Collecting and sharing location- based content at the Zoo Kenton O’Hara Tim Kindberg Maxine Glancy Luciana Baptista Byju Sukumaran Gil Kahana Julie Rowbotham introduction visitor attractions subject of considerable attention in location based computing content on a device triggered by proximity to particular location subject of much behavioural research but criticised focus on individual rather than social high level behavioural measures rather than details of social and technology interaction some exceptions (e.g. Brown and Chalmers; Woodruff et al; Heath and vom Lehn) explore the details of the social and of interaction why further study? different technologies for triggering location based content (e.g. RFID, GPS, Bluetooth, Barcodes) different technologies for consuming content (PDAs, Tablet PCs, mobile phones) common affordances but also unique properties (e.g. screen size, active/passive triggering) understand similarities and differences to make appropriate judgments about design surprisingly little behavioural research with mobile phones in location based computing 2D barcodes as location based triggers received little analytic attention in situ consumption, collecting and keeping main focus other location based apps is augmenting objects and places with information to be consumed in situ and in the moment other aspects of experience have been generally overlooked (e.g. collecting and keeping) some technology exceptions include Rememberer system (Fleck et al, 2002) no analysis of social and behavioural aspects of collecting and keeping in location based experiences present findings from fieldwork highlighting how behaviours associated with collecting and keeping formed part of a location-based experience at London Zoo the system the system was deployed at London Zoo comprised 3 components: 1. mobile camera phone application 2. series of situated signs outside animal enclosures 3. personalised web page mobile phone application nokia series 60 camera phone data matrix barcode reader reads codes on situated signs to retrieve content on reading code pop-up text saying “click to capture” file URIs extracted from code access corresponding content files audio, video and text files for each animal variety of content - short documentaries, animal sounds, commentaries and textual facts review collected content at zoo situated signs signs situated at 13 animal enclosures around the zoo located at viewing points – sometimes several signs for larger enclosures 20cmx30cm enticing caption on each sign to set context data matrix code encoding file locations for media content personalised web page personalised web site created upon registration web page constructed from the content items accessed round zoo web page content replicated content found on the users trial phone web page available immediately and accessible several weeks after zoo visit the trial system deployed at London zoo zoo undergoing an ongoing redevelopments – more natural enclosures, purpose built trails, information displays and interactive exhibits primary participants 80 children, 9-12yrs, 47 female and 33 male 33 as part of organised school visit, 47 as part of family visit 62 accompanying adults, 13 part of school trip, 49 on family visit participants registered for trial – received trial phone and map of zoo showing locations of signs observations at particular locations plus shadowing groups round the zoo follow up interview and questionnaire at end of zoo tour subsequent on-line questionnaire plus select follow up face-to-face interviews findings overview of findings barcode reading experience how characteristics of this trigger technology impacts collective experience and group coordination at exhibits engagement with the content focus on content mobility and decoupling of content gathering from consumption social behaviours that happen around content consumption motivations around collecting and keeping social meaning of content ownership and collection of objects post zoo experience – reminiscing and showing others reading the barcodes barcodes can only read 1 person at a time contrast with GPS or bluetooth practical difficulties with large groups initial chaotic pushing and shoving phone alignment difficult teachers had to introduce order also takes more time to get through interaction move children on if not finished children on task and off task at different times - creates control burden organised kids into smaller subgroups to tour the zoo in different directions members of public standing in front of signs – popular times and enclosures engaging with content Mean number Std error of signs Codes read 9.62 0.31 Content accessed 6.18 0.42 Video 5.18 0.38 Audio 2.38 0.26 ANOVA showed: Text 0.62 0.13 significant difference between codes read and content accessed Video>audio and text Audio>text engaging with content text considered “a bit boring” – also available elsewhere video and audio allowed participants to experience broader set of animal behaviours not seen at zoo, e.g. moving, feeding, rearing their young, killing prey, or presenting what they sound like animals sedentary, quiet or out of view “It helped me to see all the animals in action so I could see what they would be like in the wild” “Sometimes it was disappointing if you couldn't get a clear view of an animal. With the video clips you could see the animals clearly and find out lots more information.” coupling content to location in light of TV what is importance of coupling content to location varying degrees of coupling some in the moment consumption at enclosures occasionally dominant – parental and teacher intervention importance of mobility in consumption behaviour interleaving content consumption with view of real animals e.g. move from sign to get better view of tiger while watching content glance back and forth between screen and tiger movement to quiet comfortable places to consume content consumption “in between time” while moving between enclosures managing coordination with group as they move round the zoo managing other social contingencies – when banter or messing about stops social aspects of content consumption synchronised viewing of content on different phones by multiple girls talk as they watch to facilitate synchronisation content encourages group discussion e.g. komodo dragons “Oh my God they eat their own babies”, “That‟s gross man; they are ripping up the animals” “Yuk” social aspects of consumption: sharing phone 1.moves towards her friend, orients the phone to friend to show her the video 2.they both laugh 3.friend grabs phone 4.imitate animal on video 5.both walk off both girls had phone and content explicit use of mobility and timing to initiate social encounter and meaning grabbing phone expresses interest and reciprocation social aspects at enclosures and beyond shared review of information away from enclosures social contingencies of visit groups split up and come together e.g. 2 fathers with respective daughters (single group then 2 groups) e.g. young boy and mother meeting up with grandmother sit on the bench together and view content shows her what he has collected importance of macro and micro mobility adult-child relationship adults make efforts to structure the visit ask questions about the animals, the content, show them what to look at features of technology pertaining to relationship give child responsibility of looking after the phone give them independence during the visit to encourage engagement “The kids hate being force fed with information – it makes them feel like they are at school. This gives them more independence. they can read the signs and go „look what i have found‟. I think it is a great idea” adults not necessarily interested in content per se demonstrate their interest in child's behaviour and achievements “what did you learn about the komodo dragons?” he replies “that they are very rare and live in trees for 4 years.” collecting “one who accumulates a series of similar objects where the instrumental value is of secondary or no concern.” code reading sometimes dominant reading codes but not accessing content – collecting important in itself some characteristics of collecting from social psychology: 1. goal setting 2. competition with other collectors 3. differentiated value of objects 4. size and completeness of collection 5. binding of collection to identity 6. search and discovery experience important over and above ownership 7. narratives around content collection characteristics evident in experience of the location based application goal setting, competition collecting location based content sometimes sufficient motivation in itself instances where children read barcode but didn’t view read or listen to content “I‟m not going to read it now. I‟m going to see how many I collect first” setting goals to collect as many as possible sense of playful competition and camaraderie comparing collection sizes - asking how many others had collected “You almost had a game and it made you race against your friends.” showing each other collections - “Have you got this one?” importance of completion and disappointment differentiated value of content another indicator of collecting behaviour and values seen when certain objects are deemed more valuable and important that others with regards to location based content, certain signs were more difficult to find, e.g. Jelly Fish the associated difficulty bestows on the content a certain economic value kudos goes to individuals who get these difficult bits of content instances of personal preferences associated with favourite animals content associated with these have greater value completing collection, identity and self completing their collection was an important motivation for users child proudly says “Yep got everything” disappointment expressed when unable to get a particular item and collection left incomplete e.g. Tiger enclosure – kids moved on by teacher because time had run out “But Miss some of us haven‟t got the picture yet” “I feel so left out” from a functional point of view this seems trivial – information about Tigers elsewhere or from others but bound collection bound up with sense of self and identity disappointment at not achieving their ideal “collector self” importance of having your own collection search and discovery collecting is not just in the owning but also the thrill of search and find planning where to go based on code distribution on map excited exclamations upon seeing a new sign running up to the sign to read the code on many occasions took precedent over seeing the animals themselves kudos for the child in a group who discovered a sign content bound to location - content embodied the fact that the collector had been to the location – a digital souvenir narratives around content and relationship construction much of the value of collections bound up in narratives told around the objects numerous instances of narratives around content away from initial collections points actively constructing family relations (cf De Vault) e.g. parents and grandparents taking an interest by sitting with their children and asking about what they had seen and collected not interested in content per se but in what it means for the children and how it enables the active construction of the relationship content collection on web site understanding collection of location based content only partially explained with reference to experiences at the zoo – cf taking a photo web site gave value to collection because it is “published” “I enjoyed using it because it is not every day you see your work and name on the Internet. It is something I have done and it is on the Internet.” visiting web site not simply about informational value but motivated by sense of achievement - seeing the objects as a collective whole persistence of collection allowed further emotional investment in objects sense of ownership and wanting “keep items for ages” allowed revisiting experience and reminiscing look at content in more detail, in comfortable setting, at relaxed pace basis for further social interaction – all participants reported showing the web site to someone else, mainly parents talk about what children had done/achieved as well as animal facts conclusions single point access and difficulties of group management video and audio show unavailable perspective on zoo animals consider different levels of coupling of content to location creating quiet space Interleaving content with animal views manage coordination and social contingencies of group visit content consumption as a social and collaborative process conclusions (2) value of LBC above instrumental value of in situ content consumption social values of collecting/keeping LBC an end in itself not just passive logging of visited content but active construction of meaningful set binding objects to location gives them value –have to go there to get it proof of visit – digital souvenir effort of search and journey bound up in value of collected objects particular narratives tied to LBC associated with the location and outing collecting/keeping allow ongoing construction of social relationships around LBC explore richer aspects of collecting behaviour – e.g. categorisation tensions between instrumental vs non-instrumental aspects of LBC do you make it easy to find or difficult to find?