History of GUI - final

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					The Real History of
     The GUI
      Introduced By

        Lior Ur
           &
      Efrat Carmi
What is GUI?   Many of us may think of

               gooey
GUI - Graphical User Interface

An interface for issuing commands to a computer utilizing a
pointing device, such as a mouse, that manipulates and
activates graphical images on a monitor.
Why do we need GUI?

  The idea of GUI derives from cognitive
  psychology – the study of how the brain
  deals with communication
  Our brain works more efficiently with
  graphical icons & displays than with words
Why do we need GUI?
          For example:
GUI history – The Mythology

December 1979:
  The Apple team, Steve Jobs and his friends, enter
  Xerox‟s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) labs
  They tour the place with childh like admiration
  while… memorizing schematics and taking notes
 GUI history – The Mythology


Jobs and cohort Steve Wozniak
  go back to their garage and
  stuff every idea and process
  they can remember from the
  Xerox tour into their new
  product:

 The Macintosh!!!
GUI history – The Mythology

Apple amazes the world with the
GUI thing, and everyone wants
to get their own computer

Xerox is confused and
Microsoft‟s Bill Gates is
enraged!
GUI history – The Mythology

Gates takes Job‟s thievery one
step further and brings out
Apple-clone, Windows.

Microsoft succeeds to dodge
an Apple lawsuit, And so
Apple falls behind.

            And…
GUI history – The Mythology

Windows takes over the world…
GUI history – The Mythology



   Well … not exactly
 The true story is quite different
The real history of GUI

      Chapter 1
 The real history of GUI

  1940-1975: The early years


“The best way to predict the future is
           to invent it”
      Alan Kay and an informal PARC slogan
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

1945 – Bush invents the “memex”

Vannevar Bush, a visionary scientist, invents the “memex”:

  Acts as an external memory
  Would make use “hyperlink” technology (items retrieved
  rapidly through indexing, keywords, cross references)
  Reflected the idea of hypertext (where documents are linked to
  related documents)
  Was never constructed
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)




                MEMEX
 The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

1962 – The first “mouse”
Douglas Engelbart, a scientist at
Stanford Research Laboratory
(now SRI), invented the first
“mouse”, a wooden box on
wheels that moves around the
desktop, and takes the cursor
with it on the display.
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

       He called it:
“x-y position indicator”
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

First graphical video game -
Space War (1962)
  MIT project
  Including the first computer joystick
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

1963 - The “sketchpad”
Ivan Sutherland, a grad student at MIT, submits as his thesis a
program named “sketchpad”, that supported manipulation of
objects on screen using a light pen, including:

  Grabbing objects
  Moving objects
  Changing size
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)




     Sutherland and his sketchpad
  The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

1968 - Engelbart creates NLS (oNLine System)
A hypermedia groupware
system that featured:
  Use of mouse for graphics
  Multiple tiled windows
  Object addressing
  Extensive use of linking
  Videoconferencing
  E-mail
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)
          The place GUI was born
       PARC - Palo Alto Research Center
a computing “think
tank”, where brilliant
minds crank out
ideas and implement
them
 The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Main ideas that came from PARC
 Development of icons
 Extension of „desktop metaphor‟ into „office metaphor’–
 collection of data will be known as files, that can be
 organized into folders
 Implementation of object concept
 Cursor changes to show system mode and context
 Overlapped and tiled windows
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Main ideas that came from PARC – cont.
 Popup menus
 Scroll bar
 Push buttons
 Check boxes
 Dialog boxes
 Multiple fonts & style in text
 Move / copy / delete
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

 Early 70‟s at PARC
 Failing project called “Dynabook” :
 hand held, notebook-sized device (early laptop), where
 a person can touch the screen to access information
 Alan Kay and others (from PARC) developed the
 Smalltalk programming language, with influences
 from “Logo” “Lisp” and the Sketchpad
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)
Smalltalk features
  Object orientation
  A multi platform virtual machine
GUI features
  Overlapping “windows”
  Hierarchical menus
  Bit-blt or “bit-blitting” - The
  protocol by which objects on the
  screen can be manipulated
  Model-View-Controller
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Pygmalion –
  The first program to be
  written under Smalltalk
  Demonstrating that computer
  programming can be
  graphically based and not
  restricted to text
  Attempts to provide the
  programmer visual and
  intuitive programming
  Coined the term “icons”
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)




        traditional mainframe
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Xerox‟s Alto computer (1974)
 First useable GUI
 A “smaller”, portable replacement of mainframes
 Started its life showing an image of Sesame Street‟s
 “Cookie Monster”
 Was not marketed
 The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Alto computer - cont.
 Extensive use of the mouse
 Pioneered the bitmapped display
 Featured graphical driven apps.
 Iconic representations for programs
 Popup menus
 The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Alto‟s Software
  Word processor -“Gypsy”
    The ability to cut/copy/paste with a mouse
  Text editor - “Bravo”
    Supported multiple fonts & style in text
  First drawing program - “Markup”
  First Painting program - “Superpaint”
  WYSIWYG through bitmapping for “Gypsy” and “Bravo”
 The real history of GUI (1940-1975)


WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get
 Pronounced "wizzy-wig“.
 Refers to displaying text and graphics on screen, the
 same as they will print.
 To have WYSIWYG text, there must be an equivalent
 screen font for each printer font used
The real history of GUI (1940-1975)




             WYSIWYG
The real history of GUI
       Chapter 2
         The real history of GUI

           1975-1985: The origins of pc


 “ There is no reason why anyone would want a
                  computer in their home”

Kan Olson, President, Chairman & founder of Digital Equipment Corp.,

                                 1977
     The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

“So we went to Atari and said: hey, we‟ve got this amazing
thing, even built with some of your parts, and what do
you think about funding us? …and they said „No‟.
So then we went to Hewlett-Packard,
and they said, „Hey, we don‟t
need you. You haven‟t got
through college yet‟ “.
Apple founder Steve Jobs on attempts to get Atari
and HP interested in his and Steve Wozniak‟s
personal computer
 The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

The beginning of Apple
 Jobs and Wozniak met at HP.
 Their careers begun by
 building (Wozniak) and selling
 (Jobs) “blue boxes” :
 illegal devices that scammed
 free phone calls from Ma Bell
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

The beginning of Apple
 Jobs envisioned building
 personal desktop-size
 computers for the masses
 3/76 – Wozniak builds the
 first Apple

 Apple  - a wooden boxed
 machine with LED display
 The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

The beginning of Apple
 1976 – Apple is founded in
 Job‟s garage
 About 200 units of Apple ‟s
 are sold
 The team uses the money from
 Apple ‟s sales to start the
 work on the Apple 
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)




               Apple II
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

Apple  (1977)
  Featuring:
    Color graphics
    Video display
    Inboard floppy disk
    Game paddles
    First spreadsheet – VisiCalc
 The real history of GUI (1975-1985)


…Followed by Apple 

(which was unsuccessful)




                            Apple III
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)
1979 – Apple‟s visit to PARC
 Apple negotiated a deal with Xerox:
    12/79 - Xerox allows Jobs and team to tour the place, take
    notes and make use of the ideas in their own creations
    In exchange, Xerox got a
    block of Apple shares
  The Apple team returned and
  started to work on Apple
  “Lisa”
 The real history of GUI (1975-1985)
First computer desktop –
Xerox Star (1981)
  First true GUI driven PC featured:
    Concept of desktop metaphor
    Overlapping resizable windows
    Extensive usage of icons
    Sophisticated PARC mouse,
    that used laser beams
  Star‟s interface known as –WIMP
  (Windows, Icons, Menus & Pointers)
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

“ The [Lisa] user will be able to carry out many functions,
   simply by pointing to a picture of what he wants done,
              rather than typing instructions.”
                    Time Magazine, 1983
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

Apple “Lisa” (1983)
  Lisa – Local Integrated Software
  Architecture
  Development started at 1979, after
  the trip to PARC
  First of a new GUI-based PC family
  developed for business use
  Eventually failed because of the
  high cost and lack of software
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)
Apple Lisa
 Lisa featured:
     Click-and-drag capability
     Pull-down menu
     7\7 – integrated software including word processor,
     spreadsheet, drawing program, chart builder and more
 Desktop manager taken from PARC (the original plan
 didn‟t have any icons)
 Smalltalk influence
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)




     Apple LISA - Desktop and 7/7
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)




              Apple LISA
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

After Lisa
  Apple worked with psychologists, artists and
  ordinary users to improve Lisa‟s interface

  Also provided California
  schools with free LISA‟s
  in order to enhance
  software and GUI
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

Macintosh (Mac) – 1984
 Apple wanted to produce a computer
 with GUI that would be smaller and
 cheaper than LISA

 First popular PC to feature GUI

 Cost 2500$ (compared to the
 10,000$ of Lisa)
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

Mac Toolbox (for Mac)

 Developed by Apple after Lisa‟s failure
 Allowed third-party companies to produce software
 for the Mac
 Contained example programs and Mac interface
 guidelines so software would be written in similar
 style to house software
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

Macintosh (Mac) – cont.
  The Mac came with:
   MacPaint – art design to the average user
     Had the ability to drag and select shapes
   MacWrite – a simple word processor that was the
   first WYSIWYG product in the market

        1984 Super Bowl commercial
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)


“The future lies with graphical windowing interface. Mouse
  cursor control, pull-down menus, dialog boxes, and the
like are destined to take over the IBM PC and compatible
                       world as well.”

                     W.F Zachmann, 1987
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)


       Microsoft joins the game


   “640K ought to be enough for anybody”

                Bill Gates, 1981
   The real history of GUI (1975-1985)
The beginning of Microsoft

  1974 – Bill Gates and Paul
  Allen start up Microsoft
  1975 – producing BASIC 1.0
  interpreter for the MITS
  Altair, first programming
  language written specifically
  for a PC
  1975 – BASIC 2.0 for new
  versions of Altair
  The real history of GUI (1975-1985)
1977 - Microsoft and Apple team up
  Microsoft writes “Apple BASIC” for Apple. their fee: 21,000$
  Apple sells over a million computers with Apple BASIC
 The real history of GUI (1975-1985)
Early 80‟s
  1980: Microsoft buys DOS from Seattle Computer Products
  1981: Jobs visits Microsoft, and invites them to develop apps.
  for Apple‟s new GUI-based system - the Mac
The real history of GUI

       Chapter 3
         The real history of GUI

                        GUI wars

“No Steve, I think it‟s more like we both have a rich neighbor
named Xerox, and you broke in to steal the TV set, and you
found out I‟d been there first, and you said, „Hey, that‟s not
            fair!, I wanted to steal the TV set!”

                            Bill Gates
  The real history of GUI (GUI wars)
1985 computer market

 Many platforms debuted
 in the early 80‟s (visiOn,
 Gem and others)

 The only one with
 significant influence was
 Commodore‟s Amiga
 The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

Commodore‟s Amiga (1985)
 Amiga developed a GUI called “Intuition”, where
 directories were shown as filing cabinet drawers
 It also featured:
   Advanced sound and video capabilities
   Sophisticated GUI-driven OS
   Multitasking
   Shared libraries
   Right click
   The real history of GUI (GUI wars)
Windows 1.0 (1985)
  11/83 – Microsoft announcing that it is working on its own
  GUI-based OS, to be known as “Windows”
  Gates tries to interest IBM in Windows, with no success
  Apple-like drop-down menus, tiled windows and mouse
  support
The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

The Apple-Microsoft agreement

 In an ingenious move, when the two companies began their
 cooperation on the Mac, Microsoft signed a licensing
 agreement with Apple that stated:
   MS would not employ Apple technology In win 1.0
   No agreement was made for further versions of windows
 Apple realized that the contract they signed with Microsoft
 only prevents them from using features of the Mac in win1.0
 The real history of GUI (GUI wars)
Windows 2.0 (1987)
 Looks like Mac more than ever
 Featuring:
   Icons to represent
   files, folders
   and programs
   Cascading overlapping
   windows

 Apple‟s lawsuit vs. MS, claiming that Windows stole the Mac‟s
 “look and feel”
 Win 2.0 fails as well
The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

The big GUI lawsuit
 Apple sues MS for stealing the Mac‟s “look and feel”
 Apple: “Windows had illegally copied the Mac GUI”
 Microsoft: “Both systems “borrowed” liberally from the
 original Xerox concepts”
 In fact, Window‟s interface design looked more like the old
 Alto GUI than the Mac design
 Microsoft won in 1993
The real history of GUI (GUI wars)


 Mutual agreement to end the GUI dispute

 1997 – Jobs announced a formal partnership with MS
 Microsoft buys $150 million of Apple shares
The real history of GUI

      Chapter 4
             The real history of GUI

          1990 and on: The Windows Era

“I think Windows 3.0 will get a lot of attention; people will check
it out, and before long they will all drift back to raw DOS. Once
in a while they‟ll boot Windows for some specific purpose, but
    many will put it in the closet with the commodore 64.”

                          John Dvorak, 1990
 The real history of GUI (1990 and on)
Windows 3.0 (1990)
  Launched with:
    Dozens of Windows compatible applications
    “sculpted buttons”
    made by an icon designer
   Win-compatible versions
   of Word and Excel
   Support for sixteen colors
   Improved speed
   and reliability
   Selling over 3 million
   copies in the first year
The real history of GUI (1990 and on)
Windows 3.1 (1992)
 TrueType font support
 Enhanced multimedia
 Outselling Mac for the
 first time

Followed by -
Windows 3.1.1
 Called “Windows for workgroups”
 A version for enterprises
 added no new features
The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

Win NT (1993)
 Started as a Microsoft-IBM cooperation
 New stable kernel
 Was more useful for business usage, but not
 marketed as such
 Many users converted from Unix to NT
 Had no backward DOS compatibility
 (problem for the gamers)
 The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

IBM‟s OS/2 warp (1994)
 Originally a Microsoft/IBM joint venture
 IBM‟s Warp featured
 a windows like GUI
 Failed to compete
 with Windows
The real history of GUI (1990 and on)
Microsoft Bob (1995)
 “Bob” – software program that Microsoft released ,
 designed to replace the desktop of Win 3.1 and 95
 Interface designed to simplify use
 Despite of the big advertising campaign it failed due to:
    PC‟s of the day didn‟t meet the minimum requirements
    Not useful enough to justify its cost
    Was too “cute” for the average PC user
    People who wanted ease of use got a Macintosh
    Win 95 was about to be released and take all attention
The real history of GUI (1990 and on)




            Microsoft Bob
The real history of GUI (1990 and on)
Windows 95 (1995)
 First MS GUI integrated OS
 Very user-friendly
 Had the new Windows
 Explorer interface
 Win NT 4.0 boosts NT
 popularity with
 integrated Win 95 GUI
The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

Apple‟s products
 Apple tries to redeem itself with:
   Mac OS 8 “Platinum” – a popular and stable OS
   OS9 (1999) – an upgrade to the “Platinum” system
   iMac (1998)
      comes with either OS 9 or OS X installed
      Great color scheme
      User-friendly design
 None of which seem to makes the difference
 The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

Microsoft‟s products
  1998 - Microsoft launches the Win98, an upgrade for 95 with:
    "Internet Explorer 4" built in
    Active Desktop allowing to setup a desktop as a personal web page

  Followed by Windows Millennium, minor upgrade for 98
  Windows 2000 or Win 2K – Last iteration of the NT line
  2002 – Windows XP, uniting the Win9X and NT series
       The real history of GUI
The GUI today
 No significant changes were made since Lisa, desktop
 became only faster, smoother and nicer
 Latest UI innovations:
    Touch screens (usually for business use)
    voice recognition
    Retinal and fingerprint scans for security
    Holographic representations
 Some of which exist but too expensive for common use
 New attempts – win3d (cont of Bob)
The End!
The real history of GUI
About the writer -
Mike Tuck
An educator, freelance writer, and
self-taught PC user. Expert in
Microsoft product optimization
and usage.
Written 5 articles for SitePoint.
His hobbies include basketball,
politics and spoiling his cats.
          The real history of GUI
Article critique
Good:
  Written in a friendly manner (language and structure)
  Has an objective view
  Gives good overview

Bad:
  Missing specific information about various GUI features
  Tends to drift away from the main topic
  Missing future prospect of GUI
Discussion - The future of the GUI

 What are Apple, MS and others planning ?
 Do you think the mouse\keyboard will be
 replaced, by what ?
 How will VR come in to play ?

 How can GUI become more intuitive ?
Discussion - The future of the GUI

				
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