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America Claims an Empire America Claims an Empire The Age of Imperialism

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					America Claims an Empire

    The Age of Imperialism
Imperialist Divide Africa
   I. Africa Before Imperialism
A. Many ethnic groups but few Europeans
   rule Africa.
   1. Spoke over 1,000 languages
   2. Converted to Christianity or to Islam.
B. European contact on the coast. Powerful
   armies, non navigable rivers and the
   jungle kept Europeans out.
      II. Nations compete for
          Overseas Empire
A. Europeans learn about Africa from
   explorers.
     B. Stanley and Livingston
1. David Livingston, a
   minister in Scotland
   opposed the slave trade
   in Africa.
2. Livingston disappears.
   Newspapers hire Henry
   Stanley to find him.
   a. “Dr. Livingston I
      presume?”
         3. The Belgian Congo
a. Stanley would claim the
   Congo for Belgium.
b. King Leopold II of
   Belgium claims the
   Congo to abolish
   slavery.
c. Africans are forced to
   collect sap from rubber
   plants.
d. 1908 Belgium takes
   over the Congo.

                             King Leopold II
                C. Imperialism
1. Imperialism: taking over
   a country by a stronger
   nation with the intent of
   dominating the political,
   economic and social
   life.
2. Greed , nationalism,
   racism and philanthropy
   motivate European
   colonialism.
III. European Colonies in Africa
A. The Berlin Conference (1884 –85)
   divides Africa among European nations.
  1. Liberia and Ethiopia are the only
     independent African nations.
B. The division fails to take into account
   African ethnic and linguistic groupings.
C. Need for Natural Resources.
1. Europeans take
   advantage of Africa’s
   natural resources.
2. Europeans need raw
   materials.
   a. Peanuts
   b. Palm Oil.
   c. Cocoa.
   d. Copper and Tin –
      Belgium.
   e. Gold and Diamonds –
      South Africa.
IV. Three Groups Clash over
        South Africa
                 A. Zulus
1. Shaka of the Zulus
   created a strong
   centralized state
   forms Zululand
   1816.
                 A. Zulus
2. January 27, 1879
   the British soldiers
   40,000 face King
   Cetshwayo’s 50,000.
3. The Zulus defeat the
   British.
4. The Zulus are
   eventually absorbed
   by the British.
            C. The Boer War
1. Diamonds and Gold
   discovered in south Africa.
2. In 1899 war between the
   Boers and the British.
3. Commando raids by
   Boers and British burning
   of farms and
   concentration camps,
   bring “total war”.
4. Germany threatens to
   join the Boers, after a
   German missionary is
   killed.
5. The Boers trek north to
   escape British
   domination
          5. “Breaker Morant”
A. Lieutenant Harry Morant,
   Peter J. Handcock and
   George Witton of the
   Bushveldt Carbineers are
   place on trial for murder.
B. Following Orders. All
   found guilty, only
   Witton’s sentence
   commuted to life.
C. Trial was a sham.
       II. American Imperialism
•  Three things fueled
   the new American
   Imperialist:
1. Economic
   competition.
2. Political and military
   competition.
3. Racial superiority.
     A. Thirst for New Markets
• A need for new
  markets and the need
  for raw materials
  viewed foreign trade
  and colonization as
  the key.
• Exports rose from
  $234 million in 1860
  to $1.5 billion by
  1900.
       B. Military Strength.

1. In 1890, Admiral
   Alfred T. Mahan
   publishes The
   Influence of Sea
   Power upon
   History 1660-
   1783.
         B. Military Strength.
•   The book urges the United States to develop
    a modern fleet, to establish naval bases in the
    Caribbean, to construct a canal across the
    Isthmus of Panama, and to acquire Hawaii
    and other Pacific islands.
•   The United States increases the size of their
    naval forces.
     3. The Great White Fleet
• Nine Steel hulled
  cruisers are built
  transforming the U.S
  in the World’s third
  largest naval power.
• TR orders 14
  Battleships to be
  painted White and
  orders them to sail
  around the world.
     C. Belief in Anglo- Saxon
            Superiority
• Social Darwinism was
  used to describe the
  superiority of the
  Anglo-Saxon race.
• The need to spread
  Christianity
  worldwide.
         D. Anti-Imperialism
• Objected on moral
  and practical grounds.
• Nothing justified
  conquering lands or
  not given the
  conquered
  protections under the
  Constitution.
• Too costly.
  VII. The United States Takes
             Hawaii
• Hawaii has always
  been important to the
  U.S. since 1790.
• It was used as a stop
  off point on the way to
  China, missionaries
  founded schools and
  sugar merchants
  developed
  plantations.
        A. Hawaii’s Economy
• Sugar plantations
  counted for 3/4ths of
  the islands wealth.
• 1875 Hawaiian sugar
  did not pay a duty.
• 1887 King Kalakaua
  granted voting rights
  only to the wealthy.
         American Influence
• The U.S builds a
  naval base at Pearl
  Harbor.
• McKinley Tariff 1890
  eliminated the duty-
  free status on the
  sugar.
• American’s in Hawaii
  want the U.S. to
  annex them.
     B. The Queen is Deposed
• Queen Liliuokalani
  proposes to remove
  the voting
  qualifications.
• John L. Stevens
  organizes a revolution
  against the queen.
• January 16, 1893, the
  USS Boston unloads
  Marines and they take
  over the island and
  imprison the queen.
• Sanford B. Dole
  becomes president of
  the provisional
  government.
       C. Republic of Hawaii
• President Cleveland
  refuses to annex
  Hawaii.
• President McKinley
  favored annexation
  and on Aug, 12 1897
  Hawaii became a
  U.S. territory.
                             I. Causes of war
A. Trouble in Cuba
„     Demands by Cuban patriots for independence from Spanish rule.
    ‟    Spanish rule was Corrupt and harsh.
    ‟     In 1895, The Cubans rebelled.
         „    Leader : Jose Marti.
A. Newspaper Circulation Wars
         - 1895-97
               • William Randolph
                 Hearst (New York
                 Journal ) challenged
                 Josef Pulitzer (1847-
                 l911) (St.Louis Post-
                 Dispatch ; New York
                 World ) for readership
• Press war
  sympathized with
  Cuban "freedom
  fighters" rebelling
  against Spain.
• Both engaged in
  sensationalism or
  yellow journalism
  (human interest
  stories involving
  scandal, or crimes -
• Consistent
  newspaper themes
  stressed the Spanish
  contempt. for
  Americans, Spanish
  brutality against
  Cubans and the
  glorious escapades of
  Cuba's rebels.
B. New Spanish Policy -
   Reconcentrado
            • 1. 1896 - Cuban
              rebels proved
              effective in guerrilla
              warfare against
              Spain's government
              in Cuba
            • 2. Spain sent a new
              military governor to
              Cuba, Valeriano
              Weyler .
• His martial law and
  reconcentrado
  policies caused the
  deaths of many
  civilians, primarily due
  to poor sanitation in
  the concentration
  camps.
• Earned the governor
  the nickname,
  Butcher Weyler
II. Steps to War 1898

           • A. Jan - USS Maine
             was ordered to
             Havana harbor on a
             friendly mission,
             although it was
             preparing to evacuate
             American citizens in
             the face of increasing
             riots against Spain.
   B. De Lome Letter                        Enrique Dupuy de Lome,
                                                 Spanish Minister
                                              in Washington, D.C.
• Rebels released a captured letter
  to Hearst's Journal written by
  Spain's Ambassador to the US,
  Senor Depuy de Lome , to a
  friend in Cuba.
• In it the ambassador criticized the
  US president as a weak leader.
• Although essentially a true
  assessment of McKinley, the
  letters touched off a storm of           William McKinley
  protest in the US against Spain,      United States President
                         C. U.S.S. Maine
„   The U.S. Battleship MAINE was sent
    to the harbor of Havana, Cuba to
    protect American Lives and Property.
„   February 15, 1898. U.S.S Maine Was
    sunk in after a mysterious Explosion.
„   The American public was quick to
    blame Spain for the disaster.
„   260 American crew aboard lost their
    lives.




                                            The U.S.S. Maine explodes.
                          D. Economic
1. United States had a genuine
   economic interest in seeing Cuba
   become independent.
2. Business investments on the island
   were estimated at 50 million dollars,
   and trade with Cuban ports was
   valued at 100 million dollars yearly.
                  E. Declaration of War
•   “Remember   the Maine! ” was the slogan of the day,
    as congress and the public clamored war.
     ‟ McKinley responded to the outcry by asking
       congress to approve American Intervention to
       Cuba.
     ‟ Congress adopted the resolution recognizing
       the independence of Cuba.
„   On April 20, 1898. Congress authorized the president
    to drive the Spaniards from the island. War was
  declared against Spain.
„ 24 Apr - Spain declared war on the US
Critics of the War

         • (1) Congress was not
           unanimous in its
           declaration, because
           many members
           feared that the US
           might be improperly
           perceived by the
           international
           community as
           ganging up on a
           weaker nation to gain
           territory.
Teller Amendment
        • passed to soothe the
          critics, guaranteed
          Cuba's
          independence, stating
          that the US had no
          designs on Cuba.
III. The Spanish-American War
               • The war lasted only
                 113 days.
               • John Hay , US
                 ambassador to
                 England, had written
                 Theodore Roosevelt
                 referring to it as "a
                 splendid little war."
• Under-Secretary of
  Navy Theodore
  Roosevelt resigned
  to participate in the
  fighting.
• Two theaters of
  operation existed
III. STRENGTHS
     United States:
     ‟ Navy:
              Modern.
              Well Equipped.
              Staffed by highly trained crews.
              Sea ‟ Power.
IV. WEAKNESS
 „     United States:
     ‟      Army was not prepared for war.
          „    After the Civil War, the country had drastically reduced its army.
          „    Small professional force.
          „    Prepared volunteer force.
          „    Not enough Modern guns.
          „    Troops had heavy woolen uniforms.
 „     Spain:
          „    Unable to match Americans in sea power.
          „    Spain was easly defeated.
           A.The Philippines, 1898
„   May 1, 1898.The first battle took place in Manila
    Bay at the Philippines Islands.
     ‟ Commodore George Dewey provisioned his
        ships and set off to attack the Spanish
        colony in the Philippine Islands.
     ‟ In just hours, the entire Spanish Asian fleet
        is sunk.
„   Spain lost 381 men.
„   Americans lost only one.


                                                         George Dewey
                                                        “The conqueror of
                                                         the Philippines"
                 B. Caribbean
     •:
1.    US casualties resulted more from disease and
      exposure than from battle.
2.    July 1st Theodore Roosevelt led the Rough
      Riders up San Juan hill flanked by the 9th and
      10th Cavalry “the Buffalo Soldiers”.
3.    Admiral Cervera, Spanish commander, was
      easily defeated on July 3rd.
     U.S in Cuban Territory

July 16, 1898.
 General Linares surrenders.




                                THE ROUGH
                                  RIDERS
                               Volunteer Calvary
                     4. Puerto Rico
July 25, 1898. American troops invaded Puerto Rico.
The troops meet little opposition and soon occupied the island.
The conflict ended in August when Spain ask for peace.



Gen. Nelson A. Miles, issued a
statement:
Americans are in Puerto Rico to

 “bring you protection, not only to
 yourselves but to your property…”
                IV. Treaty of Paris
„ The peace treaty, signed in December 1898.
„ Article I. -- Spain renounces all right of sovereignty over Cuba .
„ Article II.-- Spain cedes to the United States the Island of Puerto Rico.
„ Article III. -- Spain cedes to the United States the
      archipelago known as the Philippine Islands.
„ Article IV.--The United States
    shall, during the term of ten
    years, admit to the ports of the
    Philippine Islands, Spanish
    ships and merchandise.
          Results of the War
„ Cost the U.S. about $250 million and about 5000 lives.
„ Several thousand deaths from disease and poisoned meat.
„ U.S. gained a colonial empire of 12,000 sq. miles with more
  than 8 million inhabitants.
   ‟ Puerto Rico.
   ‟ Island of Guam.
   ‟ Philippines:
       U.S would pay $20 million for the annexation.
The Philippines
        • a) The US continued
          to occupy the
          Philippines, which
          drew the anger of
          Aguinaldo, who then
          led insurrectionists
          against the US
      Philippine-American War
• In February of 1899,
  Aguinaldo led a revolt
  against U.S.
• Aguinaldo uses
  guerrilla tactics. The
  U.S. responds with
  concentration camps.
• Some African-
  American soldiers
  deserted to the
  Filipino side.
• The war lasted three
  years with 20,000
  Filipinos killed to
  4,000 Americans KIA.
        Aftermath of the War
• The president
  appointed a governor,
  William H. Taft (1901-
  1904).
• Thomasites: 540
  college graduates
  taught and trained
  teachers. The number
  of elementary students
  increase from 5,000 to
  1 million.
• (2) Cuba was
  declared
  independent, with
  some qualifications
  (a) Platt Amendment
  replaced the Teller
  Amendment, and
  required Cuba to
  accept three things
  before US troops
  would be withdrawn
• i) The US retained
  veto power over
  Cuba's foreign policy
  ii) The US retained
  the right to intervene
  into Cuba's internal
  affairs
  iii) The US received
  rights to build a naval
  base on the east at
  Guantanamo Bay
• (b) Cuba put these
  into its new
  constitution, and they
  remained in force until
  1934 when
  renegotiated.
• (c) General Leonard
  Wood (1860-1927),
  military governor until
  1902, modernized
  sugar production,
  improved sanitary
  conditions and
  established several
  schools.
• (d) In 1903
  Guantanamo Bay
  naval station was
  leased (renewed in
  1934).
  (3) Guam and Puerto
  Rico were also
  transferred to the US
  as territories
• (a) Foraker Act 1900
  granted Puerto Rico
  limited self-
  government, in that
  they elected a 35-
  member lower house,
  but the US President
  appointed their
  governor and
  executive council.
• (b) Jones Act 1917
  granted US
  citizenship to all
  Puerto Ricans and
  removed tariff duties
  from Puerto Rican
  imports into the US.

				
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