-green color; but as it gets mature, it starts to
change into a cream color. The multiple fruit is hollow
inside so it floats on water. It is thought that it was distributed throughout a large area by ocean
currents.
 Noni has been used as a seasoning and a medicine in ASEAN countries. The bark and the root
contain morindin and anthraquinone; the latter is effective as a laxative. Fruits are used as medicine




                                                                                                               Appendix
for malaria, high blood pressure, and the diabetic in Indonesia. It is difficult to eat full ripe fruit
because it has a bad smell (mainly caproic acid) like cheese.
 The Pacific nations have industrialized the production and exportation of Noni juice, and much is
imported to Japan. Marketed juice contains grape juice, blueberry juice and natural flavor to improve
palatability. For juice production, fruits not fully ripe are harvested and dried under the sun then,
and squeezed to make juice. The fully mature fruit has a unique unpleasant smell (mostly due to the                    
caproic acid), but it is popular as a health drink because it is said to be effective in improving diabetes,
cardiac disorder, and hypertension. Proxeronine contained in fruit has the effect of maintaining
normal cell metabolism and it is known that the polysaccharide content has the effect of improving
immunity.
 However, some organizations doubt its health effects and it is reported that acute hepatitis has
been caused by drinking Noni juice. The causal relation is not clear though it is guessed the cause
is anthraquinone that is included in the juice. It is difficult to produce products of standard content
because it is made from natural products. It is uniformly called 'Noni juice' but the ingredients are
different in each product, because there are a lot of different manufacturers. It is necessary to watch
the trend of study in the future for evaluation of health effects and insuring the safety of products.
Additionally detailed quality control is necessary.




                                                                                                       249
            Appendix


           Jasmine(Jasminum L.)


            Jasmine is an evergreen vine or shrub that belongs
           to the Oleaceae family. It is distributed widely from
           tropical to temperate regions. In temperate zones
           leaf fall does occur but the plant has resistance to
           cold. A lot of small white flowers bloom through four
           seasons in tropical regions; in the temperate zone
           flowering occurs during summer season. It thrives
           best in fertile soil with good drainage and exposure to
           sun, but it is capable of growing on north walls. Most
           jasmine fragrance is found in the flower. Species with
           fragrant flowers are collectively called jasmine, and
           about 200 species are distributed all over the world.
           The rich-sweet and exotic fragrance smells especially
           strong at night, and it is called "Queen of the Night" in India.
            A principal use of jasmine is as fragrance material; Spanish jasmine (J. grandiflorum L.) and
           Arabian jasmine (J. sambac Aiton) are extensively cultivated, Spanish jasmine is cultivated mainly in
           Egypt, Morocco, and India. Essential oil is obtained from flowers that are picked before dawn, and is
Appendix




           used in perfume. Because it is not heat-resistant, essential oil of jasmine cannot be steam distilled so
           it is extracted with an organic solvent such as hexane. The perfume is obtained in very small amounts,
           only 1Kg from 700Kg. of flowers. Arabian jasmine is famous for flavoring jasmine tea; it is cultivated
           mainly in southern China, Taiwan, and Indonesia. The expanded flower bud is picked in afternoon to
           evening, and then tealeaf is covered with flower that bloomed at night for flavoring. The other method
           is to mix dried flower buds with tealeaf. In either event are the higher the concentration of flavoring
           the higher the price.
            The main elements of jasmine fragrance are different between species but commonly include benzyl
           acetate, linalool acetate, and jasmon. Smelling jasmine produces effects of feeling happiness, leading
           to a positive attitude, and relieving headache and impatience, and producing sensual sensation.
           Because there are effects of relief of pain and producing calm it reduces menstrual and labor pain. Oil
           that is a mixture of a small amount of jasmine essential oil with carrier oil is an effective application
           for prevention of rough skin because of its effect of suppressing dryness. Application of jasmine oil
           encourages delivery so should not be used during pregnancy.




            250
                                                                                             Appendix


Kaffirlime(Citrus hysteric DC.) 


 Kaffirlime is an evergreen shrub of the Rutaceae
family. It is distributed from east India to South East
Asia, and in southern China. It thrives in strong
sunshine, and grows as tall as 3-5m. Leaves have
large wings which create the shape of two leaves
string together lengthwise. Fruit is about 5cm in
diameter, yellow-green, and round.. The surface of the
fruit has much protuberance, and the yellow-green
flesh is not very juicy, and tastes strong, sour and
bitter.
 Kaffirlime is classified as sour citrus the same
as Yuzu (C. junos Siebold ex Tanaka), it is used
to add sourness and sharp flavor. Its fresh smell
is characteristic of citrus and spicy like Japanese
pepper. Juice is used as is, and ground pericarp is
used for adding flavor in dishes. Leaf is more used
as an herb for Asian food than is fruit. In Malaysia




                                                                                                          Appendix
and Singapore, minced fresh Kaffirlime leaf is used
for salad or spice. In Thailand, Kaffirlime leaf is an
essential herb as well as Lemongrass for use in Tom
Yam Kung or various other Thai foods.
 The main element of Kaffirlime is citral that
has antibacterial, antifungous, subsidence, and                                                                   
antihistamine effects. It is said that Kaffirlime
pericarp is effective on subsidence for the skin, for
control of secretion balance of sebum, and to refresh
the skin. In Thailand, Malaysia, and northern parts of Myanmar, it is used as a shampoo and digestive
herb medicine was made from the skin in former times. Recently Kaffirlime is used as a component of
the herb ball that is a popular body treatment menu at spas. The herb ball is made by mixing minced
pericarp with other herbs... Kaffirlime has received attention as a healthy food because it is reported
that the leaf has antioxidant effects, and is effective in control of cancer and arthritis and promotes
collagen production.




                                                                                                  251
            Appendix


           Lemongrass(Cymbopogon citrutus (A. DC.)Stapf )

            Lemongrass is a perennial monocotyledon and it is one of the 30 species of Cymbopogon family
           that grow throughout the tropical and subtropical
           regions of Africa and Asia. It can be divided into 2
           main groups, the Cymbopogon citrutus Stapf and the
           Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf, the latter is called East
           Indian lemongrass. It is similar in appearance to
           Japanese Silver Grass and it grows up to 1-1.5m tall.
           The leaves are 50cm long, 1.5cm wide, and have a
           strong smell similar to that of a lemon. It thrives best
           in sandy soils, and in warm and rainy areas where it
           is exposed to a good mix of sunlight and rain.
            Lemongrass is not eaten as it is for its own
           taste, but it is instead used in cooking as a spice to
           provide its aroma. It is used after a part near root is
           hammered. It is used in many Southeast Asian dishes
           like Tom Yum Kung from Thailand that is known to be one of world’s 3 greatest soups. It cannot be
           omitted as an herb from Tom Yum Kung soup - like the Kaffirlime (Citrus hystric DC) leaf. It can be
Appendix




           used as a dried herb, but the odor of dry preparations is inferior to fresh. Herb tea and bath essence
           are made by pouring hot water over the leaf and stem. It is effective to relieve stomachache and
           diarrhea of infectious disease or food poisoning, to prevent acne, body odor, and athlete's foot, because
           it has bactericidal action. If drunk after supper, it can provide the effect of settling the stomach.
            The main aromatic substances contained in lemongrass are citral, d-citronellal, and geraniol.
           Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf has a higher percentage of citral compared to Cymbopogon citrutus
        
           Stapf. Lemongrass is not only used to smoke or for essential oil it is but it is also made into incense,
           blinds and sachet to repel insects because of citral and citronellal , which have insect repellent effects.
           Essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of leaf immediately after harvest. Essential oil is used
           also for aroma therapies, because it is said that this aroma has relaxing effects. It is compounded in
           perfume, it used for aroma bathing. It is effective to prevent acne and body odor, because it controls
           the balance of secretion of sebum, and has anti-bacterial effect. For these reasons it is used widely in
           body care goods such as massage oil, lotion, and soap, etc. Its use should be avoided by persons who
           have sensitive skin.




            252
                                                                                                  Appendix


Mango(Mangifera indica L.)
 An evergreen tree, mango trees can grow from 10m
to 20m tall, and some even exceed 40m. Because they
have a dome-like aspect, the distance between trees
can sometimes exceed 20m. The leaves are long and
thin; the tip of the branch has a panicle, and each
panicle produces from 500 to 2000 small yellow-green
flowers. These flowers are both unisexual flowers
(male flower) and bisexual flowers, but most of them
are unisexual flowers. Even though so many flowers
are produced only a few fructify from each panicle.
Mango fruits are borne suspended from an elongated
stem. The shape of the fruit varies depending on the
species and each may weigh from 50 to 1400g. Fruit
shape varies from round to long. The pericarp also
varies from green to yellow or red, but the flesh is
usually yellow. The flesh is creamily sweet and has
just the right amount of acidic taste with the unique
smell of terpene in the sweet and sour smell. A flat




                                                                                                               Appendix
seed is a little smaller than the size of fruit is at the
center of the fruit.
 Other than consuming it raw, the mature fruit
can be processed into juices, caned, dried, and into sauces like mango chutney. The young fruits are
used as condiments for their acidic taste in dishes or as pickles and they are also consumed raw
with a sprinkling mix of condiments like salt, sugar, and red pepper. The spout and inflorescence are
                                                                                                                       
sometimes used as vegetables.
 Because mango contains a lot of vitamin A, and precursor materials of             β -carotenes, if eaten
regularly it is said to be effective in asthenopia. In addition, there are effects of protection of mucous
membrane, and in preventing invasion of virus such as cold.         β -carotene has an effect to prevent
illnesses like cancer that are caused by active oxygen. In addition, mango is mixed with soap, body
cream, and scrub powder, etc, because β -carotene is believed to prevent the skin from growing
old, and to lighten darkness and spotting of skin. Mango butter is oil obtained by compressing the
seed at low temperature. Mango butter is mixed with skin lotion and hair treatment, because the
permeability and moisture retention of mango butter to the skin are excellent. It is suitable as a base
of lip cream, because it also has is effective to block ultraviolet rays. It is also sometimes used as a sun
tan lotion because it defends against inflammation by sunburn, and with Mango butter it is possible
to sunburn evenly to a beautiful condition.
 Mango contains cardol that is a cause of Urushi (Lacquer Tree) allergy similar to urushiol. Mango
is a plant from the Anacardiaceae family. People with Anacardiaceae allergy should be careful with its
use.




                                                                                                       253
            Appendix


           Mangosteen(Garcinia mangostana L.) 


            Mangosteen is an evergreen tree of the Guttiferae
           family. It grows as tall as 20m. It is native to the
           Malay Peninsula. Optimum temperature for growth
           is 25-30 ℃ , it cannot survive at temperature above
           38 ℃ or below 4.5 ℃ . Its region of production is
           limited to the north-south region between 15 ° from
           the equator. Because growth is slow it takes 8-12
           years from seeding to fruiting by seedling cultivation.
           Because fruiting has seasonal variation, and the fruit
           does not keep long, mangosteen is on the market only
           for a limited period. Mangosteen is dioecious, and it
           is parthenocarpic, seedlings have the same genetic
           characteristic as the mother tree.
            Fruit is imperfect spherical in shape, its diameter
           is 5-8cm. Pericarp takes on red-purple and black-
           purple colors, and it has four round calyxes like the
           persimmon. There are 4-8 pieces of white fresh (aril)
Appendix




           in the fruit, they are lined up like an orange. The
           somewhat fibrous flesh contains abundant sweet-
           sour juice; it is praised as ' Queen of fruit' for its
           refined taste. Because pericarp petrifies rapidly in
           the direct rays of the sun, and latex is oozed into
           flesh when bruised, and taste becomes bitter, careful
           handling is necessary. Refrigeration can preserve it
           about one week. Table use is most delicious, but it is
           processed into iced fruit, juice, syrup, jam, sherbet,
           and is canned. The dark red pericarp contains tannin and xanthones, and it is used to put yellow and
           black stain on leather and calico. Because its stains can't be removed when the pericarp juice contacts
           clothes it must be handled with care.
            Mangosteen pericarp has been used as binding medicine for a long time in Indonesia and Myanmar.
           Recent studies reveal that the mangosteen pericarp contains xanthones, polyphenols, and catechin
           that have anti-oxidative effect. Xanthones are reported to have anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects.
           Therefore, mangosteen juice and supplements that contain elements of pericarp are appearing on the
           market as health foods. Because it reduces spots of the skin and has whitening effect, mangosteen
           soap is a boom among young women. Additionally, mangosteen pericarp contains polysaccharide
           and catechin which have anti-inflammation and anti-bacterial properties, the effects of deodorant,
           convergence, anti-inflammation, and anti-bacterial are expected by use of the soap.




            254
                                                                                              Appendix


Common Papaw, Melon Tree, Papaya(Carica papaya L. )


 An evergreen shrub native to tropical region in
America, it is cultivated widely in the tropics and
the subtropics region. Papaya grows up to 2-10m
tall. The stem is flexible and almost never branches.
It has a long leafstalk and grows palm-like large
leaves with deep notch on the tip of its stem. It is
basically a dioecious plant, but occasionally it grows a
plant with bisexual flowers or it goes through sexual
transformation when they are stimulated by factors
like temperature or pruning back of a stem.
 The fruit’s shape varies from round to oblong,
and the largest ones weigh up to 4kg. The fruit has
a cavity on its center that contains numerous black
round seeds of 5mm in diameter. Mainly the fruit is
used. When the fruit is still young, the pericarp is
green and its flesh white. It has a crispy texture and
is used as vegetable in pickles, stir-fries, and salads.




                                                                                                           Appendix
As it gets mature, both the pericarp and the flesh
start to change to yellow and orange colors. The flesh
softens and releases a thick sweet aroma. Besides
eating it raw as a fruit, it is processed into products
like beverages, ice cream and jam. The protease
carpain, contained in the leaves and seeds have an                                                                 
effect in raising the cardiac action just like with
digitalis. The seed can also be used as a vermicide.
In Indonesia, the leaf is a private medicine effective
against malaria, the dengue, rheumatism, killing insects, and the cold. The leaf is infused and taken.
If any part of the plant is scratched, the plant releases a milky liquid called papain that contains
protease. The flesh also contains papain and it has a variety of uses. For example, by cooking tough
meat with it, the meat will soften. It can also be used for digestive, tan and as a shrink-preventing
agent for wool. Moreover, it is said to have an effect in raising the metabolism of the cells, and it is
also used as an ingredient for cosmetics and soaps for whitening the skin and preventing dullness of
skin. Especially,the facial wash that mixes the papain enzyme that improves acne and dusky pore
is a long seller item. The papaya soap is as popular as the mangosteen soap,and it is a hot souvenir
because it is possible to obtain it cheaply in ASEAN countries. There is often the treatment menu that
uses mashed fruits like smooth paste like the scrub powder or face pack in the spa.




                                                                                                   255
            Appendix


           Patchouli Pogostemon cablin Benth )
                   (


            A perennial herbaceous plant native to the
           Philippines, it is cultivated in other Southeast Asian
           countries like Malaysia, and Indonesia and also in
           India. The stem branches from the root and the plant
           itself grows to a height of 30-80cm. It has 8-10cm
           long, egg-shaped, jagged leaves that have thick small
           hairs on the rear surface. It prefers warm, rainy
           weather and it thrives best in fertile land where it
           does not get direct sunshine. It can have its first
           harvest about 6 months after planting, and after that,
           it can be harvested once or twice a year for about 3-4
           years until it is renewed periodically. The harvested
           parts are its leaves and leaf stalks.
            By distilling the young leaves and leaf stalks that                                             Photo:Wiki.

           were dried and fermented for 4-5 days after they were harvested, viscous light brown to dark brown
           oil can be obtained. By hanging leaves to dry before processing the oil extraction rate and quality
           increases. Moreover, as the amount of leaf stalks increases the oil extraction rate and quality decrease.
Appendix




           If the oil is left alone for a while, crystallized Patchouli camphor is created, the odor strengthens, and
           the quality of essential oil is improved.
            This oil has long been used in India and Europe as raw material for perfumes. It has an exotic
           strong smell similar to musk. It is also used for scenting clothes, alcoholic beverages, and soaps. In
           India it is used as an insect repellent by placing it on clothes. The dried leaves, from which oil had
           not been extracted, used to be imported to Japan as a substitute for the Chinese herbal medicine
           Huoxiang.
            The main ingredients which are patchouli alcohol, patchulene and cuminaldehyde have the effects
           of settling the mind, and the effect of increases as the amount of use increases. It is also known to
           have a diet effect, because it controls appetite. The diuretic effect is remarkable, so it is used for
           prevention or improvement of dropsy. Moreover, it has outstanding effects of astringency, stimulus to
           cell growth, and scar repair action. It is also effective in suppression and repair for inflammation of
           chapped and rough skin.




            256
                                                                                               Appendix


Pepper(Piper nigrum L. )


 Originally from Southern India, this evergreen
creeper can grow from 7-8m tall. It has 10-15cm, egg-
shaped leaves in gnarls, and approximately 10cm
long white flower spike. Fruits are about 3-6mm in
diameter in 15-17cm long bunches. Young fruits are
green, and subsequently turn red and finally black
when full maturity is reached.
 The differences among black pepper, white pepper
and green pepper lie in their processing. Black pepper
is made from dried young fruit and pericarp that were
dried 2 days by sunshine. Its pericarp turns black and
gets wrinkled; its character is stronger in terms of hot
flavor and smell. White pepper is made from dried
seeds after the removal of pericarp while green pepper is made by drying young fruits for a short time
in low temperature. Pepper goes very well with various foods for its numbing effects. Powdered dried
pepper seeds are commonly used throughout the world.
 The stimulation of pepper is caused by its spicy component piperine and its flavor components




                                                                                                            Appendix
pinene and limonene. It is said that piperine has bacteria-killing property and antibacterial effect.
Pepper has been used as preservative and therapy for gastric pain and stomach pain from ancient
times. The stimulating effects of pepper include hyperthermia action, perspiration stimulation and
appetite effect. Essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of fruits. It is used as aroma oil for
its spicy flavor and“uplifting”effect. Essential oil obtained from black pepper has better odor than
when made from white pepper. Pepper essential oil is obtained mainly from black pepper, because the                 
amount of oil is larger. This essential oil is marketed as 'Black pepper oil'. Recovery from muscular
pain and sprain is helped if the diseased part is massaged using essential pepper oil, because it has
effect of warming and increasing circulation of blood in the diseased part. Bath salts which include
essential oil mixed with natural salt are popular, because they are effective in stimulating circulation.
It is necessary to avoid excess intake, and applying in high concentration because the stimulation is
strong. If it is frequently used, excessive stimulation might be given to the kidney. It must be diluted
to about 1% before use because its stimulatory effect is so strong.




                                                                                                    257
            Appendix


           Peppermint  Mentha × piperota L.)
                      (                      


            Peppermint is a perennial herb of the Labiatae family. It is distributed widely in the temperate
           regions of the northern hemisphere. Its cultivated
           species was derived by natural crossing between
           Bergamot mint (M. aquatic L.) and Spearmint (M.
           spicata L.). It is outstanding in cold resistance and
           can be cultivated everywhere as long as adequate
           nutrients and water are supplied. Peppermint is
           easily propogated; new plants are produced from
           underground runner roots. Seeds rarely germinate,
           and seed propagation is unsatisfactory because
           plants grown from seed are heteozygotic. Peppermint
           is usually harvested twice each year and it can be
           cultivated in the same field 2 or 3 years in succession.
           Plant height of purple square-stemmed branches
           is 30-90cm; dark green leaves have a lot of purple
           veins, and the leaf margin is serrate. Both sides of the leaf are thick with glandular hair that contains
           essential oil. The amount of essential oil increases rapidly after emergence of lateral shoots and the
Appendix




           peak is reached at flowering time. The purple or white inflorescence is set at the shot apex in summer.
           Some kinds of mint have been used for 2000 years or more, but peppermint has only existed about
           250 years. Fresh or dried leaf is used as an herb in cooking, in sweets, and in liqueur. Essential
           oil obtained mainly from the leaf is used for flavoring, as essence, and in medicine. Essential oil is
           obtained by steam distillation of leaf, and its yield rate is about 1%.
            The essential oil composition is about half l-menthol; menthone, and menthol ester are also present.
           The smell is fiery and has a cool taste. Peppermint has better odor and milder taste than Japanese
           mint. Safety of peppermint essential oil is extremely high even if used internally. Health foods such
           as capsules filled with peppermint essential oil are sold. Peppermint assists the digestive system. If
           taken as herb tea or essential oil it relieves morning sickness and irritable bowel syndrome, and it
           assists digestion. The odor has the effect of a wake-up, a stimulant, and a restorative by its action to
           excite the central nervous system. A small amount of peppermint essential oil mixed with carrier oil
           and applied in a compress to areas of acute inflammation such as muscular pain or bruise, has the
           effects of painkiller, cooling, or warming. However peppermint essential oil must be diluted to about
           1% for such use because the stimulating effect is strong. It should not be used during pregnancy.




            258
                                                                                              Appendix


Pineapple  Ananas comosus Merr. )
          (                       


 Another perennial herbaceous plant native to
South America, pineapple is cultivated in tropical
regions around the world and Asia accounts for the
half of the production volume. It thrives best on
acidic soil and it can be cultivated even in worn-out
dry lands. Pineapple has thin long green leaves with
a sharp tip and has aggregate flower of small white
or purple flowers at the top of the stems. Each head
of a flower (aggregate flower) is composed of about
150 flowers gathering tightly in a spiral form. In
due time, whether it was fertilized or not, the ovary
and thalamus become enlarged and this becomes the
edible part of a pineapple. The flowers bloom from
the lower section towards the upper. However, if the
flowers are let to bloom naturally, the fruit’s shape
can get deformed and one-time harvest would be
hard. So, in large plantations floral induction agents




                                                                                                           Appendix
are used to induce flower bud initiation.
 The fruit contains a lot of juices and has a strong
sweet and sour aroma. Besides being consumed
raw as a fruit, it is processed into can products,
beverages, and alcoholic beverages because its quality
deteriorates quickly after it gets fully mature. It is said                                                        
that it is effective to the tiredness recovery because
it contains much of glucide, the vitamins and organic
acids mainly the citric acid. Because the fruit contains
the protease bromein, it makes tough meat soft when cooked together. Moreover, it is also rich in
vitamins and dietary fiber. However, because the protein-cutting enzyme resolves the gelatin, the jelly
that uses flesh fruits cannot be made.                                                                 
 Moreover, the products like the scrub powder, soap, lotion, healthy drinks mixed with soy milk and
etc are popular because the effect of peeling and depilation can be expected. As well, many spas has
treatment menu to use pineapple fruit. There is power to lighten feelings in the sweet and sour
smell,and it is more effective to do with the processing of the massage etc to relax.
 It has pungency felt when eating immature fruit because the shape of the crystals of calcium
oxalate included in the flesh is a needle shape. Therefore, it should be careful with its use because the
skin and mouth gets rough to touch or to eat immature fruit.




                                                                                                   259
            Appendix


           Purple Coneflower(Echinacea purpurea Moench )


            Purple Coneflower is native to eastern North America. It grow to 60~100cm. The flowers are
           constituted with red purple rays (the parts that
           look like petals) and a black purple tubuliflorous
           (the part that looks like the stamen and pistil). The
           tubuliflorous protrudes roundly as the center of the
           flower and the rays make up the corolla by hanging
           around the tubuliflorous. It is tolerant to cold but
           weak against excess moisture. Purple coneflower is
           used either as a garden ornamental or as cut flowers.
           Sometimes the rays are removed and only the
           remaining tubuliflorous is used.
            Echinacea is used in processed products as a
           supplement or lozenge, and alone as herb tea. It is
           reported that polysaccharides contained in Echinacea
           boost the immune system of the body. It also has anti-                               Photo:shigenobu AOKI
           bacterial /anti-virus effects. It is thought that Echinacea prevents the common cold, influenza, and
           bacterial/viral infectious disease such as cystitis. In Europe, Echinacea is prescribed together with
Appendix




           chemical medicine to decrease the dosage of antibiotics. It is traditional that native-Americans chewed
           the root, and drank juice squeezed from it for suppurate prevention, and to suppress coughing. It is
           reported that cafeic acid derivatives of purple coneflower have antioxidant activity and that it can
           prevent damage to collagen by ultraviolet rays. Moreover, it contains various effective elements such
           as alkyl amide, etc. More uses may be found as further studies are conducted.
            Purple coneflower is basically harmless, but should not be used be by persons who have had the
           following diseases: tuberculosis, leukemia, collagen disease, multiple sclerosis, AIDS, HIV infection,
           progressive disease such as autoimmune disease, asteraceae allergy, or during pregnancy.




            260
                                                                                             Appendix


Red Pepper(Capsicum annuum L. )


 Red Pepper is cultivated widely as an annual in
the temperate regions and as a perennial in tropical
regions. It grows from 40cm to 60cm tall. Basically,
young fruits are yellow-green and turn to be red as
they ripen.
 The taste, colors and shape of the fruits differ by
species, some of which are used as ornamentals for
their colorful fruits (orange, yellow, ivory, purple, etc.).
Some red peppers such as Bell Pepper and Paprika
do not have any hot or spicy taste, so are used as
vegetables. 
 The fruits of some varieties are used as spice.
The hot types are Cone pepper, Cayenne pepper,
Chili pepper, and others. Green red pepper in Southeast Asia has a dry hot flavor, while Korean and
Chinese ones are spicy with sweetness. Chili sauces have been used for a long time in Southeast Asia
and South America. These days, various kinds of chili sauces from ASEAN are imported due to the
Asian boom and have become popular in Japan.




                                                                                                          Appendix
 A lot of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are included in the seeds of peppers and are said to be
effective for their stomachic property. Small amounts of these seeds are added to stomach medicine
sometimes. These compounds are effective in lumbago, stiff shoulders, muscular pain, rheumatism,
joint pain, neuralgia, and cold injury, because they warm the body and improve circulation of blood
by stimulating the skin. In recent years, socks, tights and underwear with capsaicin are very popular,
because they are retentive of heat even if the fabric is thin. They are also mixed with hot pack. It is           
said that scalp stimulation is effective for hair restoration; hair restorer that contains red pepper
extract is commercialized. It is reported that capsaicin has the effect of burning off fat, supplements
and bath salt containing capsaicin are very popular among young women. Like those examples, the
markets for pepper products other than for food are expanding.
 However, excess intake may cause gastroenteritis and kidney disorder, because stimulation is
strong. When a stomach ulcer is present, pepper and its derivatives should be avoided. . In all cases,
care should be taken to avoid contact with mucous membrane, around eyes, and on wounds.




                                                                                                  261
            Appendix


           Rose(Rosa L.)


            Rose is an evergreen or deciduous shrub or vine.
           It is distributed widely from sub-tropical to tropical
           mountain regions of the northern hemisphere.
           There are about 200 wild species in the rose genus.
           Until now, many ornamental garden cultivars have
           been produced by complex crossbreeding. These
           include much variation such as of aroma, color,
           number of petals, and so on. The wild type has 5
           petals, but many garden cultivars are polypetalous.
           Environmental adaptation is high, so ornamental
           roses are cultivated all over the world. Rose can be
           cultivated everywhere if fertilizer and irrigation
           are available as long as soil drainage is good and
           sufficient water is supplied.
            Rose has the nickname 'Queen of Fragrance'; it has been prized for a long time as a fragrance
           mainly in Europe. The most famous rose fragrance is Damask Rose (R. damascene Miller); it is rich in
           essential oil and eminates a shockingly sweet smell. In addition Rosa gallica (R. gallica L.), Rosa alba
Appendix




           (R. × alba L.), and Rosa centifolia (R. centifolia L.) are cultivated as sources of fragrance. Rose essence
           is contained in Rose otto (Rose water) and Rose absolute (Rose oil). The extraction method is different
           in each case. Rose Otto is obtained by steam distillation of flowers before full bloom. Because there is
           no remainder of solvent it is used in foods and on the body in such products as candy, massage oil, and
           skin care treatment. Rose Otto contains the flower wax (stearoptene) and it may coagulate naturally
           when temperature falls to about 10℃ . If coagulated it returns to the liquid state by warming when
           applied to the skin. Rose absolute is obtained by solvent extraction of petals or redistillation of Rose
           Otto. Rose absolute is mainly used as a component of perfume. Because only 1g of Rose absolute can
           be obtained from 4 kg of fresh flowers it is one of the most costly essential oils, similar to jasmine.
           The main elements of rose fragrance are geraniol, citronellol, phenylethylalcohol, nerol, and linalool.
           Those elements and their concentrations differ among species and extract methods. The smell of rose
           settles the mind, it relieves depression, self-dislike, and loneliness, and it stimulates sensual feeling.
           Rose relieves menstrual cramps and perimenopausal symptom because it is said that it controls the
           secretion of hormones.
            Use of rose should be avoided at the beginning pregnancy though it is also likely to be used to assist
           conception. Because rose essential oil has an astringent effect and suppresses dryness, it prevents the
           skin from aging when use for massage.




            262
                                                                                              Appendix


SandalWood(Santalum album L.) 


 SandalWood is an evergreen subarbor that belongs
to the Santalaceae family. It is native to eastern Java
and Timor. It is a hemiparasite plant that absorbs
nutrition by inserting its own root into the root of
another plant. The sandalwood leaf has chlorophyll
and carries out photosynthesis. It grows up to 3-10m;
the trunk can grow in diameter up to 30cm. Mysore
and Madras districts in India are famous as producing
districts, it is also cultivated in Indonesia. The heart
wood has fragrance; it is used as a perfume material.
SandalWood is easy to cultivate because it can
parasitize many hosts but it is said that 60 years are
required to mature a tree to the condition that the
heart wood is hard and dense and the color pale yellow                                   Photo:Shu Suehiro

or brown. Besides its good fragrance the wood excels in insect repellency and anti-bacterial properties.
 For these reasons it is used as construction material for temples and for carving images of Buddha,
or beads and other small articles. Sandal Wood Oil obtained from heartwood and root by steam




                                                                                                             Appendix
distillation is used for addition of fragrance to incense sticks and soap.
 S. austro-caledonicum Vieill (New Caledonian SandalWood) S. frenandezianum Phil. (SandalWood
                                                         ,
of Juan Fernandez) ,S. lanceolatum R.Br. (Lanceleaf SandalWood) ,S. marchionense Skott.
(Australian SandalWood), Dysoxylum loureiri Pier, Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb.,and Santalina
madagascariensis Baill. are used as substitute for Sandal Wood, but it is said that those are inferior
in quality of essential oil to Santalum album L. .                                                                   
 The main element of SandalWood essential oil is santalol which has anti-bacterial, calming, and
diuretic effects. It is said that sandalwood oil used for massage of the stomach it relieves urinary
troubles like cystitis and urethritis. Moreover there is an effect of suppressing skin dryness and
inflammation, so it is effective against aridity eczema and acne. It is also said that sandalwood
fragrance increases the meditation effect and cool down of Yoga because the fragrance relieves tension.
However, it is necessary to avoid using sandalwood when falling into depression, because it might
exacerbate that problem.




                                                                                                    263
            Appendix


           Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)


            Sesame is annual herb that belongs to the
           Pedaliaceae family. It is said that sesame is native to
           Africa, but that is unclear. Sesame is one of 20 species
           of the Sesamum genus, it is distributed Africa, India,
           and Australia. Sesame is the only species that is
           cultivated widely. Half of the worldwide production of
           two million tons is cultivated in Asia. Sesame grows
           to a height of 80cm. Pale-purple bell-like flowers
           are produced at the axils of the erect stem one after
           another. Fine seeds are contained in cylindrical fruit
           that is usually divided into 4 locules.
            Sesame seeds fall naturally from fruits that have
           ripened. Therefore, fruits are harvested before
           ripening and the seed is obtained by threshing from dried fruit. Sesame is assorted into 4 kinds that
           are black, white, yellow, and gold according to the color of the seed coat, but nutritional value of all
           colors is almost the same.
            Sesame seeds can be eaten after drying and washing but it is usually used roasted, because the seed
Appendix




           coat is hard and taste is not good until heated. Sesame oil is obtained by pressing sesame seeds that
           are roasted and steamed. Oil content of sesame is 40-55% which is the highest among the oil seeds. It
           is not usually necessary to refine sesame oil which is 80% linoleic acid and oleic acid, both unsaturated
           fatty acids. Sesame oil is semi-dry oil that is nutritious; it contains abundant vitamin E and lignan
           (a kind of the polyphenol). It has an attractive odor and is used directly for dishes as a flavor. If it is
           used to fry tempura, it produces a light and crispy finish. It was used as a fuel in old times and the
           extracted cake can be used for forage or as manure.
            Sesame is used as a medicine blended with other medicinal herbs because it is nutritious and
           relieves constipation. Moreover it has anti-inflammatory effect, so it is used as a base for ointment. It
           has the effect of relief of arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and high blood pressure, so sesame was very
           popular in the past. Linoleic acid that is one of its main elements cannot be produced by the human
           body; it can be taken only from food. Linoleic acid is somewhat effective to decrease cholesterol and
           blood lipids. But there is a theory that because HDL cholesterol is also decreased by linoleic acid, if it
           is taken excessively it may increase the risk of arteriosclerosis. Meanwhile Oleic acid can be produced
           by human body, it decrease only LDL cholesterol, and it prevents adhering of cholesterol to blood
           vessels. However it is necessary to carefully regulate intake because it might cause corpulence and
           aggravate allergy if taken to excess.




            264
                                                                                               Appendix


Star Anise(Illicium verum Hook. F. )


 The star anise is an evergreen tree which can grow
as tall as 4-11m. Its origin is China and southern
India. It produces a compound fruit of 3cm in
diameter that has a star shape with 6-8 angles. When
the fruit matures it turns brown and lignifies. When
it opens, flat egg-shaped brown seeds are thrown out.
Star Anise fruit looks very similar to the fruit of I.
anisatum L, or the Japanese Star-Anise (“shikimi”),
which contains a highly toxic substance anisatine
throughout the plant. Therefore, shikimi fruit should
be handled with great care because if it is mistakenly
consumed, it could lead to death. Differences in the
fruit of the two species are very large. Star anise fruit
is multiple fruit, and one fruit contains multiple seeds. However, Japanese Star Anise is a simple
fruit, and one fruit contains only one seed.
 Young green fruits of Star Anise are harvested and eaten as is, or the dried fruits are made into
powder and used as spice. It has a spicy aroma and bitterness similar to that of anise and fennel and




                                                                                                            Appendix
can be used by itself as spice or as one of the ingredients for five-spice powder. It is used quite often
in Chinese food. It is the original spice of Asia, and it used hardly at all in Europe. The shikimic acid
contained in the fruit is one of the ingredients for curative medicine for influenza, but the fruits taken
alone are ineffectual on influenza. It is also said to be good for the stomach and have a stimulant
action; therefore, it is widely used as a medicinal plant. Star Anise Oil can be obtained by steam
distilling the branches, the leaves, and the fruits. Anethole is the main substance in the oil. This is             
highly volatile and is used as aromatic oil in cooking and in drinks.
 It is used sparingly for aromatherapy, but not used generally, because its stimulation is strong.
It has exhaust action on gases accumulated in intestines. Moreover, it improves the function of the
digestive system. It improves such defects of urinary systems as cystitis, because it has a diuretic
effect. Moreover, it relieves pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) and unpleasantness of menopause,
because it contains trananethol an estrogen that functions similar to female hormone. It is necessary
to avoid using in high doses because it might excessively stimulate the nervous system though the
skin is not stimulated. Its use should be avoided especially both expectant mothers and by persons
incidental to allergic symptoms.




                                                                                                    265
            Appendix


           Sweet Fennel  Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce )
                        (

            Sweet fennel is a perennial herb in the Umbelliferae family. It grows 2m tall; and because of its deep
           roots it thrives better in soil planting than in pots.
           It grows best in a sunny location with good drainage
           and is resistant to cold. The plant has multiple stems
           and pale green palmate leaves small yellow flowers of
           the umbel become flat oval seeds which are profusely
           grooved. The plant is mowed when the seed has
           turned to light brown, and is then hung to dry until
           mature.
            The entire fennel plant can be used. The stem is
           eaten as salad either fresh or boiled. The fresh leaf is
           used to remove the smell of fish and meat, and to give
           flavor to marinade. Dried leaf is one of the ingredients
           of five-spice powder. Fennel is compatible with fish
           cookery, and it is called 'the herb for fish'. The seed is
           used for fish cookery, curry, sausage, sauerkraut, beverages, bread, sweets, and so on. The seed is used
           as an ingredient of toothpaste, or eaten as is because it is effective in prevention of bad breath. In
Appendix




           addition to its uses as food it is used as a dye of pale green and light brown colors. Fresh flowers and
           leaves are used for skin care such as in facial steam and bath salts.
            Fennel essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of seed. The scent of fennel has floral sweetness
           and is spicy like anise. Its main components are anethol, anisaldehyde, limonen, and fenchone.
           Fennel essential oil relieves respiratory diseases, and aids digestion. It improves mood and induces
           relaxation. Because it controls secretion of hormones it is said that fennel improves the condition
        
           of irregular menstruation and relieves perimenopausal symptoms and milk secretion. It is reported
           to have anti-oxdative effects. If it is taken as herb tea, mild diuretic effect can be obtained; and it is
           possible to use it to wash the eyes. Fennel is used as the main ingredient of gripe water for babies. It
           relieves colic, gassyness, hiccups, and the pain of teething.
            Fennel stimulates the womb so should not be used during pregnancy. Because fenchone contained
           in fennel has neurological toxicity, it must not be used by people who have had an epileptic seizure.
           Even by persons who have not had a paroxysm, successive use should be avoided. The toxins of bitter
           fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. amara) which belongs to same genus as sweet fennel are stronger
           than those of sweet fennel, so bitter fennel is not used for aroma therapy, but only as a fragrance.




            266
                                                                                                  Appendix


Tamarind(Tamarindus indica L.) 


 Tamarind is an evergreen tree that is native to
Africa, and it is cultivated in tropical regions.It
grows as tall as 25m; and sets fruit similar to a broad
bean. The diameter of the fruit is 10-20cm. The
pericarp (hull) is from pale brown to dark brown color
and is thin and fragile. Mature pericarp is easy to peel
by hand; and dark brownish sticky pulp is obtained
from cover of the seed. This pulp is in hard paste
state, and has fresh and strong sour taste similar to
apricot or plum. It is used as tart or sour seasoning in
cooking, and is processed for soft drinks, sherbet, jam,
and liquor. Sweets of pulp mixed with sugar and chili
powder are popular in ASEAN countries. There is a
sweet -type tamarind fruit that has little sour taste,
so it can be eaten as fruit. The seed is used to produce
dye of reddish brown color, and a thickening agent
(Tamarind gum) is produced from polysaccharides of




                                                                                                               Appendix
the seed. In Thailand, immature fruit with pericarp
is eaten as is; fruit that is seasoned and mashed is
used as seasoning; and bean sprouts of tamarind
are used as emergency food. The roasted bean is a
substitute for coffee. In India, roasted seed is eaten as
is, and seed powder is a substitute for flour and as an                                                                 
ingredient for Chapati.
 In China it is said that tamarind fruit is medicinal.
It is used as medicine for cooling off overheating,
for morning sickness, and to improve appetite in Indonesia, it is used to improve appetite and as a
laxative. Tamarind pulp contains a lot of phenolics, it is reported that it has anti-oxidative effect.
Tamarind-containing products like soap and scrub powder are popular because of their effect of
whitening and anti-aging the skin. Additionally the leaf, cortex, and root contain allelochemicals that
control weeds. It is reported that the main active allelochemical is tartaric acid, so it is classified as an
herbicide of natural origin.




                                                                                                       267
            Appendix


           Turmeric(Curcuma domestica Valet. )

            Turmeric is a monocotyledon native to India, and it thrives best in warm and moist areas that do
           not receive direct sunlight. It is cultivated mainly
           in the tropical and subtropical regions of India and
           Southeast Asia. Turmeric plants have a gnarled
           underground rhizome with circular nodes 3 to 4 cm in
           diameter, oval shaped leaves with long stems extend
           from these. This root system grows to about 40 to 100
           cm, and it has 20 to 40 cm long flower stalks which
           have flower panicles on their tips which produce
           white-yellow flowers wrapped in yellow-green bracts.
           A bright orange flesh appears when the skin of the
           rhizome is peeled away. This flesh can be used as
           spice or as food-coloring by smashing it or grating
           it raw. Other than these uses, a powder version of
           turmeric, which is created after cooking it for 5 to 6
           hours and then drying it, is widely used around the world. Turmeric is the main ingredient of curry
           powder and it is also used to color butter and Takuan, a popular and traditional pickle in Japan.
Appendix




           Moreover, the hot extract that remains after boiling the rhizome is used as a dye for light yellow to
           orange colors. Furthermore, in alkaline conditions, the color changes to red. A famous example is the
           Indian chintz, which is cotton fabric dyed with turmeric.
            Curcmin is responsible for the yellow color, and this substance is found especially in autumn
           turmeric. It also contains such substances as curcmene, cineole, azulene, camphor, and turmeron.
           These substances are known to improve the function of the liver, to stimulate cholagogic action,
        
           enhance blood circulation, have non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory action, cardiac action, have
           hemostat effect, stomach-settling properties, and antibacterial and antiseptic effects. Due to these
           effects, turmeric is used as herbal medicine.
            Turmeric has about fifty allied species, and some of those species are cultivated for use. The usage is
           different according to species. C. aeruginosa Roxb. vermicidal effects, aids physical strength recovery
           after childbirth, and induces menstruation. C. aromatic Salisb has diuretic effects, furtherance of
           bile secretion, anti-bacterial, anti-allergy, stomachic properties, and assists in recovery from injury..
           C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. increases appetite, relieves diarrhea, anemia and hemorrhoid, and has been
           reported to decrease blood lipids and cholesterol. These species are used mainly as herbal medicines.
           Root starch of C. pierreana Gagnep. , and young buds of C. purpurascens Bl. are eaten as vegetables.
           The young buds of C. zeodaris (berg.) Rosc.which is very low in curcmin, is edible, and is used as
           medicine for stomach ache and phlegm. The root of C. heynrana Val. et v. Zijp. is traditionally used as
           a vermicide at Indonesia because of its vermicidal effect.




            268
                                                                                                 Appendix


Vetiver  Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf. )
       (


 Vetiver is an evergreen perennial herb of the
Gramineae family. It is cultivated mainly in Asia,
Africa, and tropical highlands and sub-tropical
regions of America. The length and breadth of sharp
glossy leaves are 30-90cm and 10mm, it is narrower
than Malabar Grass (lemon grass) that also belongs
to the Gramineae family. The leaf margin is sharp
enough to cut the hand. Plant height is up to 2-3m; it
grows in thick clumps. A panicle of 10-30cm emerges
in the shoot apex. Roots elongate to 3m depth and
then enlarge like a net, so it is used to control soil
erosion. Optimum temperature for growth is 20-30℃ ,
and it is not resistant to cold. It thrives best in sunny
humid locations in soil with good drainage.                                                      Photo:Wiki.

 Dried vetiver is used to thatch roofs, and it is processed to make rugs and blinds. There is no smell
in the foliage, but the root has a heavy unique smell that produces images of soil and earth. Essential
oil is obtained by steam distillation from soaked dried root but yield is low. The older the root; and the




                                                                                                               Appendix
more passage of time after drying and before producing essential oil, and the more it is aged improve
quality. The essential oil is used as fragrance in soap, perfume, and sweets. Vetiver essential oil does
not volatilize easily so it is used to retain the fragrance in perfume. Vetivar essential oil also repels
insects and is used to protect fabrics from moths.
 The main elements of vetiver fragrance are vetirol, vetivone, vetiverone, and vetiven. Vetiver has
excellent effects of calming. Vetiver essential oil is called 'Oil for quiet’, because smelling it leads to            
sleep. Vetiver oil is effective in reducing muscular pain and joint pain because it warms the body and
improves circulation of blood. Vetiver oil is named 'Akar Wangi' in Indonesia and is said to be effective
to relieve rheumatism by external application. It is effective in relief of acne, because it controls the
secretion balance of sebum, and has the effect of an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial. It used
externally as bath-salt, massage oil, and for aromatherapy. Because of the persistent odor it must be
used carefully and not too frequently because the smell will remain for a long time.




                                                                                                      269
            Appendix


           Ylang-Ylang(Canaga odorata Lamk. )

            Ylang-ylang belongs to the Annonaceae family. It is a tropical evergreen tree. It is distributed and
           cultivated in India, East South Asia and the tropical
           lowlands of north-east of Australia. It grows to about
           10 m, occasionally height exceeds 40 m. It prefers
           growing in acid soil of rainforest habitat. The greenish
           yellow flower is set at the leaf axil, and consists of six
           calyx-petals that are linear and twisted. Ylang-ylang
           fruit is an aggregate fruit that has about 10 peduncles
           and fruits in each aggregate fruit. The shape of
           fruit is globular or oval, and the color is green when
           immature but according as turning to black purple
           when mature.  The name of Ylang-ylang means“The
           flower of flowers”and comes originally from Tagalog (a
           Philippine language) .
            The fragrance of ylang-ylang is strong-sweet
           like jasmine. Essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the flowers. The essential oil trades
           at a high price as one of the highest grade perfumes. The yield of essential oil reaches 5%, and it
Appendix




           is extracted from the distillate with a light smell. It is classified into four grades (EXTRA, No.1, 2
           and 3) depending on the extraction order. When all grades are mixed is called COMPLETE and this
           preparation includes all its effects. The main aromatic components of ylang-ylang are linalool, benzyl
           acetate and cresyl methyl ether. Ylang-ylang’s essential oil is used in aromatherapy. It is believed
           itseffects include inducing relaxing, aphrodisiac, and relief of high blood pressure, hyperventilation,
           and normalizing sebum secretion for relief of skin problems. Good quality essential oil has high
        
           transparency and yellow color, but when the quality decreases it becomes cloudy. It has good
           compatibility with many essential oils,so it is blended with various perfumes.
            It is necessary to note concentration because headache and nausea might result when it is used in
           high concentration. It should not be used on irritated skin because it may increase the irritation.




            270
                                                                             Appendix


 Reference List of Industrial Organizations
 参考① 業界団体一覧


・「ハーブ活用百科事典」            2006 年(東京)    産調出版発行 C. Foley,J. Nice and M. A. Webb.著/林真一郎監修
・「ベーシック アロマテラピーの事典」2004 年(東京)                 東京堂出版発行 林真一郎著作/編集
・「ハーブの科学」1998 年(東京)養賢堂発行 陽川昌範著
・「栽培植物の起原と伝播」1978 年(東京)二宮書店発行 星川清親著
・「世界有用植物辞典(オンデマンド版)                 」2002 年(東京)平凡社発行 堀田 満 他 著
・「Tropical Fruits of Thailand」1998 年(Bangkok)Asia Book 発行 Hutton,W 著
・「熱帯の有用作物」1975 年(東京)農林統計協会発行 岩佐俊吉著
・「熱帯の有用果樹」1984 年(茨城)農林水産省 国際農林水産業研究センター発行 岩佐俊吉著
・「熱帯植物要覧」1984 年(東京)大日本山林会発行 岩佐俊吉 他 著
・「薬用ハーブの機能研究」1999 年(東京)健康産業新聞社発行 健康産業新聞社 /「 ハーブ 」 プロジェクトチーム著
・「ハワイアン・ガーデン」2004 年(東京)平凡社発行 近藤純夫著
・「ハーブの写真図鑑」1997 年(東京)日本ヴォーグ社発行 レスリー ブレムネス著/高橋義隆 監修
・「オックスフォード植物学事典」2004 年(東京)朝倉書店発行 Micheal Allaby 著/駒峰 穆 監訳
・「ベトナムの果実」1997 年(Bangkok)農業開発教育基金発行 Nguyen van Ke 著/田中良高 他 編集
・「ハーブ & アロマ事典」2007 年(東京)大泉書店発行 佐々木薫監修)
・「有用植物」2004 年(東京)法政大学出版局発行 菅  洋著
・「食品図鑑」2006 年(東京)女子栄養大学出版部発行 平 宏和 他著
・「エッセンシャル化学事典」2002 年(東京)東京化学同人発行 玉虫伶太 他 著
・「東南アジアの野菜,ハーブ,スパイスとマッシュルーム Ⅰ・ベトナム」1997 年(Bangkok)農業開発教育基金
 発行 田中良高著
・「熱帯の有用果実」2000 年(大阪)トンボ出版発行 土橋 豊著
・「アロマテラビーのための 84 の精油」2005 年(東京)フレグランスジャーナル社発行 Wanda Sellar 著/高山林
 太郎 訳
・「東南アジア市場図鑑 植物篇」2001 年(東京)弘文堂発行 吉田よし子・菊池裕子 著




                                                                                        Appendix
                                                                                                




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