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Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies WED 460


									Instructional Strategies
       WED 460
Where are we….
          Instructional Strategies

   How do we formulate our strategies??

   Based on what ????
      Please tell me you know this
   The products from the previous phases (i.e.,
    Goal Analysis, Identify Objectives, Content
    Sequencing) feed into Instructional

   Now, you answer the question:
   How do I present the content needed to
    achieve meaningful learning for this objective?
                 Meaningful Learning
   Occurs when the learner constructs
    personally relevant and understood
    relationships between new information and
    the learner’s existing knowledge. David Ausubel,
    Joseph Novak

   Generative learning is meaningful learning
    This is a cognitivist perspective
                Generative Learning
   An instructional strategy that prompts or
    motivates the learner to actively make
    meaningful connections between what they
    already know and the new information.
    Merlin Wittrock (1974), Barbara Grabowski (1996), David
    Jonassen (1985)

   A cognitive approach based on information-
    processing model
           Instructional Strategies
   GOAL

   Design instruction so that the learner is
    motivated to generate or construct these
    meaningful relationships
              Generative Strategies
   Recall
   Repetition, rehearsal

   Integration
   Paraphrasing

   Organizational
   Analyzing key ideas, outlining

   Elaboration
   Add own ideas to new information
           Performance-content Matrix

   See Page 148 Text 5th Ed

   Pg 154 4 th Ed
       Performance-content Matrix
   Each instructional objective is classified in a
    cell based on content

   Prescriptions = “how to”
   A) how info is initially presented
   B) the generative strategy to increase depth of
        Prescriptions for Teaching
   Group discussion:

   Describe prescriptions for teaching:
   Facts
   Concepts
   Principles and rules
   Procedures
   Interpersonal skills
   Attitudes
             Prescription: How to…
   Design your instructional strategies:
   Review each objective and determine which cell it best fits in

   Refer to appropriate prescriptions (Morrison, chp 7) and select
    1) an initial presentation strategy (for instructors)
    2) a generative strategy (for learners).

   Develop the instruction, which consists of initial presentation
    strategy and the generative strategy.

   See also Morrison, pp. 357-359.
   The instructional design product from this step of
    the Kemp process is the strategy design for
    treating each objective.

   Guides the development of instructional materials
    and generative strategy components for active

   A blueprint for developing the unit
       Implications for instruction
   What prescriptions, processes, and/or
    strategies can you use to design
    instructional strategies for your unit,
    module, or lesson?

   } Strategies can:
   Address the learner’s characteristics
   Help the designer plan and sequence
          Instructional Formats
   Classroom/Lecture
   OJT (on-the-job-training)
   CBT (computer-based training)
   WBT (web-based training)
   Self-Directed Learning
   Cooperative Learning
   Group Discussion/Small Group
   Project/Problem Based Learning
        Instructional Approaches
   Discovery Learning
   Problem-Solving
   Instructional Games
   Drill & Practice
   Tutorial
   Case Study
   Role Playing
   Simulations
       Implications for Instruction
   Androgogy (adult learning) principles:
   Convince of need (WII-FM)
   Active participation
   Prior experience
   Problem solving
   Application to real world and relevant issues
   Feedback
          Gagné’s Nine Events
1. Gain attention
2. Inform learners of objective
3. Stimulate recall of prerequisite learning
4. Present stimulus material
5. Guide learning
6. Elicit performance
7. Provide feedback
8. Assess performance
9. Enhance retention & transfer

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