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Homeless Youth and HIV Risk - PowerPoint

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Homeless Youth and HIV Risk - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					Older Youth Experiencing
Homelessness: Taking a
   Broad Perspective
                                         Barbara Duffield, Policy Director,
  National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth

  Caroline Fuller, MAT, CHES, Comprehensive School Health Specialist
                                    Virginia Department of Education

                                 Kathi Sheffel, Homeless Student Liaison
                                         Fairfax Counthy Public Schools
Setting the Context: Who are
Homeless Youth?
   Children and youth who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate
    nighttime residence:
     Sharing the housing of others due to loss of housing, economic
       hardship, or similar reason
     Living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, camping grounds due to
       lack of adequate alternative accommodations
     Living in emergency or transitional shelters

     Awaiting foster care placement

     Living in a public or private place not designed for humans to live
     Living in cars, parks, abandoned buildings, substandard housing,
       bus or train stations, etc.
     Migratory children living in above circumstances
Setting the Context: Who are
Unaccompanied Homeless Youth?
   Unaccompanied: children and youth who are not in the physical
    custody of a parent or guardian.

   Is there an age range?
    No. McKinney-Vento applies to all school-aged children and
    youth as defined by state law.

   Is there a citizenship requirement?
    No. Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe (1982) makes it unlawful
    for schools to deny access to undocumented immigrants or
    ask about immigration status. McKinney-Vento must be
    equally applied to undocumented students.
Setting the Context: Why such a broad
definition?
•   Shelters are often full; shelters may turn families and youth
    away, or put them on waiting lists.
•   Shelters do not exist in many suburban and rural areas.
•   Eligibility conditions of shelters often exclude families with
    boys over the age of 12, or unaccompanied minors.
•   Motels may not be available, or may be too expensive.
•   Youth on their own may fear adult shelters.
•   Shelters often have 30, 60, or 90 day time limits.
•   Families/youth may be unaware of alternatives, fleeing in
    crisis, living in over-crowded, temporary, and sometimes
    unsafe environments.
Setting the Context: Why are some
youth homeless and on their own?
   Over half of callers to Runaway Hotline report being
    physically abused at home; over one-third report sexual
    abuse; over two-thirds report that at least one of their
    parents abuses drugs or alcohol
   Other youth are thrown out of their homes because they
    are pregnant, gay or lesbian, or because their parents
    believe they are old enough to take care of themselves
   Some children and youth are abandoned by their
    parents, or are on their own due to death of parents
   Some children and youth are in unstable living situations
    due to parental incarceration, illness, or hospitalization
Setting the Context: Why are some
youth homeless and on their own? (2)
   Over half of youth living in shelters report that their parents
    either told them to leave, or knew they were leaving and did
    not care
   Some youth become homeless with their families, but, due
    to lack of space in doubled-up or motel situations, end up
    homeless on their own
   Natural disasters cause youth to be separated from family
    during their homelessness
   Aging out of foster care into homelessness; running away
    from foster care placements due to abuse in the foster
    home, or to reconnect with siblings and family
Setting the Context: How Many Youth
are Homeless?

   In 2008-2009, public schools nationwide
    reported over 930,000 homeless children and
    youth; this is a 38% increase over two years
   In 2008-2009, Virginia school divisions
    reported 12,768 homeless students; this is a
    29% increase over two years
   Leading causes of increasing homelessness:
    economic downturn, foreclosures, greater
    awareness
Unaccompanied Homeless Youth in VA
Barriers to Education

   High mobility
   Unaccompanied youth: lack of a parent or guardian to sign forms
   Lack of school records and other paperwork
   Lack of stable housing
   Emotional crisis / mental health issues
   Employment - need to balance school and work
   Lack of transportation
   Lack of school supplies, clothing
   Fatigue, poor health, hunger
   Credit accrual policies, attendance policies
   Concerns about being captured by authorities
   Low expectations by family, school
Educational Rights Under the
McKinney-Vento Act
   Broad mandate for all school divisions to remove barriers
    to school enrollment and retention by revising policies
    and practices

   Students may remain in the school of origin (if in best
    interest)
   Transportation to the school of origin
   Immediate enrollment
   Access to programs and services
   Access to dispute resolution procedures
Homeless Youth
     and
   HIV Risk

   Caroline Fuller, MAT, CHES

  Comprehensive School Health Specialist
        Virginia Department of Education
Healthy Children are
    better students.
   CDC defines youth or
  young people as persons
     ages 13-24 years.
It is difficult for students to be
successful if they are:

 depressed          sick
 tired              using alcohol or

 being bullied
                      other drugs
                     hungry
 stressed
                     abused
Health Risks
   Depression

   Self-injury

   Substance abuse

   High exposure to HIV and other STDs

   Violence
Homeless Youth Study
   Study on January 3, 2008 Journal of
    Adolescent Health
       77% sexually active at beginning of study, 85% at
        end
       Increase risk in nonfamily settings
       Increase risk with drug use
   Recommendation: new interventions need to
    focus on structural factors that impact risky
    behavior
Virginia Youth Statistics
   2005- HIV rate among            2008- Increase in newly
    men is twice as high as          diagnosed (n=136) in
    women                            men ages 20-24; 3
                                     times higher than
   2006- Chlamydia,                 women in same age
    Gonorrhea and total              group
    early syphilis                  1/3 to ½ of persons
       Highest in ages 20-29        with AIDS in US are
       Second highest in ages       homeless or at
        13-19                        imminent risk of
                                     homelessness
Addressing HIV Risk in
Virginia’s Public Schools
   100% funded by CDC             SHAB is mandated
   FLE not mandated
   Trainings                      Coordinated School
       15 modules in FLE           Health Programming
       Local trainings
       School Health and          New Partnerships
        Education Partnership
Meeting the Shelter and Housing Needs
of Unaccompanied Youth: Fairfax
County’s Approach
   To date, 175 unaccompanied homeless youth have
    been identified (compared to 100 for the previous
    year)
   Lack of housing options: limited emergency shelter,
    barriers to mainstream programs
   School division invited all agencies to a meeting to
    share information
   Monthly meetings of task force lead to program
    development
   School division now serves as referral source and
    advisor to the initiative
Meeting the Shelter and Housing Needs
of Unaccompanied Youth: Fairfax
County’s Approach
   To date, 175 unaccompanied homeless youth have
    been identified (compared to 100 for the previous
    year)
   Lack of housing options: limited emergency shelter,
    barriers to mainstream programs
   School division invited all agencies to a meeting to
    share information
   Monthly meetings of task force lead to program
    development
   School division now serves as referral source and
    advisor to the initiative
Housing Youth: Getting Started

    Gathering stakeholders
    Identifying strengths and weaknesses of
     existing current supports for youth
    Brainstorming ideas
Housing Youth: Fairfax County
Programs

    Host Homes - individuals or families in the
     community willing to provide housing while the
     youth is in school
    Homes for teen girls
    Rental subsidy program
    Alternative house (shelter)
Housing Youth: Implementing Plans

    Financial
    Logistical
    Timelines
Housing Youth: Continuing the
Relationships Between Agencies

    Serving on advisory team
    Working out barriers and improving the
     program
    Collecting data
    Finding additional funding sources
Higher Education and Homeless Youth

   Youth who meet the definition of “independent student” can
    complete the FAFSA without parental income information
    or signature.
   Unaccompanied youth are automatically considered
    independent students.
       Must be verified as unaccompanied and homeless during
        the school year in which the application is submitted.
   Youth who are unaccompanied, at risk of homelessness,
    and self-supporting are also automatically considered
    independent students.
       Must be verified as such during the school year in which
        the application is submitted.
Higher Education and Homeless Youth,
2

   Verification must be made by:
       a McKinney-Vento Act school district liaison,
       a HUD homeless assistance program director or their
        designee,
       a Runaway and Homeless Youth Act program director or
        their designee, or
       a financial aid administrator.
       www.naehcy.org/higher_ed.html
   Youth who have been in foster care at any time after
    age 13 are also automatically independent.
  Resources

Project HOPE-VA
http://www.wm.edu/hope

National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth
http://www.naehcy.org

National Center on Homeless Education
http://www.serve.org/nche

National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty
http://www.nlchp.org

National Network for Youth
www.nn4youth.org
Contact Information
Barbara Duffield
Policy Director, NAEHCY
202-364-7392
bduffield@naehcy.org

Caroline Fuller
Virginia Department of Education
P.O. Box 2120
Richmond, VA 23218
804-225-2431
Caroline.fuller@doe.virginia.gov

Kathi Sheffel
Homeless Liaison, Fairfax County Public Schools
571-423-4332
KLSheffel@fcps.edu
    References

   Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) and the
    Society of State Directors of Health, Physical Education and Recreation (SSDHPER), (2002) Making the Connection
   AIDS Housing of Washington. (2003). Homelessness & HIV/AIDS. AHW Fact Sheet. Seattle, WA.
   Buchanan, D., Doblin, B., Sai, T., & Garcia, P. (2006) The effects of respite care for homeless patients: A cohort study.
    American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1278-1281.
   Conanan B, London K, Martinez L, Modersbach D, O’Connell J, O’Sullivan M, Raffanti S,Ridolfo A, Post P, Santillan Rabe
    M, Song J, Treherne L. (2003) Adapting Your Practice: Treatment and Recommendations for Homeless Patients with
    HIV/AIDS, 62 pages. Nashville: Health Care for the Homeless Clinicians’ Network, National Health Care for the Homeless
    Council, Inc., 2003.
   Curry J. Homelessness and HIV. Retrieved November 10, 2007 from http://www.thebody.com/content/art14339.html
   DeCarlo, P., Susser, E., & Tulsky, J. P. (1996). What are homeless people’s HIV prevention needs? San Francisco, CA:
    Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of San Francisco.
   Forney, J. C., Lombardo, S., & Toro, P. A. (2007) Diagnostic and other correlates of HIV risk behaviors in a probability
    sample of homeless adults. Psychiatric Services, 58, 92-99.
   Health Resources and Services Organization. (2007). HIV/AIDS and homelessness: Abridged from HIV/AIDS and
    homelessness, John Song, M.D. (HRSA799) Retrieved July 23, 2007 from: http://hab.hrsa.gov/publications/799.htm
   National Coalition for the Homeless. (2007a). How many people experience homelessness? NCH Fact Sheet #2.
    Washington, DC.
   National Coalition for the Homeless. (2007b). HIV/AIDS and homelessness. NCH Fact Sheet #9. Washington, DC.

				
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