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					Industrial Revolution

Three Views of the Industrial Revolution
    • Technological Change
    • Social Change
    • Prime Actors/Industrialists
The Industrial Age Cometh!!!

                       Industrial Revolution   2
Three Approaches
 Technological Approach emphasizes the
 mechanics of the production
 Social Approach emphasized changing
 societal structures and relationships
 Approach emphasizes the Great Individual

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Current Distribution of Major Industrial Regions Worldwide

         Note how few and concentrated these are and
         no major concentration in Africa as yet

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Part 1: The Technical Hypothesis

     Dr Raymond L Sanders Jr
     University of Texas at Austin
       Web source

                                 Industrial Revolution                                              5
Sander’s Learning Objective
1. Tracing the development of the Industrial
   Revolution to Technological Innovations

2. Discussing its spread across the landscape

                 Industrial Revolution          6
Two great economic “revolutions”
occurred in human development
 Agricultural Revolution -- Domestication of
 plants and animals occurred in our dim
 prehistory (8,000bc approx.)
 – Ultimately resulted in a huge increase in human
 – Greatly accelerated modification of the physical
 – Resulted in major cultural readjustments

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Two great economic “revolutions”
occurred in human development
 The Industrial Revolution, started in the
 eighteenth century, is still taking place
 – Involves a series of inventions leading to the use of
   machines and inanimate power in the manufacturing
 – Suddenly whole societies could engage in seemingly
   limitless multiplication of goods and services
 – Rapid bursts of human inventiveness followed
 – Gigantic population increases

                     Industrial Revolution                 8
Two great economic “revolutions”
occurred in human development
 The Industrial Revolution, started in the
 eighteenth century, is still taking place today
  – Massive, often unsettling, remodeling of the
    environment (human and physical)
  – Today, few lands remain largely untouched by its
    machines, factories, transportation devices, and
    communication techniques
  – On an individual level, no facet of North American life
    remains unaffected
  – Just about every object and every event in your life is
    affected, if not actually created, by the Industrial
        What’s this???
                     Industrial Revolution                    9
Life before the Industrial Revolution
– People were concerned with the most basic of
  primary economic activities
– Acquired the necessities of survival from the
– Society and culture was overwhelmingly rural
  and agricultural
– Before 1700 virtually all manufacturing was
  carried on in two systems, cottage and guild
  industries, both depended on hand labor and
  human power
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 Cottage industry
 – Most common, was practiced in farm homes
   and rural villages
 – Usually a sideline to agriculture
 – Objects for family use were made in each
 – Most villages had a cobbler, miller, weaver, and
   smith who worked part-time at home
 – Skills passed from parents to children with little
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 Guild industry
 – Consisted of professional organizations of
   highly skilled, specialized artisans engaged full
   time in their trades and based in towns and cities
 – Membership came after a long apprenticeship
 – Was a fraternal organization of artisans skilled
   in a particular craft

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Origins of the Industrial
 Arose among back-country English cottage
 craftspeople in the early 1700s
 First: human hands were replaced by
 machines in fashioning finished products
 – Rendered old manufacturing definition (“made
   by hand”) obsolete – new definition emerges
 – Manufacturing transformation of raw materials
   into finished goods for sale, or intermediate
   processes involving the production or finishing
   of semi-manufactures.

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Origins of the
 First: human hands were replaced by
 machines in fashioning finished products
 – Weavers no longer sat at a hand loom, instead
   large mechanical looms were invented to do the
   job faster and more economically

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The Water Frame (Richard Arckwright)

gave way
to various
forms of

               Industrial Revolution   15
Origins of the Industrial
   Second: Human
   power gave way

• Machines were driven by water power,
burning of fossil fuels, and later
hydroelectricity and the energy of the atom
• Men and women became tenders of
machines instead of producers of fine hand
made goods
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Origins of the Industrial
 Within 150 years, the Industrial Revolution
 greatly altered the first three sectors of
 industrial activity
   • Textiles
   • Metallurgy
   • Mining

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Origins of the Industrial
 – Initial breakthrough occurred in the
   British cotton textile cottage industry,
   centered in the Lancashire district of
   western England
 – First changes were modest and on a
   small scale
   • Mechanical looms, powered by flowing
     water were invented
   • Industries remained largely rural
   • Diffused hierarchically to sites of rushing

                       Industrial Revolution       18
     Water Power to Finished Cloth and engineering/looms.htm

                                            Industrial Revolution                                19
Origins of the Industrial
 – Later in the eighteenth century invention of the steam
   engine provided a better source of power
 – In the United states, textile plants were also the first

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Origins of the Industrial
 – Traditionally, metal industries had been
   small-scale, rural enterprises

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Origins of the Industrial
 – Situated near ore sources
 – Forests provided charcoal for smelting process
 – Chemical changes that occurred in steel making
   remained mysterious even to craftspeople who
   used them
 – Techniques had changed little since the
   beginning of the Iron Age, 2500 years before

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Origins of the Industrial
 – In the 1700s, inventions by iron makers in the
   Coalbrookdale of English Midlands, created a
   new scientific, large-scale industry
   • Coke, nearly pure carbon, which is derived from
     nearly pure coal, replaced charcoal in the smelting
   • Large blast furnaces replaced the forge
   • Efficient rolling mills took the place of hammer and
   • Mass production of steel resulted
                     Industrial Revolution                  23
Origins of the Industrial
 – First to feel effects of new technology was coal
   • Adoption of steam engine necessitated huge amounts
     of coal to fire boilers
   • Conversion to coke further increased demand for coal
   • Fortunately, Britain had large coal deposits
   • New mining techniques and tools were invented
   • Coal mining became a large-scale mechanized

                    Industrial Revolution               24
Origins of the Industrial
 – Because coal is heavy and bulky, manufacturing
   industries began flocking to the coal fields, to be
   near supplies
 – Similar modernization occurred in mining of
   iron ore, copper, and other metals needed by
   growing industries

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Coalfields in UK
Became centers
for 19th Century
Consider the
relationship of
coalfields in the
US and our
Industrial Belt
(now the Rust

                    Industrial Revolution   26
Origins of the Industrial
 – Wooden sailing ships gave way to steel vessels
   driven by steam engines
 – Canals were built
 – British-invented railroad came on the scene
 – Need to move raw materials and finished
   products from place to place, cheaply and
   quickly, was main stimulus leading to
   transportation breakthroughs

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Origins of the Industrial
 – Impact of the Industrial Revolution would have
   been minimized if distribution of goods and
   services had not been improved
 – British revolutionized shipbuilding industry and
   dominated it from their Scottish shipyards even
   into the twentieth century
 – New modes of transport fostered additional
   cultural diffusion
 – New industrial-age popular culture could easily
   penetrate previously untouched areas
                   Industrial Revolution              28
Diffusion from Britain
 For a century, Britain held a virtual
 monopoly on its industrial innovations
 – Government actively tried to prevent diffusion
 – Gave Britain enormous economic advantage
 – Contributed greatly to growth and strength of
   British Empire

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Diffusion from Britain
 The technology finally diffused beyond the
 British Isles
 – Continental Europe first received its impact in
   last half of the nineteenth century
   • Took firm root hierarchically in coal fields of
     Germany, Belgium, and other nations of
     northwestern and Central Europe
   • Diffusion of railroads provides a good index

                     Industrial Revolution             30
Introduction of Railroads in Europe Over
the 19th Century

                   Industrial Revolution   31
Diffusion from Britain
 The technology finally diffused beyond the
 British Isles
 – United States began rapid adoption of new
   technology about 1850
 – About 1900, Japan was the first major non-
   Western country to undergo full
 – In the first third of the 1900s, diffusion spilled
   into Russia and Ukraine
 – Recently, countries such as Taiwan, South
   Korea, China, Indian, and Singapore joined the
   manufacturing age
                    Industrial Revolution               32
Diffusion of Industrial Revolution in 19th and 20th Centuries

                       Industrial Revolution                    33
End of technological
diffusion hypothesis

         Industrial Revolution   34
Part 2: The Social Organizational

Mike Reibel - Associate
Department of Geography and
California State Polytechnic
Pomona, CA 91768
   Web Source

                                           Industrial Revolution   35
Reibel’s Learning Objectives
1. Understand how changing social
   organization lead to the Industrial
2. Outline several stages of development in
   the Industrial Revolution based on
   Kondratiev’s Cycles

                 Industrial Revolution        36
Industrial Revolution

 First and foremost, a revolution in the
 organization and control of labor
 Capitalist entrepreneurs and managers
 break down production into bite-sized
 tasks, hire less skilled workers
 Only possible at larger scales due to need to
 break down tasks, efficiency gains
                 Industrial Revolution       37
 Industrial division of labor, NOT technical
 innovation, defines industrialization

 Strategic investment, not machines, makes
 industrial production possible

 All productivity gains in early industrial age
 were from labor re-organization

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Ford Assembly Line: Grinding

Henry had to pay
well or no one
would stay
               Industrial Revolution   39
Capitalist Competition and
Technical Innovation
 Capitalist industry and faster technical
 innovation happened separately in 1700s
 Slowly, technical innovation became a
 strategy for industrial competition
 Material progress from this combination -
 “spirit of innovation”, confidence in
 humans’ ability to control nature
                Industrial Revolution        40
Product Innovation vs. Process
 Product Innovation: Development of new
 products or new capabilities and features for
 existing products
 Process Innovation: New production
 processes that reduce unit cost:
 – new machines or equipment
 – innovations in operations management
   (organization of labor & production tasks)

                  Industrial Revolution         41
Evolution of Industrial Regions
Continual expansion of long-distance trade
due to transport cost declines, leads to:

Greater specialization of production for
export from region, less local self-
      5. Opium and the expansion of trade
                                              By 1690, the Company had trading centres
                                              (known as 'factories') all along the West
                                              and East coasts of India. The main centres
                                              were at Madras, Calcutta and Bombay.
                                              The Company started to protect its trade
                                              with its own armies and navies - very
                                              different from most companies today

                          Industrial Revolution                                                                             42
Evolution of Industrial Regions
  Expansion of specialized business services to
  match local production specialties: transport,
  wholesale, finance, legal, advertising, etc.

The Managing Committee House of the Insurance Company "Russia" in

                                           Industrial Revolution          43
Technology and Corporate Strategy

  Product chains grow longer, leads to:
  – Competitive advantage thru vertical integration
  Horizontal integration also a growth strategy
  – Expanding markets and successful growth strategies of
    firms consolidates market share,

                     Industrial Revolution                  44
Technology and Corporate Strategy

  Expanding markets
  and successful
  growth strategies of
  firms consolidates
  market share,
  Eventually leads to

                    Industrial Revolution   45
Monopoly Defined

                           Industrial Revolution   46
Fordist Industrial Age
Includes most of Kondratiev’s Third and
Fourth Wave
  1910s to mid 1970s
  Assembly line mass production, scientific mgmt.
  Internal combustion replaces steam -> change in
  transport & econ. geography
  New technologies - electronics, petrochemicals,
  and pharmaceuticals
  Rise of corporate R&D capabilities
  Close, two-way relationship between industrial
  corporations and the state
                   Industrial Revolution            47
The Great Depression: First
Crisis of Fordism
 The great depression: a downward spiraling
 feedback loop as follows:
 Overproduction -> failure of demand -> collapse
 of prices ->falling profits -> layoffs -> further
 collapse of demand, etc.
 Federal Reserve made things worse, cut back
 money supply because shrinking economy "didn't
 need more money in circulation”

                   Industrial Revolution             48
End of social
organizational hypothesis

         Industrial Revolution   49
Reibel’s Summary
1. Social organization lead to the Industrial
2. Industrial Revolution progressed through a
   series of stages similar to Kondratiev’s
   technological cycles
  1. Booms and Busts part of the story
  2. Geography expands with each boom

                 Industrial Revolution      50
Part 3: Some Examples of American
Obe Hostetter, Rockingham
  School District, Mountain View
  Elementary School Harrisonburg,
  VA 22801

Web Source

                                               Industrial Revolution   51
Hostetter’s Learning Objective
1. Provide Familiarity
   with major figures in
   advances during the
   early 19th century

                   Industrial Revolution   52
 Industrial Revolution (1780-1850)
-Thispart of history got its name because Great
  Britain began inventing new machines and
  -Great Britain developed new machines for
 spinning cotton into yarn. As a result, Great
        Britain sold the cheapest cloth.
-It was illegal for cotton spinning machines to
                leave the country.
Samuel Slater
Industrial Pirate

                                      In 1789, Samuel Slater
                                      memorized the British
                                      spinning machines
                                      He came to the USA
                                      and began building
                                      cotton spinning
                                      machines to sell to

                    Industrial Revolution                  54
Eli Whitney
                                In 1793, He invented
                                the cotton gin. This
                                machine removed the
                                seeds from the cotton.
                                Cotton was then sold
                                more cheaply
                                The USA did better in
                                selling cloth to other

              Industrial Revolution                      55
Eli Whitney
                      Born on December 8,
                       1765 in

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How it all started...

Upon graduating from college in 1792,
Whitney traveled south, ending up at
Greene Plantation near Savannah,

During his stay on Greene Plantation,
Whitney heard of a need for a machine
that would separate cotton from its seed.

                Industrial Revolution       57
Whitney quickly sketched out a model to
explain his idea and within ten days he
completed a functioning cotton gin.

Although he applied for a patent on June
20, 1793, he did not receive one until
March 14, 1794.

              Industrial Revolution        58
The Cotton Gin

Eli Whitney’s cotton
gin allowed cotton
to be easily
separated from its
seed in a short
amount of time.

                   Industrial Revolution   59
The Importance of the Cotton
Gin          Because cotton could be
                    cleaned in a shorter period of
                    time, the South prospered in
                    this industry.

                    By using the cotton gin, one
                    man could clean ten times as
                    much cotton as he could have
                    on his own.

               Industrial Revolution                 60
Francis Cabot Lowell
Industrial Pirate

                                      He built the USA’s first
                                      power loom in Waltham,
                                      Girls worked in the power
                                      loom factory. They would
                                      work 12 to 14 hours a day
                                      6 days a week.
                                      They had to go to bed by
                                      10 and wake up at 5:00 to
                                      They got $3 a week for
                                      working 70 hours.

                    Industrial Revolution                     61
Cyrus McCormick
                            He improved the reaper.
                            By hand, farmers only did
                            2 or 3 acres. However,
                            with the reaper, farmers
                            did 12 acres a day.
                            He also used
                            interchangeable parts so
                            the reapers could be fixed

          Industrial Revolution                      62
The History of the Plow

 First plows were probably forked tree
 Later implements could be pushed or pulled
 by ropes
 Heavy wheeled plow was developed in the
 Middle Ages

                Industrial Revolution     63
The Cast Iron Plow

  The Cast
  Iron Plow
  was most
  used in

              Industrial Revolution   64
America Expands WEST
Agriculture production was vital to those first
  people who moved Westward.
People from Vermont moved to the “West” to
  produce food and fiber for their families.
These people relied heavily in the cast iron
  plow for tillage of the soil.

                  Industrial Revolution       65
John Deere

 Born in Rutland
 Career Blacksmith
 Followed Vermont
 Pioneers “West” at
 their request
 Reached Grand
 Detour, IL without

                  Industrial Revolution   66
An invention in the works…..

 John Deere desired to meet the farmer’s
 Became convinced that a highly polished
 properly shaped moldboard could turn itself
 1837 used steel from broken saw blade and
 field tested this new plow

                Industrial Revolution      67
Immediate Success

                             Deere’s Self-
                             Polishing Plow was
                             the answer to many
                             farmer’s needs

           Industrial Revolution              68
Immediate Results of the
     Farmers were able to till more fertile
     Demand was high for Deere’s Plow
     Deere knew this innovation would be
     adopted and diffused quickly

               Industrial Revolution          69
Visionary Leadership
                                   “I will never put my
 Key Factor in making              name on a plow
 Steel Plow a Reality
                                   that does not have
 Laid down precepts
                                   in it the best that is
 that have been
 followed                          in me.”
                                             – John Deere

                 Industrial Revolution                      70
Believed in Change
   Always making changes in design
   Was criticized by partners and community

  “No, they don’t have to take what we
  produce. If we don’t improve our
  product, somebody else will.”
                                         John Deere

                 Industrial Revolution                71
John Deere
                               He made a better plow
                               by bending an old
                               steel saw and using it
                               to plow with.
                               Farmers everywhere
                               began using his idea
                               and loved the Deere

             Industrial Revolution                  72
Summary of Part 3
 The Industrial Revolution came to the USA in
 1790 when Samuel Slater built spinning machines.
 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. This
 made cotton cheaper and more profitable.
 In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell built the first
 Power Loom factory.
 Cyrus McCormick improved the reaper in 1832
 John Deere improved the plow in 1837.

                  Industrial Revolution         73
Other Great

    Industrial Revolution   74
Thomas Alva Edison
                        He loved inventing new
                        When he was 11, he built his
                        own telegraph set.
                        His dad wanted Edison to read
                        books and stop doing science
                        experiments so Edison’s dad
                        gave Edison a penny every time
                        he read. Edison used the
                        pennies to buy chemicals.

           Industrial Revolution                         75
Alexander Graham Bell
                             He asked Boston
                             University for a sabbatical
                             to invent the telephone.
                             He offered to share the
                             BU absolutely refused, so
                             he quit
                             By 1900, 1.5 million
                             telephones were being
                             He started the Telephone
                             Bell Company.

           Industrial Revolution                       76
John D. Rockefeller
                              He came from a poor
                              family. However, he
                              started an oil-refinery

            Industrial Revolution                       77
John D. Rockefeller
                              Through buying other
                              companies and
                              labeling them different
                              names, he got a

            Industrial Revolution                   78
Bill Gates

                                            Where’s Bill???

 Bill being pied.

                    Industrial Revolution                     79

     Industrial Revolution   80
 The Industrial Revolution is an ongoing
 process of innovation and change
 It incorporates both technological and social
 parts to these processes
 It is led by visionary individuals

                Industrial Revolution        81