Chapter 8 Cognition_ Language_ and Intelligence by wuxiangyu

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									   Chapter 8 Cognition,
Language, and Intelligence
     I. Definition of Cognition
o The intellectual
  processes through which
  information is obtained,
  transformed, stored,
  retrieved, and otherwise
  used
  o 1. Cognition processes
    information
  o 2. Cognition is active
  o 3. Cognition is useful
A. Concepts
    o The basic units of thinking
       o General categories of things,
         events, and qualities
    o B. Simple and Complex
      Concepts
       o Simple concepts are based on
         a single common feature
          o Ex. The color red
       o Conjunctive concepts
          o The simultaneous presence of
            two or more common
            characteristics
              o Ex. An aunt
       o Disjunctive concepts
          o The presence of one of two
            common characteristics or both
              o Ex. A schizophrenic
           C. Natural Concepts
o Some are concepts are
  easier for humans to learn
  (more natural)
o 1. Natural Concepts are
  Basic
   o a. Superordinate concepts are
     very inclusive: vehicles
   o b. Basic concepts are in the
     middle: cars
   o c. Subordinate concepts are
     the least inclusive: sports cars
   o People learn the basic
     concepts first
      o They share many attributes,
        similar shapes, movements,
        and are easily named
o 2. Natural Concepts are
  Good Prototypes (examples)
II. Thinking and Problem Solving
             o Problem Solving: the cognitive
               process through which information is
               used to reach a goal that is blocked
               by some obstacle
             o A. Formulating the Problem
                o Have to figure out the problem first
                    o Sometimes isn’t too easy to pinpoint
                    o First thoughts or instincts are correct
             o B. Understanding and Organizing the
               Elements of the Problem
                o People must flexibly interpret
                o People often get stuck in mental sets:
                  habitual ways of approaching
                  problems
                o Mental Set: a habitual way of
                  approaching or perceiving a problem
                    o “Think outside the box”
C. Generating and Evaluating Alternative Solutions
o Many problems have more than one
  solution
o Trial-and-Error Approach
   o Can be time-consuming
o Algorithms: Systematic patterns of
  reasoning that guarantee finding a
  correct solution after another
   o Computers use them (search
     engines)
o Heuristic Reasoning: efficient
  problem-solving strategies that do
  not guarantee a correct solution
   o Programming computers to play
     chess
   o Uses probability (like coaching)
o Representativeness Heuristic: the
  strategy of making judgments about
  the unknown on the assumption that
  it is similar to what we know
   o Judging a book by its cover
D. Emotional Factors in Decision Making
                o People don’t always
                  make logical decisions
                o Example: Do you feel
                  safer flying or driving?
                  o 1 in 10 million passengers
                    die in flights
                  o 1 in 5,000 cars are
                    involved in fatal crashes
                  o Emotions that factor in?
                o Crimes of passion?
     E. Creative Problem Solving
o Hard to define creativity
   o The ability to make human products
     and ideas that are both novel and
     valued by others
o Convergent thinking is logical and
  conventional that focuses on a
  problem
   o Solving an algebra problem
   o Most formal education is this form:
     “right answers”
o Divergent thinking is loosely
  organized, only partially directed,
  and unconventional
   o These tend to be creative people in
     our society
   o Ideas often come in a burst of insight
o Intelligence and creativity are not
  necessarily connected
o Culture also affects people’s
  thoughts
III. Language
    o Symbolic Communication
      o The key to human civilization
    o A. Semantics
      o The meaning of what is said
      o Noam Chomsky
         o Surface structure: the superficial
           spoken or written structure of a
           statement
            o How it is said or written
         o Deep structure: the underlying
           structure of a statement that
           holds its meaning
   B. Generative Property of Language
o Human language is very efficient
   o People have the ability to create an
     infinite set of utterances using a finite
     set of elements and rules
o 1. Phonemes
   o The smallest units of sound in a
     language
   o Only 44 in English
o 2. Morphemes
   o The smallest units of meaning in
     language
   o Can be words or letters (-ed or anti)
o 3. Syntax
   o The grammatical rules of a language
   o How to combine phonemes or
     morphemes and word order
   o Prescriptive rules are the ones in
     English class
C. Language and Thought
         o Much of our thought takes
           place in silent conversations
            o Do people with different languages
              think differently?
         o Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
            o The idea that the structure of a
              language may influence the way
              people think
               o Also called the Whorfian Hypothesis
            o Ex. Eskimos vs. Floridians in
              describing snow
            o Has led to a reexamination of
              common language
               o Chairperson instead of chairman
               o Server instead of waitress or waiter
          D. Animal Languages
o Can humans talk to
  animals?
  o Bees communicate by
    symbolic dancing
  o Parrots can learn to speak
    English with operant
    conditioning
  o Primates can learn sign
    language
     o Koko the ape learned 600
       signs
     o Chimps have the language
       capabilities of a 3-year-old
       human
IV. Intelligence
     o The cognitive abilities of an
       individual to learn from
       experience, to reason well,
       and to cope with the demands
       of daily living
        o The sum total of cognition
        o A term coined by Sir Francis
          Galton
     o A. Differing Views of
       Intelligence
        o 1. Intelligence: General or Specific
          Abilities
           o g factor: A broad, general factor
             of intelligence
           o If we are intelligent, we are more
             likely to develop strong
             mechanical, musical, artistic, and
             other kinds of abilities
  A. Differing Views of Intelligence cont.
o 1. Intelligence: General or
  Specific Abilities cont.
   o Some suggest there are 7 to 150
     abilities that make up intelligence
   o Howard Gardner suggests there
     are eight
      o 1. Linguistic (verbal)
      o 2. Logical-mathematical
      o 3. Musical
      o 4. Spatial (artistic)
      o 5. Kinesthetic (athletic)
      o 6. Interpersonal (social skills)
      o 7. Intrapersonal (personal
        adjustment)
      o 8. Naturalistic intelligence
        (understanding nature)
   o Most tests of intelligence test
     verbal and logical-mathematical
     areas
A. Differing Views of Intelligence cont.
               o 2. The Biological Basis of General
                 Intelligence
                  o People with high g have a greater ability
                    to form neural connections
                      o Means the person learns better from
                        experience
                      o Brain can process information more
                        quickly
               o 3. Cognitive Components or Intelligent
                 Behavior
                  o Encode, infer, map, apply, compare, and
                    respond to problems
                  o Ex. LAWYER is to CLIENT as DOCTOR is to?
                      o a. Medicine, b. Patient
                      o Smarter people are slower at encoding,
                        but faster in all other areas
               o 4. Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
                  o Fluid intelligence is the ability to learn
                    new strategies to deal with new problems
                  o Crystallized intelligence is to use
                    previously learned information and skills
                    to solve familiar problems
       B. Measuring Intelligence: The IQ Test
o Intelligence would be too vague if there
  were no way to measure it
   o Intelligence could be defined as whatever
     intelligence test measure
o 1. Construction of Intelligence Tests
   o Alfred Binet first tested intelligence in 1903
       o Found items that half of kids would get and
         the other half would not from a large group
       o Arranged the test from easiest to hardest
           o The kids’ score was based on how far they got
           o Calculated their mental age
   o IQ: Intelligence Quotient
       o A numerical value of intelligence
       o Found by dividing the mental age by the
         chronological age (then multiplied by 100)
           o Also called ratio IQ, no longer used
   o Deviation IQ: based on the bell-curve of
     people’s average IQ scores
       o How far does one deviate from the normal
         distribution?
B. Measuring Intelligence cont.
            o 2. Characteristics of Good
              Intelligence Tests
               o a. Standardization: the same
                 test is given to everyone
               o b. Norms: standards based on
                 large numbers of test to later
                 compare to
               o c. Objectivity: the same score
                 is given no matter who scores
                 the test
               o d. Reliability: the test produces
                 similar results when given at
                 different times by different
                 people
               o e. Validity: the extent to which
                 a test measures what it’s
                 supposed to measure
           C. Tacit Intelligence
o The practical knowledge
  and skills needed to deal
  with everyday problems
  that are usually not
  taught in school
  o Everyday intelligence
     o Ex. Fishing, art, mechanics,
       law, or photography
  o Low general intelligence
    usually means low tacit
    intelligence
  o People with higher general
    intelligence tend to have
    higher tacit intelligence
D. Individual Differences in Intelligence
                  o Our genes and our experiences
                    both contribute to create
                    intelligence
                     o Recall the studies on twins and
                       adopted kids
                  o E. The Importance of Intelligence in
                    Modern Society
                     o People with higher IQ scores do
                       better and go further in school
                         o They also usually have more
                           complex and higher paying jobs
                             o Truckers average IQ: >100
                             o Doctors and Lawyers IQ: <125
                     o Some jobs are only available to
                       people with degrees
                     o It takes less time to train smarter
                       people (unless it’s something easy)
                     o Smarter people perform complex
                       jobs better
 F. Are People Becoming More Intelligent?
o James Flynn has shown the average
  scores on IQ tests are going up
    o Younger people have higher IQs
    o Generations surpass their previous
      generations
o 1. Nutrition and health has also risen
    o Height, weight, and life expectancy are
      going up too
o 2. Increases in levels of education
    o Each successive generation usually has
      better education than their parents
o 3. Modern children are stimulated and
  challenged by their environment more
    o More educational gadgets and
      programs
o 4. Large increases in intelligence are
  evident among people of color
    o The end of segregation and oppression
o Maybe kids are just exposed to similar
  problems more often
    o Ex. Brain teasers on Happy Meals
G. Race-Ethnic Differences in Intelligence
                  o Minorities are closing the gap on
                    whites since the 1930s in terms of
                    intelligence and achievement
                     o Except Asians, who are usually 5 points
                       higher than whites
                     o Segregation ended
                  o H. The Bell Curve, 1994
                     o Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray
                       think the U.S. is moving towards a
                       “meritocracy”
                         o Advanced education and favorable
                           employment are determined solely by
                           one’s abilities
                         o If everyone’s environment is the same,
                           genetics will determine the smartest
                           people
                         o This means the general population will
                           get dumber
                             o Poor people have more kids
                     o Very Controversial
     I. Extremes in Intelligence
o Mental Retardation
  o IQs below 70
  o About 2% of the population
  o The lower the score, the more
    severe retardation is
     o Most in the category are in the
       mild range
  o Education has greatly
    improved since the 1960s
o Giftedness
  o High IQ scores and creativity
  o Sometimes ignored in schools
  o These people are typically
    more successful and healthy

								
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