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					Crosstabs
Types of relationships
 Linear
 Spurious
 Intervening
 Interaction effects
 Suppression
Linear effects
Theory: National pride (alienation)
   When people feel alienated from the political system,
    then they may be more likely to participate in politics.
   When people feel national pride in the political system,
    then they may be less likely to participate in politics.

   Measure:
     How   often do you feel ashamed of Russia? very often, rather
      often, not very often, hardly ever
Dependent variable: political participation

 People either participate or they do not.
 There are 31 questions about different political
  activities.
 How should this variable be measured?
Measure of political participation
(with regard to the Beslan tragedy)
        polpartbes |      Freq.      Percent       Cum.
        ------------+-----------------------------------
                  0 |        548       49.91       49.91
                  1 |        158       14.39       64.30
                  2 |         96        8.74       73.04
                  3 |         39        3.55       76.59
                  4 |         49        4.46       81.06
                  5 |         52        4.74       85.79
                  6 |         26        2.37       88.16
                  7 |         16        1.46       89.62
                  8 |         11        1.00       90.62
                  9 |         11        1.00       91.62
                10 |          15        1.37       92.99
                11 |           8        0.73       93.72
                12 |           5        0.46       94.17
                13 |          10        0.91       95.08
                14 |          16        1.46       96.54
                15 |           7        0.64       97.18
                17 |           7        0.64       97.81
                18 |           3        0.27       98.09
                19 |           3        0.27       98.36
                20 |           2        0.18       98.54
                21 |           1        0.09       98.63
                22 |           2        0.18       98.82
                23 |           1        0.09       98.91
                24 |           1        0.09       99.00
                27 |           2        0.18       99.18
                28 |           2        0.18       99.36
                29 |           2        0.18       99.54
                30 |           4        0.36       99.91   tab polpartbes
                31 |           1        0.09      100.00
        ------------+-----------------------------------
             Total |      1,098       100.00
Crosstabs analysis
 Like a frequency table, it reports how many and
  what percentage fall into a particular category,
  but for two variables instead of one
 Not suitable for continuous variables; only for
  discretely measured variables
 It is sometimes useful to recode a variable with
  too many categories FOR THE PURPOSES
  OF ILLUSTRATION ONLY
Remember probability?
 The  probability of an outcome is the
  frequency of that outcome under similar
  conditions
 The crosstab lists the probabilities of
  various values of the dependent variable
  under different “conditions,” which are
  different values of the independent variable
Conventions
 the independent variable is arranged across the
  top of the table
 Percentages should be calculated using
  COLUMN
 Syntax: tab DV by IV
Creating collapsed variables
   generate polpartbesc = polpartbes

   replace polpartbesc = 2 if polpartbes > 1
Political participation collapsed
   . tab polpartbesc

   polpartbesc |
               |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
   ------------+-----------------------------------
             0 |        548       49.91       49.91
             1 |        158       14.39       64.30
             2 |        392       35.70      100.00
   ------------+-----------------------------------
         Total |      1,098      100.00
National pride
. tab ashamerus   How often do you feel ashamed of Russia?


  How often do |
      you feel |
    ashamed of |
        Russia |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
---------------+-----------------------------------
    Very often |        124       12.65       12.65
  Rather often |        367       37.45       50.10
Not very often |        389       39.69       89.80
   Hardly ever |        100       10.20      100.00
---------------+-----------------------------------
         Total |        980      100.00
Syntax: missing and crosstabs
   Some useful syntax:

   mvdecode proudrus, mv (7,8,9)

   tab polpartbesc proudrus, col taub
   Crosstab Analysis
polpartbes |   How often do you feel ashamed of Russia
         c | Very ofte Rather of Not very     Hardly ev |     Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |        35        175        224         54 |       488
           |     28.23      47.68      57.58      54.00 |     49.80
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |        15         37         67         15 |       134
           |     12.10      10.08      17.22      15.00 |     13.67
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |        74        155         98         31 |       358
           |     59.68      42.23      25.19      31.00 |     36.53
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |       124        367        389        100 |       980
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

         Kendall's tau-b =   -0.1738   ASE = 0.028
Another linear example
Is self efficacy related to political
participation?
   Measure:
     Compared     to most political leaders, how much
      better or worse could you personally make decisions
      about the governing of our country? much better
      than most of today’s political leaders, somewhat
      better, equal with them, somewhat worse, much
      worse
 Frequency analysis: self efficacy
    Compared to |
 most political |
   leaders, how |
 much better or |
worse could you |
      personall |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
----------------+-----------------------------------
     Much worse |        143       23.03       23.03
 Somewhat worse |        157       25.28       48.31
        Equally |        161       25.93       74.24
Somewhat better |        111       17.87       92.11
    Much better |         49        7.89      100.00
----------------+-----------------------------------
          Total |        621      100.00
   Crosstab Analysis: Is self efficacy related to
   political participation?
 | Compared to most political leaders, how much better or
polpartbes |               worse could you personall
         c | Much wors Somewhat      Equally Somewhat     Much bett |    Total
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |        93         91         83          22          9 |      298
           |     65.03      57.96      51.55      19.82       18.37 |    47.99
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |        29         18         22           7          3 |       79
           |     20.28      11.46      13.66       6.31        6.12 |    12.72
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |        21         48         56          82         37 |      244
           |     14.69      30.57      34.78      73.87       75.51 |    39.29
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |       143        157        161         111         49 |      621
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00      100.00 |   100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.3337   ASE = 0.031
30
20
10
 0




     1          2                       3          4
         How often do you feel ashamed of Russia       Syntax:
                                                       scatter polpartbes
            polpartbes            Fitted values
                                                       ashamerus || lfit
                                                       polpartbes ashamerus
Spurious effects
Does past participation affect
current participation?
   Before September 2004, had you ever
    written a letter to some member of the
    local government? yes, no
Past and current participation
              | Had you ever written
              |   a letter to some
              | member of the local
   polpartbes |      government
            c |        No        Yes |     Total
   -----------+----------------------+----------
            0 |       524           6 |      530
              |     53.41       8.82 |     50.52
   -----------+----------------------+----------
            1 |       148           3 |      151
              |     15.09       4.41 |     14.39
   -----------+----------------------+----------
            2 |       309         59 |       368
              |     31.50      86.76 |     35.08
   -----------+----------------------+----------
        Total |       981          68 |    1,049
              |    100.00     100.00 |    100.00

             Kendall's tau-b =   0.2528   ASE = 0.024
But, is this spurious?
                                    Z
Participation before Violence




                                Participation after Violence



What could be Z?
  Could it be intervening?

Participation before Violence




                         Z      Participation after Violence



 What could be Z?
 What   is the theoretical argument that
  this relationship is spurious? (What is
  the common cause?)
 What should we do to figure out
  whether the relationship might be
  spurious or intervening?
 …if self efficacy is low
           | Had you ever written
           |   a letter to some
           | member of the local
polpartbes |      government
         c |        No        Yes |     Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
         0 |       179          3 |       182
           |     62.15      37.50 |     61.49
-----------+----------------------+----------
         1 |        46          1 |        47
           |     15.97      12.50 |     15.88
-----------+----------------------+----------
         2 |        63          4 |        67
           |     21.88      50.00 |     22.64
-----------+----------------------+----------
     Total |       288          8 |       296
           |    100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.0929   ASE = 0.062
…if self efficacy is medium
           | Had you ever written
           |   a letter to some
           | member of the local
polpartbes |      government
         c |        No        Yes |     Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
         0 |        73          2 |        75
           |     51.41      50.00 |     51.37
-----------+----------------------+----------
         1 |        20          0 |        20
           |     14.08       0.00 |     13.70
-----------+----------------------+----------
         2 |        49          2 |        51
           |     34.51      50.00 |     34.93
-----------+----------------------+----------
     Total |       142          4 |       146
           |    100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.0253   ASE = 0.086
…if self efficacy is high
           | Had you ever written
           |   a letter to some
           | member of the local
polpartbes |      government
         c |        No         Yes |    Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
         0 |       272           1 |      273
           |     49.36        1.79 |    44.98
-----------+----------------------+----------
         1 |        82           2 |       84
           |     14.88        3.57 |    13.84
-----------+----------------------+----------
         2 |       197          53 |      250
           |     35.75       94.64 |    41.19
-----------+----------------------+----------
     Total |       551          56 |      607
           |    100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.3167   ASE = 0.025
So, what is the conclusion?
 Past participation only has an impact when self
  efficacy is high.
 Controlling for self efficacy, the effect of past
  participation on current participation is
  mitigated.
 Therefore, the effect is partially spurious.
 Is it an interaction effect?
Contextual (interaction) effect
 The effect of one variable X depends on values
  of another variable Z; and the value of Z
  depends on the values of X
 For there to be an interaction effect, we must
  find that the effect of self efficacy is dependent
  on the value of past participation
 How do we determine this?
  …if no past participation?
           | Compared to most political leaders, how much better or
polpartbes |               worse could you personall
         c | Much wors Somewhat      Equally Somewhat    Much bett |     Total
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |        90         89         73         22          9 |       283
           |     65.22      59.33      51.41      24.44      24.32 |     50.81
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |        29         17         20          4          3 |        73
           |     21.01      11.33      14.08       4.44       8.11 |     13.11
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |        19         44         49         64         25 |       201
           |     13.77      29.33      34.51      71.11      67.57 |     36.09
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |       138        150        142         90         37 |       557
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00


                 Kendall's tau-b =   0.2975   ASE = 0.033
  …if yes to past participation?
           | Compared to most political leaders, how much better or
polpartbes |               worse could you personall
         c | Much wors Somewhat      Equally Somewhat    Much bett |     Total
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |         2          1          2          0          0 |         5
           |     50.00      25.00      50.00       0.00       0.00 |     12.50
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |         0          1          0          2          0 |         3
           |      0.00      25.00       0.00      11.76       0.00 |      7.50
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |         2          2          2         15         11 |        32
           |     50.00      50.00      50.00      88.24     100.00 |     80.00
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |         4          4          4         17         11 |        40
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.4474   ASE = 0.100
Intervening effects
  Intervening relationship

Political interest




                     Self efficacy   Participation
   So, let’s look at the relationship between
    political interest and participation
Political interest and political
participation
           | How much interest do you have in political
polpartbes |                   affairs
         c | No intere Not very    A fair am A great d |      Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |       174        287          61         4 |       526
           |     62.59      53.35       28.64     12.12 |     49.53
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |        40         82          30         3 |       155
           |     14.39      15.24       14.08      9.09 |     14.60
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |        64        169         122        26 |       381
           |     23.02      31.41       57.28     78.79 |     35.88
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |       278        538         213        33 |     1,062
           |    100.00     100.00      100.00    100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.3511   ASE = 0.026
 So, now what do we need to do to
  see if political interest has an effect
  on participation BECAUSE it
  causes self efficacy?
 In other words, how do we find
  out that it is the ONLY reason?
Political interest and participation
when self efficacy is high
 | How much interest do you have in political
polpartbes |                   affairs
         c | No intere Not very    A fair am A great d |      Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |       107        184         52          3 |       346
           |     56.61      50.55      28.57       9.68 |     45.17
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |        25         60         21          2 |       108
           |     13.23      16.48      11.54       6.45 |     14.10
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |        57        120        109         26 |       312
           |     30.16      32.97      59.89      83.87 |     40.73
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |       189        364        182         31 |       766
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

            Kendall's tau-b =          0.1728    ASE = 0.031

. tab polpartbesc polint if capabyou    > 3, col taub
Political interest and participation
when self efficacy is low
           | How much interest do you have in political
polpartbes |                   affairs
         c | No intere Not very    A fair am A great d |      Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |        67        103          9          1 |       180
           |     75.28      59.20      29.03      50.00 |     60.81
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |        15         22          9          1 |        47
           |     16.85      12.64      29.03      50.00 |     15.88
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |         7         49         13          0 |        69
           |      7.87      28.16      41.94       0.00 |     23.31
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |        89        174         31          2 |       296
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.1460   ASE = 0.046


. tab polpartbesc polint if capabyou     < 3, col taub
So, does controlling for political
 interest mitigate the effect of
 self efficacy?
Self efficacy and participation when
political interest is low
           | Compared to most political leaders, how much better or
polpartbes |               worse could you personall
         c | Much wors Somewhat      Equally Somewhat    Much bett |     Total
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |        87         83         55         18          5 |       248
           |     69.60      60.14      54.46      42.86      33.33 |     58.91
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |        25         12          9          2          2 |        50
           |     20.00       8.70       8.91       4.76      13.33 |     11.88
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |        13         43         37         22          8 |       123
           |     10.40      31.16      36.63      52.38      53.33 |     29.22
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |       125        138        101         42         15 |       421
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

         Kendall's tau-b =   0.2554   ASE = 0.040



. tab polpartbesc capabyou if polint < 3, col taub
Self efficacy and participation when
political interest is high
 | Compared to most political leaders, how much better or
polpartbes |               worse could you personall
         c | Much wors Somewhat      Equally Somewhat     Much bett |    Total
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |         6          8         28          4           4 |       50
           |     33.33      42.11      46.67       5.80       11.76 |    25.00
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |         4          6         13          5           1 |       29
           |     22.22      31.58      21.67       7.25        2.94 |    14.50
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |         8          5         19         60          29 |      121
           |     44.44      26.32      31.67      86.96       85.29 |    60.50
-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |        18         19         60         69          34 |      200
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00      100.00 |   100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.3995   ASE = 0.053

. tab polpartbesc capabyou if polint > 3, col taub
Interaction effects
 Does   perceived political
 advantage reduce the likelihood
 of litigation?
  (in the case of the Moscow Theater
  case)
What causes people to litigate against their
government?
(with regard to the Moscow Theater incident)


   How should this variable be measured?
Measure of litigation
(with regard to the Moscow Theater incident)


are you one |
     of the |
 plaintiffs |
    in this |
    lawsuit |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
------------+-----------------------------------
         no |        300       92.02       92.02
        yes |         26        7.98      100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
      Total |        326      100.00




                                               tab litigant
Theory from the U.S.:
Political Disadvantage
   When people feel alienated from traditional
    avenues of participation or representation, then
    they may be more likely to participate in
    litigation.
 Political Disadvantage
  Measure: the highest answer from the following two questions

  How well do you believe that President Putin represents your interests?
  How well do you believe that the current Duma represents your interests?

  very well, rather well, not very well, not at all well

. tab reph

       reph |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
------------+-----------------------------------
          1 |         36       11.92       11.92
          2 |         86       28.48       40.40
          3 |        170       56.29       96.69
          4 |         10        3.31      100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
      Total |        302      100.00
Crosstab Analysis: Is political advantage
related to litigation?
  are you |
                    tab litigant reph , col taub
one of the |
plaintiffs |
   in this |                          reph
   lawsuit |           1              2               3        4 |    Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |          30             74             162       10 |       276
              |   83.33          86.05             95.29   100.00 |    91.39
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |           6             12               8        0 |       26
              |   16.67          13.95             4.71     0.00 |      8.61
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |          36             86              170       10 |      302
              |   100.00       100.00         100.00       100.00 |   100.00


Kendall's tau-b =    -0.1752     ASE = 0.053
Theory
 People tend to use procedures that they
  believe will be fair
 Thus, perception of fairness of the courts
  causes litigation
 How carefully will the court listen to the
  hostages side of the story? Very carefully,
  rather carefully, somewhat carefully, not at
  all carefully
             tab litigant yourside , col all

 are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |        how carefully will the court consider
   in this |                hostage side of the story
   lawsuit | not at al         not very        somewhat    very care |   Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |             52             84           103          31 |      270
              |       19.26         31.11          38.15       11.48 |   100.00
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |             10              9             3          0 |       22
              |       45.45         40.91          13.64        0.00 |   100.00
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |             62             93           106         31 |      292
              |       21.23         31.85          36.30       10.62 |   100.00


Kendall's tau-b =       -0.1941     ASE = 0.045
Theory
   Why is it that when people think the courts
    are more unfair, they are MORE likely to
    litigate?

   UGH!
Anger
 Could it be that the more angry people
  are, they more likely they want to engage
  in an expressive activity –
 In other words, litigation is not about the
  fairness of courts – it is about expressing
  how angry you are
 How to test that?
Perhaps   the negative correlation
 between perceptions of fairness
 and litigation is particularly
 negative when people have
 reason to be angry – they are
 politically disadvantaged
   In this case, we are using crosstabs to test a
    conditional relationship:
     The effect of one independent variable is
      intensified OR mitigated, depending on the
      values of another variable
     The negative effect of procedural justice will
      intensify as political advantage decreases
                                    Perceived probability
                                     of judicial fairness


Anger (political disadvantage)



                                        Litigation




                     Proc Just   Proc Just      Proc Just
                    Low anger    Med anger      High anger
                    High PD      Med PD         High PD
          tab litigant yourside if reph == 1, col taub
 are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |     how carefully will the court consider
   in this |             hostage side of the story
   lawsuit | not at al      not very       somewhat       very care |   Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |            8              9              8           1 |      26
             |     61.54         90.00        100.00         100.00 |    81.25
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |            5              1              0           0 |       6
             |     38.46         10.00          0.00           0.00 |    18.75
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |          13             10               8           1 |       32
             |   100.00        100.00         100.00         100.00 |   100.00


Kendall's tau-b =    -0.3923     ASE = 0.109
          tab litigant yourside if reph == 2, col all

   are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |    how carefully will the court consider
   in this |            hostage side of the story
   lawsuit | not at al    not very      somewhat        very care |   Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |         14            26           28              2 |       70
           |     77.78         83.87       100.00          100.00 |    88.61
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |          4             5             0            0 |        9
           |     22.22         16.13          0.00           0.00 |    11.39
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |         18            31           28             2 |       79
           |    100.00        100.00       100.00          100.00 |   100.00


Kendall's tau-b =   -0.2653    ASE = 0.074
             tab litigant yourside if reph == 3, col all
 are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |       how carefully will the court consider
   in this |               hostage side of the story
   lawsuit | not at al       not very      somewhat        very care |   Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |            16            43           62             23 |      144
             |      94.12         93.48         95.38         100.00 |    95.36
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |             1             3             3            0 |        7
             |        5.88         6.52          4.62           0.00 |     4.64
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |            17            46           65            23 |      151
             |     100.00        100.00       100.00          100.00 |   100.00
Kendall's tau-b =      -0.0808    ASE = 0.063
          tab litigant yourside if reph == 4, col taub


   are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |     how carefully will the court consider
   in this |             hostage side of the story
   lawsuit | not at al      not very       somewhat       very care |   Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |            2              1              2           4 |        9
           |     100.00        100.00         100.00         100.00 |   100.00
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |            2              1              2          4 |        9
           |     100.00        100.00         100.00         100.00 |   100.00
Does it work the other way
around?
 Doesthe effect of political advantage
 depend on the levels of perceived
 procedural fairness?
          tab litigant reph if yourside == 1, col taub

   are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |
   in this |                        reph
   lawsuit |          1             2            3           4 |    Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |          8           14            16            2 |       40
           |     61.54         77.78        94.12        100.00 |    80.00
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |          5             4            1           0 |       10
           |     38.46         22.22         5.88          0.00 |    20.00
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |         13           18            17           2 |       50
           |    100.00       100.00        100.00        100.00 |   100.00


          Kendall's tau-b =     -0.3074    ASE = 0.110
          tab litigant reph if yourside == 2, col taub
   are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |
   in this |                        reph
   lawsuit |          1             2            3           4 |    Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |          9           26            43            1 |       79
           |     90.00         83.87        93.48        100.00 |    89.77
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |          1             5            3           0 |        9
           |     10.00         16.13         6.52          0.00 |    10.23
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |         10           31            46           1 |       88
           |    100.00       100.00        100.00        100.00 |   100.00


          Kendall's tau-b =     -0.1122    ASE = 0.095
          tab litigant reph if yourside == 3, col taub
 are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |
   in this |                          reph
   lawsuit |            1             2              3        4 |    Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |            8            28            62         2 |       100
             |    100.00        100.00         95.38     100.00 |     97.09
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |            0             0              3        0 |        3
             |      0.00          0.00           4.62       0.00 |     2.91
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |            8            28            65          2 |      103
             |    100.00        100.00        100.00     100.00 |    100.00


             Kendall's tau-b =      0.1120    ASE = 0.034
          tab litigant reph if yourside == 4, col taub



   are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |
   in this |                          reph
   lawsuit |            1             2              3       4 |    Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |            1             2            23        4 |       30
           |     100.00         100.00        100.00     100.00 |   100.00
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |            1             2            23        4 |       30
           |     100.00         100.00        100.00     100.00 |   100.00
            Figure 1: Effects of Perceived (Un)fairness on Litigation, Given Political Disadvantage
                                                  Predicted Probabilities
0.12




 0.1



                                                                                                       very carefully
0.08                                                                                                   rather carefully
                                                                                                       not very carefully
                                                                                                       not at all carefully


0.06                                                                                                 Responses to "How
                                                                                                     carefully do you think
                                                                                                     the court will
                                                                                                     consider the
                                                                                                     plaintiffs' side of the
0.04                                                                                                 story?"




0.02




  0
       very advantaged      somewhat advantaged        somewhat disadvantaged   very disadvantaged
Suppression effects
 We have established that national pride is related
  to political participation.
 What about people who USED TO identify
  with the regime (as Russians) but do not now.
 They are likely to have their expectations be
  violated and therefore be angrier.
Past levels of national pride will have a
positive impact on current participation,
only if they are no longer proud.
Effect of national pride on
participation
polpartbes | How proud are you to be a Russian citizen
         c | Not at al Not very    Rather pr Very prou |      Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |        23         83        245        158 |       509
           |     33.33      41.71      53.03      53.56 |     49.66
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |         5         18         68         54 |       145
           |      7.25       9.05      14.72      18.31 |     14.15
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |        41         98        149         83 |       371
           |     59.42      49.25      32.25      28.14 |     36.20
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |        69        199        462        295 |     1,025
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   -0.1314   ASE = 0.028
Measure of past alienation
   How proud were |
      you to be a |
  Russian citizen |
 before September |
             2004 |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
------------------+-----------------------------------
Not at all proud |          15        1.43        1.43
   Not very proud |         78        7.42        8.85
     Rather proud |        450       42.82       51.67
       Very proud |        508       48.33      100.00
------------------+-----------------------------------
            Total |      1,051      100.00


                                              tab proudrusbef
Crosstab of past national pride
with current national pride
How proud are you | How proud were you to be a Russian citizen
  to be a Russian |            before September 2004
          citizen | Not at al Not very    Rather pr Very prou |      Total
------------------+--------------------------------------------+----------
Not at all proud |         14         15         27         12 |        68
                  |     93.33      19.74       6.18       2.45 |      6.68
------------------+--------------------------------------------+----------
   Not very proud |         1         53         89         55 |       198
                  |      6.67      69.74      20.37      11.22 |     19.45
------------------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Rather proud |         0          7        303        149 |       459
                  |      0.00       9.21      69.34      30.41 |     45.09
------------------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       Very proud |         0          1         18        274 |       293
                  |      0.00       1.32       4.12      55.92 |     28.78
------------------+--------------------------------------------+----------
            Total |        15         76        437        490 |     1,018
                  |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.5361   ASE = 0.023
                                                     tab proudrus proudrusbef, col taub
Crosstab of past national pride
with political participation
           | How proud were you to be a Russian citizen
polpartbes |            before September 2004
         c | Not at al Not very    Rather pr Very prou |      Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |         9         42        233        238 |       522
           |     60.00      53.85      51.78      46.85 |     49.67
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |         1         12         65         72 |       150
           |      6.67      15.38      14.44      14.17 |     14.27
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |         5         24        152        198 |       379
           |     33.33      30.77      33.78      38.98 |     36.06
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |        15         78        450        508 |     1,051
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.0579   ASE = 0.028



                                          tab polpartbesc proudrusbef, col taub
Past national pride seems to
 have no effect on current
 alienation
Crosstab of past national pride with
political participation when current
national pride is low
           | How proud were you to be a Russian citizen
polpartbes |            before September 2004
         c | Not at al Not very    Rather pr Very prou |      Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         0 |         9         34         45         17 |       105
           |     60.00      50.00      38.79      25.37 |     39.47
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         1 |         1         11          5          6 |        23
           |      6.67      16.18       4.31       8.96 |      8.65
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
         2 |         5         23         66         44 |       138
           |     33.33      33.82      56.90      65.67 |     51.88
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |        15         68        116         67 |       266
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.2129   ASE = 0.052


                          tab polpartbesc proudrusbefif proudrus < 3, col taub
Crosstab of past national pride with
political participation when current
national pride is high
           |    How proud were you to be a
           | Russian citizen before September
polpartbes |               2004
         c | Not very   Rather pr Very prou |      Total
-----------+---------------------------------+----------
         0 |          2         16       154 |       172
           |     66.67      51.61      52.74 |     52.76
-----------+---------------------------------+----------
         1 |          1         12         48 |       61
           |     33.33      38.71      16.44 |     18.71
-----------+---------------------------------+----------
         2 |          0          3         90 |       93
           |      0.00       9.68      30.82 |     28.53
-----------+---------------------------------+----------
     Total |         3          31       292 |       326
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   0.0592   ASE = 0.044


                              tab polpartbesc proudrusbefif proudrus > 3, col taub

				
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