America Claims an Empire The Age of Imperialism Imperialist Divide Africa I. Africa Before Imperialism A. Many ethnic groups but few Europeans rule Africa. 1. Spoke over 1,000 languages 2. Converted to Christianity or to Islam. B. European contact on the coast. Powerful armies, non navigable rivers and the jungle kept Europeans out. II. Nations compete for Overseas Empire A. Europeans learn about Africa from explorers. B. Stanley and Livingston 1. David Livingston, a minister in Scotland opposed the slave trade in Africa. 2. Livingston disappears. Newspapers hire Henry Stanley to find him. a. “Dr. Livingston I presume?” 3. The Belgian Congo a. Stanley would claim the Congo for Belgium. b. King Leopold II of Belgium claims the Congo to abolish slavery. c. Africans are forced to collect sap from rubber plants. d. 1908 Belgium takes over the Congo. King Leopold II C. Imperialism 1. Imperialism: taking over a country by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic and social life. 2. Greed , nationalism, racism and philanthropy motivate European colonialism. III. European Colonies in Africa A. The Berlin Conference (1884 –85) divides Africa among European nations. 1. Liberia and Ethiopia are the only independent African nations. B. The division fails to take into account African ethnic and linguistic groupings. C. Need for Natural Resources. 1. Europeans take advantage of Africa’s natural resources. 2. Europeans need raw materials. a. Peanuts b. Palm Oil. c. Cocoa. d. Copper and Tin – Belgium. e. Gold and Diamonds – South Africa. IV. Three Groups Clash over South Africa A. Zulus 1. Shaka of the Zulus created a strong centralized state forms Zululand 1816. A. Zulus 2. January 27, 1879 the British soldiers 40,000 face King Cetshwayo’s 50,000. 3. The Zulus defeat the British. 4. The Zulus are eventually absorbed by the British. C. The Boer War 1. Diamonds and Gold discovered in south Africa. 2. In 1899 war between the Boers and the British. 3. Commando raids by Boers and British burning of farms and concentration camps, bring “total war”. 4. Germany threatens to join the Boers, after a German missionary is killed. 5. The Boers trek north to escape British domination 5. “Breaker Morant” A. Lieutenant Harry Morant, Peter J. Handcock and George Witton of the Bushveldt Carbineers are place on trial for murder. B. Following Orders. All found guilty, only Witton’s sentence commuted to life. C. Trial was a sham. II. American Imperialism • Three things fueled the new American Imperialist: 1. Economic competition. 2. Political and military competition. 3. Racial superiority. A. Thirst for New Markets • A need for new markets and the need for raw materials viewed foreign trade and colonization as the key. • Exports rose from $234 million in 1860 to $1.5 billion by 1900. B. Military Strength. 1. In 1890, Admiral Alfred T. Mahan publishes The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660- 1783. B. Military Strength. • The book urges the United States to develop a modern fleet, to establish naval bases in the Caribbean, to construct a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, and to acquire Hawaii and other Pacific islands. • The United States increases the size of their naval forces. 3. The Great White Fleet • Nine Steel hulled cruisers are built transforming the U.S in the World’s third largest naval power. • TR orders 14 Battleships to be painted White and orders them to sail around the world. C. Belief in Anglo- Saxon Superiority • Social Darwinism was used to describe the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race. • The need to spread Christianity worldwide. D. Anti-Imperialism • Objected on moral and practical grounds. • Nothing justified conquering lands or not given the conquered protections under the Constitution. • Too costly. VII. The United States Takes Hawaii • Hawaii has always been important to the U.S. since 1790. • It was used as a stop off point on the way to China, missionaries founded schools and sugar merchants developed plantations. A. Hawaii’s Economy • Sugar plantations counted for 3/4ths of the islands wealth. • 1875 Hawaiian sugar did not pay a duty. • 1887 King Kalakaua granted voting rights only to the wealthy. American Influence • The U.S builds a naval base at Pearl Harbor. • McKinley Tariff 1890 eliminated the duty- free status on the sugar. • American’s in Hawaii want the U.S. to annex them. B. The Queen is Deposed • Queen Liliuokalani proposes to remove the voting qualifications. • John L. Stevens organizes a revolution against the queen. • January 16, 1893, the USS Boston unloads Marines and they take over the island and imprison the queen. • Sanford B. Dole becomes president of the provisional government. C. Republic of Hawaii • President Cleveland refuses to annex Hawaii. • President McKinley favored annexation and on Aug, 12 1897 Hawaii became a U.S. territory. I. Causes of war A. Trouble in Cuba „ Demands by Cuban patriots for independence from Spanish rule. ‟ Spanish rule was Corrupt and harsh. ‟ In 1895, The Cubans rebelled. „ Leader : Jose Marti. A. Newspaper Circulation Wars - 1895-97 • William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal ) challenged Josef Pulitzer (1847- l911) (St.Louis Post- Dispatch ; New York World ) for readership • Press war sympathized with Cuban "freedom fighters" rebelling against Spain. • Both engaged in sensationalism or yellow journalism (human interest stories involving scandal, or crimes - • Consistent newspaper themes stressed the Spanish contempt. for Americans, Spanish brutality against Cubans and the glorious escapades of Cuba's rebels. B. New Spanish Policy - Reconcentrado • 1. 1896 - Cuban rebels proved effective in guerrilla warfare against Spain's government in Cuba • 2. Spain sent a new military governor to Cuba, Valeriano Weyler . • His martial law and reconcentrado policies caused the deaths of many civilians, primarily due to poor sanitation in the concentration camps. • Earned the governor the nickname, Butcher Weyler II. Steps to War 1898 • A. Jan - USS Maine was ordered to Havana harbor on a friendly mission, although it was preparing to evacuate American citizens in the face of increasing riots against Spain. B. De Lome Letter Enrique Dupuy de Lome, Spanish Minister in Washington, D.C. • Rebels released a captured letter to Hearst's Journal written by Spain's Ambassador to the US, Senor Depuy de Lome , to a friend in Cuba. • In it the ambassador criticized the US president as a weak leader. • Although essentially a true assessment of McKinley, the letters touched off a storm of William McKinley protest in the US against Spain, United States President C. U.S.S. Maine „ The U.S. Battleship MAINE was sent to the harbor of Havana, Cuba to protect American Lives and Property. „ February 15, 1898. U.S.S Maine Was sunk in after a mysterious Explosion. „ The American public was quick to blame Spain for the disaster. „ 260 American crew aboard lost their lives. The U.S.S. Maine explodes. D. Economic 1. United States had a genuine economic interest in seeing Cuba become independent. 2. Business investments on the island were estimated at 50 million dollars, and trade with Cuban ports was valued at 100 million dollars yearly. E. Declaration of War • “Remember the Maine! ” was the slogan of the day, as congress and the public clamored war. ‟ McKinley responded to the outcry by asking congress to approve American Intervention to Cuba. ‟ Congress adopted the resolution recognizing the independence of Cuba. „ On April 20, 1898. Congress authorized the president to drive the Spaniards from the island. War was declared against Spain. „ 24 Apr - Spain declared war on the US Critics of the War • (1) Congress was not unanimous in its declaration, because many members feared that the US might be improperly perceived by the international community as ganging up on a weaker nation to gain territory. Teller Amendment • passed to soothe the critics, guaranteed Cuba's independence, stating that the US had no designs on Cuba. III. The Spanish-American War • The war lasted only 113 days. • John Hay , US ambassador to England, had written Theodore Roosevelt referring to it as "a splendid little war." • Under-Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt resigned to participate in the fighting. • Two theaters of operation existed III. STRENGTHS United States: ‟ Navy: Modern. Well Equipped. Staffed by highly trained crews. Sea ‟ Power. IV. WEAKNESS „ United States: ‟ Army was not prepared for war. „ After the Civil War, the country had drastically reduced its army. „ Small professional force. „ Prepared volunteer force. „ Not enough Modern guns. „ Troops had heavy woolen uniforms. „ Spain: „ Unable to match Americans in sea power. „ Spain was easly defeated. A.The Philippines, 1898 „ May 1, 1898.The first battle took place in Manila Bay at the Philippines Islands. ‟ Commodore George Dewey provisioned his ships and set off to attack the Spanish colony in the Philippine Islands. ‟ In just hours, the entire Spanish Asian fleet is sunk. „ Spain lost 381 men. „ Americans lost only one. George Dewey “The conqueror of the Philippines" B. Caribbean •: 1. US casualties resulted more from disease and exposure than from battle. 2. July 1st Theodore Roosevelt led the Rough Riders up San Juan hill flanked by the 9th and 10th Cavalry “the Buffalo Soldiers”. 3. Admiral Cervera, Spanish commander, was easily defeated on July 3rd. U.S in Cuban Territory July 16, 1898. General Linares surrenders. THE ROUGH RIDERS Volunteer Calvary 4. Puerto Rico July 25, 1898. American troops invaded Puerto Rico. The troops meet little opposition and soon occupied the island. The conflict ended in August when Spain ask for peace. Gen. Nelson A. Miles, issued a statement: Americans are in Puerto Rico to “bring you protection, not only to yourselves but to your property…” IV. Treaty of Paris „ The peace treaty, signed in December 1898. „ Article I. -- Spain renounces all right of sovereignty over Cuba . „ Article II.-- Spain cedes to the United States the Island of Puerto Rico. „ Article III. -- Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands. „ Article IV.--The United States shall, during the term of ten years, admit to the ports of the Philippine Islands, Spanish ships and merchandise. Results of the War „ Cost the U.S. about $250 million and about 5000 lives. „ Several thousand deaths from disease and poisoned meat. „ U.S. gained a colonial empire of 12,000 sq. miles with more than 8 million inhabitants. ‟ Puerto Rico. ‟ Island of Guam. ‟ Philippines: U.S would pay $20 million for the annexation. The Philippines • a) The US continued to occupy the Philippines, which drew the anger of Aguinaldo, who then led insurrectionists against the US Philippine-American War • In February of 1899, Aguinaldo led a revolt against U.S. • Aguinaldo uses guerrilla tactics. The U.S. responds with concentration camps. • Some African- American soldiers deserted to the Filipino side. • The war lasted three years with 20,000 Filipinos killed to 4,000 Americans KIA. Aftermath of the War • The president appointed a governor, William H. Taft (1901- 1904). • Thomasites: 540 college graduates taught and trained teachers. The number of elementary students increase from 5,000 to 1 million. • (2) Cuba was declared independent, with some qualifications (a) Platt Amendment replaced the Teller Amendment, and required Cuba to accept three things before US troops would be withdrawn • i) The US retained veto power over Cuba's foreign policy ii) The US retained the right to intervene into Cuba's internal affairs iii) The US received rights to build a naval base on the east at Guantanamo Bay • (b) Cuba put these into its new constitution, and they remained in force until 1934 when renegotiated. • (c) General Leonard Wood (1860-1927), military governor until 1902, modernized sugar production, improved sanitary conditions and established several schools. • (d) In 1903 Guantanamo Bay naval station was leased (renewed in 1934). (3) Guam and Puerto Rico were also transferred to the US as territories • (a) Foraker Act 1900 granted Puerto Rico limited self- government, in that they elected a 35- member lower house, but the US President appointed their governor and executive council. • (b) Jones Act 1917 granted US citizenship to all Puerto Ricans and removed tariff duties from Puerto Rican imports into the US.