Collect_Nottingham by wanghonghx


									Collecting and sharing location-
based content at the Zoo
Kenton O’Hara
Tim Kindberg
Maxine Glancy
Luciana Baptista
Byju Sukumaran
Gil Kahana
Julie Rowbotham

visitor attractions subject of considerable attention in location based computing
content on a device triggered by proximity to particular location
subject of much behavioural research but criticised
  focus on individual rather than social
   high level behavioural measures rather than details of social and technology
some exceptions (e.g. Brown and Chalmers; Woodruff et al; Heath and vom Lehn)
explore the details of the social and of interaction
why further study?

different technologies for triggering location based content
(e.g. RFID, GPS, Bluetooth, Barcodes)
different technologies for consuming content
(PDAs, Tablet PCs, mobile phones)
common affordances but also unique properties
(e.g. screen size, active/passive triggering)
understand similarities and differences to make appropriate judgments about
surprisingly little behavioural research with mobile phones in location based
2D barcodes as location based triggers received little analytic attention
in situ consumption, collecting and keeping

main focus other location based apps is augmenting objects and places with
information to be consumed in situ and in the moment
other aspects of experience have been generally overlooked
(e.g. collecting and keeping)
some technology exceptions include Rememberer system
(Fleck et al, 2002)
no analysis of social and behavioural aspects of collecting and keeping in location
based experiences
present findings from fieldwork highlighting how behaviours associated with
collecting and keeping formed part of a location-based experience at London Zoo
the system

the system was deployed at London Zoo
comprised 3 components:
1. mobile camera phone application
2. series of situated signs outside animal enclosures
3. personalised web page
mobile phone application
nokia series 60 camera phone
data matrix barcode reader reads
codes on situated signs to retrieve
on reading code pop-up text saying
“click to capture”
file URIs extracted from code
access corresponding content files
audio, video and text files for each
variety of content - short
documentaries, animal sounds,
commentaries and textual facts
review collected content at zoo
situated signs

signs situated at 13 animal
enclosures around the zoo
located at viewing points –
sometimes several signs for larger
enticing caption on each sign to
set context
data matrix code encoding file
locations for media content
personalised web page

personalised web site created upon registration
web page constructed from the content items
   accessed round zoo
web page content replicated content found on the
   users trial phone
web page available immediately and accessible
   several weeks after zoo visit
the trial
system deployed at London zoo
zoo undergoing an ongoing redevelopments – more natural enclosures, purpose
   built trails, information displays and interactive exhibits
primary participants
   80 children, 9-12yrs, 47 female and 33 male
   33 as part of organised school visit, 47 as part of family visit
   62 accompanying adults, 13 part of school trip, 49 on family visit
participants registered for trial – received trial phone and map of zoo showing
   locations of signs
observations at particular locations plus shadowing groups round the zoo
follow up interview and questionnaire at end of zoo tour
subsequent on-line questionnaire plus select follow up face-to-face interviews
overview of findings

barcode reading experience
how characteristics of this trigger technology impacts collective experience and
group coordination at exhibits

engagement with the content
focus on content mobility and decoupling of content gathering from consumption
social behaviours that happen around content consumption

motivations around collecting and keeping
social meaning of content ownership and collection of objects
post zoo experience – reminiscing and showing others
reading the barcodes

barcodes can only read 1 person at a time
contrast with GPS or bluetooth
practical difficulties with large groups
initial chaotic pushing and shoving
phone alignment difficult
teachers had to introduce order
also takes more time to get through interaction
move children on if not finished
children on task and off task at different times - creates control burden
organised kids into smaller subgroups to tour the zoo in different directions
members of public standing in front of signs – popular times and enclosures
engaging with content
                                               Mean number   Std error
                                               of signs

                                  Codes read    9.62          0.31
                          Content accessed      6.18          0.42
                                       Video    5.18          0.38
                                       Audio    2.38          0.26
ANOVA showed:                           Text    0.62          0.13
significant difference between
codes read and content accessed
Video>audio and text
engaging with content

text considered “a bit boring” – also available elsewhere
video and audio allowed participants to experience broader set of animal behaviours
not seen at zoo, e.g. moving, feeding, rearing their young, killing prey, or presenting
what they sound like
animals sedentary, quiet or out of view
“It helped me to see all the animals in action so I could see what they would be like in the wild”

“Sometimes it was disappointing if you couldn't get a clear view of an animal. With the video clips you
could see the animals clearly and find out lots more information.”
coupling content to location

in light of TV what is importance of coupling content to location
varying degrees of coupling
some in the moment consumption at enclosures
occasionally dominant – parental and teacher intervention
importance of mobility in consumption behaviour
interleaving content consumption with view of real animals
e.g. move from sign to get better view of tiger while watching content
glance back and forth between screen and tiger
movement to quiet comfortable places to consume content
consumption “in between time” while moving between enclosures
managing coordination with group as they move round the zoo
managing other social contingencies – when banter or messing about stops
social aspects of content consumption

synchronised viewing of content on different phones by multiple girls
talk as they watch to facilitate synchronisation
content encourages group discussion
e.g. komodo dragons
“Oh my God they eat their own babies”,
“That‟s gross man; they are ripping up the animals”
social aspects of consumption: sharing phone
                                 1.moves towards her friend,
                                 orients the phone to friend to
                                 show her the video
                                 2.they both laugh
                                 3.friend grabs phone
                                 4.imitate animal on video
                                 5.both walk off

                                 both girls had phone and
                                 explicit use of mobility and
                                 timing to initiate social
                                 encounter and meaning
                                 grabbing phone expresses
                                 interest and reciprocation
social aspects at enclosures and beyond

shared review of information away from
social contingencies of visit
groups split up and come together
e.g. 2 fathers with respective daughters
(single group then 2 groups)
e.g. young boy and mother meeting up with
sit on the bench together and view content
shows her what he has collected
importance of macro and micro mobility
adult-child relationship

adults make efforts to structure the visit
ask questions about the animals, the content,
show them what to look at
features of technology pertaining to relationship
give child responsibility of looking after the phone
give them independence during the visit to encourage engagement
“The kids hate being force fed with information – it makes them feel like they are at school. This
gives them more independence. they can read the signs and go „look what i have found‟. I think it
is a great idea”
adults not necessarily interested in content per se
demonstrate their interest in child's behaviour and achievements
“what did you learn about the komodo dragons?”
he replies “that they are very rare and live in trees for 4 years.”
“one who accumulates a series of similar objects where the instrumental value is of
secondary or no concern.”

code reading sometimes dominant
reading codes but not accessing content – collecting important in itself
some characteristics of collecting from social psychology:
     1.   goal setting
     2.   competition with other collectors
     3.   differentiated value of objects
     4.   size and completeness of collection
     5.   binding of collection to identity
     6.   search and discovery experience important over and above ownership
     7.   narratives around content collection

characteristics evident in experience of the location based application
goal setting, competition

collecting location based content sometimes sufficient motivation in itself
instances where children read barcode but didn’t view read or listen to content
“I‟m not going to read it now. I‟m going to see how many I collect first”
setting goals to collect as many as possible
sense of playful competition and camaraderie
comparing collection sizes - asking how many others had collected
“You almost had a game and it made you race against your friends.”
showing each other collections - “Have you got this one?”
importance of completion and disappointment
differentiated value of content

another indicator of collecting behaviour and values seen when certain
    objects are deemed more valuable and important that others
with regards to location based content, certain signs were more
    difficult to find, e.g. Jelly Fish
the associated difficulty bestows on the content a certain economic
kudos goes to individuals who get these difficult bits of content
instances of personal preferences associated with favourite animals
content associated with these have greater value
completing collection, identity and self

completing their collection was an important motivation for users
child proudly says “Yep got everything”
disappointment expressed when unable to get a particular item and collection left
e.g. Tiger enclosure – kids moved on by teacher because time had run out
“But Miss some of us haven‟t got the picture yet”
“I feel so left out”
from a functional point of view this seems trivial – information about Tigers
    elsewhere or from others
but bound collection bound up with sense of self and identity
disappointment at not achieving their ideal “collector self”
importance of having your own collection
search and discovery

collecting is not just in the owning but also the thrill of search and find
planning where to go based on code distribution on map
excited exclamations upon seeing a new sign
running up to the sign to read the code
on many occasions took precedent over seeing the animals themselves
kudos for the child in a group who discovered a sign
content bound to location - content embodied the fact that the collector had been
to the location – a digital souvenir
narratives around content and relationship

much of the value of collections bound up in narratives told around the objects
numerous instances of narratives around content away from initial collections
actively constructing family relations (cf De Vault)
e.g. parents and grandparents taking an interest by sitting with their children and
asking about what they had seen and collected
not interested in content per se but in what it means for the children and how it
enables the active construction of the relationship
content collection on web site

understanding collection of location based content only partially explained
with reference to experiences at the zoo – cf taking a photo
web site gave value to collection because it is “published”
“I enjoyed using it because it is not every day you see your work and name on the
Internet. It is something I have done and it is on the Internet.”
visiting web site not simply about informational value but motivated by sense
of achievement - seeing the objects as a collective whole
persistence of collection allowed further emotional investment in objects
sense of ownership and wanting “keep items for ages”
allowed revisiting experience and reminiscing
look at content in more detail, in comfortable setting, at relaxed pace
basis for further social interaction – all participants reported showing the web
site to someone else, mainly parents
talk about what children had done/achieved as well as animal facts

single point access and difficulties of group management
video and audio show unavailable perspective on zoo animals
consider different levels of coupling of content to location
creating quiet space
Interleaving content with animal views
manage coordination and social contingencies of group visit
content consumption as a social and collaborative process
conclusions (2)

value of LBC above instrumental value of in situ content consumption
social values of collecting/keeping LBC an end in itself
not just passive logging of visited content but active construction of meaningful set
binding objects to location gives them value –have to go there to get it
proof of visit – digital souvenir
effort of search and journey bound up in value of collected objects
particular narratives tied to LBC associated with the location and outing
collecting/keeping allow ongoing construction of social relationships around LBC
explore richer aspects of collecting behaviour – e.g. categorisation
tensions between instrumental vs non-instrumental aspects of LBC
    do you make it easy to find or difficult to find?

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