From Launch Pad to Laptop

Document Sample
From Launch Pad to Laptop Powered By Docstoc
					From Launch Pad to
Laptop: Accessing and
Using Data from NASA's
Earth Observing System

Forrest Melton
CSU Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA

Ecological Forecasting Lab
NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA

With contributions from:
Rama Nemani, Petr Votava, Andrew Michaelis, Christina
Milesi, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Weile Wang

Support provided by:
NASA Applied Sciences Program
                                                            Terra Launch, Dec. 18, 1999

Harvard Remote Sensing Technology & Applications Workshop        Cambridge, MA, Feb. 16, 2007   1

                                      - NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)
                                         - Satellites
                                         - Instruments
                                          - Applications
                                      - EOS Data Information System
                                          - Accessing data
                                          - Data formats
                                          - Viewing and utilizing data
                                      - Future NASA satellite missions
                                      - Integrating satellite data with in-situ
                                        observations and ecosystem models
                                          - Terrestrial Observation & Prediction

Northeastern U.S., January 25, 2005
Credit: MODIS Rapid Response Team

                                   A Skyful of Satellites

3,100 orbiting satellites
Over 845 844 active satellites
                                                            Credit: Union of Concerned Scientists
         Credit: New York Times, 2/6/2007

Union of Concerned Scientists, Satellite Database                                                   3
Earth Observing Satellites

                             Brazilian Space
                             Agency (INPE)
                             Canadian Space
                             Centre National
                             d'Etudes spatiales
                             (CNES, France)
                             Chinese National
                             Space Admin.
                             European Space
                             Agency (ESA)
                             Japan Aerospace
                             Agency (JAXA)
                             Indian Remote
                             Sensing Agency
                             satellites and
                             many others

                NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS)

                                                 EOS is collecting
                                                 Earth remote
                                                 sensing data for a
                                                 15 year global
                                                 change research

                                                 Phase II began in
                                                 December 1999
                                                 with the launch of
                                                 the first EOS
                                                 satellite, Terra

                                                 Integrated Earth
                                                 observations to
                                                 understanding of
                                                 Earth System                                          5
                      Multiple Instruments per Mission

Example: MODIS on Terra & Aqua

Terra Satellite
Launched Dec. 18,
1999 with five
instruments (ASTER,

                 Aqua Satellite
                 Launched May 4,      MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
                 2002 with six
                 instruments (AIRS,   Orbit: 705 km, 10:30 a.m. descending node (Terra) or
                 AMSR-E, AMSU,        1:30 p.m. ascending node (Aqua), sun-synchronous,
                 CERES, HSB,          near-polar, circular
                 MODIS)               Swath Dimensions: 2330 km (cross track) by 10 km
                                      (along track at nadir)
                                      Data Rate:10.6 Mbps (peak daytime); 6.1 Mbps (orbital
                                      Spatial Resolution: 250 m (bands 1-2), 500 m (bands
                                      3-7), 1000 m (bands 8-36)
                                      Design Life: 6 years

              EOS / Sensor Web Overview

                                       NASA Satellites


Ground Sensors                              EOS Users

   Fire / Event
                  EOSDIS /
                                   Ancillary Data
EOS Science Focus Areas

                        EOS Atmospheric Measurements

                                                                                   A-Train Satellite
                                                                                   Collects nearly simultaneous
                                                                                   measurements of:
                                                                                   • aerosols
                                                                                   • clouds
                                                                                   • temperature
                                                                                   • relative humidity
                                                                                   • radiative fluxes

                                                 Credit: Langley Research Center

Mission        Aura             PARASOL                  CALIPSO      Cloudsat     Aqua            OCO

Instruments    HIRDLS           POLDER                   CALIOP       Cloud        AIRS/AMSU-A/    3 grating
               MLS                                       IIR          profiling    HSB             spectrometers
               OMI                                       WFC          radar        AMSR-R
               TES                                                                 CERES
Primary        Atmospheric      Aerosols and clouds;     Aerosols     Cloud        Atmospheric     Carbon dioxide
Observations   pollutants and   distinguish natural vs   and clouds   properties   water vapor     concentrations
               greenhouse       anthropogenic aerosols
               gases                                                                   9
                      EOS Atmospheric Measurements

Measurement                                          Sensors
Cloud Properties (amount, optical properties,        MODIS, GLAS, AMSR-E, MISR, AIRS,
height)                                              ASTER, SAGE III
Radiative Energy Fluxes (top of atmosphere,          CERES, ACRIM III, MODIS, AMSR-E, GLAS,
surface)                                             MISR, AIRS, ASTER, SAGE III
Precipitation                                        TMI/VIRS, AMSR-E

Tropospheric Chemistry (ozone, precursor             TES, MOPITT, SAGE III, MLS, HIRDLS, LIS
Stratospheric Chemistry (ozone, ClO, BrO,            MLS, HIRDLS, SAGE III, OMI, TES
OH, trace gases)
Aerosol Properties (stratospheric,                   SAGE III, HIRDLS, MODIS, MISR, OMI,
tropospheric)                                        GLAS
Atmospheric Temperature                              AIRS/AMSU-A, MLS, HIRDLS, TES, MODIS

Atmospheric Humidity                                 AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB, MLS, SAGE III, HIRDLS,
                                                     Poseidon 2/JMR/DORIS, MODIS, TES
Lightning (events, area, flash structure)            LIS

EOS Project Science Office                                                                     10
   EOS Atmospheric Measurements: Aerosol monitoring

MODIS Rapid Response

                                     Credit: NASA

                                   MODIS MOD04 Aerosol Optical Depth

Credit: Jeff Schmaltz, NASA GSFC

                                   Credit: K. Mubenga

       EOS Cryosphere / Solar Radiation Measurements
Terra / Aqua                ICESat          JASON-I          LANDSAT 7


Measurement                                 Sensors

Land Ice (ice sheet topography, ice sheet   GLAS, ASTER, ETM+
volume change, glacier change)
Sea Ice (extent, concentration, motion,     AMSR-E, MODIS, ASTER, Jason-1
temperature)                                (Poseidon 2/JMR/DORIS), ETM+
Snow Cover (extent, water equivalent)       MODIS, AMSR-E, ASTER, ETM+

Solar Radiation
Total Solar Irradiance                      ACRIM III, TIM
Solar Spectral Irradiance                   SIM, SOLSTICE

    EOS Cryosphere: Monitoring Ice Sheets and Glaciers

                                                                                        Jan. 31, 2002

                                                                                        Mar. 5, 2002

GLAS onboard ICESat will extend NASA airborne
instrument record to track changes in ice sheet
extent and thickness.
                                                    Larsen B Ice Shelf Collapse, 2002
                                                    Credit: NSIDC

                                                  MODIS, ETM+, and ASTER can be used to                 13
                                                  monitor extent of glaciers and ice sheets.
                  EOS Land and Ocean Measurements

Measurement                                   Sensors
Land Cover & Land Use Change                  ETM+, MODIS, ASTER, MISR

Vegetation Dynamics                           MODIS, MISR, ETM+, ASTER

Land Surface Temperature                      ASTER, MODIS, AIRS, AMSR-E, ETM+

Fire Occurrence (extent, thermal anomalies)   MODIS, ASTER, ETM+

Volcanic Effects (frequency of occurrence,    MODIS, ASTER, ETM+, MISR
thermal anomalies, impact)
Surface Wetness                               AMSR-E

Ocean Surface Temperature                     MODIS, AIRS, AMSR-E

Phytoplankton & Dissolved Organic Matter      MODIS

Surface Wind Fields                           SeaWinds, AMSR-E, Poseidon 2/JMR/DORIS

Ocean Surface Topography (height, waves,      Poseidon 2/JMR/DORIS
sea level)

       EOS Measurements: Fire & Vegetation Monitoring

MODIS MOD14 Southeast Asia Thermal Anomalies,
January 28, 2007                                Tracking vegetation condition with MODIS EVI
                                                in the Amazon Basin
Credit: MODIS Rapid Response
                                                Credit: Huete et al. 2006. GRL 33.

EOS Measurements: Tracking Landscape Change in Mato Grasso

ASTER                                        MODIS
Credit: Morton et al. 2006. PNAS, 103(39).   Credit: MODIS Rapid Response Team

                      NASA Sub-orbital Science Program

15 aircraft platforms supporting
satellite missions, field
campaigns, disaster response,
and science missions
A range of sensors, including:
• AVIRIS (Airborne Visible Infrared
   Imaging Spectrometer)
• AIRDAS (Airborne Infrared
   Disaster Assessment System)
• HyMap
• LIDAR and many others

                                        NASA AVIRIS, Dec. 2005 Mosaic, Buck Island, St.
   AVARIS Data Cube                     Croix, USVI Credit: Dr. Liane Guild, NASA ARC                                                     17
                   EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS)

• EOSDIS is the comprehensive
  ground system for processing,
  archiving, and distributing data from
  all the EOS spacecraft
• Data processed, archived and
  distributed from nine distributed
  active archive centers, each with its
  own focus
• Accepts, process, and archives 3+
  TB per day of data from EOS
• > 4 petabytes of data archived
• 2.3 TB of user data requests per day
• Also provides mission operation
  systems that perform command and
  control of the spacecraft and
  instruments, health and safety
  monitoring, mission planning and
  scheduling, initial data capture, and
  Level 0 processing.
          EOS Standard Data Products: Processing Levels

Data Processing Level   Description
Level 0                 Reconstructed, unprocessed instrument and payload
                        data at full resolution, with any and all communications
                        artifacts removed.
Level 1A                Reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data at full
                        resolution, time-referenced, and annotated with
                        ancillary information, including radiometric and
                        geometric calibration coefficients and georeferencing
                        parameters (e.g., platform ephemeris) computed and
                        appended but not applied to the Level 0 data.
Level 1B                Level 1A data that have been processed to sensor
                        units (not all instruments have Level 1B data).
Level 2                 Derived geophysical variables at the same resolution
                        and location as Level 1 source data.
Level 3                 Variables mapped on uniform space-time grid scales,
                        usually with some completeness and consistency.
Level 4                 Model output or results from analyses of lower level
                        data (e.g., variables derived from multiple

MODIS Level 0
through Level 4
data products
                         Data Access: EOS Data Gateway

•   EOS data access provided by
    EOS Data Gateway (EDG)
•   Integrated search interface for all
    EOS data products
•   Facilitates search by data set,
    sensor, data type, location, and
•   On-line manual and tutorial

•   NOAA Data Access
     –   CLASS,

•   USGS Data Access
     –   Earth Resources Observation
         Systems (EROS) Data Center
                                            EDG Data Query Interface
•   Access to some datasets requires

EDG Data Listing

                 EOS Standard Products: Data Format

HDF (Hierarchical Data Format)
     • Designed at NCSA to facilitate sharing of scientific data
     • Embedded metadata for units, labels, other descriptors
     • Platform independent
     • User extendible
     • Supports multidimensional array, text, table, raster image, and palette

HDF-EOS (HDF for the Earth Observing System
     • Implemented as a C library extension of the standard HDF library
     • Adds support for grid, point, and swath formats to standard HDF objects
     • Allow file contents to be reference to Earth coordinates and time
     • Contains EOS Core System (ECS) core metadata essential for ECS search
       services (if the product contains ECS metadata, it is a valid HDF-EOS file)
     • Can be read by any tool that processes standard HDF files                       23;
                           Other Common Data Formats
•  Public domain metadata standard that allows georeferencing information to be embedded within a TIFF
•  The potential additional information includes projections, coordinate systems, ellipsoids, datums, and
   everything else necessary to establish the exact spatial reference for the file.

Network Common Data Form (netCDF),
•  Interface for array-oriented data access and a freely distributed collection of software libraries for C,
   FORTRAN, C++, Java, and Perl that provide implementations of the interface
•  Many of the same features and advantages of HDF: (1) self-describing; (2) architecture-independent; (3)
   directly readable
•  Widely used for climate data, climate modeling, and other applications with multidimensional gridded

National Land Archive Processing System (NLAPS) Data Format (NDF), and Level 1 Product
    Generation System (LPGS),
•   NLAPS and LPGS and Landsat data processing systems; image data are in GeoTIFF

Flexible Image Transport System (FITS),
•   Used by astronomy research community (and the TRMM VIRS fire product)
•   Header records in ASCII text format, followed by data records, consisting of a byte stream.

National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) 2.1 / 2.0
•   Used by Intelligence and Defense community (and Quickbird)

Binary (flt / hdr) and American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)                                                 24
         Other U.S. Sources of Satellite Data: NOAA & DMSP

NOAA National Environmental Satellite,
Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)

•       Data access via the NOAA
        Comprehensive Large Array-data
        Stewardship System (CLASS)
•       Data formats: GeoTIFF, HDF, Binary,
•       Also provides access to the Defense
        Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)
    NESDIS data organized by four data centers:
    •   Climate Data Center
    •   Geophysical Data Center
    •   Ocean Data Center
    •   Coastal Data Center                                  25
             Other U.S. Sources of Satellite Data: USGS

USGS maintains data for
Landsat 1-7 missions and
archive of aerial photography

Data Access via EDC
                                                  Progression of deforestation in Bolivia from 1975 to 2000. The MSS
   roducts/ordering_data.php                      image on the left was acquired on June 17, 1975; the middle TM
• Earth Explorer                                  image on July 10, 1992; and the right ETM+ image on August 1,
• GloVis                                          2000. Credit: USGS

• IGS Network

Landsat 7 SLC failure on May 31,
2003 continues to be problematic

                                                                               Agriculture in Nevada. Scan
                                                                               Line Corrector anomaly creates a
                                                                               zigzag pattern along satellite
                                                                               ground track. Image acquired
                                                                               August 28, 2003. Credit: USGS                                        26
                           Viewing and Analyzing Data

  Multiple commercial tools for viewing and analyzing commercial data:

 Application          Description
 RSI ENVI/IDL         Geospatial Image Processing

 ERDAS Imagine        Geospatial Image Processing

 PCI Geomatics        Geospatial Image Processing
 Idrisi               Geospatial Image Processing

 ERMapper             Geospatial Image Processing

 Matlab               Technical Computing & Image
 HDF Explorer Pro     Data Visualization                                         27
                             Viewing and Analyzing Data
 Open Source Remote Sensing Applications

Application           Description
MultiSpec             Multispectral Image Data Analysis

MSPHINX               Satellite Process Handling Images
                      uNder Xwindow
MODIS Reprojection    Projection/Format Conversion
MRT – Swath           Swath-to-Grid Conversion  

LDOPE Tools           MODLAND Quality Assessment

MODIS Swath-to-Grid   IDL-Based Conversion      

Cube Visualization    Data Visualization        
WebWinds              Data Visualization/Processing

WinVicar              Windows-Based Image Processing

HEW                   Web-based HDF-EOS Subsetter

NCSA HDF Tools        HDF Utilities                                                                          28
               Viewing and Analyzing Data: HDF Tools

HDF-EOS Tools & Libraries,
• Provide functionality for viewing, analyzing, and converting HDF to other formats

Binary_Dumper -- dumps HDF-EOS objects in binary format
EOSVIEW -- displays and verifies HDF and HDF-EOS files
HDFExplorer -- visualization program that reads HDF, HDF-EOS and HDF5 files
HDFView -- a visual tool for browsing and editing NCSA HDF4 and HDF5 files
HE5View -- a file viewing tool for examining and verifying HDF-EOS 5.x files
HEG -- converts HDF-EOS to GeoTIFF
HEMU -- a tool to update metadata inside an HDF-EOS file
HMR -- reads metadata from HDF-EOS file and writes to a text file
HMU -- updates the metadata embedded in an HDF-EOS file
MS2GT -- reads HDF-EOS files containing MODIS swath data and produces flat binary files
containing gridded data
PGS_Toolkit -- a set of tools to manage the metadata that are generated with each EOS product
PHDIS -- reads any HDF-EOS file containing data gridded in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area
hdf2bin -- converts HDF or HDFEOS file into plain binary file
hdfeos-netcdf -- converts HDF-EOS4/5 files to netCDF
view_hdf -- a visualizationtool for accessing data stored in HDF and HDF-EOS files

Current NASA Satellite Missions

Future NASA Satellite Missions

               Future NASA Satellite Missions: 2008

Ocean Surface                     Glory            Orbiting Carbon      Earth System
Topography Mission                                 Observatory          Science Pathfinder
(OSTM)                                             (ESSP / OCO)         (ESSP) Program

May 2008                     December 2008         September 2008       ESSP missions
                                                   Provide space-       address unique,
Continue Jason and           Continue SORCE                             specific, highly-focused
TOPEX/Poseidon Missions.     Mission. Determine    based observations
                                                   of atmospheric       requirements in Earth
Determine ocean surface      atmospheric aerosol                        science research.
topography to study ocean    properties from the   carbon dioxide
                                                   (CO2).               Primarily low to
circulation and its          polarization of                            moderate cost, small to
environmental applications   backscattered solar                        medium sized missions
(cooperative with France,    radiation, and                             that are capable of
EUMETSAT, and NOAA).         measure total solar                        being built, tested and
                             irradiance.                                launched in a short
                                                                        time interval.

             Future NASA Satellite Missions: 2009-2010


                 NPOESS Preparatory Project         Global Precipitation     Landsat Data
                 (NPP) Mission                      Measurement (GPM)        Continuity Mission

                 September 2009                     TBD                      TBD
March 2009
                 Extend key measurements in         Measure global           Extend the Landsat
Measure global
                 support of long-term monitoring    precipitation with       record of
sea surface
                 of climate trends and global       improved temporal        multispectral, 30-m
                 biological activity (joint NOAA-   resolution and spatial   resolution, seasonal,
                 DoD-NASA mission). NPP             coverage .               global coverage of
mission with
                 extends the measurement                                     Earth’s land surface
                 series being initiated with EOS                             (joint with USGS).
                 Terra and Aqua by providing a
                 bridge between NASA’s EOS
                 missions and NPOESS,
                 scheduled to replace the
                 separate NOAA and DoD
                 operational systems in ~2010.

                       NASA Applied Sciences

NASA Applied Sciences Application Plan,   34
                           Applying EOS Data: TOPS

 Developing a
 Framework                                                          Modeling

 Use of ecosystem                                                   Forecasting
 models to
 integrate satellite
 climate data, and
                                                                    Multiple scales
 other ground-
 observations and
 forecasts.                                                     Predictions are based on
                                                                changes in biogeochemical


Nemani et al., 2003, EOM                                White & Nemani, 2004, CJRS     35
     TOPS California Ecological Daily Nowcasts at 1km

Climate + Satellite                                      Carbon and water cycles

T           P

                                                                GPP        ET

                                                            0        2.5      5
                                Biome-BGC                       GPP (gC/m2/d)
                                Simulation models                 ET (mm/d)

                  Outputs include plant growth, irrigation demand, streamflow     36
                  Salt water incursion, water allocation, crop coefficients
Near Real-time Monitoring of global NPP anomalies

     Mapping changes in global net primary production
      near real-time depiction of the droughts in the Amazon and Horn of Africa, May 2005

                                                     Running et al., 2004, Bioscience, 54:547-560   37
Lots of Data, One Laptop

                           Data issues to
                           Spatial scale
                           Temporal scale
                           Data quality
                           Length of data
                           available for
                           data analysis


NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook

EOS Data Products Handbook Vol. 1 (2004) and Vol. 2 (2000)

Finding Data
EOS Imagery

EOS Missions
Mission Overviews:
Missions Profiles:

Further Resources
NASA Remote Sensing Tutorial:
GIS Cafe Forums:
Instrument Science Teams


Shared By: