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					AP U.S. Gov‟t Review
  CRRRRRUUUUNCH
       TIME!

        AP Gov't Review   1
         A. Review coverage
I. Constitutional Underpinnings +Fed = 5-
      15%
II. Pol Beliefs + behav = 10-20%
III. Pol Parties SIG + Mass Media = 10-20%
IV. Institutions = 35-45%
V. Public Policy = 5-15%
VI. Civil Rights + Civil Liberties = 5-15%



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           B. Exam Breakdown
I.    60 MC questions – ½ of total score – 45 mins
II. Essays – 4 free response in 100 minutes
Each essay is worth 1/8 of total score . . .
Or a combined total of 50 % of total.

Essays can cover either separate components
     outlined previously or combine elements or
     factors discussed in part A. See adjoining
     sheet for possible themes or subject matter.



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           Examination Tools
1.   Text book
2.   Notes
3.   Workbook
4.   Peers
5.   Review book
6.   Review materials
7.   And the old guy. . .
I   I
I   I
I   U
T
    T
B
    M
If   It
It   Is
Is   Up
To   To
Be   Me
     I. Constitutional Underpinnings
A.   What is the purpose of Politics?
1)   A conflicting state where one Selects leaders
2)   Leaders work w/in institutions
3)   To make. . .
Ans: Policy
B. 1. System - Define democracy –
     ans: it selects + formulates policy which represents +
     responds to the public preferences.
a. Theory encompasses 5 elements:
(1) equality in voting
(2) effective participation
(3) Enlightened understanding - plethora of ideas. . .
(4) citizen control of the agenda.
(5) inclusion of all who are willing to participate.

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b. Majority rule w/ minority rights. An issue of
    “power” .
   What is a majority . . .
Majority = An acculumalation of minorities
B. Who really Governs?
(1) Pluralist theory –

competition among groups .
(2) Elite + Class Theory –
    Class splits . . .Big Business rules!
(3) Hyperpluralism –
    Groups divide gov‟t, making it ineffective. . .
(4) Theory of one. . .

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      C. Political theorists represent theories
1.  Hume –
Human nature that man was evil. . .Gov‟t by the many with
    negotiation and compromise promoting a union +
    eventually establishing a republic.
2. Hobbes –
     one needs an inherited monarchy to promote the
    legitimacy of gov‟t. Absolutism rules. . .Self interest is
    nat‟l interest.
3. Locke –
    1689 - social contract theory - Life, liberty and property
    - Consent of the gov‟t by Parliament( few) who had a
    stake in society because it represented people of
    property. . .poor people don‟t lose much when life
    deteriorates.
4. Rousseau –
     Rule by all - a complete democracy --

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Rousseau Hume               Locke      Hobbes
All            Many           Few          One
hyperplurlism plurlism Elite/class Absolute
The above is a . . . .
Political spectrum!
D. When one governs, one seeks power --
Define:
Ability to persuade someone else that it is in
  their (self)ish interest to follow you.

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             Power Distribution
1. Power can be distributed three ways in a
  democracy:
(a) power elite - (Hobbes) - Representative
  Democracy
(b) political elite- (Hobbes + Locke) - Participatory
  democracy
(c) majoritarian rule- (Locke or Hume) Direct
  Democracy
d. Mob rule - Rousseau
2. What does one do with power? ---
  Make Policy: - Actions of Gov‟t. . .

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 D3.Revolution + the 1st Constitution
 Articles of Confederation
A ). What could it do
b). And worse. . .what couldn‟t it do. . .
4. What showed it‟s the A+C true weaknesses –
  Shay‟s Rebellion
5. The second Constitution:
a. Equality
1)Representation is established by what type of
  Gov‟t?
ANs: (REPUBLICAN) –


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New Jersey Plan offered what?
 (= represent)
v. Virginia Plan which offered?
  (prop. representation )
   led to which agreement?
  Connecticut Compromise: that offered:
US Senate ( 2 Senators per state) US House
  - (Reps per population of state)

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2) slavery - South wanted all males counted?
  Three-fifths compromise. - A show stopper
b. Who can vote –
 Property owners vs. disenfranchised.
Who controlled elections?
Ans. States set election laws.
c. Economics – Who will control?
Congress shall rule + it will build the
  infrastructure (Post offices to taxation-
  Article I)

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             d. Individual rights
Constitution lacked in this area- show stopper
  although the Consti did mention six issues:
1) Writ of habeas corpus
2) bill of attainders
3) ex post facto laws
4) religious preferences to hold office
5) treasonous offenses
6) trial by jury
 But were we being ruled by “men” or by laws . . .
  to protect us from these “men” wanted the ???
  the Bill of Rights was added to protect us from
  gov‟t. . .a recollection of all the ills that the
  colonists resided under British rule.
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e. Popular sovereignty? What is it?
Ans> ability to control one‟s destiny
f. Checks + Balances? What is it?
Each branch oversees the other
g. Separation of Powers . . .
Who wrote the doctrine?
   Montesqueiu. . .What does it mean?
Each branch has a certain function?
h. What was the purpose of the B Of R?
Protect one from gov‟t
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                 Ratification
- States voted- - -only needed ? states to ratify
  9 (A of Confed needed ? approval to amend)
  unanimous
a. Federalists v. Anti-feds -
(1) issue -- the 2nd Consti was a “class-based
  document that benefited only the economic elite!
(2) fundamental liberties! Were the Bill of Rights
  enough?
3. Federal $$$$$. . .diminishes State $$$$$.
Result – Who ratified the constitution?
 State special conventions would ratify, not state
  legislators

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         9. “Changing” the Constitution-
Amendment Process
a. Formal process – 2 steps?
(1) proposal – Vote
   (1)   2/3 of each Congr or National convention
(2) Ratification
     - 3/4 of state leg or spec convention
(3) - 27 Amendments - taxation to congressional salaries
b. informal process- 4 ways
(1) Federal court decisions - Marbury v. Madison
(2) Changing political practices - Dems v. Reps
Liberals v. Conservatives
(3) Domestic politics to foreign politics. Policy makers carry
    big sticks in implementing policy.
EO‟s and Leg decision – Congr resolutions. . .

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                     Federalism
-    Define –
a decentralization of gov‟t. -- a “sharing of the wealth” +
     gov‟t power.
1.   DELEGATED powers belong to;
     Feds rule - Make war
(a) INHERENT –
1) all gov‟t possess these pwrs. . .immigration
(b) Expressed – (Enumerated)
1) Stated specifically . . .Congress makes law
(c) Implied
1) (Makes expressed powers work) – Congress establishes
     a civil service system to hire federal workers.


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b. Concurrent POWERS
     shared power.
 i.e. education, taxation, Safety
c. reserved POWERS
    states rule - welfare, local education control, local gov‟ts,
    professional licensing.
2. Who shall rule in conflict – Where in the Constitution:
    Art VI- Supremacy Clause - and Implied powers of
    national gov‟t upheld with . ..
     McCullogh v. Maryland. Established the which clause?
    “elastic clause” that gave the Congress the >>>
    Necessary and Proper Clause (implied powers) to enact
    policies to run the country!

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3. If not stated- states have the rights -
  Which Amendment?
10th
4. Commerce power – Ct Case?
 Gibbons v. Ogden . Interstate + internat‟l
  commerce . Congress rules!
5. Full Faith and Credit clause –
  One state‟s validity carries over state
  borders - i.e. marriage licences.
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     6. From Dual to cooperative federalism               -
a. Education sets the stage for both the Feds + states to
    work together in “fiscal harmony”
b. “Shared Costs” of Fiscal federalism-
c. Grant-In-Aid
    Feds sell land to fund programs!
d. Categorical grants –
    specific $$ for specific projec w/ strings attached. . .non-
    discrimatory - Cross cutting requirements - Offenders
    lose it all!
(1) Project grants –
   (1)   NSF - competitive requests
(2) Formula grant-
Do you meet the formula. i.e. public housing, employment
   programs


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e. Block grants –
    social service endeavors w/ less strings
    attached. SIGS pursue the $350 billion
f. Mandates –
    Feds dictate specific guidelines. . .if don‟t
    comply, penalized or lose the funding. . .
Special ed, Disability Act, Clean Air. .
    .Medicaid
(a) unfunded mandates. . .

    Laws w/o funding. . .

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                Practice Essay
   6. The United States Constitution has endured
    for more than two centuries as the framework of
    government. However, the meaning of the
    Constitution has been changed both by formal
    and informal methods.
   (a) Identify two formal methods for adding
    amendments to the Constitution.
   (b) Describe two informal methods that have
    been used to change the meaning of the
    Constitution. Provide one specific example for
    each informal method you described.
   (c) Explain why informal methods are used more
    often than the formal amendment process.


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           Practice Essay #2
The US has evolved from a system of dual
   federalism to a system of cooperative
   federalism. In the past two decades, some
   powers have devolved from the federal gov‟t
   to the state gov‟t.
a. Identify and explain one factor that led to the
   nat‟l gov‟t having significantly more power
   than the states.
b. Identify and explain one factor that led to
   cooperative federalism.
c. Identify and explain one factor than led to
   devolution.

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            Essay #2 Answer
a.   Ct rulings: McCullogh v. Maryland (Elastic
     clause and N+P + Clause . States can‟t
     tax (2 pts)
b.   Grants in Aid encouraged state dev;
     Medicare handouts but they all come
     with “conditions of aid. (2 pts)
c.   Debt load, more state right advocates.
     TANF program was once a categorical
     grant but now it is a block grant. 2 pts

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            Essay Rubrics #1
a.  Hse + Sen Proposal w/ supermajority
 or special convention . . . State Leg confirm
    with 38 or spec convention.
b. Need two 0f five informal methods
c. Informal is easier and can happen daily,
    especially w/ court cases. Formal does
    provide more of a thorough legislative
    process. . .just not a judicial whim.


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           II. Political Culture
A.  How does one determine the socialization
    of the American constituent?
1. Six factors
a. Wte of tradition + customs
b. Impact of events
c. Changes in the way of political elites
d. families
e. school
f. relationships (as the paradigms shift)
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2. WHO establishes our political value
  system. . .Who sets the agenda?
a. SIGS
b. Political institutions
c. Media “The New Parent” (hand out media
  handout)
d. family
e. Social Econonic Stratification (SES) as one
  grows older.

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 B. America’s Demographics: Who are we?
1. Demographics . . . Deal with what?
a. gender
b. occupation
c. Race
d. religion
e. SES - social class
How does one determine demographics?
2. Census building - It will happen every 10 years. How does it impact
     us “politically”?
a.Congressional apportionment / Electoral College
b. Redistricting
c. Block grant distribution
3) Minority/majority is influencing the great melting pot. by 2050 -
     Whites will be only 52% of society
Who is the largest minority?
Hispanics


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4. What Act requires employers to document the
   citizenship of employees or face fines?
    Simpson/Mazzoli
3. How has the shifting of America occurred?
from Frost Belt to Sun Belt: (SW, SE and Texas
   dramatic population increases(20% growth
   rates) while North has 5% growth) How has this
   impacted the American political scene?
Ans. Congress + reapportionment; Red + Blue
   states . . .more


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4. GRAY POWER –
 Baby boomers graying rapidly. How has this
  impacted the political landscape?
 they wish to collect their $5 trillion in Social
  Security benefits! -- Their SIGS possess
  clout - i,e, AARP, others.




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  c. How does one gauge America‟s
POLLLLING-
               pulse?
1.    Early 1950‟s George Gallup “Polled” a microcosm of American
      political thought . . . What scientific device?
 - a Sample --
a)    the more “random” the better. . .????
       everyone has a chance of being selected. . .
b) Biased sample-
      stated preference
c) representative sample .
      i.e. Democrats only
2. Samples are not perfect -- ???
sampling error . . .
1-5% error rate per 1,-000- 2,000 responses. . .The bigger the sample.
      . . .the less the sampling error.
3. random-digit dialing speeds up the process!




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   4. How do Polls assist politicians . .
a.                         .
    detect public preferences. . .
b.  Are their shifts in thinking . . .creating possible
    “shifts” in policy making.
c.   It has become the issue of selling policy instead
    of possibly doing what‟s right!
d.  Avoiding compromises to appease radical shifts!.
    Politicians love them when they agree with
    them, they hate them when they disagree.
5. Bandwagon effects is . . .
    jump on board. . .instead of doing what‟s right!


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6. What is an Exit poll ?
   QA voters after they vote.
What‟s wrong w/ them?
Can control elections, East votes earlier than west.
7. What is a push poll?
ANs: Opponent asks a negative Q late in campaign
   and the contender doesn‟t have time to respond.
8. Polls can show 3 items. . .
 a. relevancy, or salience of a topic + intensity
b. stability
c. direction. . .positive or negative


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       d. Liberals + conservatives?
a)   Size of gov‟t     `Liberals      `Conservatives
     Nat‟l, fed big govt, centralized     small. . .state. .
     .decentralized
(b) Change
                progressive           status quo
(c) international diplomacy
                        Coalitions                  Isolationists + Security
(d) View of man
                  Can be cured                     Evil, needs order
(e) Use of violence to maintain order
                     Changing environment
    disciplinarians
2. True Liberals a) Blue dogs –
               Conservative Democrats, Dixiecrats

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Reagan era shift to the right. . .Clinton era
 shift to the left, then to the middle. .
 .Bush era – Right . . . Politically. . .what
 is this called?
     Re-alignment of political ideology.




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   D. Political participation: The many forms--
How: 8 ways to participate.
1.   Voting. Only 50% vote in nat‟l elections. Voters see a
     lack of political efficacy?
     Ans: not being able to politically “effect” society
     through the political process.
They have no influence. . . (T-19)
2. Join SIGS
3. Give $$$$ to SIGS thru PACS
4. Become a political elite
5. Contacting gov‟t officials on a regular basis
6. Working on a campaign
7. civil disobedience
8. Violence
Who participates more?
      higher SES participate more. . . and get more!

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                  E. Mass Media:
1.  Fourth Estate (Mass Media) –Power originates . . .
2.   1st Amendment provides the incentive to report the
    “News” which is . . . .
    a timely occurence that “informs the public”.
2. What is a “Media Event. . .
     Get your name or picture in print or on the tube! either
    through “news” events or paid advertising!
    Often Politicians “make” news to get on the news.
3. What is a “Spin Masters”?
    Person hired specifically to promote the image of the
    candidate! i.e. Reagan era advice:




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7. Competition in the medias has forced
  them to be much more aggressive and
  “bend” the journalistic rules of using
  reliable sources and the “sound bite” and
  great images! WhaT IS A Sound bite?
Ans. Short clip of a dramatic statement from
  the politician.




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8. Narrowcasting v. Broadcasting. . .
     (focus on specific news or issues 24 hours a day) may
     fulfill political junkies or spin issues out of control.
Or one can turn to the BLOGGERS . . .
9. Politicians can manipulate the press by sending up:
a.   trial balloons to see how the public will react to certain
     issues. Then back off if the response is negative.
b.   both the political elites and the medias dance to get
     the upperhand. . .and both seek the advantage in
     dispensing their agenda. . .
c.   The Press‟ wishes to inform the masses. . . vs. the
     politicians‟ attempt to put it in a good light. . .
10. Undoubtedly, “coverage” impacts public opinion!


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        11. 4 Mass media roles
a.  Signaler
    alert the public ASAP – 24/7 news
b. Agenda setting
    focus public‟s att‟n
c. Common Carrier role
    Open channel from politician to constituent
D. Watch dog role
    Protect the public from politicians.
There is tension between what two roles?
Common carrier and watch dog
More of a tendency to report bad . . .than a bias
    tint.

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         criticisms of the press
1.   Not objective – Biases are prevalent
2.   Only a few own a lot – the big 6
3.   Sensational news more important than
     the real news.
4.   Selling image instead of the issues
      E. Amassing public support
Special Interest groups (SIGS)
Purpose of
   “influencing” the gov‟t at all levels, all
  branches. No gov‟t stone shall be left
  unturned!
  -  Political parties goals are to:
   “make” policy. . . SIGS goal is too:
  Influence. . .



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           Types of groups
Biggest:
1. Business or economic sector – heavily
  funded.
2. Labor
3. Single issue
4. Public interest
5. Smallest
You if you can find a friend.
How Influence? Six strategies or techniques. . .
a. Provide data to Gov‟t + agencies. Policy specialists ( Pol
   parties are party generalists)
b. draft legislation via the Iron Triangle (issue) network of
   SIGS
   Gov‟t agencies
Congressional subcommittees
c. lawsuits (amicus curiae, Friend of the court)
class action court cases.
d. education
e. Watchdogs of gov‟t. . .
f. Lobbyists- “hired guns or political persuaders, whose job
   is to promote the SIGS interests via. . .pressure
   (garnering votes, + $$$$, idealists. )

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        4. SUCCESSFUL SIGS:
What determines success?
a. size of the group . . .
(1) is it a “potential group”---

 a mixture (consumers) of many who “could”
     belong,
(1) vs.an “actual group” of hard core (NRA)
     followers.
(2) Potential groups (or large groups) suffer from?
     “free-rider status”. i.e. all minimum wage
     earners benefit from minimum wage increases.
     . .so why work toward it. . .

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 b. Intensity - Single issue groups - NRA,
  NOW, Gun Control, abortion
c. $$$$ - As of 1974, corporations and
  Unions can not directly fund political
  campaigns. . .BUT Political Action
  Committees (PACS) , the political arm of
  SIGS, can fund candidates‟ campaigns
w/ what type of money?
Hard $$$ NOOOOT Soft! Or via. . .
527‟s

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Buckley v. Valeo?
   extended $$$ to “indirect” financing (TV
  ads)
(b). Soft Money - 1980 - Can “earmark”
  funds to a political party, unlimited
  contributions. . . $400 million allocated in
  2000 election to Dems + Republicans.
  Today soft money is not regulated.
  Citizens United v. FEC


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d. Going Public. . .reaching out to influence
  public opinion. . Ads sell! a great form of
  propaganda!
Interest group participation is culmination of
  political participatory activities.




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    III. Political parties + elections
A. . US Parties typically been two-party - offering
   American voters a choice. . .which is what
   democracy is all about!
1. Historically - Federalists v. anti-federalists
evolved into Democrats v. Republicans although
3rd parties have popped up. What are the types
a. ideological - Socialists, Independents
b. Single issue - free soilers, Greenpeace
c. Economic protests - greenback party
d. splinter - Bull Moose . . .Which 3rd party was
   “MOST” successful. . .
Bull Moose . . .How judge success?
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2. Republicans and Democrats have switched in ideological
   dominance since 1800, referred to as . . .
   Re-alignment.. . .
Since 1968, era of “one party runs the Exec Branch, the
   other controls Congress . . .which could create legislative
   gridlock. This is called:
   “Divided gov‟t. . .”
3. ALL parties promote same purpose: 6 purposes:
a. pick Candidates via a nomination
b. runs campaigns
c. establish an image. . .
d. articulate policies
e. coordinate policymaking
f. compete for votes


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(1)Down‟s Rational Choice theory states . .
 centrist policies usually win. . .don‟t drift too
   far from moderate proposals.
2) Many voters have moved to the middle of
   party identification >>> this is called
Moderation . . . .or moderites . . .
Nope. . . How about
    a dealignment of party ID.


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           B. Party machines -
each ???? manages its own operation –
The states- decentralized and fragmented system.
1. What dominates - It‟s the good boy/girl club.
     Patronage - Party regulars become gov‟t
     appointees.
2. Finding the right candidates takes parties
     through “grass roots” democracy all the way
     through campaigns until election day.
 It seems to last foooooooor evvvvverrrrr!
a.   How does one come across a potential party
     elite?
     Be a party regular! and hold a public office at
     some level - US Congressperson or state Guv

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   b. Goal of a Prez candidate running for the candidacy?
       Amass enough delegates at the nat‟l convention to win the
        NOMINATION! All 50 states run their own shows! How amass
        delegates?
(1). caucus (12 states use this road) . . . What is it?
finds delegates for the next level. . . The town mtg.
   First caucus?
   IOWA and also begins platform development.
(2).Primaries
   Electoral event that weeds out the candidates, not
   parties. . .you can win w/o party endorsement.. .but it is
   difficult
  1968 McGovern-Fraser commission set rules for Dems:
- More Minority representation at DEM convention. But
- The super delegates . . . .
- Top Natl officials get delegate spots


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(a)    closed primary:
      (1) only party faithful can vote
(b) Open primary:
     You select which camp to vote in
(c) Blanket –
     all parties run on one ballot. - -
Supreme Court said it was unconstitutional, violated basic
     function of political party - to choose candidates -
     Democratic party v. Jones.
(d) GOAL- you win the primary, so . . .
you get the number of delegates the state law allocates.
     Some are proportional, some winner take all. . .
 (e) Goal during campaign
>>>> get the BIG MOo o o o! which gives you??? 4M‟s. .
(1) Momentum
(2) After all the primaries - tally up your delegates and a
                              ...
     majority gets you theAP Gov't Review                     56
           Majority vs. Plurality
Majority needs ____ of the vote.
An: 50+. . . .an example where one needs it
AN: electoral college . . .passing legislation
A plurality needs _____ of the vote
One more than all the others…. Example
Winning elections. . .
Winner take all means . . .
Win it and you get all the bennies
Proportional . . .
Divide up the pie based on the vote . . .Example
Some states use proportional to determine delegates in
  Primaries                 AP Gov't Review              57
(3) $$$$$$$$ . . . Campaign donations flood
  in. . .
(4) Media attention. . .Press wants to
  promote a(n) . . . .
Horse race for the nomination.




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            C. Nat‟l convention
1.  Nat‟l convention – what happens here?
a) select presidential + VP candidates,
b) sets platform, endorses all party nominees for
    other offices! Ho Hum (T-30)
2. National committee
3. national chairperson
4. Goal after nomination:
    form enough coalitions ( of SIGS) to win the
    election.
5. Campaign highway. Goal:
(a) dominate the media
(b) vanquish your opponent

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             c. Spends lots of $$$
“money is the mother‟s milk of politics”
(1) What was established in 1974 following H20GATE
    scandal to control flow of money to parties?
FEC . . .what does it do?
•gives public financing to candidates.
•limits presidential candidates expenditures to $80 million
    per candidate
• requires disclosure of all expenses.
• limits an individual‟s candidate‟s contributions to $2,300.
•PACs can spend “unlimited amounts”. . .ct case?
(Buckley v. Valeo) indirectly until 2002. This was called?
    soft money. Now Citizens‟ United v. FEC
• -Voluntary contributions
6. Today- many constituents are pulling away from party
    ID‟s -- dealignment- - and this is leading to:

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               Divided Gov‟t
a) Minnesota had a three way split!
b) Voters have become indifferent! --
  Dealignment
 Where are voters going. . .
2. Third Parties - What do they represent?
Minnesota‟s Reform Party is a prime
  example-
Jesse‟s Revolution has been one of many
  state led 3rd parties… at the nat‟l level:

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       Recent 3rd Party Players?
1. Ralph Nader . . .stole some of Al Gore‟s left wing
   thunder in 2000 election. . .It was that close!
   and . . .
2. Ross Perot took away George Bush Sr‟s thunder
   in 1992 when Bill Clinton won.
   In the ‟04/08 elections, were 3rd parties an issue?
c. Third parties have an uphill fight. . .
(1) Single member plurality voting system (winner
   take all) system favors two parties. . .
and Jesse is only 1 governor of 50
(2) Two Big Parties have organization. . .
(3) Two Big parties can moderate views to enhance
   voters.
                       AP Gov't Review               62
                   E. Elections
Legitimizing the political process
1. Elections provide for:
a. Institutionalizing the political process. All forms
   of political participation can end here ..,
Voting -
b. Access to political power w/o violence. . Ballot
   instead of bullets.
c. guiding policy direction - either by selecting a
   new person or by initiatives or referendums?
Special election to vote on voter initiatives.
2. 2000 Election was one of a kind. . . Becuz . . .

                        AP Gov't Review                  63
a. US Supreme Ct ruled in Bush v. Gore that:
  although a recount was legal, the same
  procedure had to be used in ALL counties, not
  only those in question. . .
  AND there was not enough time to accomplish
  that mission B4 December 12, when the
  electoral college was to meet. . .soooooo Bush
  won Florida and w/ 271 electoral votes to Gore‟s
  269. . . So why the controversy???
b. only the 4th time the winner of the popular vote
  lost an election.
                      AP Gov't Review             64
        Getting Citizen‟s to vote
1.  Sufferage an issue in three constitutional
    amendments:
 15th, 19th, 26th. YOUR 18.
 you can vote. . .but too many don‟t. 51% in 2000
    election. . High 50‟s in ‟04.
Only 30%+ in off year voting. Many more
    appeared in 04. MN leads in voter turnout.
2. Who does vote: Six characteristics:
a. Old b. high SES
c. Educated      d. Gender - Females higher
e. Married f. union membership

                      AP Gov't Review               65
     Who doesn‟t or can‟t vote? WHY?
1.    Not old enough
2.    Aliens
3.    Felons
4.    Too busy
5.    Lack political efficacy
6.    Not registered.




                       AP Gov't Review   66
             Election Essay

4. Since the 1960‟s, the process of selecting
  presidential candidates has been altered
  by the changing role of presidential
  primaries and national party conventions.
  Identify and explain four effects that have
  resulted from this change in the
  presidential selection process.



                   AP Gov't Review          67
           Election Rubric
Effects:
Longer campaigns>> Increased costs >>
  Early fund raising>>Media coverage >>
Front loading >>Ticket balancing >>
New breed of spin masters >>Full time job
  to run>> party leadership role declines>>
Regional party blocs>>Primaries, caucuses
  are REALLY Important>>conventions are
  not>> truly republican>> Swing states!!
                  AP Gov't Review         68
3. (a) Identify a third-party candidate within the
  last two decades who received significant popular
  votes but no electoral votes and provide an
  explanation for that discrepancy.
(b) Identify a third-party candidate who received
  significant popular votes as well as significant
  electoral votes, and provide an explanation for
  that outcome.
(c) In seeking to win presidential electons, third
  parties face challenges not faced by major
  parties. Identify two of these challenges and
  explain why third parties face these challenges.

                      AP Gov't Review             69
          IV. Congress + Budget
A.  The Independent Politician
Why are congressperson so independent? 4 reasons. . .
1.  Congresspersons (represent themselves and/or
    constituents. . .not political parties
2.  They do NOT have to support the “gov‟t” in
    power. . .they are “separate”, but equal partners
    in the political system.
3. A vote against the Gov‟t, does not bring about a
    collapse of gov‟t, i.e. GB, Italy, France, Germany.
    US Gov‟t continues day to day operations even
    w/ gridlock. . .
4. Pol parties do NOT control nominations for office,
    so they cannot control . . .
    how a legislator votes on legislation.

                        AP Gov't Review               70
B. Congressional powers
1. Powers: initiate, modify, approve or reject legislation in
    a variety of political arenas,
2. + they share supervision of administrative agencies . . .
3. build consensus among legislators + constituents.
4. educate
5. oversees bureaucracies
4) investigates
5) Hse-initiates $$$ bills;
6. Senate-confirms, ratifies executive decisions
a) Art.1 sect 8, clauses 1-17 expressed powers; clause 18-
    implied powers (raise troops). This is called>>>
Necessary + proper clause – the court case is >>>
b) McCullogh v. Maryland

                          AP Gov't Review                   71
c) Gibbons v. Ogden – gave us >>>
Commerce Clause –
 states can‟t interfere w/ Congr
  attempt to regulate interstate
  commerce!
This led to what legislation in the
  1960s?
civil rights legislation


                 AP Gov't Review      72
     C. Constitutional Requirements
                HSE                         Senate
Age
                25                          30
Citizen
                7                           9
Residency       Yes                         Yes
                (district)          State
Native Born
                No                          No
Members
                435                         100
Occupation      Business                    Law
                Law                         Business
   Womn 108)   78?                         14?

                      AP Gov't Review                  73
1.  Since both houses possess decentralized power
    bases, Congress persons engage in Substantive
    representation >>> which is
   representing interests of groups.
2. Congressional goal-
Get elected-- Stay elected!
a. Incumbency -- What is it?

b. 1) I‟m in, now get me out. As party partisanship
    declines. . .legislators bear more of the burden to
    getting re-elected.
c. Safe districts prevail-?
     90% of reps in the 1980‟s got re-elected by 60%
    of the vote. 50% for senators. Marginal districts
    claim only 55% or less of the votes. In 2004
    election, 90% of incumbents got re-elected.
                        AP Gov't Review               74
  d) What makes an incumbent so
           invincible?
1) + visibility -- contacting the constituents.
  . .somehow i.e. travel home, franking,
  getting on the news
2) + credit claiming- Casework (helping out
  constituents to the vast porkbarrel (getting
  a chunk of that $1.9 trillion and bringing it
  home to mama. Why did Brainerd get a by-
  pass?
3) position taking - meeting roll call votes.
4) weak opponents - who lack the cash flow.
  opponents miss out on #1 + #2 above
                    AP Gov't Review           75
e. How are incumbents vulnerable?
(1) Scandals
(2) re-apportionment
(3) gerrymandering - drawing districts to favor one
    party over another. State issue.
(4) Majority-Minority districts gives minorities
    advantage in electing minorities.
wHat court case made majority/minority
   unconstitutional .
   Shaw v. Reno however, Supreme Ct claimed re-
   districting in North Carolina was
   unconstitutional




                       AP Gov't Review                76
                   Making policy
A collection of generalists making policy on specific
    topics.
If one needs to know how to vote on a bill. . .who do
    you ask ?
    a committee person for advice
1. House - Protecting the Masses .
a)–Who is the traffic cop on legislation?
    House Rules Committee controls the flow of bills -
    establishes a “rule” for each bill which schedules it.
b) Leadership – Who is the top person?
(1) Speaker - only office mandated by the Constitution
    – Who selects?
Party caucus selected – 4 powers?
((a)) Presides over the House; Prez succession – 3rd
((b)) Committee assignments influence
((c)) appoints Rules Committee members
((d)) Influences bill assignments to Committee
                            AP Gov't Review               77
Who are the other House leaders?
Majority leader
Minority leader
Party whips
Committee chairpersons




                  AP Gov't Review   78
                Senate
a. leadership
1) Vice President - President of the Sen
Significant power?
but he can break a tie vote. . .and it
  happens
2) Majority Leader - selected by
  Whom?
Congressional Party caucus. -
  3)Minority Leader –
4) PARTY whips-
                 AP Gov't Review       79
      Committees– what types?
legislation and Oversight
a. Standing Committees

    separate subject matter committees
b Joint Committees –
    Hse + senate share membership i.e.
    taxation
c. Conference committees –
    Two bills need one explanation- Both
    houses compromise here.
d. select committees –
    for specific reason

                   AP Gov't Review         80
f. committees also perform >>>
   oversight if and when a bill ever becomes
   law.
g. Committee chairpersons – How selected?
   Party caucus. Seniority prevails but
   majority caucuses now can choose
   chairpersons. What do they do?
Manage legislation thru bill making process.
h. Caucuses v. party leadership-
    legislators ban together under ideological
   flag: Black caucus, pro-life, pro-choice,
   gun control
                    AP Gov't Review              81
              Law Question
Legislation must go through an arduous
  process before a bill becomes a law.
a) Describe 3 stages where a bill may be
   eliminated in the legislative law-making
   process.
b) Of the 3 described in (a), explain which
   one contributes to the most bills being
   eliminated.
c) Explain two factors indicating how
   partisanship is involved in the success or
   failure of developing legislation.
                    AP Gov't Review             82
               Law answer
a) There are 15 ways. Must be truly distinct.
  . .no double dipping.
b) Answers my vary, but for example, 90%
  of legislation is terminated in the
  committee process.
c. Divided gov‟t within the legislature.
2) Filibusters
3) Party line voting is high on roll call votes.
4) Party line voting in committee
                     AP Gov't Review           83
                    Bill >>>> LAW
1. Who can introduce a Bill:
   You, legislator, president, bureaucracy. .
2. Speaker or Sen Maj leader does what?
   titles it + numbers it.
3. Off to Committee action -
a. Subcommittee >>>>
     a.   schedule hearings, Revise it, approve it, kill it
b. Committee >>>>
   schedules hearings, Revise it, approve it,
   kill it

                            AP Gov't Review                   84
c. Hse - Rules committee –
     Schedules Hse rules for floor action
1)  closed rule –
   1)   limits debate, amendments
2) open rule –
     amendments allowed
3) restrictive rule –
     selective amendments
4) A discharge petition???
     can avoid “Rules”. Speaker can initiate
5) Suspend the “Rules” . . .
     To floor for vote.
d. Senate –Who schedules debate?
House Majority leader. .
OOPS– Senate Majority leader.
Amendments are open for any cause.


                             AP Gov't Review   85
                      3. Floor action
a.   Committee of the Whole – Where found?
     a.   Hse - (100 or more members) can debate bills. No
          “riders” can be added. . .
b. Quorum call –
    218 House members needed to vote. . .majority
    passes legislation
c. Senate can add What to legislation?
    riders
4. If Senate and/or Hse disagree, Bill goes to:
     Select committee . . .
Oops – conference committee
5. Full Hse + Full Senate vote on conference
    committee version --
6. To President for signature or his veto


                              AP Gov't Review                86
          Passing Legislation?
1. Appeasing the “Chief Legislator
2. Party influence - 50% of the time
  legislators will vote party line. . . Hse
  partisanship is stronger than the Senate.
3. Who do legislators attempt to please?
  Constituency support - legislators are seen
  as “trustees” and instructed delegates =
  politicos,
4. Who else do Reps appease?
  SIGS + lobbyists - Been restricted by
  Congress in reporting who they represent
  and how much they spend. . ..

                    AP Gov't Review         87
     GEE. The Federal $$$$ Tree. . .
1.   The annual assessment of gov‟t expenditures + assets
     Budget
a.   Gov‟t collects $$$ via and spends it via
     expenditures. If tax allocations are higher. . .it‟s
     a(n)
     entitlement . . .
OOPS – Surplus
b. if expenses are higher. . .it‟s a . . .
     debt >>> Add them up it‟s
     national deficit
OOPS deficit. . .big one is a debt,
c. a $11.2 trillion dollar shortfall. . .of which 10% of
     the current budget pays JUST the INTEREST.


                        AP Gov't Review                 88
2. Federal income:
(1) #1 source
    Income tax – which Amendment:
    14th power to tax people via the IRS - 50%
OOPs 16th
(2) Corporate tax- 10%
(3) Social Insurance - FICA - 33%
(4) Borrowing - Debt load - shifts burden to future
    tax payers. Provokes thoughts of a “balanced
    budget amendment” w/ certain provisions.
(5) Lost Federal income-?
Fed tax “loopholes” the Grand DEDUCTION: -- Tax
    BREAKS! TAX
    Expenditures


                       AP Gov't Review                89
3. Federal expenditures top 3:
(1) Education
OOPS - Social Service state- (income security costs
     for the elderly, the poor, and the needy- Social
     Security Act 1935, Medicare 1965, 1/3 of federal
     budget.
(2) National Defense
(3) Interest on the Debt
f. The budget process is based on what idea? How
     much should I get next year. . .
(1) incrementalism –
Discretionary expenditures
    Increase last years budget by an “increment” to
        satisfy this years budget. Your budget proposal
        goes to whom?
    OMB
(2) Uncontrollable expenditures - 2/3 of the budget
(a)  entitlements - You qualify, you get them, no
     matter what the cost to the gov‟t, even if all the 90
                           AP Gov't Review
  Where does the budget process
             Begin:
1. Federal agencies submit their requests to
OMB. . . Who consolidate requests and then
  gives them to the president who then. . .
2. Puts together the budget and delivers it
  via-
SOTU . . . .
3. Congress then holds hearings w/ the
  standing committees and finally approves
  the . . .
4. 13 Appropriations bills. Prez signs it!
                   AP Gov't Review             91
               Budget Reform
Instead of just thinking we will only spend so much,
  Congress has established reforms to improve the
  process --1974 Act
(a) Fixed budget calendar
(b) budget committee
(c) CBO
(d) 1974 Reforms - budget resolution established in
  April sets the bottom line
((1)) budget reconciliation- change appropriations
  to reflect proposed savings
((2)) authorization bill ????
  sets program spending limits.
((3)) Appropriations bill –????? Show me the $$$$
   funds programs based on an authorization bill.
  Can‟t go higher, but can give lower amounts.

                       AP Gov't Review             92
               Social Policy
What are the two types of social welfare?
Student scholarships and grants
OOPS:
1.  Social Insurance. . .
a.  Transfer payments:
 Benefits given by the gov‟t to individuals
b. Cash pay outs –i.e. Social security payments;
    Entitlements- also referred to as social
    insurance programs- you pay, you play! Also
    Unemployment Insurance
2) In-kind transfers – food stamps, low interest
    college loans.
                      AP Gov't Review              93
2. Public assistance program:
1)  Funded by tax revenues and available only to
    the “needy” through a “means test”?
 One must prove they need “welfare”.
a)  TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy
    Families (formerly AFDC) that was put in place
    by the 1996 Welfare to Work Act
1)) Five year welfare status.
2))Must find work w/in two years
3)) unmarried teen mothers must stay in school
    and live w/ parent or guardian
4)) Mothers must ID deliquent fathers

                      AP Gov't Review                94
a. Which program does the public view
  more favorably: Means tested or social
  insurance programs? Why?
Ans: Social insurance programs are entitled
  because you pay into it.
Means tested are often viewed as “throwing
  $$$ at a problem, not necessarily fixing
  the problem.

                   AP Gov't Review        95
     Education works . . .BUTT . . .
a. Enforcement is difficult w/ the caseload
   and the thought of reducing gov‟t costs.
b. Education . . .

   the Horatio Alger approach of bettering
   oneself through school is a popular. .
   .and expensive notion.
Fact: the quality of education depends
   significantly on the wealth of the
   community in which a child resides.

                   AP Gov't Review            96
. Largest state budget allocation is education. . .but
      Nevada ranks in the low 40‟s in “quality of education”
     issues.
i.   Parents want results:
1)   School choice. . .let schools compete
2)   Voucher system:
Court ruled states can give parents vouchers for prvt access
     to schools >>>
Engel v. Vitale . . .
OOPS Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (02)
3) Purpose of NCLB . . .
Integrate public schools via busing
Nope that was Mecklenburg . . .
Set Nat‟l standards for math + reading


                          AP Gov't Review                  97
               Congress Essay
2. Political scientists often note that “Congress is too
    responsive to constituents, and, especially to
    organized interests. . .” while others argue that
    Congress is too insulated from ordinary citizens.
a. Identify an organized interest and explain what
    characteristics the interest may possess so
    Congress would address its needs.
b. Describe how Congress can “insulate” itself from
    its constituents and provide an example to
    support your claim.
c. Explain how Congress can overcome organized
    interests and better meet the needs of its
    constituents



                        AP Gov't Review                98
      Cong #1 Essay Rubrics
a.  Size, Educate, $$, Lobby (amicus curaie)
b. Prioritize agenda, Senate terms,
    Casework, Hire spinmasters????, Set
    limits on lobbyists, Log rolling
Polling. Use bennies of incumbency. Safe
    districts. Raise $$ to fight SIGS
c. Earmarks and porkbarreling. . .log rolling.
Target negative spin.
            Practice Essay #2
    The framers of the United States Constitution created
    a legislative system that is bicameral. However, it is
    not just bicameral; the framers also established two
    houses distinctly different in character and authority.
    (06)
   A. Explain two reasons why the framers created a
    bicameral legislature.
   B Identify one power unique to the House of
    Representatives and explain why the framers gave the
    House the power.
   C. Identify one power unique to the Senate and
    explain why the framers gave the Senate that power.

                         AP Gov't Review                 100
              President + Power to Bur
          V.sets the stage for “Executive Fed be Vested in a
Which Article
  president. .
VI
OOPs II
So What does Art VI do?
Supremacy Clause
II.
1. Constitutional Requirements
(a) 35 or older
(b) natural born
(c) 14 years of residency
(d) term limits ? Which amendment?
22. amendment-2 terms plus2)
(e) disability of president turns to . . .
to 25th amendment + succession process. A new non-elected VP
    needs approval from both houses.
(f) popularly elected, sometimes (accidential presidents)
Not elected by the populace . . .

                           AP Gov't Review                     101
              Formal Powers
a.  Domestic
1) Power of the purse. . .
NOPE
1) chief legislator-State of the Union, advises,
approves or vetos legislation
2)Chief executive . . .
3) Administrative powers - enforce the laws, select
    gov‟t officials (w/Senate approval); run the
    bureaucracy via “Executive Orders”. “Take
    Care” clause of Article II.
4) Judicial powers - reprieves, pardons, commute
    federal felons; nominate federal judges w/
    Senate majority confirmation.
                       AP Gov't Review                102
   Formal Foreign policy pwrs
1) National Security
a) commander in chief
b) Head of State (receives ambassadors and
  other heads of state)




                  AP Gov't Review        103
            Informal powers
a. presidential precedent (Washington
    turning to a cabinet for advice)
b. Actions of Congress –
    giving president power i.e. 1965 Gulf of
    Tonkin Resolution v. War Powers Act.
c. Media‟s use of the Bully Pulpit. Prez goes
    directly to the people. i.e. Clinton in „97
    budget freeze. . .Congress lost that
    battle.
d. Executive Orders . . . Can be formal or
    informal
                     AP Gov't Review              104
                   Executive Branch
1.     VP is a heart beat away. . . His/her qualifications?
a. Same constitutional requirements as president.
b. Political professional, eases one into the congressional
       gridlock.
c. faithful follower which might deter his own presidential
       ambitions. i.e., Bush + Gore.
d. Which amendment changed how VP was selected?
13th
Oops 12th
2. Cabinet positions -- How many
12 and the AG
OOPS
-14 secretaries and the AG
All must be confirmed by the
 . . . Senate.
a. Responsibilities- execute presidential and congressional
                                AP Gov't Review               105
b. Requirements- Prez supporters, usually partisan selections,
                       EOB
What is its function?
More advisors for domestic and foreign policy. In
   theory partisan, in reality, civil servants who stay
   as presidents move on.
Office heads appointed + confirmed by Senate
a. NSC - crisis mg‟ment- liaison to military, CIA
b. CEA - economic trend management
c. OMB- presidential budget oversight; watches
   Congress and the Bureaucracy

                       AP Gov't Review               106
                 WHO(s)
Partisan followers whose sole function is to
  support the president.
   If not, find another job. West Wing
  residents whose purpose is to oversee the
  political and policy interests of the prez-
  no Senate confirm here!



                   AP Gov't Review          107
         The other burocrats
filled by “federal” employees (85%) unless
   truly specialists in a given field (lawyers or
   businesspersons).
a. Party ID not that relevant because . . .
b. Appease caucus groups: Hispanics,
   women, blacks, elderly, far right
   constituents. Here are your participants in
   the issue network.

                     AP Gov't Review           108
             Prez Quality . . .
How get others to follow -
1. Act of Persuasion - Constitution is vague on
  what the PRESident can do. . .so great leaders
  get creative --
a. Powers enhanced by:
1) national constituency -
2) ceremonial head of state - and party, at least in
  first term. This can erode quickly if one‟s party
  deserts you and others compete in the primaries
  against you! It‟s tough to beat an incumbent!

                      AP Gov't Review              109
    Who does the Prez have to
           appease?
a. DC political pundits - can one do the job? Can
   one possess power- (charismatic leadership)
 One gets 100 days to show your stuff! Make it
   count because the “honeymoon is over.”
b. partisan grassroots- Chief of Party- Be a good
   Republican.
c. Joe Public- Use the polls to your advantage. TV
   spots are what you make them. When you are
   hot, your legislation flows, your fellow party
   people get re-elected. (coat-tail effect)

                      AP Gov't Review            110
                  Chief legislator
in name only. . . the power is shared with Congress
a. Advises- 4 ways
(1) shapes policy (2) consults Congr (3) bargains
(4) appeals to partisans (friends to the party)
b. Disapprovals
(1) Veto - It takes ____ of Hse + Sen to override. –
¼ of congress to override
OOPS 2/3
___ day limit or its law. Overrides seldom happen
a) pocket veto –
b) Congr adjourns; After 10 days it fails
b) line-item veto- State guvs can eliminate portions of a bill .
    . . „96 Congr approved and Prez agreed for an “enhanced
    rescission” of legislation. Prez had 5 days to “line-out”
    legislation. BUT Supreme Ct ruled it unconstitutional
    (Clinton v. City of NY) AP Gov't Review                   111
    Party     and the Presidential Agenda . .
1.) party support - 2/3 of the time party discipline
  prevails. But lack of consensus on policies and
  diversity of constituents hurts.
Congresspersons follow constituents first. . .
2). Off year elections are not popular for Prez‟s
except for Clinton in ‟98 + GW in ‟02. In ‟06 history
  prevailed.
3). Public approval gives leverage, not
  commanding influence. “Going Public”
4). Does one pursue a number of issues (Clinton)
  or just three or four (Reagan)

                       AP Gov't Review             112
             Foreign Policy
Some created by one‟s agenda. . .some inherited
  by past presidents.
 Some domestic, some foreign. Factors that
  influence decision making:
1. Chief Diplomat
a) extend + terminate diplomatic recognition
b) Negotiate treaties w/ . . .
2/3rd Senate confirm.
c) executive agreements-
d) initiate nuclear war, the President‟s call.
                     AP Gov't Review              113
2. Commander in Chief- Cold WAR V. HOT WAR
a)  Global military reach- Going to war w/o
    declaring war - police actions -
    Korea+Vietnam, Panama, Grenada, Iraq
1)  Foreign policy history:
a)) Isolationism – Monroe Doctrine established the
    “homefront” – The America‟s
b)) WWI we went “Over there” + Prez Wilson
    wanted involvement in a “League of Nations.
Senate said no.

                     AP Gov't Review             114
c)) WWII + Cold War – Defeated Japan +
  Germany and a power vacuum occurred that the
  Ruskies wished to fill.
1)) Containment policy vs. USSR‟s Communist
  Expansion. . .Greece, Korea, Vietnam, Western
  Europe. NATO vs. Warsaw Pact.
Also McCarthyism raging at home to thwart
  commie infiltration.
d)) Era of Détente – Lessoning of tensions. . .de-
  nuke in the 70‟s after the 60‟s madness.
e)) Ray Gun‟s Star wars initiative“broke” the
  Soviets. Or was it the Afganistan invasion of 81
                     AP Gov't Review            115
f)) USSR crumbles. . .China views a mixed
   economy. Eastern Europe throws off the yoke of
   Communism. USSR is liberated. The wall falls
   1989
g)) Terrorism is the next target. . .
1)) Kuwait + the multi-lateral coalition vs. IRAQ
2)) Unilateral theory of Bush 43 to finish off
Iraq + pursue the “Axis of Evil”. Any one who
   “harbors” or protects terrorists are against us.
3))What is the difference between multilateral and
   unilateral?

                      AP Gov't Review             116
     3 Instruments of Foreign policy
1.  Economic – sanctions, embargos, trade. .
    .Globalization prevails . . .
2.  Military – conventional – unconventional- MAD
    scenarios
3.  Coalition building
a)  UN, CENTO, SEATO, OAS, EU
b)  Multi-national Corporations
4. The Players
a)  Prez + his major players – Defense, State, NSC
b)  Congress


                     AP Gov't Review            117
1) Prez can dispatch troops for 60 days w/o
  Congr approval. . .then
2) War Powers resolution - Congress must
  allocate funds or troops are coming home.
  Gulf War Congr issued a resolution in
  support . . . same in war on terrorism.




                  AP Gov't Review         118
1. Domestically
(a) Prez can “VETO” legislation
(b) Congress can also prevent Presidential “actions” –
LEGISLATIVE VETO – Prez can‟t put actions into place until
   a 30-90 day waiting period. . .Congress submits a
   “resolution” to deny the Presidential action. . .
    (1) SC (Chadha case ) ruled it unconstitutional,
    Congress passes laws, Prez signs them into LAW. . .
   (2) But Congress still uses the LEG VETO as a threat to
   control the bureaucracy!



                         AP Gov't Review                 119
 (c) Congress can pull back funding if Prez
  doesn‟t spend the allocation. . . . What is that
  called?
 Impoundment of funds. . (1) Budget Reform
  ACT of 1974. . .Does the Prez have to spend all
  he gets. . .He can‟t spend what he doesn‟t get!!!
2. Foreign Policy
(a) War Powers Act 1973 – MUST notify Congress.
  . .but does he need their approval????

                      AP Gov't Review             120
                 Impeachment
1.   Reason –
Hse may charge the president, by majority vote, for
     “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and
     Misdemeanors. Submit Articles of Impeachment to the
2. Senate,
which holds the trial with the Chief Justice and presiding
     judge. 2/3 of Senate votes to convict. . .That‟s a
     supermajority vote.
3. Two Presidents have been impeached,
NONE
convicted. Johnson, + Clinton. . . Nixon resigned B4 trial.


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           Federal Burocracy
1.  Federal Civil Service -- powerless patronage
    - it‟s what you can do (merit principle) instead
    of who you know( the spoils system)
a.  In 1883 this established federal civil service
b.  Pendelton Civil Service Act-
b. What prohibits civil servants from becoming
    political activists while working?
Hatch Act-
c. Who hires and fires.
    Office of Personnel Management (OPM)(1) -

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                 Buro organization
a.    Burocracies follow what model. . .
Weberian Model – What makes it so unique?
1) Hierarchy\
2) task specialization
3) merit base – not patronage. An assassins bullet changed the system.
4) Impartiality
5) A culture – “This is how it is done here” type of attitude.
b. Acquisitive/Monopolistic
1) Maximize one‟s budget-
2) Only show on the block - monopoly
3) fear of privatization
c. Garbage can - Buy something and then find a use for it.
      Solutions are in search of problems.
d. American bureaucracies share each of the above theories in administering to
      the needs of the American people.



                                  AP Gov't Review                           123
           Federal Hierarchy
a. Cabinet Departments- 15 of those - although
  some have been in jeopardy - i.e. What does
  “the Commerce” department do? Interior
b. Regulatory Agencies –
  affect economy by making and enforcing rules
  designed to protect the public interest. Munn v.
  Illinois (1877) ICC followed in 1887 to
  regulate RR‟s
Small commission oversees agency. Appointed by
  president, confirmed by Senate for fixed terms -
  Oust via Just Cause!
SIGS attempt to impact Regulatory agencies!
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1) FRB (Federal reserve Board - Regulates
  $$$ supply > interest rates.
2) NLRB (Nat‟l Labor Relations Board)
3) FCC - licensing and managing the HUGE
  TV, telephone, internet; with some
  success.
4) FTC - monopoly watch - ad accuracy
5) SEC - police stock market.
                  AP Gov't Review           125
          Gov‟t Corporations
like prv‟t corps. Provide services and charge for
   them
1) TVA
2) US Post Office - the largest corp.
3) Amtrack
d. Independent Executive Agencies - all the
   rest. Chiefs appointed by the president
1) GSA – General Service Administration
2) NSF - Nat‟l Science Foundation
3) NASA -


                      AP Gov't Review               126
        Policy implementation
Congressional laws Presidential orders, Judicial
  decisions and make them into policy .
a) Assign (new or old) agency the task.
b) Set up operational rules and develop guidelines
c) Coordinate resources and personnel.
d) BUT . . . . . best laid plans go astray
1) Program design is faulty. . .What is said in
  Washington may not fly in Las Vegas.


                      AP Gov't Review            127
2) lack of clarity in the idea - i.e. Title IX equality
  for men and women sports. What does “equal”
  mean? law states “reasonable provisions” to
  provide equality. . .What is “reasonable”?
OR - immigration keeps out the terrorists but
  allows immigrants into an open door country?
3) lack of resources - - AIDS prevention, INS
  problems, DOE auditting, FAA and IRS are
  undermanned. FDA and drug testing.
4) SOP‟s + red tape - frustrate constituents-

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5) Administrator discretion - Politics
 is a factor.
So is constituent pressure!
6) Diffusion of responsibility - the
 Drug War is Justice, customs
 (Treasury) , military (Defense)
 State and more. . .and then Congress is
 involved. It often gets fragmented.
                  AP Gov't Review          129
         Too much regulation
1.  Costs the private sector which means it costs
    the consumer.
2.  Is America losing its competitive edge vs.
    foreign countries?
3.  Does “red tape” strangle the system?
Command and control policy
                  vs.
Incentive system = punish the offenders only
Emphasize free market strategies.

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       Controlling the Bureaucratic
                  morass
a. Presidential orders
1) Appointments
2) issue executive orders
3) Budget squeezes
4) Re-organize (deregulation move)
b. Congress
1) influence appointments
2) budget influence
3) hold hearings
4) rewrite legislation
5) Let the prv‟t sector do it- deregulate!

                           AP Gov't Review   131
               Practice Essay
   1. The concept of “divided government” in the
    United States means that one political party can
    control the executive branch while another
    controls the legislative branch. This poses
    problems for the President in making
    appointments to federal offices. (02)
   a. Describe two problems that divided
    government poses for the President in making
    federal appointments.
   b. Identify and explain two ways Presidents try to
    overcome the problems described in (a).



                        AP Gov't Review             132
         Essay # 1 Rubrics
Problems (2) – Greater policy conflict;
  narrows candidate field; Offices unfilled;
  Tougher committee scrutiny; Confirmation
  harder; Character assassinations on cands.
Overcome (4) = Gen public support;
  Compromise; build congr coalitions;
  dealmaking (veto threat) Find SIG
  coalitions; Make interim recess apptmts;
  Better bckgrnd screening; pick minority
  candidates; Turn to WHS for guidance
  instead of hostile apptmts.
                   AP Gov't Review        133
             Practice Essay #2
Presidents are generally thought to have advantages over
     Congress in conducting foreign policy because of the
     formal and informal powers of the presidency. (04)
a. Identify two formal constitutional powers of the President
     in making foreign policy.
b. Identify two formal constitutional powers of Congress in
     making foreign policy.
c. Identify two informal powers of the President that
     contribute to the President‟s advantage over Congress in
     conducting foreign policy.
d. Explain how each of the informal powers identified in (c)
     contributes to the President‟s advantage over Congress in
     conducting foreign policy.




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                  Rubrics #2
  A.(2) ID‟s= Co in chief; appt for policy officials;
   Recog nations; Receive Ambass
 B. (2) IDs = confirm abass, pwr or purse;declare
   war; pass resolutions/aws; reg for commerce;
   ratify treaties.
c. (2) Id‟s informal = Exec Agreemts; Media Access-
   Bully plpt; Agenda setting; Cris mgr; Coalitions;
   President more fp access; Global ldr status;
d. Prez + > Persuade Congr; Persuade public; can
   circumvent the formal process via EO‟s
                        AP Gov't Review             135
                    Review Q 3
  43.”The president and Congress may get more attention
   in the news, but it is the bureaucracy that has the more
   immediate impact on the daily lives of Americans.”
               Thomas Patterson
 a. Assess the validity of this statement by explaining three
   principles that leads to a bureaucracy‟s system of
   organization and control.
 b. Describe the functions of three of the four bureaucratic
   agencies listed below.
Cabinet Departments
Independent Agency
Regulatory Agency
Government Corporation
                           AP Gov't Review                  136
                    Rubrics #3
a. Assessment interpretation may vary. The three principles
   are hierarchical authority, job specialization, and
   formalized rules. (4 points)
b. Functions are: Cabinet Departments provide are the
   major administrative organizations that are responsible
   for a general policy area. Independent Agency are similar
   to cabinet departments except they have a narrower area
   of responsibility. Agency chiefs are appointed by the
   president but do not have cabinet rank. Regulatory
   agencies monitor and regulate economic activities.
   Government Corporations charge for a service like the
   Post Office or Amtrak. (3 points)


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                        Essay Q 4
3. Presidential powers have evolved over time as presidents have
   exercised their authority in leading the nation.
a. Describe the difference between the Whig (Anti-federalist)
   theory of the presidency and the stewardship (Federalist) theory
   of the presidency.
b. Explain how two of the presidential powers listed below would
   be asserted under the Whig theory of the presidency. Provide
   examples to support your analysis.
 Chief Executive

 Chief Diplomat

 Legislative Leader

c. Using the same powers identified in (b), explain how the
   presidential powers would be asserted under the stewardship
   theory of the presidency. Provide examples to support your
                                AP Gov't Review                   138
   analysis.
                          Q 4 Rubrics
   a. The Whig theory holds that the presidency is a limited or constrained
    office where the president is limited to his specific constitutional powers.
    The stewardship theory maintains that the president should be a strong,
    assertive, and forceful leader, using implicit interpretations of his powers to
    lead the country. (2 points)
 b. Congress initiates policy and it is the responsibility of the president to
    administer this policy. (4 pts)
c. In the stewardship theory the president can do anything that is not
    specifically forbidden by the Constitution. For example, he cannot declare
    war but he can send troops into hostile environments without Congressional
    approval without violating the War Powers Act. Executive powers are
    definitely vested in the president and a strong-willed president can attempt
    to lead the country without Congressional support or approval. Executive
    orders, agreements, interim appointments. . .are a few examples for each of
    the two selected. (4 points)


                                    AP Gov't Review                              139
 V. Judicial / Civil Lib + Civil Rights
A. Define Rule of Law –
Ans: society establishes regulations,
  principles + norms coordinated by
  unbiased individuals.
B. Federal law + courts are outlined?
1. Art III - . . . judicial pwr shall extend
  to all cases, in Law + Equity. . and
  vested in one Supreme Ct + in such
  inferior crts.

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                Essay #3
There are several constraints that make it
   difficult for a president to develop a
   program.
a. For two of the constraints below,
   Identify a specific example and explain
   why it made it difficult for a president to
   pursue his program.
  Crisis
  The federal budget
  Adverse popular reaction
6 pts; 3 pts per constraint.
                    AP Gov't Review          141
     2. Constitutional courts -
1) Judiciary Act of 1789 gets Fed
   district cts.
a) These cts have . . . ? jurisdiction

original jurisdiction
b) only ct‟s to hold trials w/ juries (only
   3% end in ruling, the rest are plea
   bargained)
c) Who selects these judges + how?
Ans: prez thru confirmation process

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2) Ct of Intern‟tl trade
3) Court of Appeals
a) Jurisdiction?

 appellate jurisdiction
b) How many districts
12 districts
c) Function:
correct mistakes made in district cts.


                  AP Gov't Review        143
4) Supreme Ct - (T-61)
a) Jurisdiction?
original and appellate jurisdiction
b) # of justices
9
c) Types of cases?
Constitutional issues (14th amendment)
5. Other courts:
 Special cts + legislative cts (set up to
   deal w/ powers of Congress)
                 AP Gov't Review       144
            d. Jurisdiction
1) original –
trial starts here. 90% end here
2) appellate –
 adverse decision from lower ct. or
    highest state supreme ct sends it up
    to US Supreme Ct.




                 AP Gov't Review      145
           e. Judge portfolio
1) How are federal judges selected?
Presidential appointment w/ Senate 2/3
   vote to confirm
1) Senatorial courtesy –
home state senator can immediately VETO a
   confirmation w/o discussion.
2) Term –
Lifetime appointments for all fed judges.
   Why is that so special?
Can enhance a president‟s legacy
3) impeachment
Yes - (7 in US history) is available for
   “unacceptable” behavior.

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4) Judge must meet the “litmus test”? - -
  ideological purity is critical
What make appointments more difficult?
  Divided Gov‟t makes it more difficult to
  select and confirm judges.
5) Confirmation could go badly if:
a) you have the minority party in Senate
b) Pres is in the late term selections
c) Judge has ethics violations, can nix
  nomination. i.e. Clarence Thomas survived,
  Robert Bork did not.

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           f. Qualifications
1) Most are Lawyers
2) Male (2 female selections)
3) White (2 blacks selected, i.e.
 Thurgood Marshal + Brown v.
4) SES - upper middle or upper class
5) Protestant
6) Party favorites - only 13 of 108 SC
 judges non partisan selections. 90%
 partisan selections.
7) IDEOLOGY is the KEY factor

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                    g. Case work
1)   What gives the Courts their power over Leg + Executive
     decisions?
Judicial review gives fed cts power to “hear” federal questions
     and overrule Leg + Exec branches -- overturned 100 rulings
The court case?
Marbury v. Madison 1801 provided right of Judicial Review. . .
2) Rule of 4 culls
     through 7500 case + selects about 100. (T-62)
3) Solicitor Genrl
     assists in Appellate ct case load possibilities. . .
a)   writ of mandamus –
  Ct demands ACTION
b) writ of certiorae-
Certificate FROM SC requesting a case be sent up.
c) Writ of Habeas Corpus –
Jailers must explain why holding a suspect.



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           Deliberations + opinions
 Chief justice delegates authority to writing WHY we (the SC)
     voted. Only 1/3 of decisions have been unanimous.
a)   concurring –
We agree and here is why
OR-could stress a “different” constitutional or legal foundation
     for the opinion
b) dissenting –
we disagree
c) stare decisis –
 decision stands -
d) How many judges does one need to vote?
SIX judges to vote –
How many to decide a case?
MAJORITY. Tie votes retains lower Ct decision.
Need five votes to set a . . .




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                   e) Precedent
lower cts follows decisions of higher cts.
 Can SC overrule its own decisions ?
Yes -- (200 times) because times change. i.e.
Brown v. Board of Educ (54) (Integrate)
                        overruled
                Plessy v. Ferguson (1898)
                        (Separate but equal)
Congress can re-initiate legislation the following term.
(e) Interpretations can follow strict constructionist beliefs ???
   (original intent of the constitution) v.
                Activist decisions
   Liberal interpretation that widens Constitutions original
   intent> i.e.
   Gibbons v. Ogden
Political climate can indicate the ideological tendencies of the
   bench.

                            AP Gov't Review                    151
              Court History
1) First Trimester - Developmental issues
i.e. Marbury v. Madison –
Offices
Mccullough v. Maryland
Nat‟l bank + Necessary + proper clause
   (implied powers)
Barrons v. Baltimore
Equal opportunity is a national issue
2) 2nd Trimester - Economic issues
Munn v. Illinois
(1877) set up ICC

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3) Last trimester - social issues
a)  Most liberal court?
Warren Ct set “liberal precedents in
    education, civil liberties, re-
    apportionment, 1960‟s
b) Burger Ct (a Minnesotan selected by
    Nixon was more conservative although it
    set precedent w/ Wade v. Roe.
c) Rehnquist Ct - limited rights established
    by Warren Ct, not reversed; affirmative
    action policies severely scrutinized.

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                 B. Civil Liberties
1. define -
Indiv legal and constitutional protections v. Govt.
CL‟s are found in where ?
The Bill of Rights (1-10) and the SC is the final arbitrator.
    Winds of change shift these interpretations, especially in
    time of war . . . (cartoon)
2. Bill of rights review
a.  Freedom of Expression (religious, press, speech, assembly –
    is found where?
1st Amendment
b. Privacy
     (3+4)
c. Defendant‟s rights
     (5-8)
d. Other rights
    (2,5,9-10)



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3. Only a federal issue Barron v. Baltimore, states or
   local gov‟t could infringe on civil liberties until SC
   ruled in 1925 that states must follow SOME 1st
   Amendment rights
Gitlow v. New York.        BUT
4. SC used the 14th Amendment as the precedent,
   not the 1st. States could NOT abridge 1st Am
   freedoms.
   This is called:
   Incorporation doctrine - States have slowly come
   under the Bill of Rights.
5. Door is now open for Bill of Rights enforcement:
Have all the amendments been incorporated?
No, 1,3,4,5,6,8 have been, 2,7,9,+`10 have not. What is
   that called>
Selective incorporation


                          AP Gov't Review                   155
             2. Ist Amendment
1. Tinker v DesMoines-
Dress codes
2. Gitlow v. N.Y. –
Incorporation Doctrine
3. Lemon v. Kurtzman-
Aid to churches follows set guidelines
4. Engel v. Vitale-
Prayer in schools is unconstitutional
5. School District of Abington Township v.
   Pennsylvania v. Schempp-
Prayer violates establishment clause



                      AP Gov't Review        156
6. Near v. Minnesota (1931)
-no prior restraint censorship
7. Schneck v. U.S. (1919) –
Govt could restrict inflam rhetoric
8. Brandenburg v. Ohio-
can incite w /o lawless action
9. Zurcher v. Stanford Daily
NP‟s files can be searched


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10. Roth v. U.S.
Obsentity cannot be protected by the 1st

11. Miller v. California
Community standards sets Obscen but what
  is lewd
12. N.Y. Times v. Sullivan –
Malice
13. Texas v. Johnson –
Flag burning is symbolic speech


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14. NAACP v. Alabama-
No files for harassment purposes
15. U.S. v. Playboy Entertainment
 Group -Target block v. ban
16. Red Lion v. FCC    -
Gov‟t can restrict broadcasts.
17. Reno v. ACLU –
1st Amendment applies to internet


                AP Gov't Review     159
3. Restrictions on 1st Amendments?
1) unprotected speech include:
 obscenity, defamatory speech,
 pornography, fighting words,
 seditious speech. The PRess now
 includes cable, faxes + e-mails
2) Freedom of assembly restrictions:
lawful + nonviolent; order maintained
 by time, place, manner; precise, fairly
 administered and content neutral.
NO prvt property trespassing!
                 AP Gov't Review       160
                   4. Accused rights
4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th Amendments:
1). Original intent to protect rights from political
    arrests. Now it has expanded to protecting rights
    of the “accused”. >>>
2). Due Process (T- )
a) To arrest or search for evidence MUST have:
(1) Probable (Reasonable) Cause to arrest + gather
    evidence-4th Amendment restricts
      unreasonable searches + Seizures +
      Writ of Habeus Corpus
         issued forbidding imprisonment w/o evidence (Art 1)
  Exclusionary rule-
(2)

Can illegally seized evidence be used against the
  accused?

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d) Questioning - no forced incriminations
   (5th) + no excessive bail
 (8th)
3) Prosecution ( or plea bargain) > Trial
Speedy trial w/ a jury
(6th, Art III) +
no double jeopardy
(5th);
confront witnesses
(6th)
4) Verdict > Sentencing (if needed)
No cruel or unusual punishments
(8th)

                       AP Gov't Review      162
17. Mapp v. Ohio-
Exclusionary rule holds for states too.
18. Miranda v. Arizona –
Police questioning of suspects
19. Jacobson v. U.S. -
IS IT OR IS IT NOT ENTRAPMENT

20. Gideon v. Wainright-
Felony charged defendants need
 counsel
                  AP Gov't Review         163
21. Betts v. Brady –
Only Cap Punish defendants get counsel
22. Fuhrman v. Georgia-
Sentencing too random, but CP is OK
23. Harmelin v. Michigan
-severity isn‟t necessarly cruel
24. Gregg v. Georgia-
Cap Punish is severe, but not cruel
25. McGlesky v. Kemp-
Cap Pun does not violate 14th Amend

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26. Griswold v.Connecticut-
Privacy issue over Birth control 9th
27. Roe v. Wade-
Trimester ruling unleashed abortion
  issue
28. Webster v. Reproductive Health
  Services-
states can control who performs
  abortions, i.,e. state employees


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29. Rust v. Sullivan –
No fed funds for planning abortions
     30. Planned Parenthood v. Casey-
 abortions can be regulated
31. Sternberg v. Carhart –
partial birth abortion is legal
32. Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept of
 Health-
patients can refuse med treatment-
 informed suicide

                  AP Gov't Review      166
          C. Civil Rights -
1 Gov‟t does not discriminate against
  us
2 Gov‟t protects us from interference
  by private individuals.
3. Framers referred to these rights as
  “NATURAL RIGHTS”, rights of all
  people to dignity and worth.
Today they are called HUMAN RIGHTS.


                AP Gov't Review      167
4. The opposite of affirmative action is . . .
   Discrimination - denying access.
5. Equal Justice - not equal results or equal
   rewards. . .the Constitution does NOT
   intend to provide equal condition. . . just
   equal opportunity - Life should get better.
a) 1st mention of equality is
   14th Amendment - All will have “equal
   protection” unless there is a “compelling
   public interest” to discriminate.
b) Burden of proof is on the state.
   THEREFORE . . . to right a past wrong, I
   may have to discriminate to RIGHT past
   ills for a period of time!

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                     Black Issues
a. although the 13th Amendment prohibits . . .
                  slavery – 1865 Overturned
                     Dred Scott v. Sanford
b. 14th Amendment
   Equal protection - 1868
c. 15th Amendment –
   Right to vote (1870)
e. Segregation and White Supremacy prevailed.
   Jim Crow Laws that preached a separate society.
What court case established this behavior?
Plessy v. ferguson.
Separate but equal


                          AP Gov't Review            169
1) voting
2) Housing
3) Job procurement
4) accessibility to public
   accommodations
f. What was formed in 1910?
NAACP.
(1) President Truman and Eisenhower
   integrated the military and Fed
   Bureaucracy

                AP Gov't Review       170
2) As Congress dragged its feet w/ a Southern
    Senatorial block, the executive and judicial
    branches responded.
a)  Brown v. Board of Education (1954) –
Ended segregation…
Segregation by law
“de jure segregation” was unconstitutional. But de
    facto segregation-
    segregation by choice or reality- still prevailed
    until Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of
    Education 1971?.
 the SC ruled that schools will re-district to end
    segregation via busing, a very unpopular device
    to integrate.

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a)   Da Vote - Voting Rights Act of 1965
     1) ended the means to effect sufferage.
b) 24th Amendment ended what? (3)
   Poll taxes, White primaries,
   gerrymandered districts, all were thrown
   out.
c) This has also established “minority v.
   majority districts that promoted minority
   electorates . . . What ct case ended that?
    but Shaw v. Reno and other cases has
   condemned the design of districts using
   race as the predominant factor.

                         AP Gov't Review       172
             Women‟s issues
1.   Women in the work force has
     provided economic equality (by
     some measurements). Political
     equality came with which
     Amendment ?
2.   19th (1920) but ERA fell short in
     1987.




                    AP Gov't Review      173
     Gender discrimination status
1) Rational base test - Is it reasonable to have boys‟
   compete VS girls in hockey; The court case?
Reed v. Reed 1971 1st discrimination ruling based
   on gender.
2) Heightened/medium scrutiny- Important gov‟t
   objectives exist for gender based law.
Orr v. Orr. Alimony only to women. . .NOTTT
3) Strict Scrutiny standard.
   A Man gets the raise because he is the major
   wage earner, not the female. . .NOTTTTT.
   Fundamental rights are at issue here. . .
4. What banned sex discrimination in hiring, firing
   and compensation?
    Civil Rights Act of „64 + „72


                        AP Gov't Review              174
            Affirmative Action
   a. Results have provoked reverse
    discrimination charges –
    Regents of U of Calif v. Bakke
    overruled Adarand v Pena. ???




                   AP Gov't Review     175
                    CR Essay
   2. The Supreme Court ruled in Barron v.
    Baltimore (1833) that the Bill of Rights did not
    apply to the states. Explain how the Court has
    interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment to apply
    to the Bill of Rights to the states. In your
    answer, briefly discuss the Court‟s decision in
    one of the following cases to support your
    explanation.
       • Gitlow v. New York (1925)
      • Wolf v. Colorado (1949)
      • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

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   2. Many scholars and observers have argued that the ratification of
    the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution has become the
    single most important act in all of United States politics.
   a. Identify which provision of the Fourteenth Amendment was
    applied in one of the following Supreme Court cases. For the case
    you select, explain the significance of the decision in United States
    politics.
   • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
   • Baker v. Carr (1962)
   • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
   b. Identify which provision of the Fourteenth Amendment was
    applied in one of the following Supreme Court cases. For the case
    you select, explain the significance of the decision in United States
    politics.
   • Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
   • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
   • Miranda v. Arizona (1966)



                                 AP Gov't Review                            177
                      CR essay #3
   Since the 1950s, Congress has passed landmark
    legislation that has advanced the civil rights of its
    citizens. Select two pieces of legislation below and with
    your knowledge of American politics, answer the
    following.
   a. Identify a specific ethnic or minority group and explain
    how it was impacted by this legislation
   •The Twenty-fourth Amendment
   • Civil Rights Act of 1964
   • Title IX Higher Education Act (1972)
   • American with Disabilities Act of 1990
   b. Identify an ethnic or minority group that was inversely
    affected by two of the pieces of legislation selected in (a)
    and explain how it impacted them

                             AP Gov't Review                  178
           „o5 essay exam Q‟s
1. Explain how each of the political factors
  listed below make it difficult for the federal
  government to enact public policy. (01)
Provide one example for each explanation.
• Divided government
• Weak party discipline
• Growth in the number of interest groups
  and political action committees (PAC‟s)


                     AP Gov't Review          179
2. Elections in the United States are
  characterized by low voter turnout.
a. Discuss two demographic characteristics
  associated with nonvoting.
b. Discuss three institutional obstacles
  associated with nonvoting. (98)




                   AP Gov't Review           180
1. Citizen‟s often choose to participate in the
    political process other than voting to
    increase one‟s political efficacy.
a. Define political efficacy.
b. Identify two forms of participation in the
    political process other than voting.
c. Explain two advantages of each form of
    participation you identified in (a) that
    would increase one‟s political efficacy.

                     AP Gov't Review          181
2. Presidents are generally thought to have advantages over
     Congress in conducting foreign policy because of formal
     and informal powers of the presidency. (04)
a. Identify two formal constitutional powers of the President
     in making foreign policy.
b. Identify two formal constitutional powers of Congress in
     making foreign policy.
c. Identify two informal powers of the President that
     contribute to the President‟s advantage over Congress
     in conducting foreign policy.
d. Explain how each of the informal powers identified in (c)
     contributes to the President‟s advantage over Congress
     in conducting foreign policy.



                           AP Gov't Review                 182
1. Congress has often been criticized for
  how effective it is in exercising legislative
  oversight of the federal bureaucracy? (99)
  a. Explain two specific methods Congress
  uses to exercise effective oversight of the
  federal bureaucracy.
  b. Give two specific explanations for the
  failure of Congress to exercise oversight of
  the federal bureaucracy.


                    AP Gov't Review          183
2. In the last half of the twentieth century, voter
  turnout in federal elections has declined. During
  the same period, voter turnout has been higher
  in presidential elections than in midterm
  elections. (o2)
(a) Identify two factors that have contributed to the
  overall decline in turnout in federal elections and
  explain how each factor has contributed to the
  overall decline.
b) Identify and explain two reasons why voter
  turnout has been higher in presidential elections
  than in midterm elections.


                       AP Gov't Review             184
   Different interest groups will choose different techniques to achieve
        their objectives based on their resources, characteristics and
        goals. (04)
a. Describe each of the following techniques and explain
      why an interest group would choose each technique.
* Litigation
* Campaign contributions
* Grassroots lobbying/mass mobilization
b. Select one of the following groups and identify the
      primary technique it uses from the list in pat (a).
      Explain why the group you selected would employ that
      technique over the other two techniques.
      American Medical Association (AMA)
      Sierra Club
      National Rifle Association (NRA)
      National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
       (NAACP)


                               AP Gov't Review                         185
  Trust and confidence in government has declined in
      recent decades. (04)
a. Explain how divided government has contributed
    to the decline in trust and confidence in
    government. Be sure to include a definition of
    divided government in your response.
b. Explain how the increased cost of election
    campaigns has contributed to the decline in
    trust and confidence in government.
c. Explain two specific consequences of the decline
    in trust and confidence in government for
    individual political behavior.

                        AP Gov't Review                186
Good Luck!!!



    AP Gov't Review   187

				
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