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FORMALDEHYDE TRAINING

VIEWS: 15 PAGES: 33

									FORMALDEHYDE TRAINING
               CONTENTS
   Review of the OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
   Potential Health Effects
   Medical Surveillance
   Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment
   Safe Work Practices for Specific Operations
   Spill Procedures
   Appendix A: Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
   Appendix B: Air Monitoring Results
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.0148)

   SCOPE
    • Applies to all occupational exposures to
      formaldehyde (i.e. formaldehyde gas, its
      solutions and materials that release
      formaldehyde)
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Permissible Exposure Limits
    • TWA - 0.75ppm, as an 8-hour time-
      weighted average
    • STEL - 2.0pppm, any 15-minute period
      during the work shift
    • Action Level - 0.5 ppm, as an 8-hour TWA
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)
   Exposure Monitoring
     • Initial Monitoring
          – All employees who may be exposed at or above the Action
            Level or STEL
   Periodic Monitoring
     • Exposures to at or above the action level, repeat monitoring every 6
        months
     • Exposures at or above the STEL, repeat monitoring at least once a
        year during worst case conditions
   Termination of Monitoring
     • if the result from two consecutive sampling periods taken at least 7
        days apart indicate employee exposure below the action level and
        the STEL
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Regulated Areas
    • Shall be established where airborne
      formaldehyde concentrations exceed the
      TWA and STEL
    • Post danger signs at entrances and access
      ways
    • Access limited to authorized persons
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Control Methods
    • Institute engineering controls and work
      practices to maintain exposures below the
      TWA and STEL
    • Where necessary supplement controls with
      respiratory protection
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE (29 CFR
        1910.1048

   Respiratory Protection
    • Where respirators are required, they will be
      provided at no cost to the employee, will be
      used properly, and will reduce formaldehyde
      exposures to levels at or below the TWA and
      STEL.
    • Whenever respirator use is required, a
      respiratory protection program conforming with
      OSHA regulations will be instituted.
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Protective Equipment and Clothing
    • Contact of the skin and eyes with liquids
      containing 1 percent of more formaldehyde
      will be prevented by the use of protective
      clothing made of material impervious to
      formaldehyde and using protective
      equipment such as goggles and face
      shields, as appropriate to the operation.
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Hygiene Protection
     • Change rooms will be provided for employees
       required to change from work clothing into
       protective clothing to prevent skin contact
     • Emergency showers will be located in areas
       where employees skin may be splashed with
       solutions containing 10% or greater formaldehyde
     • Emergency eye washes will be located in areas
       where employees eyes may be splashed with
       solutions containing 0.1% or greater formaldehyde
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Housekeeping
    • Preventative maintenance of equipment, including surveys
      for leaks will be performed regularly
    • In areas where spillage may occur, provisions will be made
      to contain spills, decontaminate the work area and dispose
      of the waste
    • Employees repairing equipment leaks and cleaning up spills
      will be properly trained and will wear suitable protective
      equipment
    • Formaldehyde contaminated waste and debris will be placed
      in sealed containers bearing formaldehyde hazard warning
      labels
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
(29 CFR 1910.1048

  • Medical Surveillance
    – Institute medical surveillance programs for all
      employees exposed to formaldehyde at
      concentrations at or exceeding the Action Level
      or exceeding the STEL
    – Medical disease questionnaires
    – Medical examinations
    – All medical procedures will be performed by or
      directly supervised by a licensed physician.
OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
   (29 CFR 1910.1048)
   Hazard Communication
     • Formaldehyde gas, all mixtures or solutions composed of
       greater then 0.1 percent formaldehyde, and materials
       capable of releasing formaldehyde into the air at
       concentrations reaching or exceeding 0.1 ppm shall be
       considered a health hazard.
     • Employer shall comply with requirements of 29 CFR
       1910.1200 (Hazard Communication)
        – Inform employees of specific health hazards (e.g..
          cancer, irritation, sensitization of skin and respiratory
          system, eye and throat irritation, acute toxicity)
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Hazard Communication (Cont'd)
     • Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS (provided by
       manufacturer)
     • Labels on all containers where formaldehyde
       constitutes a health hazard. Labels identify the
       chemical, list name and address of responsible
       party, contain the information “Potential Cancer
       Hazard”, and appropriately warn of other hazards
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Employee Information and Training
     • All employees assigned to workplaces where
       there is a health hazard from formaldehyde shall
       participate in a training program.
     • Training will be provided at the time of the
       employees initial assignment and whenever a new
       hazard from formaldehyde is introduced into the
       work area.
     • Information and training will be provided at least
       annually for employees exposed to formaldehyde
       concentrations at or above the action level or
       STEL.
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   Employee Information and Training (Cont'd)
     • Affected employees will be informed of the
       location of written training materials and at their
       request, will be provided with this materials at no
       cost.
     • Information and training will be provided at least
       annually for employees exposed to formaldehyde
       concentration at or above the action level or
       STEL.
     • Affected employees will be informed of the
       location of written training materials and at their
       request, will be provided with this materials at no
       cost.
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
       (29 CFR 1910.1048)

   The employer will establish and maintain an accurate
    record of the following:
     • All measurements taken to monitor employee
       exposure to formaldehyde.
     • If no exposure monitoring is performed, the data
       used to determine that monitoring is not required.
     • Medical surveillance information
     • Respirator fit testing information
OSHA FORMALDEHYDE STANDARD
(29 CFR 1910.1048)

    RECORDKEEPING
     • Exposure records and determinations: at
       least 30 years
     • Medical records: the duration of
       employment plus 30 years
     • Respiratory fit test records: until replaced
       by more recent a record
    POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECT -
           INHALATION

   Air Concentration (ppm)      Reported Health Effects
    • 0 - 0.5                     •   None
                                  •   Odor threshold
    • 0.05 - 1.50
                                  •   Eye sensation/irritation
    • 0.05 - 2.0                  •   Irritation of the nose and throat
    • 0.10 - 5.0                  •   Difficulty in breathing, burning
                                      sensation in the nose and
                                      throat, and coughing
    POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECT -
           INHALATION

   Air Concentration (ppm)      Reported Health Effects
    • 25 - 50                     •   Tissue damage and serious
                                      respiratory tract injury such as
                                      pneumonitis. Associated
                                      symptoms may include
                                      sneezing, wheezing, chest
                                      constriction, bronchitis,
                                      headache excessive thirst,
                                      weakness, palpitations, nausea
                                      and vomiting
    • 50 - 100                    •   Pulmonary edema/inflammation
                                      - severe lower airway effects
    • 100
                                  •   Death.
POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS -
       INHALATION

   Chronic Exposure:
    • Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause
      headache, rhinitis, nausea, drowsiness, respiratory
      impairment, kidney injury and pulmonary sensitization.
    • Neuropsychological effects may include sleep
      disorders, irritability, altered sense of balance, memory
      deficits loss, of concentration, and mood alterations.
    • Menstrual disorders and secondary sterility have
      occurred in women.
POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS -
       INHALATION

   Carcinogenic Effects:
    • Long-term exposure to formaldehyde is
      reported to be associated with an
      increased risk of cancer of the nose and
      accessory sinuses and nasopharyngeal
      and oropharyngeal cancer in humans.
POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS -
        INGESTION

   Acute Exposure:
    • Ingestion of formaldehyde solutions may cause burning of
      the mouth, throat and stomach, difficulty swallowing, nausea,
      vomiting and diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, headache,
      hypertension, vertigo, stupor, convulsions, unconsciousness
      and coma. May also cause damage to the liver, heart, brain,
      spleen, pancreas, kidney, and central nervous system.
      Mean fatal dose in humans is 1-2 ounces of a 37% solution.
   Chronic Exposure
    • Repeated ingestion of small amounts of formaldehyde may
      cause gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting, and dizziness.
    POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS -
          SKIN CONTACT
   Acute Exposure:
     • Vapors or solutions may cause smarting, white discoloration,
       roughness, hardness anesthesia, and first degree burns. In
       previously exposed individuals subsequent exposures may result in
       a sensitization dermatitis characterized by the sudden eruption of
       blisters on the eyelids, face, neck, scrotum and arms.
   Chronic Exposure
     • Prolonged or repeated exposures may cause second degree burns,
       numbness, and itching rash, fingernail damage, hardening of
       tanning of the skin and sensitization. The dermatitis results from
       chronic exposure to formaldehyde may be either a sudden
       blistering reaction, or may be delayed several years with eruptions
       starting on the digital areas, wrists and other parts of the body
POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS - Eye
           Contact
    Acute Exposures
     • Airborne concentrations from 0.05 - 3.0 ppm may cause irritation
       with redness, itching, pain, blurred vision, and mild tearing.
       Concentrations from 4 - 20 ppm may cause profuse tearing and
       damage to the eye. Aqueous solutions effects range from
       transient, minor injury and discomfort to severe, permanent corneal
       pacification and loss of sight.
    Chronic Exposure
     • Effects depend on the concentration and duration of exposure.
    Reporting Symptoms
     • Employees will immediately report to their manager, other
       supervisory personnel, or site medical personnel, the development
       of any adverse signs or symptoms suspected of being related to
       formaldehyde exposure.
      MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
           PROGRAM

   General
    • The employer shall institute medical surveillance programs
      for all employees who:
        – are exposed to formaldehyde concentrations at or above
          the Action Level or above the STEL
        – develop signs and symptoms of overexposure to
          formaldehyde (see MSDS)
        – are exposed to formaldehyde in an emergency
    • All medical procedures will be performed by or under the
      supervision of a licensed physician and will be provided
      without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a
      reasonable time and place.
      MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
           PROGRAM

   Medical Surveillance
    • Administration of a medical disease questionnaire and an
      evaluation of the questionnaire by a physician to determine
      whether a medical examination is necessary (employees not
      wearing respirators) will be made available to employees:
        – prior to assignment to a job where formaldehyde exposure is at
          or above the action level or above the STEL and annually
          thereafter
        – promptly upon determining that an employee is experiencing
          signs and symptoms indicative of possible overexposure to
          formaldehyde
      MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
           PROGRAM

   Medical Examinations
    • Medical examinations will be given to any employee when:
       – based on the information provided on the medical
         questionnaire, the physician feels the employee may be
         at increased risk from exposure to formaldehyde
       – the employee is required to a wear respirator to reduce
         exposure to formaldehyde (see Respiratory protection
         Policy)
    • Medical examinations will be made available as soon as
      possible to employees exposed to formaldehyde in an
      emergency
        MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
             PROGRAM
   Physician’s Written Opinion
    •   For any examination required by the standard, the employer will obtain a
        written opinion from the examining physician discussing only those findings
        relating to occupational exposures to formaldehyde
    •   The written opinion will include:
          – physician’s opinion as to whether the employee has a medical condition
             that would increase the risk of material impairment of health with
             exposure to formaldehyde
          – recommendations on limiting employee’s exposure or changes inure of
             personal protective equipment
          – a statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of
             any medical conditions that would be aggravated by exposure to
             formaldehyde and whether there is need for further examination or
             treatment
      MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
           PROGRAM

   Physician’s Written Opinion (Cont'd)
    • The employer will retain the results of the
      medical examination and tests conducted
      by the physician in records
    • The employer will provide a copy of the
      physician’s written opinion to the affected
      employee within 15 days of its receipt
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
       AND EQUIPMENT

    Purpose
     • To provide employees with a means of protecting
       themselves against unnecessary exposures to
       formaldehyde
     • Skin Contact: Protective gloves, sleeves, aprons
     • Eye Contact: Safety glasses/goggles, face shields
     • Inhalation: Local exhaust ventilation (LEV),
       respirators
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
       AND EQUIPMENT

    Proper Use
     • Personal protective clothing and equipment can only be
       effective if it is used properly.
        – Select the appropriate type of clothing or equipment (e.g.
          gloves, respirators, LEV) according to Hazard Assessment
          performed by supervisor for PPE.
        – Properly maintain and store personal protective equipment after
          use.
        – Replace defective or damaged personal protective equipment
          such as safety glasses, gloves, or respirator components.
          Mechanical equipment such as LEV can be effectively repaired.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
       AND EQUIPMENT
    Limitations
      • Personal protective equipment appropriate for use with one
        substance may be totally inappropriate for use with another
        substance (e.g. respirators, gloves). Inappropriate use of personal
        protective equipment may result in unnecessary exposures or injury
      • Know the expected service life of personal protective equipment
        and replace it as necessary.
          – For respirator cartridges utilizing adsorption as the filtration
            mechanism, when all available collection sites have been filled,
            “break through” occurs and contaminants will pass through the
            cartridge.
          – Likewise, gloves will provide protection for only specific periods
            of time before the contaminant permeates through the glove
            material and “breakthrough” occurs.

								
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