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					Nursery IPM

      June 1,2010
Next IPM June 15, 2010
                Growing
Inches of
                Degree
Precipitation
                Days
     10.9        592      PERRY

     12.9        563      MADISON

     8.8         641      AVON
   White Pine Weevil adult emergence 84
    Eastern Tent Caterpillar egg hatch 92
   European Pine Sawfly egg hatch 144
   Inkberry Leafminer adult emergence 150
   Spruce Spider Mite egg hatch 162
   Boxwood Psyllid egg hatch 179
   Gypsy Moth egg hatch 192
   Azalea Lace Bug egg hatch 206
   Birch Leafminer adult emergence 215
   Elm Leafminer adult emergence 219
   Alder Leafminer adult emergence 224
   Honeylocust Spider Mite egg hatch 227
   Honeylocust Plant Bug egg hatch 230
   Hawthorn Lace Bug adult emergence 253
   Pine Needle Scale egg hatch - 1st generation 305
   Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid egg hatch 308
   Eastern Spruce Gall Adelgid egg hatch 308
   Optimal time to spray for gypsy moth 370
                                                           330
 Lilac Borer                 adult emergence
 Optimal time to spray for
                                                           370
 gypsy moth
 Lesser Peach Tree
                             adult emergence               372
 Borer
 Holly Leafminer              adult emergence                375
 Euonymus Scale               egg hatch - 1st generation     406
  Locust Leafminer            adult emergence                437
 Boxwood Leafminer            adult emergence                440
  Oystershell Scale           egg hatch                      497
Bronze Birch Borer           adult emergence                 547
 Emerald Ash Borer            adult emergence                550

Black Vine Weevil            adult emergence                 560
  Potato
                     adult arrival           568
  Leafhopper

  Juniper Scale      egg hatch               571
Twospotted
                   egg hatch          627
Spider Mite
Bagworm            egg hatch          630

                   egg hatch - 1st
Fletcher Scale                         730
                   generation
Calico Scale      egg hatch          748
European
Fruit
                  egg hatch          767
Lecanium
Scale
Greater Peach     adult
                                     775
Tree Borer        emergence
Striped Pine
                  egg hatch          783
Scale
Rhododendron
                    adult emergence          815
Borer

Dogwood Borer        adult emergence          830

Cottony Maple
                   egg hatch                 851
Scale

Fall
                egg hatch              867
Webworm
Mimosa          egg hatch - 1st
                                       874
Webworm         generation

 Winged
 Euonymus       egg hatch              892
 Scale
 Spruce
                egg hatch              894
 Budscale
Cool-Season Pests –
      Spruce Spider Mite – inactive most of summer!
              Miticides
Traditional      Alternatives
 Kelthane        Avid
    X
 Morestan        Hexygon (eggs &
    X
 Cygon
                   larvae only, spider
    X              mites only)
 Orthene ?
    X             Floramite (spider
                   mites only)
                  Sanmite (spider mites
                   only)
                  Conserve

                  Pyrethroids??

                  Soaps or Oils
          Black Vine Weevil Management
 What’s Lost?
    Ficam (Turcam)
    Orthene is on the way out!
What are the Alternatives?
  Merit! (home owner product
  available, apply to soil, NOT
  mulch, not for adults!)
  Pyrethroids for Adults
  DiSyston (disulfoton) (home
  owner products available,
  BVW not named on label,
  apply to soil!)
Commercial application : Talstar,
  Guthion , Scimitar,
Borers Continue –
      White Pine Weevil – white pine & SPRUCE
                               Most perennials have one
                               or two species of aphids
                               that may feed on them.




The goldenrod aphid
(above) feeds on a variety
of daisy and composite
flowers. The milkweed
aphid (right) feeds
exclusively on plants in the
milkweed family.
   Plant Bug & Aphid Control
            (for residential sites)
Traditional
 Diazinon
                      Alternates
       X               Pyrethroids
 Dursban
       X               Soaps & Oils
 Sevin
                       Azadirachtin- neem
 Orthene

  (Professional only)  Imidacloprid
 DiSyston
                        Lace bug nymphs.
                          Lace bugs that
                          attack deciduous
                          plants overwinter as
                          adults. Those that
                          attack broadleaf
                          evergreens
                          overwinter as eggs.




Sassafras lace bug
adults. Most lace bug
females attach their
eggs to leaves with
their excrement.
      Lace Bug Insecticides
Traditional      Alternatives
 Dursban
     X            Pyrethroids [Tempo,

 Sevin            Talstar, Deltagard,
 Orthene
                   Scimitar, Astro]
     X
                  Imidacloprid

                  Azadirachtin

                  Soaps or Oils
Pine needle scale
females. Note pinkish
eggs at end of scale
test (shell) and a      Group of pine needle
settled crawler at      scale settled crawlers
upper left.             (tan) and a couple of
                        fresh crawlers (pinkish)
                        in color.
Taxus Mealybug
Dysmicoccus wistariae (Green)
Females are oval, brown but covered with white wax and they reach
4 mm in length. They are characterized by being
on Taxus and the adults have four longitudinal bare areas on down
the back through which the reddish-brown body can be
seen. Males are known but are uncommon. The eggs apparently
hatch within the female body.
One generation is common in the most northern states, but two to
three generations have been recorded in New Jersey
and Pennsylvania. It overwinters as early instars located within bark
crevices. These mature by mid- to late June and
another generation occurs in 50 to 60 days.
Greenhouse Mealybugs
Key to the Most Common Mealybugs found on Flowers and Foliage Plants
Azalea Bark Scale
Acanthococcus azaleae (Comstock)
This scale is becoming more common on azaleas, rhododendrons and blueberry. Exposed
females are oval with
pointed abdomens and dark reddish-purple in color. On the plant, the females appear as
dirty white, felt covered ovals up to
3 mm long. In northern states, they overwinter as partially mature nymphs or adults with
the eggs being produced in May
and crawlers emerging from June to mid-July. In warmer climates, the scales often
overwinter as eggs or first instar
nymphs with the first generation emerging in July to August. Crawlers tend to settle on
leaves but nymphs move back to
branches as they mature.
         Lecanium Scales
         several genera that used to be simply Lecanium spp.


Almost every woody ornamental plant has one or more species of lecanium
scale that may infest it.
The females are generally football shaped and flattened when newly formed,
but they may expand dorsally
dramatically as they produce eggs. Parthenogenic and biparental species are
known. This group contains
some of the largest scales in North America. The magnolia and large hickory
scale females may reach 12.5
mm in length. Most of the species can infest multiple hosts.
Name                       Hosts          Generations        Crawlers
Large Hickory Lecanium Birch, Hickory, Pear, Elm 1           June
Calico Scale     Maple, Hackberry, Sweetgum, Plum 1          May
Terrapin Scale    Maple, Linden, Plum              1        May-June
Magnolia Scale Magnolia                            1        August-September
European Fruit Lecanium Polyphagous - Maples, Oaks 1         May-June
Fletcher Scale    Juniper, Taxus, Hemlock          1 (2?)   late June-July
Small Spruce-bud Scale     Spruce, Fir             1         June
Globose Scale              Plum                    1         late June
   Control Hints:Oystershell Scale
   This scale can be locally common and if left unchecked, it can cause significant branch
    dieback. Since this scale
   overwinters as eggs under the female shell it is less susceptible to dormant oil sprays than the
    euonymus scale.
   Strategy 1: Biological Control - Conserve Predators and Parasites - A couple of small lady
    beetles and several parasitic
   wasps seem attack and often control this pests. However, these biological controls are usually
    killed by the pesticides used
   for the control of other insect pests. Careful monitoring of predators and parasites as well as
    using pesticides with little
   effect on beneficials can allow biological control to be successful.
   Strategy 2: Chemical Control - Dormant Oil Sprays - Since these scales overwinter as eggs,
    dormant oil applications seem
   to have little effect.
   Strategy 3: Chemical Control - Horticultural Summer Oil Sprays - The 1% to 2% summer
    horticultural oil sprays are often
   effective against freshly settled crawlers and young nymphs. Horticultural oil sprays in
    combination with insecticidal soaps
   or insecticides are even more effective.
   Strategy 4: Chemical Control - Crawler Sprays - This is the time honored technique. Sprays
    will be needed, usually one or
   two at a seven day interval, after the crawlers have emerged and settled in early June and
    again in early to mid-August.
   Strategy 5: Chemical Control - Systemic Insecticides - Systemic insecticides are very
    effective against young settled
   Control Hints:Euonymus Scale
   This scale generally has continuing, often overlapping, generations during warm months.
    This makes it difficult to
   time controls for susceptible stages such as crawlers and freshly settled crawlers. Several
    parasites and predators are known
   but apparently are unable to control this pest.
   Strategy 1: Cultural Control - Plant Resistant Material - Avoid using creeping euonymus
    or pachysandra for ground
   covers, especially in warmer states where continuous generations occur. Some of the
    cultivars of euonymus are less
   susceptible to attack. Check with your nurseryman for varieties displaying resistance.
   Strategy 2: Chemical Control - Horticultural Oil Sprays - Since this pest overwinters as
    adult females, dormant oil sprays
   are fairly effective in reducing populations. Thorough wetting of the stems and leaf
    undersurface should be attempted. The
   crawlers and newly settled scales are also controlled by summer oil sprays.
   Strategy 3: Chemical Control - Crawler Sprays - This is the traditional control strategy
    and spray applications need to be
   applied in late May to early June for the first generation. The first generation of crawlers
    are more synchronized than later
   generations.
   Strategy 4: Chemical Control - Systemic Insecticides - Systemic insecticides are often
    effective if applied when the young
   nymphs have recently settled.
                                                Armored Scales
Name                Hosts         Generations          Crawlers                               Winter
Rose Scale          Rose                        1-2                mid-July & mid-Sept        eggs
Juniper Scale        Juniper, Cedar             1                  mid-June
                    females/eggs
Scurfy Scale1       Apple, Pear, Plum 2                           late May & August           eggs
Pine Needle Scale Pine, Spruce, Fir 2                             mid-May & mid-July
                    females/eggs
Putnam Scale        Polyphagous - Maples, Linden 1-2   May & July                             females
Sweetgum (pit) Scale Sweetgum                   1-2    early June & late July                 females
Oystershell Scale Polyphagous (130 hosts)       1-2    May (& mid-July)                       eggs
Obscure Scale Oaks (many other trees) 1                late June to August             1st & 2nd
instars
Black Pineleaf Scale Pine, Hemlocks 1                  early July                        females
San Jose Scale Polyphagous, mainly fruits 2-3        early June, late July, Sept       1st & 2nd
Euonymus Scale Euonymus, Holly, Pachysandra 2-3 May - June & July – Aug                 females
1 “Scurfy” scale species also occur on: maple, elm, hickory, honeylocust, sycamore, and wisteria (all species of
Chionaspis)
Bagworm
Lesser Peach tree borer




                          Rhododendron borer




    Lilac ash borer
Dogwood borer   Viburnum Borer
Columbine leafminer adults
(above right) feed by making
"pinholes" in leaves (left).
Eggs are inserted into leaves
and the larval maggots make
winding mines which may end
in a large blotch (upper left).
                           t
                           e
                           c
                           t
                           e
                           d

                           a
                           r
                           e
                           a
                           s

Slugs feed on a variety of i
                           n
perennials and annuals, but
                           t
relish hosta!              h
                           e

                           s
                           o
                           i
                           l
                           ,
                               Slugs lay eggs in protected
                           u
                           n   areas in the soil, under
                           d
                           e   landscape timbers or mulch
                           r

                           l
                           a
                           n
                           d
                           s
Carpenter bees overwinter as adults in
wood within abandoned nest tunnels. They
emerge in the spring, usually in April or
May. After mating, the fertilized females
excavate tunnels in wood and lay their eggs
within a series of small cells.
   Liquid sprays of carbaryl (Sevin),
   chlorpyrifos (Dursban), or a synthetic
   pyrethroid (e.g., permethrin or cyfluthrin)
   can be applied as a preventive to wood
   surfaces which are attracting bees.
   Residual effectiveness of these
   insecticides is often only 1-2 weeks,
   however, and the treatment may need to
   be repeated. Tunnels which have already
   been excavated are best treated by puffing
   an insecticidal dust (e.g., 5 percent
   carbaryl) into the nest opening.
When to look: Late April to mid-June
Early on, larvae are hard to spot.
Sometimes it helps to look for dead twig
tips, such as on this arrowwood
(Viburnum dentatum). The egg sites are
located on the portion of the twig that
died. After hatching, the larvae moved
down to the newly emerging leaves
    Highly susceptible:     Susceptible:
                            V. acerifolium, mapleleaf viburnum
   V. dentatum complex,     V. lantana, wayfaringtree viburnum
  arrowwood viburnums       V. rufidulum, rusty blackhaw, southern black-
  V. nudum, possum-haw,     haw
                            V. sargentii, Sargent viburnum
smooth witherod viburnum    V. wrightii, Wright viburnum
    V. opulus, European     Moderately susceptible
 cranberrybush viburnum     V. alnifolium (syn. V. lantanoides), hobblebush
                            V. burkwoodii, Burkwood viburnum
 V. opulus var. americana   V. x carlcephalum, Carlcephalum viburnum
  (formerly V. trilobum),   V. cassinoides, witherod viburnum
 American cranberrybush     V. dilatatum, linden viburnum
                            V. farreri , fragrant viburnum (except 'Nanum',
          viburnum          which is highly susceptible)
 V. propinquum*, Chinese    V. lantanoides (syn. V. alnifolium), hobblebush
   viburnum, Taiwanese      V. lentago, nannyberry viburnum
                            V. macrocephalum, Chinese Snowball
          viburnum          Viburnum
     V. rafinesquianum,     V. x pragense, pragense viburnum
   Rafinesque viburnum      V. prunifolium, blackhaw viburnum
                            V. x rhytidophylloides, lantanaphyllum
                            viburnum
                            V. tinus*, laurustinus viburnum
Viburnum most resistant to the
viburnum leaf beetle:
V. bodnantense, dawn viburnum
V. carlesii, Koreanspice viburnum
V. davidii*, David viburnum
V. x juddii, Judd viburnum
V. plicatum, doublefile viburnum
V. plicatum var. tomentosum,
doublefile viburnum
V. rhytidophyllum, leatherleaf
viburnum
V. setigerum, tea viburnum
V. sieboldii, Siebold
viburnum*Based on observations
at the Van Dusen Botanical
Garden, Vancouver, B.C. by
Carolyn Jones
The most effective way to use contact pesticides is to spray when
larvae first emerge (the younger the better), usually in late April or
early May. Before spraying, inspect plants to make sure larvae are
present and be certain to make a thorough application that directly
contacts the larvae which feed on the undersides of young and
emerging leaves. Spraying adults or eggs is far less effective.

   spinosad
   pyrethrins
   Insecticidal soap
   Horticultural oil
In late winter or early spring, carefully examine young twigs for
egg sites that seem to swell and lose their covers as the air
tempterature increases. Prune out and destroy infested twigs
before egg hatch. Monitor the lower leaf surface for the presence
of larvae in late spring.
                    Diseases
   Apple scab
   Fireblight
   Cedar apple rust
   Anthracnose
   Phytophthora
   Frost
   Pine needle diseases
Birdseye pearlwort
Spotted spurge
Willowherbs
Creeping woodsorrel
Little mallow (cheeseweed)
Henbit
Shepherds purse
Hairy Galinsoga
Yellow Rocket
Canadian Thistle
Common Reed
Phragmites australis
LILAC BACTERIAL BLIGHT
 Pseudomonas syringe pv.
        syringe

Bacterial blight of lilac is caused by the
bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.
The disease is also commonly referred to as Shoot
Blight and Blossom Blight. The pathogen is
capable of causing damage to all types of lilacs
including Japanese, Chinese, Persian and
common varieties.                              New infections are initiated in the spring
                                               during wet weather . Once the bacterium
                                               reaches the host plant, it needs a natural
                                               opening or wound to gain access to the
                                               internal tissues. When infection takes place it
                                               produced the symptoms listed above. The
                                               pathogen has also been reported on Forsythia,
                                               Blueberry, and other ornamental plants.
                     Apple scab
   The fungus survives in dead leaves on the ground.
    Primary spores are discharged during spring rains and
    infect young leaves and fruits during prolonged
    moisture. Secondary spores may spread disease from
    established infections on trees. If primary infections
    are successfully controlled, secondary infections will
    not be serious. The key to success in scab control is
    exact timing and full coverage. Wet periods,
    temperature, and relative humidity are important
    factors. Because scab control often is part of a
    combination treatment aimed at other diseases and
    insect control, choice of materials and timing are also
    extremely important.
   HOURS OF WETTING REQUIRED FOR INFECTION Average temperature
   (degrees °F) From primary inoculum (ascospores)
   (hours)
   78                   13
   77                  11
   76                  9.5
   61–75                9
   60                  9.5
   57–59               10
   55–56               11
   54                  11.5
   52–53               12
   51                   13
   50                  14
   49                  14.5
   48                  15
   47                  17
   46                  19
   45                  20
   44                  22
   43                  25
   42                  30
           4
Sprayers
                       5
Adjust spray outputs
                                       Tree
Tree diameter or width                 Height




                         Row spacing
                                         7


   Nursery Tree Row Volume
                       40 for orchards
           10 D H
     GPA =
             S
GPA - Application rate
D - Tree width or diameter (ft)
H - Canopy Height (ft)
S - Distance between rows (ft)
                                             8

Example

           10x6.5x8
   GPA =              = 58
              9

                      Tree width: D=6.5 ft

                      Canopy Height:
                      H=11-3=8 ft

                      Distance between
                      rows: S=9 ft
                                     9



Three parameters to change sprayer
             output

       Travel Speed
       Nozzle size
       Pressure
               10

Travel speed
        Travel speed calibration
1. Setup an 88 ft long distance in a flat field
2. Measure the time that the sprayer travels the
  88 ft distance
3. Use the following equation to calculate the
  speed
                       60
             V =
                        T
Where, V is the travel speed in miles per hour,
and T is the time in seconds for the sprayer
travelling the 88 ft distance.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for three times and then
take an average
                                        11
Use ribbons to estimate spray pattern
to determine number of nozzles
                                                    13

Total flow rate from sprayer
      88 D V GPA       88x9x4x58
 Q=                =                   = 4.2 gpm
       43,560           43560

Single nozzle flow rate          4.2
                            q=         = 0.6 gpm
                                   7

                            No. of nozzles, N = 7
                            Spray width, D = 9 ft
                            Speed, V = 4 mph
                            GPA = 58
                                  14
Nozzle selection


                    q = 0.6 gpm


                   psi gpm
What is the Output from each Nozzle and
how many Nozzle will you use?




    What is X
                     15
Nozzle calibration
              Pressure Gauge
   What pressure are your nozzles designed to
    work at ?
   What happens if your pressure gauge doesn’t
    work?
   How do I check my pressure gauge ?
   What type of pressure gauge do I need ?
   How do I care from gauge during the winter?
At What Pressure
Should Your Sprayer
Operate at?
                                                     20
    Hand-held Pressure Gauge Calibrator
                        Calibrate pressure gauges
                      1) Remove test gauge (A) from
              C          sprayer.
A                     2) Mount the gauge (A) to the
                         test port (B) on calibrator.
                  D   3) Tighten knob (D) and squeeze
B                        handles (E) to pump air.
                      4) Compare pressure readings
                         between two gauges (A, C).
                      5) If the gauge (A) is worn out,
                         replace it.
      E               6) However, if the gauge is only
                         off line, mark the correct
                         readings on the gauge and
                         continue to use it.
   Choosing Nozzles
Timing                       Dropsize
                             Dropspeed
                Biological
                  effect
                              Volume
Dose

       Effect




                             Dose
                                               16

How does pressure affect output?

                   q = Cd2     P
  Output
  (GPM)
                  For example, a hollow cone
                  nozzle D5-DC25 output is
                  0.35 GPM at 40 psi.



      0.35


             40
                         Pressure (psi)
                                                     17

How does pressure affect output?


  Output                q = Cd2     P
  (GPM)
                       The output will be 0.48 GPM
                       at 80 psi.



      0.48
      0.35


             40   80
                              Pressure (psi)
                                                    18

How does pressure affect output?


  Output                 q = Cd2     P
  (GPM)

                       The output will be 0.6 GPM
                       at 120 psi.

      0.60
      0.48
      0.35


             40   80   120
                             Pressure (psi)
                                                     19

How does pressure affect output?


  Output                 q = Cd2       P
  (GPM)
                       The output will be 0.70 GPM
                       at 160 psi.

      0.70
      0.60
      0.48
      0.35


             40   80   120   160
                               Pressure (psi)
                                               21
Place water sensitive papers inside canopies
                                               22

“Reference” water sensitive paper images
 of over applied, sufficiently applied and
      under applied spray mixtures




     Over            Sufficiently     Under
    applied           applied        applied
      Droplets needed for control
   Insecticides /pre emergence 130 droplets/inch
    2 or 25 droplets cm2
   Post emergence herbicides 200 droplets inch2
    or 35 droplets cm2
   Fungicides 330 droplets inch2 or 60 droplets
    cm2
    Deposit Scan Program Website
DepositScan is a scanning program that can quickly
evaluate spray deposit distribution on water
sensitive paper or Kromekote® cards.

  http://ars.usda.gov/services/software/download.h
    tm?softwareid=247
165
      301   578.8
                                      2
                7.12%      11.56 cm
                coverage




1071 droplets
     Welcome to the Home Page of the
    Application Technology Research Unit

   Heping Zhu | Adjunct Assistant Professor, USDA |
   Contact Information :
   Phone: (330) 263-3854
    FAX: (330) 263-3670
    E-Mail: zhu.16@osu.edu
    Website(s): USDA
   Address:
    203 Agricultural Engineering Building
    1680 Madison Avenue
    OARDC
    Wooster, Ohio 44691
DRIFTSIM is a user-friendly computer program capable
of predicting drift distances of spray droplets under a
wide variety of conditions

 http://ars.usda.gov/services/software/download.htm?s
 oftwareid=252
         Is your sprayer clean ?
   How do you clean a tank out?
    rinse the tank ? X times
   How do you clean out the boom ?
   How do you clean off the out side of the
    sprayer ?
          Calibrate the Sprayer
   Output of the sprayer
   Travel speed
   Spray swath
   Answer in Gallons per acre
    What is my Sprayer Coverage ?
   Size of droplets
   Amount of drift
   Amount of product that sticks to the target
   Coverage throughout the total plants
Does it Feel Like
     What are the alternatives?
• Pyrethroids – broad spectrum
  insecticides; some with mite suppression;
  considerable range of activity within
  group (i.e., they are not all the same!).
• Neonicotinoids – broad spectrum; some
  systemic action; often slow action – best
  used as preventives; not all are the same!
• Spinosyn – moderately broad spectrum,
  good on caterpillars, spider mites, some
  leafminers.
• Azadirachtin (neem) – moderate spectrum;
  IGR action.
• Oils & Soaps – still there!
    Pyrethroid LD50s

•   Sumithrin = 10,000
•   Tetramethrin = 5000
•   Resmethrin = 2500
•   Cyfluthrin = 500
•   Permethrin = 430
•   Bifenthrin = 375
•   Deltamethrin = 135
•   Esfenvalerate = 75
•   Lambda-cyhalothrin = 56
   Insects and mites that attack
    perennials-
   Fourlined plant bug damage
    (right), late instar nymph (left),
    and adult (below).
   Insects and mites that attack
    perennials-
   Tarnished plant bugs also damage
    various perennials as well as several
    shrubs. The adults normally feed on
    flowers and their structures.
   Tarnished plant bug nymph (above),
    and adult (left).
                Plant Bug & Aphid Controls

       Traditional                               Still/Now Available
       •Diazinon†                                •Pyrethroids
       •Dursban†                                 (permethrin,
       •Sevin                                    deltamethrin,
       •Orthene†                                 resmethrin,
       •Malathion                                esfenvalerate,
       •DiSyston*                                bifenthrin,
                                                 cyfluthrin)
                                                 •Soaps & Oils
                                                 •Sevin, Orthene,
                                                 Malathion


† = discontinued or being discontinued from residential use.
* = 2 in 1 Rose Systemic Granules (= disulfoton)
Rudbeckia psyllids cause purple
blotches on the leaves of host
plants that look like disease spots
Other sucking insects that
attack perennials include
tree hoppers (left) and
leafhoppers (below). The
painted sharpshooters (a
kind of leafhopper) cause
puckering of leaves. The
nymphs (below) run
sideways.
                 Sawflies & Caterpillars
                     On Perennials

Columbine Sawfly - one generation (May to June
  Hollyhock Sawfly - 3-4 generations
"Generalist" Caterpillars - cabbage looper, European corn borer,
green fruitworm.
 Stalk Borer & Iris Borer - not much you can do other
 than remove!
Columbine sawflies can completely
defoliate plants by the time they
are ready to flower




                            Columbine sawflies hide on the
                            undersides of host leaves during
                            the day. Though the larvae look
                            like caterpillars, they have more
                            than 5 pairs of prolegs on the
                            abdomen - a sawfly characteristic.
Hollyhock sawfly larvae skeletonize                    Larva and damage.
leaves and the damage is often mistaken
for Japanese beetle damage




                                 Adults look like small wasps or flies
The cabbage looper may be
found on a variety of annual
or perennial flowers as well
as vegetable crops.


                               Fruitworms usually attack
                               fruit tree foliage, but they
                               may be found on roses and
                               perennials
The milkweed tiger moth has
a striking caterpillar that feed
on all plants in the milkweed
family




                                   The violet sawfly produces damage
                                   that often looks like slug damage -
                                   look on leaf undersurfaces to
                                   determine if the sawfly larvae are
                                   hiding there
The iris borer overwinters in
the egg stage attached to old
leaves. The eggs hatch in
spring and the larvae burrow
down the leaves to the
rhizomes. They continue
feeding all summer, nearly
eating all the rhizome internal
tissues. The larvae drop out in
August, pupate in the soil and
the adult moths emerge in
October into November.
Twospotted spider mites can
completely web over the
foliage of their hosts




                        Twospotted spider mite eggs,
                        nymphs and adults generally
                        reside on leaf undersurfaces
                        unless they have completely
                        covered their host foliage.
There are few recognized
rust or gall mites that appear
on perennials. This
coneflower flowergall mite is
rarely recognized


                                 The tiny mites cause the
                                 flowers to produce secondary
                                 petals within the flowers.
                   Pyrethroids
•   Sumithrin [Ortho]
•   Tetramethrin [Ortho]
•   Resmethrin [Spectracide]
•   Cyfluthrin (=Tempo)[Bayer Advanced Lawn & Garden
    products]
•   Beta-cyfluthrin (=Tempo Ultra) [Bayer]
•   Permethrin (=Astro, Pounce)[Spectracide]
•   Bifenthrin (=Talstar) [Ortho & Scotts products]
•   Deltamethrin [Bonide]
•   Esfenvalerate (=Asana) [Ortho]
•   Lambda-cyhalothrin (=Scimitar) [Spectracide]
European
Pine Sawfly

  larvae
  eggs
  adults
        Sawfly Insecticides
Traditional       Alternatives
 Dursban
     X             Pyrethroids

 Sevin             [Tempo, Talstar,
 Orthene
                    Deltagard,
     X
                    Scimitar, Astro]
                   Spinosyn

                   Azadirachtin

                   Imidacloprid

                   Soaps or Oils
Ambrosia Beetle

				
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