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					Guidelines
for an accessible
public administration


Towards full participation and equality
for people with disability




    Office of the Disability Ombudsman
Office of the Disability Ombudsman (HO)

Title: Guidelines for an accessible public administration
Towards full participation and equality for people with disability

ISBN number: 91-974759-0-4
Layout: Fotoskrift AB, Uttran

Translation: James Hurst, English Law Translations AB

This publication can be ordered from the Office of the Disability
Ombudsman. It can also be ordered in alternative formats.

The document (in Word and PDF format) can be downloaded
from the Office of the Disability Ombudsman‟s website: www.ho.se.

Postal address: Handikappombudsmannen (Office of the Disability
Ombudsman),
Box 49132,
100 29 Stockholm

E-mail: info@ho.se
Fax: +46-8-20 43 53, telephone: +46-8-20 17 70,
Text telephone: +46-8-21 39 39, mobile telephone: +46-70-555 11 58
number for SMS: +46-70-555 11 58


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 2
Foreword

Public administration exists for all citizens.

In order to make this a reality for people with disability, the authorities
must be accessible. „Accessible‟ means that people with disability can, on
equal terms as others, benefit from the operations and services provided
by the authorities. It is equally important that government authorities set
an example as employers.

Another important point of departure is the „Design for All‟ concept. This
means that products, services and environments should be designed so
that they can be used by as many as possible. Regardless of whether it is
a house being built or a website designed, the point of departure should
be that the intellectual and functional capacity of people varies.

The Government has issued a special assignment to government
authorities to improve accessibility. It is specified by Ordinance 2001:526
that they shall “work particularly to ensure that their premises, operations
and information are accessible to people with disability”. In order to
achieve this, the authorities must draw up inventories and prepare action
plans.

The National Accessibility Centre of the Swedish Office of the Disability
Ombudsman (HO), has, in accordance with the Government‟s
assignment, produced Guidelines for what is required to make public
administration accessible. These Guidelines constitute a guide for the
authorities in their work towards becoming accessible. They also form the
basis of the Office of the Disability Ombudsman‟s follow-up on
compliance with the Ordinance.

The Guidelines have been formulated so that they can be used by all
authorities. But each authority must interpret what the new accessibility
requirements means for it and how accessibility can be improved.
According to the Government and the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament) the
„principle of responsibility and financing‟ will be complied with.



                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 3
This means that the work to make the authority accessible must be
financed within ordinary Government appropriations and loan
frameworks.

The National Accessibility Centre at the Office of the Disability
Ombudsman will in various ways support authorities in this process
towards accessible public administration.

The Guidelines will therefore be improved and supplemented
continuously.




Lars Lööw                           Hans von Axelson
The Office of the                   The National Accessibility Centre
Disability Ombudsman




                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 4
Contents

Foreword                                                          3
Contents                                                          5
Summary                                                           9
The State should set an example                                  13
The new disability policy                                        13
Authorities in the service of citizens                           14
Authorities as employers                                         14

Guidelines – the route towards accessible                        15
authorities

1.      Guidelines for work processes                            18
1.1     Distribution of responsibility                           18
1.1.1   Integration of the accessibility perspective             18
1.2     Action plan for accessibility                            19
1.2.1   Policy                                                   19
1.2.2   Inventory                                                19
1.2.3   Analysis and prioritisation                              20
1.2.4   Plan for measures                                        20
1.2.5   Follow-up and evaluation                                 21
1.3     Procurement                                              21
1.4     Development of skills                                    22
1.4.1   Key people                                               22
1.4.2   All staff                                                22

2.      Guidelines for communication and                         24
        information
2.1     Telephone calls                                          24




                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 5
2.1.1   Voice response systems                                24
2.1.2   Taltjänst (Speech service) and Teletal (Speech        25
        interpretation service)
2.1.3   Text telephones                                       26
2.1.4   Video telephony service                               26
2.1.5   Total Conversation                                    27
2.2     Correspondence and communications                     28
2.2.1   Letters                                               28
2.2.2   Faxes                                                 28
2.2.3   E-mail                                                29
2.2.4   SMS                                                   29
2.2.5   Standard forms                                        29
2.3     Written information                                   30
2.3.1   Accessible language                                   31
2.3.2   Accessible layout                                     31
2.3.3   Accessible format and versions                        33
2.3.4   Information about information material                34
2.4     Web and e-services                                    35
2.4.1   WAI‟s Guidelines                                      35

2.5     Film and video                                        37

2.6     Conferences                                           38


3.      Guidelines for premises                               40
3.1     Accessible premises                                   40
3.1.1   Laws and rules                                        40
3.1.2   Existing buildings                                    41
3.1.3   Prioritisation                                        43
3.1.4   Reading instructions                                  44

3.2     Design of premises                                    45
3.2.1   Getting to the entrance                               45
3.2.2   Getting through the entrance                          48
3.2.3   Getting around inside the building                    51
3.2.4   Staying in and using the building                     55
3.2.5   Entrance halls                                        58


                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 6
3.2.6    Assembly halls, auditoriums, lecture halls             61
3.2.7    Meeting rooms, group rooms, classrooms                 65
3.2.8    Dining rooms, cafeterias, lunchrooms                   66
3.2.9    Toilets                                                66
3.2.10   Patios adjacent to work premises                       71
3.2.11   Evacuation in case of emergency                        72

3.3      Detailed general overall requirements                  74
3.3.1    Orientatability                                        74
3.3.2    Signs                                                  77
3.3.3    Daylight and illumination                              80
3.3.4    Safe mobility                                          82
3.3.5    Walkways                                               86
3.3.6    Ramps                                                  89
3.3.7    Lifts                                                  91
3.3.8    Doors                                                  96
3.3.9    Manoeuvring devices                                   100
3.3.10   Fittings and equipment                                103
3.4      Maintenance and routines                              110

4.       Guidelines for the workplace                          113
4.1      Personnel policy                                      114
4.1.1    Recruitment                                           114
4.1.2    Promotion                                             115
4.1.3    In-house training                                     115
4.1.4    Prohibition against discrimination                    115
4.2      Work premises                                         116
4.3      Office equipment                                      117
4.3.1    General requirements for office equipment             119
4.3.2    Computers                                             122
4.3.3    Keyboards                                             123
4.3.4    Visual display terminals/displays                     123
4.3.5    Pointing devices                                      124
4.3.6    Printers, faxes and copiers                           124
4.3.7    Other equipment                                       125




                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 7
4.3.8    Software                                     125
4.3.9    Intranet                                     126
4.3.10   Telephone apparatus                          126
4.3.11   User instructions                            130

         Glossary and abbreviations                  131
         Index                                       133
         Bibliography                                141
         Printed sources                              141
         Electronic sources                           142
         Standards                                    144
         Expert groups                                147




                               ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 8
Summary
Authorities will endeavour to promote full participation and equality in
society for people with disability. They must work particularly to make
their premises, operations and information accessible to people with
disability. This has been prescribed by the Government in a special
Ordinance (2001:526).

At an accessible authority, people with various kinds of disability will be
able to gain access to information and operations and will also be able to
work. But what is such an authority like and how does it function?

The Office of the Disability Ombudsman (HO) has been commissioned
by the Government to produce Guidelines for an accessible public
administration. The proposals were circulated to authorities and
organisations of people with disability for consultation and then revised.

The Guidelines affect among other things authorities‟ information and
communication, premises and office equipment and also personnel
policy. They also deal with how authorities can work towards becoming
accessible.


The State should set an example
In the spring of 2000, the Riksdag adopted a new action plan for
disability policy From patient to citizen (Government Bill 1999/2000:79).
The core of this is that society should be designed so that people with
disability can become fully participative.

Making society accessible involves removing the obstacles that exist. It
also involves designing products, services and environments so that as
many people as possible can use them.

The public administration sector is to ensure that the prescribed policy is
realised. It is also obvious that we must „practise what we preach‟. The
State should set an example.




                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9
Visits and contacts
The public has contact with authorities in various ways, for example by
telephone or letter, when a matter is being processed or a standard form is
to be completed. This contact can also occur through personal visits.

Every authority is responsible for people with disability being able to
communicate with the authority on equal terms with others. It should be
possible for a person with a hearing impairment to contact the authority
by text telephone. It should be possible for a person with a visual
impairment to receive a written reply or a standard form in Braille.


Information
Authorities use various channels to disseminate information, for example
printed information material, websites and conferences.

A person with a visual impairment may wish to obtain a document
recorded on a cassette. A person with a developmental disability should
be able to get the same information in easy-to-read Swedish. If a website
is designed in the right way, a person who is blind can also surf and
search for information.

 If necessary, it should be possible for a person to order and obtain
printed information material from the authority in another format.
Authorities that have a lot of contact with the public should have their
basic information translated into easy-to-read Swedish, sign-interpreted
and recorded on a cassette and/or in Daisy format (recorded on a special
CD).


Premises
In order to enable people with disability to visit the authority, its premises
must be accessible. It should be possible for people using wheelchairs to
get into the premises. Doorways must be sufficiently wide and there
should be ramps at stairs, for example. It should also be possible for
people with impaired vision to orientate themselves and meeting rooms
should be equipped with an induction loop.


Working at the authority
It should be possible for employees with disability to work at the

                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 10
authority on equal terms. Recruitment, promotion and in-house training
must be arranged so that no one is discriminated against. It is therefore a
precondition that a disability perspective forms part of the authority‟s
personnel and diversity policies.

In order for people with disability to be able to work at the authority, it
must be generally accessible. It may also be necessary to adapt individual
workstations.

How to make the authority accessible
The head of the authority is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the
authority becomes accessible. How successful the work will be depends
on having a management that is goal-orientated, committed and clear. It
is also important to allocate sufficient resources and that the work reaches
out throughout the entire organisation.


Action plan
The Government has resolved that authorities should draw up inventories
and prepare action plans.

The inventories of premises, information and operations form the basis
for being able to make a plan for measures. Some measures should be
prioritised, for example advising the public by telephone, e-mail and the
Internet and designing the entrance. Certain measures can be taken in
conjunction with maintenance work or work environment initiatives.

The action plan should also contain plans for follow-ups and assessments.

The action plan must be regularly updated, partly because technology,
environments and products are continuously being developed.


Procurement
The accessibility aspect must be integrated into the authority‟s
procurement work. Otherwise there is a risk that new obstacles will be
created when inaccessible products and services are bought. There is a
great risk that retroactive rectification of deficiencies will be both
expensive and poor.



                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 11
Development of skills
Increased knowledge is required by all staff in order for the authority to
become accessible. Employees with key functions, for example property
services and IT officers as well as receptionists and caseworkers who
have a lot of contact with the public, need special targeted training.




                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 12
The State should set an
example
The new disability policy
In the spring of 2000, the Riksdag adopted a new action plan for
disability policy: From patient to citizen (Government Bill
1999/2000:79). The core of this plan is that society should be designed so
that people with disability can become fully participative.

Today, people with disability are excluded from large parts of society.
Much of this involves everyday life. For instance, in some cases it is not
possible to get an education or a job, there are impediments to seeking
information or going to a restaurant or cinema.

To make society accessible involves the removal of obstacles that exist.
This applies to everything from high thresholds and narrow doorways
that exclude people using wheelchairs, to brochures and websites that
exclude those who do not have perfect vision and very good reading
skills.

The public administration sector must ensure that the prescribed policy is
realised. It is therefore inherent that the public administration sector also
sets a good example. Government authorities must “work specially to
ensure that their premises, operations and information are accessible to
people with disability”. The Government has prescribed this by means of
a special Ordinance (2001:526), which came into effect on 1 September
2001.

Disability Policy (Responsibility of National Authorities for
Implementation) Ordinance (2001:526).

Implementation of disability policy objectives
Clause 1 The disability policy objectives shall be considered by authorities
reporting to the Government when designing and conducting their operations.
The authorities shall work to ensure that people with disability are afforded full
participation in the life of the community and equality of conditions of life. The
authorities shall in particular work to ensure that their premises, operations and
information are accessible to people with disability.



                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 13
The United Nations’ Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for
Persons with Disabilities shall constitute guidance for this work.

Planning and consultation
Clause 2 In working to make their premises, operations and information more
accessible to people with disability, the authorities shall draw up inventories
and prepare action plans. However, this obligation does not apply if it is
manifestly unnecessary considering the nature of the operation.

Clause 3 The authorities shall, when there is cause to do so, consult with the
Office of the Disability Ombudsman on the design of initiatives under this
Ordinance.


Authorities in the service of citizens
The public has contact with the authorities in various ways. It may be by
telephone or letter when a matter is being processed and the authority is
making a decision. It may be by a standard form that has to be completed,
a personal visit to the authority‟s premises, participation in a course
organised by the authority or enjoying a cultural experience arranged by
the authority. It may also involve information from the authority, for
example in a brochure or on a website.

People with disability have the same rights as everyone else to
communicate with an authority, visit it or gain access to its information.
Every authority is responsible for making this possible.


Authorities as employers
It should be possible for people with disability to work at the authority on
equal terms with others. One precondition for this is that the workplace
and the operations are accessible, that technical aids are available and that
the work is arranged in an appropriate manner. This also applies to how
recruitment of new personnel is conducted.

The responsibility of an authority as an employer is regulated by, among
other things, the Work Environment Act and the Prohibition of
Discrimination in Working Life of People with Disability Act.

By employing people with disability, the authority can benefit from their
unique experience and thereby improve its service for all citizens.



                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 14
Guidelines – the route towards
accessible authorities
These Guidelines provide the authority with a guide to what is necessary
for the operation to become accessible to and usable by all people with
disability. This should be viewed as a source of knowledge on how the
authority should satisfy the Disability Policy (Responsibility of National
Authorities for Implementation) Ordinance (2001:526).

The document opens with guidelines for an approach for the authority‟s
work processes. Following these, there are guidelines for various areas:
communication and information, the premises and the workplace.

Design for All means that products, services and environments must be
designed so that they can be used by as many people as possible.

Accessible and usable are two concepts that are often used when people
with disability can participate on equal terms with others. In this
document, we use accessible as a comprehensive term for both accessible
and usable.1

Accessibility work is a process that must be planned from the perspective
of time. Certain changes will, for example, require new equipment or new
premises. The requirement must then be proposed at the procurement
stage. In the same way, it is appropriate that the planning of certain
measures for accessibility is coordinated with other work environment
improvements, such as, for example, renovation and reconstruction. The
use of so-called „while we‟re at it measures‟ are an efficient means of

1
 See standard SS-EN ISO 9241-11 Ergonomical requirements for office work
with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 11: Guidance on usability (ISO
9241-11:1998) where usability is defined as "The extent to which a product can
be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness,
efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use". Also see standard SS-
EN ISO 13407 Human-centred design processes for interactive systems (ISO
13407:1999) and also ISO/TS 16071 Ergonomics of human-system interaction -
Guidance on accessibility for human-computer interfaces.


                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 15
reducing costs.

In certain cases the proposed measures may possibly be difficult to
implement because of cultural, historical and architectural values, various
environmental and building structural conditions or safety aspects.
However, there are many good examples illustrating that it is possible to
consider other important features of an existing building at the same time
as making it accessible.

Certain measures may be difficult to rectify owing to the market not yet
having adopted the concept „Design for All‟. Although it may be
technically possible and although there are sometimes standards for the
production of products that satisfy the accessibility requirements, these
products are not yet available to purchase. As demand increases, so will
the range of products on offer.

Until the operation is accessible in its entirety, temporary solutions may
be acceptable. One such alternative solution may be to rent accessible
premises for a conference instead of using the authority‟s own,
inaccessible premises. It is important to set a time limit on these
temporary solutions within the authority‟s plan for measures for
accessibility.

Accessible premises, information and communication are necessary for
the operation to become accessible. But this is not always sufficient.
Issues concerning how the authority deals with people with disability are
also important from an accessibility perspective. These issues are dealt
with in the book Responding to persons with disability – a national
programme to improve responsive competence, issued by the National
Agency for Special Educational Support, SISUS.

The authorities‟ tasks are very different. Consequently, each authority
must apply the Guidelines in relation to its operation and consider
solutions and methods that will make the operation accessible to all. For
example, this applies to museums that wish to provide experiences and
promote culture. For example, concrete guidelines to enhance the
opportunity for severely visually impaired people to participate in an
exhibition are not provided here.

Nor do these Guidelines deal with the issue of accessible transport, which
is an important issue for people with disability. The Guidelines primarily

                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 16
cover everything that directly relates to government authorities‟ own
operations.




                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 17
1. Guidelines for work processes

1.1 Distribution of responsibility
The head of the authority is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the
authority becomes accessible. In order for all employees to be aware of
the accessibility requirement and of their own responsibility in their
work, senior management must communicate its message clearly.
Measures and results should be reported back to the head of the authority.


1.1.1 Integration of the accessibility perspective
In order for an authority to become accessible and remain so, it is
necessary that the entire organisation participates in the work. All
employees must therefore include the accessibility perspective in their
work tasks. Consequently, it is important that a policy is adopted within
the organisation. It may be formulated in a separate document or worked
into the policy documents that the authority already has. However, it is
important to view accessibility work as a process.

The officers responsible for managing various functions within the
authority should plan and monitor accessibility within their respective
areas. It is important that the accessibility work carried out is kept up.
Consequently, the authority must establish appropriate routines.

The costs of accessible operations shall be covered in the same way and
according to the same procedure as other costs for the operation. This
accords with the principle of responsibility and financing.

Extract from Government Bill 1999/2000:79 From patient to citizen: a
national action plan for disability policy, concerning the principle of
responsibility and financing, page 16.

”One of the fundamental principles within Swedish disability policy is the so-
called ‘principle of responsibility and financing’. This means that every sector in
society shall design and conduct its operations and activities so that it
becomes accessible to all citizens, including people with disability. The costs of
the necessary adaptation measures shall be funded within the ordinary
operation.”




                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 18
1.2 Action plan for accessibility
According to Ordinance SFS 2001:526, the authority shall “in the work
on making the authority‟s premises, operations and information more
accessible to people with disability, conduct inventories and prepare
action plans”.

The action plan includes
• producing a policy
• making inventories
• analysing and allocating priorities
• preparing a plan for measures and attending to matters proposed
• following up measures and conducting assessments.

The assessment will subsequently result in the action plan being updated
with a revised policy, new objectives and a new plan for measures. The
disabled people‟s movement – the various organisations of people with
disability – may be the resource that the authority needs for this work.


1.2.1 Policy
The Guidelines are formulated to be able to be used by all authorities. But
each authority must interpret what the new accessibility requirements
mean for it and how accessibility will be improved. A preliminary study
may form a sound basis for a policy. How should the work start? Which
parts should be invested in first? What plans for purchasing, rebuilding
and maintenance can be linked to the accessibility requirements? The
authority should then choose the way in which the work will proceed and
formulate a strategy for accessibility. The overall objectives are broken
down into concrete goals for the short and long term.

1.2.2 Inventory
The inventory of the authority‟s premises, operations and information
forms the basis of what needs to be done. For an inventory and analysis of
the result, professionals within various fields may be needed, for example
architects, engineers, accessibility consultants and web designers. These
should have special skills regarding accessibility issues.




                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 19
It may be appropriate to appoint a person within the authority to be
responsible for coordinating the authority‟s accessibility work.

Special inventory model forms will be provided on an on-going basis by
the National Accessibility Centre of the Office of the Disability
Ombudsman.


1.2.3 Analysis and prioritisation
Following the preparation of an inventory and an accessibility analysis at
the authority, the authority must decide which measures are most urgent
and which are to be given priority from the perspective of time. The
benefit of a particular measure in relation to other measures creating
accessibility forms the basis of the prioritisation.

However, certain basic principles must be followed. Basic information
about the authority must be accessible. It should also be possible for
people with disability to communicate with the authority.

The ability to get into the premises where the authority operates and to its
most commonly visited parts is also obvious. Similarly, there should be a
toilet for people using wheelchairs. Measures that improve safety must
also be given priority.

In respect of workplaces and universities/colleges, priority should be
given, in addition to those matters referred to above, to common areas
and at least some workrooms should be made accessible. It should be
possible for people with disability to participate in meetings and
education.


1.2.4 Plan for measures
A plan for measures should be drawn up when measures have been
prioritised. This plan may cover a short or a long period of time. Time
limits must therefore be set on the measures. Certain measures may be
suitable to plan jointly with, for example, maintenance plans and work
environment initiatives.

A plan for measures should report on the costs of the various measures,
which measures should be implemented immediately and which may be


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 20
implemented later, possibly in conjunction with other measures.


1.2.5 Follow-up and evaluation
Work on improving accessibility is affected by the continuous
development of and changes in technology, products and environments.
Therefore, it is important that objectives are followed up, results
evaluated and new objectives formulated. The action plan is thus not
definite but must be continuously revised. It is important that the plan
specifies dates for follow-ups, assessments and revision.

An assessment comprises more extensive work than a follow-up. Here
the result of the measures is evaluated. The assessment shows whether
the authority is on the right track or whether it is necessary to change the
order of priority.

The method of assessment shall be selected on the basis of the matter to
be evaluated. Evaluation questions may include:

• Have the planned measures been implemented?
• How has coordination between the various stakeholders (for example,
  information officers, installers, managers, buyers) worked?
• Do the measures planned for each step of the process lead to progress
  towards the programme goals formulated?
• Have the proposed measures resulted in conflicting objectives, for
  example, between various qualities (for example, accessibility,
  aesthetics, safety)?
• Have the measures at the detailed level contributed to improved
  accessibility?
• Has the overall perspective improved so that people with disability
  become fully participative?



1.3 Procurement
It is important that the accessibility aspect is integrated into the
authority‟s regular procurement work. Otherwise, there is a risk that new
unnecessary „obstacles‟ will be created when inaccessible products and
services are bought. There is a great risk that retroactive rectification of

                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 21
inadequate inaccessibility will be both expensive and poor.

The Guidelines contained in this document can be used as an aid to
impose accessibility requirements into the authorities‟ procurement
matters. For example, when the authority intends to adapt a workplace or
purchase products to be used by the public, the Guidelines can provide
guidance.

In certain cases, developments have not been so great that there are
accessible products or services on the market. By imposing accessibility
requirements within the framework of the government purchasing
coordination work, the State can contribute to the long-term development
of accessible products and services.


1.4 Development of skills
Increased skills are required in order for an authority to become
accessible – both for individual employees and for the staff overall.


1.4.1 Key people
When an authority is to implement its plan for measures, many
employees will be given special responsibility for accessibility issues
within their respective areas. The authority is responsible for ensuring
that these key people have sufficient knowledge to be able to perform
their work tasks and that they receive the necessary education/training.
This may relate to officers responsible for property services and for IT, as
well as to receptionists or caseworkers who have a lot of contact with the
public.


1.4.2 All staff
Studies show that many people with disability feel that they are in a
disadvantageous position when they have contact with authorities. A visit
to an authority is often not perceived to be a meeting between two equals.
Sensitivity to and knowledge of disability on the part of the particular
caseworker is therefore very important.

Through training of all staff, knowledge about accessibility is generally
enhanced as is awareness of the issues. The Skills Development


                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 22
Programme produced by the National Agency for Special Educational
Support (SISUS) can form a basis for such training.2




2
  A national programme to improve responsive competence
(http://www.sisus.se)


                                           ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 23
2. Guidelines for communication
and information
People with different kinds of disability should, be able to communicate
with the authority and search for information on equal terms with other
citizens according to each individual‟s capacity and need.

This section contains information about
• telephone calls
• correspondence and communications
• written information
• websites and e-services
• film and video
• conferences.


2.1 Telephone calls
The public‟s contact with the authority often takes place by telephone. To
enable this to function for everyone, it should be possible to call in
different ways, for example, by text telephone. If an authority uses a so-
called „voice response system‟, this must also satisfy certain requirements
so as not to exclude people.


2.1.1 Voice response systems
Many people who call an authority are often greeted by a voice response
system rather than a telephonist. The voice response system reads out a
menu with different options.

In order not to exclude certain groups of people with disability, for
example, those with a hearing or mobility impairment or people with
memory difficulties, the voice response system must function in a certain
way. For example, the party calling should not be confronted with too
many choices. It should also always be possible to speak directly to the
telephonist.



                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 24
If a voice response system is used, it should function for as many people as
possible.3
• Limit the menu to a small number of choices (maximum 4).
• Make personal contact with a telephonist one of the choices on the
  menu.
• Connect to the telephonist if no choice is made within a certain period
  (approximately 15 seconds).
• Offer text telephone users the same service as the voice response system
  provides to people able to hear, for example automatic connection or
  personal service via the authority‟s text telephone(s).


2.1.2 Taltjänst (Speech service) and Teletal (Speech
interpretation service)
People with voice, speech or language difficulties may require assistance
to converse, both on-site and via the telephone. This can be done via
Taltjänst or via Teletal.4

Taltjänst is a service provided by the county council. Taltjänst works to
facilitate contact with other people in connection with, for example,
banking business, visits to authorities and club activities. Taltjänst
provides both speech support on-site and telephone support through
three-way calls.

Teletal is a telephone service offered by the National Post and Telecom
Agency (PTS). Calls with the Teletal service are also three-way calls.

With telephone calls via Taltjänst and Teletal, the telephonist assists by,
among other things, introducing a call and, if necessary, clarifying what
the person means.

It should be possible to communicate with authorities via Taltjänst and via
Teletal.



3
  ETSI ETR 329 Guidelines for procedures and announcements in Stored Voice
Services (SVS) and UPT provides guidelines for the design of voice response systems.
4
  Taltjänst can be reached by contacting the county council during office hours.
 Teletal is open on weekdays 9.00 to 20.00 and can be reached by telephone number 020-
22 11 44.

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 25
• Inform all staff at the authority about how Taltjänst and Teletal operate
  and how they can be contacted.


2.1.3 Text telephones
Many deaf, severely hearing-impaired and speech-impaired people use
text telephones for telephone calls. With a text telephone one writes
instead of speaking. Text is shown to the recipient at the same time as the
caller writes.

If, for example, a deaf person calls a person able to hear, both can use
text telephones. If only the deaf person uses a text telephone, a special
communications service is used (see text telephone under Teletjänster
(Telecom services) in the telephone directory), where an interpreter
translates from text to speech and vice versa.

It should be possible to communicate with the authorities via text
telephone.


• Inform all staff at the authority about how the text telephone
  communications service operates and how it can be contacted.
• Locate text telephones where they can be used by all employees, for
  example, at the authority‟s switchboard or in reception.
• Train key personnel, switchboard operators, receptionists and others
  who receive a lot of external telephone calls, in the use of a text
  telephone.
• Always state the authority‟s text telephone numbers whenever address
  and contact details are given in, for example, information material and
  case correspondence.

 See Section 4.3.10 Telephone apparatus for requirements regarding text
 telephones.


2.1.4 Video telephony service
Video telephones are used for distance interpretation via the
communications service. This service makes communication possible



                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 26
between people who are deaf/hearing impaired and those who are able to
hear.5

Calls with a text telephone are quicker when both the interpreter and the
deaf/hearing-impaired person can use sign language.

It should be possible to communicate with the authorities via video
telephone services.

• Inform all staff at the authority about how the interpreter service for
  video telephony operates and how it can be contacted.


2.1.5 Total Conversation
A further step in development is the application of the Standard6 for Total
Conversation.7
This is a multimedia call service in a computer environment where video,
text and voice telephony interact so that pictures, signs and sounds can be
transferred simultaneously. For example, a spoken answer through the
telephone handset can be lip-read at the same moment on a video display
terminal and additions can be made by text. This entails a significant
improvement in communication between deaf and hearing people.

With Total Conversation equipment it is possible to converse with all text
telephones and video telephones, but of course subject to those
limitations applicable to text and video telephones. Of course one can
also speak on an ordinary telephone either directly or via a
communications service, having regard to the capacity of the people who
5
  The Interpretation Centre at Örebro County Council currently operates this service. An
interpreter can be booked on weekdays between 08.00 and 20.00. From a video telephone
to a voice telephone, call 020-28 00 10. From a voice telephone to a video telephone, call
020-28 00 20. Interpretation for longer than thirty minutes or in a language other than
Swedish sign language or spoken Swedish can be ordered in advance 019-602 45 04.
Contact details: Interpretation Centre, Klostergatan 26, 703 61 Örebro, Telephone 019-602
45 00, Fax: 019-18 34 48, website www.bildtelefoni.net
6
  See the document F.703 Multimedia Conversational Services on
http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.asp?type=items&lang=e&parent=T-RECF.
703-200011-I where the term Total Conversation is defined.
7
  The Swedish Agency for Public Management deals with the concept of Total
Conversation in its framework for procurement in the telecommunications sector. What
type of requirements can be imposed is determined for the individual procurement. See
also Section 4.3.10 Telephone apparatus.


                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 27
are calling.

Total Conversation equipment can replace a text telephone and video
telephone and result in increased quality. However, the Office of the
Disability Ombudsman does not impose any requirements on authorities
to introduce Total Conversation, but wishes to point out the availability
of this facility.

For requirements relating to equipment for Total Conversation, see
Section 4.3.10 Telephone apparatus.


2.2 Correspondence and communications
In order to ensure that as many people as possible can engage in written
correspondence with the authority, it is important that it is possible to
communicate in several different ways.

2.2.1 Letters
People with different kinds of disability may need to have their letters in
a special format or a special version. A person with visual impairment
may, for example, need to receive written replies in Braille or recorded
on a cassette. A person with a developmental disability may need to have
a letter in easy-to-read Swedish.

It should be possible to receive communications and written replies from
the authority in different formats, and all contact details should be stated.

• If necessary, produce written replies and communications in different
  formats, for example in large print, in an easy-to-read format, in Braille,
  on an audio cassette or electronically on disk.
• Always state the authority‟s address, e-mail address, fax number,
  telephone number, text telephone number and number for SMS on
  outgoing communications and letters.

2.2.2 Faxes
Fax may be one alternative to letters or telephone calls for people who,
for example, have reduced functional capacity as they get older. Those
who have previously used a fax do not need to learn about new
technology. A fax is sometimes also provided instead of a text telephone
as an aid for people with a hearing impairment.

                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 28
It should be possible to communicate with the authorities via fax.

• Always state the fax number of the authority when address and contact
  details are given in, for example, information material and
  correspondence on matters.
• If necessary, state the fax number for the section/department, for
  example in connection with correspondence on matters.


2.2.3 E-mail
For certain groups of people with disability, such as a visual or hearing
impairment, contact by e-mail can make communication easier.

It should be possible to communicate with the authorities via e-mail.

• Always state the e-mail address of the authority when other address and
  contact details are given in, for example, information material and
  correspondence on matters.
• If necessary, provide an e-mail address for each specific type of matter.


2.2.4 SMS
For certain groups of people with disability, such as a visual or hearing
impairment, communication with the authority is made easier if SMS
(short message service) can be used. SMS can replace a short telephone
call.

It should be possible to communicate with the authorities via SMS.

• State the SMS number of the authority when other address and contact
  details are given in, for example, information material and
  correspondence on matters.
• Establish routines for the authority‟s handling of short dialogues by
  SMS.


2.2.5 Standard forms


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 29
A lot of contact with authorities occurs through standard forms that have
to be completed. This applies, for example, in connection with tax
declarations or applications for various allowances.

People with disability should be provided with the opportunity to be able
to deal with applications and returns independently, for example via the
Internet.

It should be possible for standard forms to be used by as many people as
possible.

• Offer standard forms that are logically structured, have simple and
  comprehensible language and are easy to complete.
• Complete standard forms as far as possible (in those cases where the
  details are known).
• Offer support to those who need assistance with completing the
  authority‟s standard forms.
• Ensure that the typography in printed standard forms is clear and that
  the contrast is good.8
• Offer standard forms in alternative formats.9
• See that electronic standard forms comply with WAI‟s Guidelines.10



2.3 Written information
Clear language and an easily comprehended layout make things easier for
all readers. This is especially important for people with reading and
writing difficulties. When information exists in various forms, for
example, recorded on a cassette or in an easy-to-read format, it reaches
everyone who may be interested in it.

The section on written and printed information relates, for example, to
printed material, such as brochures, newsletters, folders and fact sheets.
Regarding written replies, decisions and other written communications,
see Section 2.2.1 Letters.


8
  See Section 2.3 Written information.
9
  See Section 2.3.3 Accessible format and versions.
10
   See Section 2.4 Web and e-services.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 30
2.3.1 Accessible language

Language and structure should make it easier for the reader.

• Write in a clear and easily understood way.
• Structure the text well. Always start long documents with a short
  summary.

     For example, a logically structured text with a summary and an
     explanation of words makes it easier for all readers.

     The Administrative Procedure Act11 urges public employees to
     endeavour to express themselves in an easily understood manner. The
     basis for information being accessible – usable – is that it is
     comprehensible. In order to make it comprehensible, clear and simple
     language must be used.
     A Plain Swedish Group operates within the Government Offices.
     Among other things, it has produced models and tests to improve
     official language12.


2.3.2 Accessible layout

Form design should provide the best possible readability.

Accessibility for all readers is helped by good graphic design. For many
people with different kinds of reading and writing difficulties, the layout
significantly aids reading and understanding.

This applies among other things to
• typeface
• font size
• alignment of the text
• line spacing
11
  Administrative Procedure Act (Fvl) (1986:223).
12
  The Plain Swedish Group is located at the Ministry of Justice. Contact the Plain Swedish
Group‟s website under www.justitie.regeringen.se/klarsprak/index.htm.


                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 31
• line length
• contrast and colour
• paper quality.

Typeface
The choice between a Roman style and a linear style depends on, among
other things, the situation in which the text occurs and the quality of the
printout. In lengthy text, Roman style, typeface with serifs, is easier to
read. It is important that the contrast is good.
Font size
Choose a sufficiently large font size, but not too large. For main text, for
example, often 11 or 12 point – depending on what typeface is used.

Alignment of the text
Alignment means adapting the distance between the letters. So-called
„tracking‟ and „kerning‟ are used to get words to form clear units and to
make reading easier.
Line spacing
Line spacing is usually 10 per cent greater than the type size, up to 18
point.

Line length
Short lines are easier to read than long lines, but they should not be too
short.

Contrast and colour
When you use colour, the choice of colour should enhance readability.
So-called „tint blocks‟ should not be used since many people with weak
sight find that it makes it more difficult or impossible to read. The same
applies to patterned backgrounds.


Paper quality
Use matt paper with high opacity, that is to say density, so that the print
on one page cannot be seen on the reverse side.

The items above have been taken from the Swedish Association of the
Visually Impaired‟s publication Många kan läsa mer – vägledning för
bättre utformning av tryckt text [Many can read more – guidelines for the
improved design of printed text]. As they are summaries, we refer to the
                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 32
document in its entirety for more comprehensive guidance and
explanations.13

When information material is produced in easy-to-read Swedish, it is
especially important to think about the layout and choice of graphics.
Graphics can also be „easy-to read‟ – concrete and clear and contribute to
reading comprehension.

The development of pictograms14 – a special picture and symbol language
– should be monitored, in order to be used, for example, in printed
information material.


2.3.3 Accessible format and versions
In order that information reaches as many people as possible, many
different formats should be available.

These can, for instance, be for a person with impaired vision, who needs
larger print to be able to read. They can be for a visually impaired person
who reads Braille or listens to audio cassettes. They can be for a person
with a developmental disability who reads easy-to-read Swedish.

The alternative formats available in Office of the Disability
Ombudsman‟s Guidelines are
• easy-to-read Swedish15
• Braille
• Daisy audiobook16
13
   The publication Många kan läsa mer – vägledning för bättre utformning av
tryckt text [Many can read more – guidelines for the improved design of printed text] can
be ordered from Swedish Association of the Visually Impaired (SRF), 122 88 Enskede.
14
   A pictogram is a system of graphic symbols in white against a black background. Each
pictogram symbol represents a word or a concept, for example „boy‟ or „happy‟. Read
more about pictograms on the Swedish Institute for Special Needs Education website:
www.sit.se
15
   Text translated into easy-to-read Swedish is simple and has ordinary and concrete words.
The sentences are often short and the layout spacious. The Centre for Easy-to-Read is a
foundation that among other things translates text into easy-to-read Swedish. Read more
about easy-to-read Swedish on www.lattlast.se.
16
   A Daisy audiobook is a digital book in Daisy format on a CD-ROM disk. In order to read
the book, it is necessary to have a special audiobook player or computer. With a DAISY
audiobook, the reader can hop between the book‟s headings and bookmarks. DAISY is an
acronym for Digital Accessible Information SYstem.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 33
• audio cassette
• sign language (on a video cassette or DVD)
• large print (black writing, approximately 14 point)
• Word or accessible PDF17 (on disk, CD or e-mail attachment).

It should be possible to get printed information in other formats and
versions.

• When requested, produce material designed in an easy-to-read format,
  recorded on a cassette, in Daisy format, in Braille and large print. It
  should also be possible to order the material electronically, in Word or
  accessible PDF. Have procedures in place and a clear distribution
  responsibility to deal with these orders.
• Produce alternative formats and versions for individual orders within
  reasonable time limits. The material must still be up-to-date for the
  person placing the order.
• Does your authority have a lot of contact with the general public? Offer
  basic information material in an easy-to-read format, recorded on a
  cassette and/or in Daisy format and also in a sign language interpreted
  version. It should be possible to obtain these in conjunction with the
  original versions. Also offer the printed information material
  electronically, in Word or accessible PDF.
• The basic information material in different versions, such as an easy-to-
  read format and sign language interpreted, can be used in parallel on the
  website. The same applies to electronic formats.

2.3.4 Information about information material
One problem is that it is difficult to know what information material is
currently available. Consequently, information about existing material
should be disseminated in different ways. The channels may vary. It is
also important to publicise the fact that material can be ordered
individually in the chosen version/form.

The authority should provide information about the existence of the
alternative formats and that these can be ordered.

17
  PDF files can be accessible to people with visual impairment, provided they are set-up in
the right way. For this, the programme Word 2000 or later is required, together with
Acrobat 5.0. It also functions with certain layout programs as a basis.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 34
• Provide information about what information material is available and
  the various existing formats/versions. Also provide information about
  the versions/formats that are not available, but can be produced to
  order.
• Specify in all printed material that it is possible to order it in an
  alternative format.


2.4 Web and e-services
Authorities‟ external websites are playing an increasingly important role
for information and communication. Besides finding information, it is
often possible, for example, to complete standard forms or questionnaires
using these websites.

A website may be accessible to everyone provided it is structured in the
right way. In that case, every user can personally determine how the
information is presented.

The requirements in this section apply to external websites and also for
the various electronic services linked to them. They also apply to the
authority‟s Intranet.

2.4.1 WAI’s Guidelines
There are currently international guidelines on making the Internet
accessible to people with disability. This has been produced by WAI
(Web Accessibility Initiative), which is a working group within W3C
(World Wide Web Consortium).18
The EU‟s Member States have agreed that public websites should comply
with the Guidelines.19 The Recommendations and Advice of the Swedish
Agency for Public Management for the 24/7 Agency‟s website also

18
     The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) leads international cooperation between more
than 500 member organisations in the form of businesses, countries and researchers
throughout the world, aimed at promoting the development of the web. WAI is a working
group within W3C and is responsible for the web being usable by people with disability.
(http://www.w3.org/Consortium)
19
   The EU action plan Europe 2002 states that the Member States shall adopt the WAI‟s
(Web Accessibility Initiative) Guidelines for the accessibility of public websites for people
with disability. In March 2002, the EU Council of Ministers adopted a resolution on the
accessibility of public websites with reference to WAI‟s Guidelines.

                                               ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 35
stipulate that WAI‟s Guidelines should be complied with.20
If a website complies with WAI‟s Guidelines, each user can adapt the
presentation of the contact according to their own needs. The content and
structure is not changed.

The authority’s website, intranet and e-services should function for as
many as possible.

• Comply with WAI‟s applicable Guidelines. The current version is Web
  Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0.21
• Ensure that the publication tool satisfies WAI‟s guidelines for
  Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines. The current version is 1.0.22
• Use WAI‟s evaluation methods to verify the accessibility of the
  website.23
WAI‟s Guidelines support measures for making websites accessible to
severely hearing-impaired or deaf people, people with a developmental
disability or incipient dementia. However, they are not clearly expressed.
Therefore, Office of the Disability Ombudsman has formulated the
following supplementary items.

• Offer basic information about the authority and information of central
  social interest in easy-to-read versions on the website.
• Start each section of the website with a short summary in plain
  language.
• Offer basic information about the authority and information of central
  social interest in sign language interpreted versions on the website
  (Swedish sign language).



20
   The Swedish Agency for Public Management‟s recommendations and advice for the
24/7 Agency‟s website, see http://www.statskontoret.se/24/200213/index.html and
specifically Chapter 14 on Design for All, http://www.statskontoret.se/24/200213/design-
foralla.
html#webbplatsen-skall-folja-web-co.
21
   WCAG 1.0, se http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/. There is a Swedish translation on
http://w3c.sics.se/resources/office/translations/wai-webcontent-se.html.
22
   See http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG10/
23
   See http://www.w3.org/WAI/eval/


                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 36
• Make navigation easy for the user.

It is important that the structure is clear and easily comprehended. A so-
called „breadcrumb trail‟ and similarly symbols for the various parts of
the website can make navigation simpler.


2.5 Film and video
If the authority has a film produced, for example an information film
about the operation, it is also important that people who are visually
impaired, hearing impaired and deaf can acquaint themselves with its
content. The same requirements apply if the authority, for example,
makes use of television broadcasts.

It is appropriate, for example, to subtitle all films, as this is a prerequisite
for the film being accessible to deaf or hearing impaired people. People
deaf since infancy, who use sign language and do not have written
Swedish as their first language, need sign language to understand.

Audio description is another way of making films accessible. This means
that information communicated by the film exclusively by means of
images is put into words or explained. This may, for example, be a
diagram, which in the audio description version is described verbally for
those who find it difficult to see, or a film sequence where the
environment or course of events is described.

Some of the requirements stated below are easier to satisfy with digital
technology than with the analogue technology that has been more
common up to now. Digital technology also provides the user with more
opportunities to acquaint themselves with the content of targeted
information. This should be taken into consideration when, for example,
an authority decides on whether to produce a new video film.

As many people as possible should be able to benefit from the authority’s
information on film, multimedia or video/television.

• Subtitle all speech.
• Reproduce sounds other than speech with the text in another colour or
  offer an equivalent solution.


                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 37
• Use a subtitling technology which includes the subtitle if the user
  records/copies the film. It is not possible, for example, to record/tape
  Text TV with most ordinary video equipment.
• Produce a version with Swedish sign language, which can be broadcast
  at a different time from the original version or on a different channel, or
  offer an equivalent solution.
• Produce an audio description version or offer a similar solution.


2.6 Conferences
Conferences should be held in premises that are accessible to all. All
participants, both speakers and the audience, should have the opportunity
to participate on equal terms. No one should be excluded on account of
their disability.

Where conferences have been arranged in hired premises or at conference
centres, where services are also included, authorities should, insist on
accessible premises and services when booking and procuring the
facilities. Such an example is that the sound from a loudspeaker should
be fed into the induction loop so that people with hearing impairment can
also hear what is being said. The design of the conference invitation and
how the conference is arranged also affects accessibility. Breaks between
programme items are important as both the audience and, for example,
interpreters may need to rest. It is also important that programme items
are of an appropriate length and also that times are adhered to.

Conferences should be held in premises where everyone has access and
should be organised so no one is excluded on account of their disability.

• Include in the invitation a query about the needs and wishes of
  participants as regards sign language interpretation, audio description,
  induction loop, special dietary requirements and conference
  documentation in alternative formats.
• Include information in the invitation that participants should avoid
  perfume and other scented hygiene products.
• Organise the programme so that breaks are scheduled at appropriate
 times (every 45 minutes, as a guide). The organiser should ensure that
 times are adhered to.


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 38
     It is very important that times are adhered to since many people with
     reduced functional capacity need to plan, for example, transport to and
     from events and taking medication with food. This is also one way of
     showing respect both to the audience and to other speakers.
• Inform speakers/lecturers about accessibility aspects.
     Information should be provided that it is important that times are
     adhered to. In order to provide everyone with an equal opportunity to
     acquaint themselves with the content of the presentation, lecturers and
     speakers should be informed about the importance of speaking directly
     into the microphone, reading what it says on overhead projections,
     describing pictures and speaking clearly. Information about not using
     perfume and the like should also be provided.
• Provide documentation and information in alternative formats at the
  same time as other documentation, if this is requested in the application.

     It should be indicated in the conference application that this can be
     requested.24
• Offer interpretation if necessary.
     Sign language interpretation and audio description may need to be
     ordered depending on the participants and presentations. Verbal
     presentations and recorded information that is presented verbally needs
     to be sign language interpreted. Video recordings and film sequences
     need audio description and also sign language interpretation if they are
     not subtitled.
• Provide information about refreshments and what alternatives are
  available.
     If refreshments are served, it is important to provide an opportunity to
     indicate alternative dietary requirements and that they can be satisfied at
     all meals. It is important to provide information about exactly what is
     served.
• When booking conference premises, insist that people with disability
  should be able to use the premises.25



24
  See Section 2.3.3 Accessible format and versions.
25
  Design of premises for conferences at public authorities, see Chapter 3 Guidelines for
premises, Section 3.2.6 Assembly halls, auditoriums, lecture halls.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 39
3. Guidelines for premises

3.1 Accessible premises
It should be possible for a person with a disability to visit the authority
and to be able to work there. In order for this to be possible, the premises
must be accessible and usable.


3.1.1 Laws and rules
Government authorities should function as examples. No one should be
excluded from the authority‟s activities. This justifies greater demands
being imposed on public authority premises than the minimum
requirements contained in the building legislation, the National Board of
Housing, Building and Planning‟s Building Regulations, BBR26, and in
the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning‟s General Advice
on Alterations to Buildings, BÄR27.

The building legislation demands accessibility in conjunction with new or
rebuilding work. In a supplement to the Planning and Building Act
(PBL28), requirements are also imposed to simply rectify impediments
that are to be eliminated in existing premises and in public places to
which the public has access. In Guidelines for an accessible public
administration, there are demands that public premises and work
premises used in the authorities‟ operations should be made accessible,
even if this consequently means rather more extensive measures than
those referred to in the Planning and Building Act.

In existing work premises, requirements for measures can also be
imposed under the Work Environment Act29, regardless of whether new
or rebuilding work is involved. The Swedish Work Environment
Authority can issue prohibitions and impose orders. A prohibition means
that certain items of work may not performed before the work
environment has been changed in accordance with directions issued by
26
   BBR, The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning‟s Building Regulations
(1993:57 with amendments up to and including 2002:19).
27
   BÄR, General Advice on Alterations to Buildings. (1996:4 amended1999:1).
28
   PBL, The Planning and Building Act (1987:10) Chapter 17, Section 21a.
29
   The Work Environment Act (1977:1160) and the Work Environment Ordinance
(1977:1166).


                                            ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 40
the Authority. An employer may be compelled to make certain changes
or rebuild something to improve the work environment such as improving
the ventilation.

Requirements for individual adaptation in existing buildings may also be
imposed under two other statutes:
According to the Prohibition of Discrimination in Working Life of People
with Disability Act30, an employer is obliged to provide a person with
disability conditions similar to those that others have. This may entail
certain measures to adapt the physical environment having to be carried
out, provided that this would be reasonable.

For universities/colleges, requirements for measures in existing buildings
can be imposed under the Equal Treatment of Students at Universities
Act.31 Premises should be made accessible and usable to provide a
situation for disabled people, who are accepted on or already attending
courses, that is similar to what is available for people who are not
disabled, provided that this would be reasonable.

Even in the case of new buildings, greater demands are imposed by the
Guidelines for an accessible public administration than by BBR, for
example, regarding the gradient of ramps, lift dimensions and the
distance between parking places and the entrance. In addition to this,
entrances in all new buildings must be accessible.


3.1.2 Existing buildings
It is rare for an authority to move into completely newly built premises.
In most cases, it is a question of modifying premises that the authority
already uses in order to make them accessible. Premises located in older
buildings often have great deficiencies from the accessibility perspective
yet at the same time may be of significant architectural and cultural
historic value.

Opportunities for extensive reconstruction are especially restricted for
buildings that have been declared cultural heritage properties.32 Special

30
   The Prohibition of Discrimination in Working Life of People with Disability Act
(1999:132).
31
   Equal Treatment of Students at Universities Act (2001:1286).
32
   Heritage Conservation Act (1988:950) and Cultural Heritage Public Buildings, etc.
Ordinance (1988:1229).

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 41
conservation rules specify how the building may not be modified. A
special permit procedure is required for modifications that are restricted
by these regulations.

However, this does not mean that an authority can refrain from making a
building accessible. There are many examples showing that it is possible
to conserve cultural historic and architectural values in an existing
building while at the same time making it accessible.33 The aim should
always be to satisfy the requirements prescribed by the Guidelines for an
accessible public administration, even if certain deviations may be
acceptable in existing buildings. A guide for assessing the deviations that
may be acceptable is provided in conjunction with the requirements.

For measures in existing buildings, regard should be had for the nature
and features of the building. Measures must be implemented carefully so
as to conserve the character and value of the building. It is not always
possible to satisfy the Guidelines for an accessible public administration
in every conceivable respect. Each case should be looked at individually
with regard to the cultural historic, environmental and architectural
values as well as the building engineering factors and safety aspects.

If an authority has inaccessible premises, certain activities, such as
meetings, may temporarily be arranged outside the authority‟s own
premises. Conferences should always be arranged outside the authority‟s
own premises if they are inaccessible. The premises can also be arranged
so that the most accessible parts can be used for those activities where
accessible premises are considered to be most important. However, this
should only be a short-term alternative such as pending a current lease
expiring.

The main principle is consequently that, in the first instance, the premises
where the operation is conducted should be made more accessible. If this
is not possible, the authority should move the operation. At the same
time, there may be some value in certain government operations being
located in properties with a high cultural historic value, even if it is not
possible to make the entire building accessible. Exceptionally, it may for
instance even be acceptable for a small proportion of the office rooms to

33
  See for example Siré, Elena (2001) Varsam tillgänglighet; vid ändring av
byggnader och byggd miljö. [Considerate accessibility; when modifying buildings and
urban environments](Svensk Byggtjänst).


                                            ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 42
remain inaccessible in the long term. However, the authority always has a
responsibility not to exclude people with disability.

When the authority changes premises, the opportunity should be taken to
live up to the Guidelines. The authority should find accessible premises
or ensure that the premises are rectified before it moves in so that good
accessibility is achieved.

3.1.3 Prioritisation
The authority must decide on the most urgent measures and which
measures should be given priority from a time perspective. This
prioritisation should be based on the benefit that a particular measure has
in relation to other measures that promote accessibility. A for measures
should state the cost of the various measures, which measures should be
implemented immediately and which could be implemented over time,
possibly in conjunction with other measures or in conjunction with
modification work for a particular individual.

Costs are greatly dependent on other planned measures. The consistent
use of the „while we’re at it principle‟ is an efficient way to reduce such
costs. By conducting accessibility measures in conjunction with other
modification work (such as rebuilding, maintenance, new investment and
procurement), investment costs can often be substantially reduced. One
precondition is that there is an awareness and knowledge on the part of
both the property owners and within the authority as well as procedures
being established to ensure that these measures are not forgotten.

Another principle is the „needs principle‟. This means that an individual
adaptation measure should be implemented when the need arises, for
example, if a person with disability is employed or accepted on a course.
This should only be viewed as a complement. It is always necessary to
have a plan for how general accessibility should be improved and the
measures that are needed to implement the plan. Such a plan for measures
is also a precondition for the „while we‟re at it principle‟ to function.

In premises for the public, the following should be given priority

• that the entrance can be used by people with disability
• that people using wheelchairs can get to the most frequently visited
  parts


                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 43
• that there is a toilet for people using wheelchairs
• that safety is improved by, for example, marking stairs and large glass
  panes.

For workplaces and universities/colleges, in addition to the above, the
following should be prioritised

• that common spaces and at least a few workrooms are made accessible
• that people with various disabilities can participate in meetings
• that people with various disabilities can participate in lessons

A meeting room and group room with auditory technical equipment,
overhead and other technical equipment that can be used by people with
disability are required. The room should be furnished so that people using
wheelchairs can participate in meetings. Auditory technical equipment is
required in lecture halls to cover both the audience areas and the podium.
It should be possible for people with disability to use technical equipment
and there should be audience places for people using wheelchairs. It
should be possible for the podium to be used by people using
wheelchairs.

According to PBL34, impediments to and in premises to which the public
has access and which can be simply rectified should be eliminated. These
should be rectified no later than by 2010.35 The National Board of
Housing, Building and Planning has raised various matters in a proposal
for regulations, including small changes in levels, heavy doors,
improperly placed manoeuvring devices, inadequate or blinding
illumination and impediments in the form of inadequate contrast marking,
which are considered to be impediments that are simple to rectify.36


3.1.4 Reading instructions

34
   The Planning and Building Act (PBL), Chapter 17, Section 21a.
35
   See, for example, Government Bill 2000/01:48.
36
   See Förslag till föreskrifter och allmänna råd om undanröjande av enkelt avhjälpta
hinder till och i lokaler dit allmänheten har tillträde och på allmänna plaster. [Proposal for
regulations and general advice on the elimination of simply rectified impediments to and in
premises to which the public has access and in public places.] Document 1(5) decision
presented to the Government for consent, the board of the National Board of Housing,
Building and Planning, 14 February 2003. DNR 10812-3416/2001.

                                                ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 44
These Guidelines apply in the first instance to those premises that are
used for the authority‟s own operations but should also be applied to any
buildings that the authority manages or supervises. A balance must be
struck between other interests, such as, the conservation of cultural
historic and architectural values, safety interests and work-environment
issues. The nature of the activities conducted at the premises also has an
impact on how the Guidelines should be applied.

In order to facilitate comparisons with other rules, there are extracts from,
among other provisions, the National Board of Housing, Building and
Planning Building Regulations (BBR), where a comparison may be
appropriate.

When the Guidelines mention a person using a wheelchair, this refers to
an electrically propelled wheelchair for limited outdoor use (that is to say
the type of wheelchair dimensioned according to the National Board of
Housing, Building and Planning‟s Building Regulations except for
dwellings).37
This chapter contains information about

• the design of the premises
• detailed general overall requirements
• maintenance and routines.


3.2 Design of premises
In order for people with disability to be able to visit the authority and
work at the authority, it is important that the premises are accessible. It is
important to ensure that it is possible to get to the authority and to get
around within the authority‟s various premises.


3.2.1 Getting to the entrance

It should be possible for people with disability to get to the entrance.

It should be possible to get to the building by means of a passenger car,

37
     BBR 3:121.

                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 45
municipal transportation service, taxi or from a public transport stop.
Prerequisites for this include, among other things,

• that there is an accessible walkway38 between the entrances of the
  building and the arrival point, parking place, public walkway and stop.
• that there is an arrival point and also a sufficient number of parking
  spaces designated for visitors with disabilities, preferably within 10 m
  and at most 25 m walking distance from the entrance
• that, if necessary, designated parking spaces are arranged for employees
  with disability, preferably within 10 m and at most 25 m walking
  distance from the entrance
• that the spaces are designed so that they function for people with
  disability, that is to say that they are wide enough, have fixed, non-slip
  and even surface covering with a gradient of at most 1:50 both laterally
  and lengthwise.
• that it is possible to sit within visible distance of a taxi, municipal
  transportation service, etc. while also being protected from the wind and
  weather.
• that the arrival point and parking spaces designated for people with
  disability are clearly signposted.39



Additional information

The arrival point and parking places cannot always be arranged on the
site. The authority should then work to ensure that the municipality
arranges an arrival point and designated parking places for people with
disability on municipal land and that walkways from these are made
accessible.


Location of arrival points and parking places
The reason for these requirements is that many people find it very
difficult to move even short distances, particularly out of doors.
Movement is even more difficult in the wintertime.

38
     See Section 3.2.5 Walkways.
39
     See Section 3.3.2 Signs.

                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 46
Parking places that are not intended for people with disability should be
located at least15 m from the entrance or openable windows. Many
people are sensitive to car exhaust fumes.

If the main entrance or the staff entrance is not accessible, an arrival point
or designated parking places should be arranged for people with disability
within a corresponding distance from an accessible entrance.

In the case of existing buildings, it is not always possible to arrange
arrival points and parking places within 25 m. A greater distance may
only be acceptable if it is not possible to arrange anything closer.


The number of reserved parking spaces for people with disability
The number of spaces needed depends partially on the operation. A
guideline value may be approximately 5 per cent of the total number,
though at least one. If the operation is of such a nature that it is visited by
many people with disability, more reserved parking spaces will be
required.

Design of parking spaces
A parking space for people with disability needs to be at least 3.6 m wide.
For safety reasons, such a parking space should normally not be placed
beside a kerb.

However, a parking space where dropping off and collection takes place
via a ramp at the side of a car may be placed against a kerb. In order to
facilitate dropping off with a ramp, a width of approximately 5 m is
required.

However, a space may be of a normal width if it is placed beside a
walking area, for example, a pavement that is free from impediments and
is at least 3 m wide. In order for a vehicle to be able to park where both
dropping off and collection occurs in the usual way, the length then needs
to be approximately 7 m, and 0.9 to 1.0 m of the kerb must be chamfered.
The chamfered part should be located so that it ends up behind the car to
make it easier to use the car boot.

In an existing environment where there are obvious problems in
achieving such a gradient at parking spaces, a gradient somewhat greater
                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 47
than 1:50 may be acceptable. The aim should always be to have a
maximum gradient of 1:50.


Seating areas
In existing buildings, it may be difficult to arrange a protected seating
area within view of the arrival point. In this case, it can be replaced by a
seating area close to reception.


What does BBR say?
According to BBR 3:122, it should be possible for at least one walkway
between a building entrance and parking area, an arrival point for
vehicles, open spaces and public walkways to be used by a person with
impaired mobility or orientation capacity. It should be possible to arrange
an arrival point or parking place for vehicles of disabled people within 25
m walking distance of such an entrance (accessible entrance).

For seating area design, see Section 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment.


3.2.2 Getting through the entrance
It should be possible for all entrances to be used by people with disability.

Prerequisites for this include
• that it is possible to get in through the entrance without any changes in
  level (stairs or steps)
• that any ramp or lift is designed so that it functions well for people with
  disability40
• that the entrance is designed so that even people with impaired vision
  can make their way to it and use it in a safe way41
• that the entrance door can be opened, passed through and closed by
  people with disability42
• that the surface in front of the entrance door is flat, non-slip and firm
  with a maximum gradient of 1:50

40
   See Section 3.3.6 Ramps and Section 3.3.7 Lifts. The lift should be large enough for one
person in a wheelchair and an assistant.
41
   See Section 3.3.1 Orientatability and Section 3.3.4 Safe mobility.
42
   See Section 3.3.8 Doors.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 48
• that the space inside the entrance door (porch) allows passage for a
  person using a wheelchair
• that there is a clear and well-placed sign that is visible from both the
  walkway and the vehicular way showing the street number and the
  authority‟s name43
• that any door telephone, doorbell, door code panel, etc. is positioned
  and designed so that they can also be used by people with disability.44



Additional information

In existing buildings, it may be acceptable that not all entrances can be
used by people with disability. In the first instance, the main entrance
should be accessible. In addition, give priority to the staff entrance, any
other entrances that are used by visitors or employees on a regular basis
and also the entrance to any patio.

If the main entrance cannot be made accessible, an impact assessment
should be carried out with various alternatives examined. Among other
things, consideration should be given to arranging for another entrance
that could be made accessible to be the main entrance. An alternative
entrance may be acceptable in buildings that are of cultural historic value
where it is considered impossible either to make a main entrance
accessible for people with impaired mobility or to move the main
entrance. A precondition for this is that the requirements specified for
such an entrance are satisfied.

Even if the main entrance cannot be used by people using wheelchairs, it
should be designed so that it can be used by people with other disabilities.


Entrance door
Automatic sliding doors function best. Rotating doors are difficult for
people with impaired mobility or visual impairment to use. If a rotating
door is used for work-environment reasons (to avoid draughts), there
should be a side-hung door adjacent to it which opens at the same time as
the rotating door and which is clearly marked so that it is easy to find.

43
     See Section 3.3.2 Signs.
44
     See Section 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment.

                                                  ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 49
See also Section 3.3.8 Doors, regarding door design.


Surface in front of the entrance door
Doormats or boot scrapers of such design that they are difficult to cross,
or which are positioned so that they might be a trip hazard, should not be
located in front of entrance doors.

It should be possible for the wheelchair to stand on a flat surface when
the door is being opened. It should also be possible to turn on a flat
surface in front of the door, in the event that the door is locked. The size
of the area depends on the type of door and whether the door is opened
automatically. At least 1.5 x 1.5 m is required to be able to turn in front
of a door, but a larger area may be necessary, for example, in the case of
a side-hung door. More information is available in Section 3.3.8 Doors.

In existing buildings of cultural historic value, it may be acceptable for
the surface in front of the door to have a somewhat greater gradient. It is
especially important that the door opens automatically.


Space in front of the entrance door
The size required for a space immediately in front of the entrance door
(porch) depends on the type of door and whether the door opens
automatically. It is also affected by whether doors are placed at an angle
in relation to each other so that it is necessary to turn inside the porch.
There should be space for a wheelchair outside the door‟s opening area.
More information is available in Section 3.3.8 Doors.

Just like outside the entrance door, doormats or boot scrapers in the porch
should not be difficult to cross or present a trip hazard.



If the main entrance cannot be used by people with disability, the entrance
that can be used should provide the same conditions.

A precondition for this is that the alternative entrance
• is, if possible, located close by and is clearly visible from the main
  entrance


                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 50
• leads into the same entrance hall as the main entrance or at least leads
  there as directly as possible
• satisfies the same requirements for a welcoming and attractive design as
  the main entrance
• is open at the same times as the main entrance and can be used without
  staff having to be summoned
• is clearly signposted, including from the main entrance.



Additional information
Opening hours
If the entrance must be kept locked for security reasons, there should be a
video door telephone link to reception. This should always be manned
when the main entrance is open.


Signs
There should be clear signs at the main entrance, and also at the walkway,
arrival point and parking spaces, indicating that there is a special entrance
that is accessible. These signs should be located so that they will be easily
noticed by people using wheelchairs.

What does BBR say?
According to BBR 3:122, at least the entrance door to a building should
be accessible for people with impaired mobility or orientation capacity,
and should be located and designed so that it can be used by these people.

According to BBR 3:123, it should be possible for entrances and
communications areas to be used by people with impaired mobility or
orientation capacity, and they should have sufficient manoeuvring space
for a wheelchair. Movement routes should be designed so that people in
wheelchairs can get around without assistance.
(BBR 3:121 refers to electrically powered wheelchairs for limited
outdoor use.)



3.2.3 Getting around inside the building


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 51
It should be possible for people with impaired mobility to easily reach all
rooms and parts of rooms

Prerequisites for this include
• that steps and stairs are supplemented with a well-designed ramp or lift
  in close proximity to the steps/stairs45
• that all corridors and other movement routes allow convenient passage
  and the ability to turn with a wheelchair, namely, are at least 1.5 m wide
• that short passages, for example between pillars and walls, permit
  convenient passage, namely, are at least 0.9 m
• that it is possible to use a wheelchair in all rooms
• that doors can be opened, passed through and closed by a person using a
  wheelchair46
• that the floor is firm, without edges and is neither uneven nor slippery
• that it is possible to move around safely.47


Additional information

A person using a wheelchair should not be compelled to take a longer
detour than a person not in a wheelchair. Passages should be wide enough
to allow free movement and, for example, not require reversing when
meeting someone coming in the opposite direction in a wheelchair or
turning around. Nor should anyone be dependent on assistance to get
around.

Exemptions from the requirement to ensure that all spaces are within easy
reach may be allowed under the building legislation for work premises,
provided that the requirement for accessibility and usability is unjustified
having regard to the nature of the operation for which the premises are
intended. According to Government Bill 1985/86:1, exemptions may, for
example, be justified for certain heavy industrial operations.48


45
   See Section 3.3.6 Ramps and Section 3.3.7 Lifts. The lift should allow enough space for
one person in a wheelchair and an assistant.
46
   See Section 3.3.8 Doors.
47
   See Section 3.3.4 Safe mobility.
48
   See Ordinance on technical quality requirements for building works etc.
(Swedish Code of Statutes - SFS 1994:1215), Section 12.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 52
Existing buildings. Ensuring that all spaces are within easy reach may
require more extensive measures. It may therefore be necessary to
prioritise these measures from a time perspective. In buildings of great
cultural historic value, it may be acceptable that a small proportion of the
office rooms cannot be made within easy reach. In existing buildings, it
may also be acceptable that not all parts of certain rooms can be reached
by people using wheelchairs, although subject only to the precondition
that the functions in the part that is not accessible are also available in the
accessible parts. However, the possibility of making these rooms
completely accessible should be investigated and any measures
considered necessary should be planned from the perspective of time.


Width of corridors and other movement routes
In an existing building, a width of 1.3 m may be acceptable. This width
means that, in order to be able to turn, the wheelchair might have to be
reversed into a door opening. A width down to approximately 1.0 m may
be acceptable in exceptional cases for an existing short and straight
passage, provided that it is not necessary to be able to turn in through a
door on the long side of the corridor.


Width of passages between, for example, pillars and walls
In existing buildings, a width of 0.80 m may be acceptable.

Turning with a wheelchair
It is possible to turn a wheelchair within a circle of 1.5 m diameter.49

In small meeting rooms, it may be acceptable for the space under a table
to be used partly to allow a wheelchair to turn.50

It is not necessary to satisfy the requirement of being able to turn with a
wheelchair in individual workrooms but, if necessary, they should be able
to be furnished so that this becomes possible.

In existing buildings, it may be acceptable that a clear area in the form of
a circle of 1.5 m diameter is impossible to achieve in every workroom.
However, it should be possible if necessary to furnish some workrooms

49
  See BBR 3:121.
50
  See for instance, Examples of turning with reversing in T-formed spaces, Figure 3.4 in
Bygg ikapp handikapp [Building in pace with disability].

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 53
on every floor so that there will be a clear area corresponding to a circle
of 1.5 m diameter.


Doors
In existing buildings, it may be acceptable that doors to workrooms
cannot be opened and closed by people using wheelchairs. This may, for
example, be the case if the door is located too close to a corner or is in a
deep niche. If necessary, this should always be rectified, for example, for
an individual person‟s workroom.


Floors
Soft carpets impede the movement of wheelchairs. See Section 3.3.4 Safe
mobility for how floors should be designed from a safety perspective.

Existing buildings. Existing floors are acceptable in cultural historic
buildings if the floor constitutes part of the cultural historic value.

What does BBR say?
According to advice contained in BBR 3:121, a 1.5 metre diameter circle
is the dimension of an appropriate turning area when assessing
accessibility for wheelchairs for limited outdoor use.

According to BBR 3:123, it should be possible for entrances and
communications areas to be used by people with impaired mobility and
orientation capacity and there should be sufficient manoeuvring space for
a wheelchair. Movement routes should be designed so that people using
wheelchairs can move without assistance.
(BBR 3:121 refers to electrically powered wheelchairs for limited
outdoor use.)

According to the advice contained in BBR 3:123, corridors and the like
should be at least 1.3 m wide. In limited parts, such as beside pillars, this
width may be reduced to 0.80 m.



It should be possible for people with impaired orientation capacity to find
their way around to move around independently and safely to all rooms
and parts of rooms


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 54
Prerequisites for this include
• that the premises have good orientatability51
• that people with reduced orientation capacity can assimilate the
information provided by signs52
• that the premises are well lit 53
• that it is possible to move around without the risk of accidents54
• that lifts can be used by people with impaired orientation capacity. 55



Additional information

It is particularly important to be able to find the way to reception, lifts,
ticket vending machines, queue-ticket dispensers, etc. In the first
instance, people with various disabilities should be able to move
independently up to the reception. Independent movement in buildings
overall should be facilitated for people with weak vision who often use
the building and consequently are somewhat familiar with the premises.
It is very difficult for people with severely impaired vision to move
around independently in an unknown building on the first visit. A
personal escort should be available.



3.2.4 Staying in and using the building

The premises should have good orientatability and be well lit.
The meaning of „good orientatability‟ is explained in Section 3.3.1
Orientatability. See also Section 3.3.3 Daylight and illumination.

The premises should have good air quality.




51
   See Section 3.3.1 Orientatability
52
   See Section 3.3.2 Signs.
53
   See Section 3.3.3 Daylight and illumination.
54
   See Section 3.3.4 Safe mobility.
55
   See Section 3.3.7 Lifts. All lifts should satisfy the requirements of the first six items.


                                                  ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 55
Air quality is to a large extent dependent on routines and instructions for
use of the premises, for example, regarding smoking. See also Section 3.4
Maintenance and routines. As far as the design of buildings is concerned,
prerequisites for good air quality include

• that the ventilation system has a satisfactory air feed suitable for the
  number of people occupying the premises.
• that materials that may cause problems for people with allergies are
  avoided, for example, upholstery material (furniture and textiles) and
  that the room‟s surface covering/finish is low emission (emits low
  levels of gases and particles)
• that the premises, including the floors, are easily cleaned.

 Observe the dimension values for ventilation contained in the National
 Board of Housing, Building and Planning‟s Building Regulations and in
 the Swedish Work Environment Authority‟s regulations

 Avoid using untreated fabric as wall material and fitted carpets in
 public spaces.

The noise environment should be good

Prerequisites for a good noise environment are
• that noise/din and other disruptive sounds are eliminated or dampened
  to the greatest possible extent
• that the floor covering does not amplify undesirable noise such as noise
  from steps and scraping sounds when chairs are moved
• that dampening material and reflective material are distributed on wall
  and ceiling areas so that the acoustics of the room are appropriate for
  the activities conducted in the premises.


Additional information

Aim to comply with the values defined for Noise Class A in SS 02 52 68
Acoustics – Measurement of Sound Insulation in Buildings – Care
premises, teaching premises, day nurseries and after-school leisure
homes, offices and hotels. This is mainly important regarding the


                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 56
reverberation time.56

Sound-dampening absorbents on ceilings, textiles and absorbents on
walls and removable carpets on floors, together with well-insulated office
machinery and fan systems make it easier for people with hearing
impairment to understand speech. This is particularly important in
meeting and assembly rooms, as well as in lunchrooms, dining rooms,
etc.

Existing buildings. In buildings of cultural and historic value, the noise
environment may be acceptable if measures involve interfering with the
cultural historic parts of the environment. For instance, the existing floor
may be acceptable in listed heritage environments provided the floor is of
cultural historic value.



Electrical and magnetic fields should be limited, provided this does not
involve unreasonable consequences.

Position and design new electrical installations and new buildings in
accordance with the precautionary principle (see below). Aim to reduce
fields in existing buildings in accordance with the same principle.



Additional information

The field may be temporarily reduced by switching off fluorescent tube
illumination and low-energy light bulbs and using ordinary light bulbs
instead. Premises with induction loops should be divided into sections so
that it is possible to turn these off in certain parts of the room.

Examples of solutions for limiting the field are: shielded cables, electrical
distribution boxes placed outside the building, five-wire systems, sealed
installation spaces concentrated in certain zones, etc. Electrical
installations can also be shielded from magnetic tension fields by being
fitted with aluminium-sheet walls, ceilings and floors.

56
  See also Lamby, Jan (2001) Bra tillgänglighet – bättre kommunikation för hörselskadade.
[Good accessibility – better communication for people with hearing impairment] (Swedish
Association of Hard of Hearing People)

                                               ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 57
In new buildings, and in the longer term also in existing buildings, there
should be at least some rooms or zones where the field can be reduced.


What does the precautionary principle say?
The Swedish Work Environment Authority, the National Board of
Housing, Building and Planning, the National Electrical Safety Board, the
National Board of Health and Welfare and the Swedish Radiation
Protection Agency have all supported the following precautionary
principle:

If measures that generally reduce exposure can be implemented at
reasonable costs and other consequences, the aim should be to reduce
fields that deviate substantially from that considered to be normal in the
environment in question.

As regards new electrical installations and buildings, the aim as early as
the planning stage should be to design and position them to limit
exposure.



It should be possible for people with disability to use fittings and
equipment and also items such as manoeuvring devices, etc.

See Section 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices together with Section 3.3.10
Fittings and equipment. It should also be possible for people with
disability to use technical equipment intended for visitors, such as,
computers, fax machines, copiers and telephones. See also Section 4.3
Office equipment.

Premises should convey a calm, welcoming and harmonious impression.

Ensure that it is possible to have privacy and rest, for example, by having
places to sit while waiting when visiting the authority. See Section 3.3.10
Fittings and equipment for the design of seating.

3.2.5 Entrance halls
The general requirements of Sections 3.2.3 and 3.2.4 should be satisfied.
In addition, the following requirements should be satisfied.


                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 58
It should be possible for people with disability to use the reception.

Prerequisites for this include
• that the reception is clearly visible from the entrance and that it is also
  possible for people who are visually impaired to find their way there
• that part of the reception desk is at a level that is appropriate for people
  using wheelchairs and people of short stature, that is to say
  approximately 0.75 m above the floor
• that the receptionist is clearly visible so that people who are deaf or
  hearing impaired are able to read his/her lips
• that there are seating areas and places to write near the reception57
• that equipment facilitating communication is available for people using
  hearing equipment.



Additional information

A balance must be struck between the various interests. Besides the
requirement that people with disability should be able to use the
reception, it must also function well as a workstation. It should be
possible to adapt the reception area without very extensive measures, so
that, for instance, a person using a wheelchair can work as a receptionist.
There are special security requirements for receptions in certain kinds of
premises.

In existing premises, where the reception area constitutes part of the
cultural historic value, an alternative location and design for it may be
acceptable.

An investigation of other solutions that would provide a fully acceptable
service for visitors with disability should be undertaken.


Finding the way to the reception desk


57
     See Section 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment.


                                                  ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 59
It is important for many people to be able to easily find their way to a
place where they can get personal service. Mark the reception with
colours of contrasting tones and with route indication markers from the
entrance to the reception. See also Section 3.3.1 Orientatability.

Lip-reading opportunities
The ability to lip-read is impaired if the receptionist is viewed with the
light behind him/her or if he/she is seated further back in the room rather
than sitting directly behind the reception desk. If there is glass between
the visitor and the receptionist, this might also impair the ability to see
and also perhaps to hear the person. Ensure that there are hatches that can
be opened, provided this is acceptable from the security perspective.
Ensure that there is good illumination and that it is not dazzling.

Equipment for people with hearing impairment
A minitel loop is one example of such equipment.


Other
See Section 4.3 regarding office equipment, telephones, etc. for
information about other equipment in reception.



It should be possible for people with disability to use a cloakroom.

Prerequisites for this include
• that there are clothes hangers/hat shelves that can be used by people
  using wheelchairs and by people of short stature
• that any projecting coat shelf has protective edges so that, for instance,
  people with visual impairment do not accidentally bump their heads
• that there are seating areas58
• that mirrors can be used both by anyone standing or sitting and are
  complemented with well-shaded illumination
• that, if there is a wardrobe or lockers, some are within reach of people
  using wheelchairs.59

58
  Design of seating areas, see Section 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment.
59
   Positioning to be reachable for people using wheelchairs, see also Section
3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices.

                                               ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 60
Additional information

Position coat shelves at a maximum of 1.2 m above the floor and try to
supplement them with hooks for jackets, at approximately 0.8 m above
the floor. A clear space of approximately 1.5 x 1.5 m is required in front
of this area.

Existing buildings. With regard to existing culturally historically
interesting interiors, solutions that do not satisfy all the above-mentioned
requirements can be acceptable. Alternative solutions should be
investigated.



3.2.6 Assembly halls, auditoriums, lecture halls
The general requirements of Sections 3.2.3 and 3.2.4 should be satisfied.
In addition, the following requirements should be satisfied

It should be possible for people with disability to comprehend, enjoy and
participate in what is happening in the hall/room, both from the
stage/podium and from the audience.

Prerequisites for this include
• that the podium is easily accessible and can be used by people using
  wheelchairs
• that there are places in the audience for people using wheelchairs and
  located so that they have a good opportunity to comprehend and enjoy
  what is happening in the hall
• that the hall is designed so that orientatability of the premises is made
  easier
• that lighting is arranged so that the distribution of luminance, the level
  of illumination and the distribution of light can vary having regard to
  the activity in the premises (use of overheads, video, slides) and also
  that the light fittings do not cause dazzle.
• that the design of the hall and its lighting facilitate lip-reading and sign-
  language interpreting, for example, in the case of a darkened room, it is
  possible to spotlight the speaker and sign-language interpreter.

                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 61
• that the room has good acoustics
• that there is equipment to make it possible for people with hearing
  impairment to comprehend, enjoy and participate in the activity, both
  from the hall and from the podium
• that the distance from the assembly hall to the toilet and dining room is
  no greater for people with disability than for those who are not disabled
• that any equipment that may be needed as a participant or contributor
  can be used by people with disability.



Additional information

Reaching the podium
It should be possible for people using wheelchairs to reach the podium in
the same way as others without having to make a very long detour.

Ramps or lift devices that are used to make the podium accessible should
be sufficiently powerful to lift the weight of an electrically powered
wheelchair and user together with any assistant (electrically powered
wheelchairs can weigh up to 200 kg). See also the Section Ramps and the
Section Lifts. Do not use a ramp comprising two rails. Some wheelchairs
have three wheels and on some wheelchairs, the distance between the
front wheels is not the same as between the back wheels.

In existing buildings of cultural historic value, where it is considered
impossible to make the podium permanently accessible, a removable
ramp or another equivalent solution may be acceptable.


Audience places for people using wheelchairs
It is not necessary for all parts of large assembly halls to be reached by
people using wheelchairs but there must be places in the audience area
for people using wheelchairs that are integrated with the other places.

In large premises, such places should be located at various distances from
the podium. These places should have a flat floor. It should be possible to
sit with a companion. The number of places that need to be provided
depends on the size of the room. If some seating places are designed so
that they can easily be removed, the number of seats can easily be

                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 62
increased. If additional places along the aisles are made without arms or
with detachable arms, some people using wheelchairs will be able to
move onto these seats, although it is not possible for everyone to transfer
in this way.

In existing buildings, it is acceptable that audience places for people
using wheelchairs can only be arranged at a fixed distance from the
podium. From these places, it should be possible to easily see and hear
what is happening.

Orientatability
See Section 3.3.1 Orientatability. If places are numbered, then clear,
legible, raised seat numbers make them easier to identify, but this cannot
completely replace a personal service.


Illumination
Existing buildings. The existing light fittings in buildings of cultural
historic value may be acceptable if they constitute part of the cultural
historic value. Alternative solutions to improve luminance and
illumination levels as well as light distribution should be investigated.


Design that affects the interpretation of sign language
A visually fussy background interferes with the interpretation of sign
language. Backgrounds should therefore be calm, preferably in one
colour and neither light nor dark. Nor should the sign-language
interpreter be with the light behind him/her.

When showing overheads, the sign-language interpreter should not stand
too close to the screen since the people relying on the interpreter will be
dazzled.


Acoustics
In the main, use acoustic dampening measures other than textile carpets,
taking into consideration people with allergies. If textile carpets are
considered necessary, use removable rugs in the first instance. These
should be placed so that they do not present a trip hazard. Movable chairs
should have feet pads to dampen noise when they are moved.

In existing premises, where the acoustics are considered poor, a special
                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 63
investigation should be undertaken to assess the need for measures and to
make proposals for such measures. In buildings of cultural historic value,
the existing noise environment can be acceptable if the measures would
interfere with the cultural historic parts of the environment.


Devices for people with hearing impairment
Examples of devices for people with hearing impairment may, for
example, be induction loops. See Section 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment
for more information on induction loops. In premises with high levels of
electromagnetic disturbance, it may be difficult to get induction loops to
work well.

In certain types of premises, security aspects must be considered to avoid
the possibility of illicit surveillance from outside the premises. Examples
of such systems are IR systems and FM systems. It must be possible to
turn off the induction loop, possibly in sections, to take into consideration
people who are oversensitive to electricity.


Equipment
If there is a speaker‟s chair on the podium, ensure that it can be raised
and lowered and is also generally designed so that it can be used by a
person using a wheelchair.

Ensure also that, as far as possible, the technical equipment needed by
speakers is located within reach of people using wheelchairs. Audience
places for people using wheelchairs should have the same equipment as
other places, for instance writing surfaces if there are any in the other
places. See also 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment. The opportunity to
connect electrical aids should be available at some audience places and
also on the podium.


What does BBR say?
According to BBR 3:126, all parts of cinemas, theatres, athletics stadiums
and other large assembly rooms do not need to be reached by people
sitting in wheelchairs. Assembly rooms must be equipped with induction
loops, IR systems or other technical solutions that make it possible for
people with reduced hearing to listen.



                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 64
3.2.7 Meeting rooms, group rooms, classrooms

The general requirements of Sections 3.2.3 and 3.2.4 should be satisfied.
In addition, the following requirements should be satisfied.

It should be possible for people with disability to participate in the activity
that is taking place in the room.

Prerequisites for this include
• that the technical equipment that might be needed by participants or the
  chairperson of the meeting can be used by people with disability60
• that a device is available in the room or to borrow to enable people with
  hearing impairment to participate in the activity
• that the room has good acoustics
• that the room can be furnished so that people using wheelchairs can take
  part in meetings.



Additional information

Devices for people with hearing impairment
One example of devices may be induction loops. Every speaker should be
given the opportunity of having their own microphone. Cordless
microphones should be avoided. In certain kinds of premises, security
aspects must be considered to avoid the possibility of illicit surveillance
from outside the premises. See more about induction loops in Section
3.2.10 Fittings and equipment.

Acoustics
If sound dampening measures are required, measures other than textile
carpets should be used in the first instance. If textile floors are considered
necessary, rugs that are regarded as not gathering dust and which are
removable should be used in the first instance.



60
     See Section 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 65
3.2.8 Dining rooms, cafeterias, lunchrooms, etc.
The general requirements of Sections 3.2.3 and 3.2.4 should be satisfied.
In addition, the following requirements should be satisfied.


It should be possible for people with disability to use dining rooms,
cafeterias, etc.

Prerequisites for this include

• that it is possible to have table service
• that the furniture is such that people using wheelchairs can approach
  and use the tables and also that the fittings generally are placed and
  designed so that people with disability can use them.61
• that the room has good acoustics



Additional information

It should also be possible for people using wheelchairs to use self-service
counters and buffets. This means that the height should be approximately
0.80 m and that at least some of the shelves are within reach (namely, at a
maximum height of 1.1 m and with the shallowest shelves possible). The
menu should be available at the counter so that one can point to the
desired dish.

Dining rooms and cafeteria are spaces where it is particularly important
to have good acoustics.



3.2.9 Toilets

A sufficient number of toilets should be available and they should be easily
accessible.

Many people rely on being able to get to a toilet quickly.

61
     See Section 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment.

                                                  ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 66
For instance, all toilets should be able to be used by people with reduced
orientation capacity to find their way about and by people with allergies.

The general requirements of Sections 3.2.3 and 3.2.4 should be satisfied.

As regards toilets, this means having among other things
• good ventilation
• a contrast in tone between the fittings and the walls
• clear signs with easily understood symbols and tactile markings
  indicating whether the toilet is for men or women
• clear information about whether the toilet is vacant or occupied
• mixer taps and other controls that are easy to understand and easy to use
• handbasins in all toilet cubicles
• floor coverings that do not present a slip hazard and floor gradients of a
  maximum of 1:50 (if a gradient is required for water drainage)
• alarm equipment so that people with hearing impairment and people
  who are deaf can also be reached by warning signals in the event of a
  fire or other dangers

On each floor where there are toilets, there should be at least one toilet that
can be used by people who are disabled.

Prerequisites for this include
• that the room is sufficiently large, that is to say at least 2.2 x 2.2 m
• that the toilet pedestal and handbasin are placed in accordance with
  Diagram 1
• that other fittings and equipment are placed and designed to satisfy the
  requirement that they are reachable, manageable and easily
  understood62
• that the door can be opened, passed through and easily closed from the
  inside by a person using a wheelchair
• that the lock is easy to operate and understand63
62
  Layout and design are described in detail in Section 3.3.9 Fittings and equipment.
63
  Example of design, see Bygg ikapp handikapp [Building in pace with disability], page
107, Diagram 3.8.8.

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 67
• that the toilet cubicle can always be reached when operations are in
  progress in the premises
• that the toilet cubicle can be reached from a neutral space, rather than
  from a ladies‟ or gentlemen‟s toilet section.



[2.20
1.10       1.10


2.20

0.45]




Diagram 1. Toilet cubicle for people with impaired mobility.




Additional information

The number of toilet cubicles, the size of the cubicle, the layout of handbasins
and toilet pedestals
It is usually not appropriate to have the staff toilet available to the
public.64 Toilets that can be used by visitors with impaired mobility
should therefore be available on the floors where there is a toilet for the
public. Staff toilets that can be used by employees with impaired mobility
should be located on the floors where there are staff toilets.

In large premises, several toilets per floor may be required for people


64
     According to AFS 2000:42, Comments on Section 104.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 68
with impaired mobility. Where there are toilets, there should normally
also be a toilet that can be used by people with impaired mobility.

Toilets for people with impaired mobility should be at least 2.2 x 2.2 m
so that they also can be used easily by a person using an electrically
powered wheelchair. On each side of the toilet pedestal a clearance width
of at least 0.9 m is required.

Clearance beside the toilet pedestal is needed in order to be able to move
between it and the wheelchair. This space should be free from
impediments, such as waste-paper baskets and the like.

A nappy-changing bench should not protrude into the clearance areas
required for manoeuvring wheelchairs. In certain kinds of premises, it
may also be necessary to have a toilet that also has space for a rest bench
for adults. This means an area of approximately 2.2 x 3.1 m.

It may be acceptable in existing buildings that toilets for people with
impaired mobility do not completely satisfy the above-mentioned criteria.
However, this is subject to the precondition that there is at least one toilet
in the premises that is at least 2.2 x 2.2 m. The possibility of increasing
the measurements of all toilets for people with impaired mobility to 2.2 x
2.2 m should be investigated. If it is considered possible, the rebuilding
of the toilets should be planned from the time perspective.

If there are no toilets at all for people with impaired mobility on a
particular floor where other toilets are located, this may be acceptable
temporarily. However, a precondition for this is that there is a toilet
measuring at least 2.2 x 2.2 m available in the premises. The possibility
of arranging a toilet for people with impaired mobility on this floor
should be investigated and, if it is considered necessary, planned from the
time perspective. At workplaces and universities/colleges, there should
always be a toilet of sufficient dimensions and with an appropriate layout
that can be arranged in the event of an appointment to a post or when a
student is accepted for a course.


Doors
Toilet doors for people with impaired mobility should be particularly
easy to pass through and there should therefore be a clear passage
dimension measuring at least 0.84 m when the door is opened 90˚. The

                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 69
door should either be without a threshold or have a rounded rubber
threshold of approximately 10 mm (if a threshold is considered necessary
from the perspective of protection from moisture).

In order for the door to be easily closed from the inside, a draw-handle
should be placed on the inside of the door, approximately 0.8 m above
the floor (straight or at an angle). If there is a door closer, there should
also be an automatic door opener. It is also important to have adequate
space outside the door. See also Section 3.3.8 Doors for more information
about the space around the door.


Readily reached toilet facilities
Toilets for people with impaired mobility should not be kept locked. Nor
should the toilet be located in a part of the building that is locked while
activities are in progress in other parts of the building where there are no
toilets for people using wheelchairs.

What does BBR say?
According to BBR 3:126, it should be possible for at least one toilet,
intended for the public, to be used by people sitting in wheelchairs. (BBR
3:121 refers to electrically powered wheelchairs for limited outdoor use.)

What does the Swedish Work Environment Authority’s general advice say?
According to the Swedish Work Environment Authority‟s general advice
on the application of the regulations for the design of workplaces
(2000:42), the appropriate dimensions of disabled toilets in schools and
in large workplaces is 2.2 x 2.2 m.



At least one toilet on each floor should be designed so that it can be used by
people who have had a colostomy.

Prerequisites for this include
• that the cubicle is enclosed, namely, with no gaps under the doors or
  walls (apart from any openings for an air inlet to facilitate good
  ventilation)
• that the cubicle has good ventilation



                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 70
• that there is access to water within reach of the toilet pedestal. It should
  be possible to operate mixer taps with a fist or elbow and it should be
  possible to regulate the water flow.
• that there is a countertop near the toilet seat and hooks for clothes/bags.

In existing premises it is acceptable for there to be only one such toilet in
the premises.


3.2.10 Patios adjacent to work premises

It should be possible for people with disability to use a patio area.

Prerequisites for this include

• that the door can be passed through, opened and closed by a person
using a wheelchair65
• that the patio is sufficiently large, can be reached without having to use
steps or stairs and is in other ways designed so that it can be used by
people using wheelchairs.
• that walkways to open surfaces, seating areas, etc. can be used by
people with disability66
• that seating areas and seating benches/seating places can be used by
people with disability67
• that the ground surfacing of seating areas is firm, flat and even. The
patio should be large enough to allow the turning and manoeuvring of a
wheelchair up to a table.


Additional information

Floors on balconies can be raised by wooden decking, preferably by
narrow ribbed decking where the ribs do not have chamfers. The upper
area of the balcony and terrace fence should at least be transparent so that
it does not prevent people sitting there from looking out.


65
   See Section 3.3.8 Doors.
66
   See Section 3.3.5 Walkways.
67
   See Section 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment.

                                                ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 71
In existing buildings, the existing dimensions of balconies and terraces
are acceptable. The possibility of making existing roof terraces accessible
with the assistance of ramps or by other means should be investigated.
For instructions on smoking, see Section 3.4 Maintenance and routines.



3.2.11 Evacuation in case of emergency

It should be possible for people with disability to get themselves to safety in
the event of a fire or other emergency

To get to safety means to be able to make your way out or move to a
secure refuge point independently in order to wait for help there. The
prerequisites for this include the following
• that there are access routes for exits or to secure refuge points that do
not have steps, stairs, high thresholds and the like
• that secure refuge points are big enough for a wheelchair without
impeding others passing by and also that these places are well protected
against smoke and heat.
• that the opening devices for doors in evacuation routes are located
within reach of people using wheelchairs and are easy to understand and
operate68
• that manoeuvring devices to activate fire alarms are located within
reach of people using wheelchairs69
• that people with disability can understand the evacuation alarm and
information in conjunction with the evacuation
• that there is an evacuation plan with work routines that ensure that
everyone gets out in the event of an evacuation
• that evacuation routes and secure refuge points are clearly signed and
are accessible for people using wheelchairs.



Additional information


68
     See Section 3.3.8 Doors.
69
     See Section 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 72
See also the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning‟s
Building Regulations, Section on Fire Protection and the Swedish Work
Environment Authority‟s regulations AFS 2000:42, Section on Alarm
and evacuation.

Another fire cell may function as a secure refuge point. In existing
buildings this may involve extensive measures to satisfy the above-
mentioned requirements, which should therefore be viewed as a long-
term objective.

Evacuation alarm
Both an audible signal and a light signal should be given as a warning of
fire or other serious risk, so that it can be comprehended by people with
various disabilities. It is good to have spoken supplementary information
such as a voice saying that the premises must be evacuated and advising
the best way to get out.


Evacuation plan
In conjunction with the evacuation plan being drawn up, a review should
be undertaken of possible improvements, the kind of equipment that is
necessary and who is responsible for the evacuation of people with
disability. Where the evacuation routes do not take into consideration
people with disability, it is of great importance that the staff responsible
for this operation have special training and that there are aids to be able to
convey people with disability to safety.

Information and training should be provided to staff including how to use
the equipment that may be needed on evacuation of people with
disability. Evacuation exercises should take into consideration the
possible evacuation of people with disability.70

What does BBR say?
According to BBR 5:31, buildings should be designed to enable
satisfactory evacuation in the event of a fire. According to advice
contained in BBR, satisfactory evacuation means either a complete
evacuation of all people in the building or – something that is highly
relevant in the case of care institutions or very tall buildings – moving
those people who are located inside the section of the building directly
70
  See also Swedish Rescue Services Agency (2001) ‘Utrymningssäkerhet för
rörelsehindrade‟ [Evacuation safety for people with impaired mobility], order number P21-
388/01.

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 73
affected by the fire to a secure refuge point in the building. In the latter
case, it must be possible to have protection against heat and toxic gases
during the entire course of the fire and at least for whatever time might be
required, under the most unfavourable circumstances, for a fire of the
kind involved to be completely extinguished.



3.3 Detailed general overall requirements
This section should be viewed as a supplement to Section 3.2. The
section provides a detailed description of what some of the function
requirements prescribed by Section 3.2 mean. Section 3.2 makes
references to this Section.


3.3.1 Orientatability
‘Orientatability‟ means knowing where you are, finding out where you
should go, understanding when you have arrived and being able to
recognise rooms. For example, persons with impaired visual capacity and
persons with cognitive disabilities find it difficult to orientate themselves.
Impaired hearing can also have an adverse impact on orientation capacity.
Good orientatability can be achieved in various ways. For an environment
to provide good orientatability, several factors interact.

Prerequisites for providing good orientatability include
• that the layout is comprehensible, simple and logical
• that the form and limitations of the room as well as its fittings are
  clearly distinguishable
• that the parts of the building and fittings that are important to be able to
  get to are uniformly and consistently positioned and/or marked so that
  they can be perceived by people with visual impairment
• that the premises are well lit71
• that the noise environment is good
• that the route indication system is uniform, well thought through,
  consistent and can be understood by people with various kinds of
  disability.


71
     See the Section 3.3.3 Daylight and illumination.

                                                ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 74
Additional information

Layout
A simple and logical layout that is easy to understand may mean, for
example, that various functions, such as the reception, stairs, toilet
facilities, cloakroom and lifts, are found in the same place as they are
usually located in similar buildings. Furthermore, it is easy to describe
and remember the route to be taken, namely, to create a „mental picture‟
of the layout. This is affected by, for example, how many times you must
change direction to get to your objective, whether there are one or several
alternatives for changing direction and also whether movement routes are
clearly separated from furnished areas.

In existing buildings, improvements in the layout can sometimes be made
through simple reconstruction or rearrangement of the operation.

Making rooms and fittings clearer
Rooms can be made clearer by
• a contrast in tone between walls, skirting boards or a frieze on the floor
• a contrast in tone between doors and walls
• a contrast in tone between fittings and the background
• unpatterned flooring, unless the pattern also provides information such
  as indicating a route marker
• avoiding high gloss/shiny colours and shiny material for walls, fittings
  and equipment so as not to create confusing reflections
• avoiding large mirrors and reflective surfaces that make the shape of the
  room unclear.

A tone contrast of at least 0.40 according to NCS (Natural Colour
System) makes it possible for many with weak vision to discern
markings. Use this tone contrast as a basis for colouring.

Shiny floors are very problematic for people with visual impairment.
Floors should only be half matt.



                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 75
In existing buildings, colours with a slightly lower contrast may be
acceptable if the contrast is nonetheless considered to be clear. In
buildings with high cultural historic value, where the colour scheme
constitutes part of this value, the existing colour may be acceptable
except for where the tone contrast is required as a safety measure to
indicate impediments. Moreover, existing surface coverings/finishes may
be acceptable if they constitute part of the cultural historic value.


Layout and marking of building parts and fitting details
For example, position electrical switches and signposts uniformly and
consistently. For certain details, such as queue-ticket dispensers, it may
be difficult to find a uniform position. Denote these by colours with
contrasting tone (at least 0.40 according to NCS) or by extra illumination.
Particularly important parts of a building or details such as the entrance,
reception desk, queue-ticket dispensers, etc. can be marked with route
markers, contrasting tone, extra illumination or be indicated by the
design, for example, a protruding canopy at an entrance.


Sound environment
A good sound environment is important for people with visual
impairment so that they can make correct assessments of how the
environment is designed and can identify sounds that can function as
orientation points.


Route indication systems
Route indication can be facilitated in various ways such as
• orientation points, namely, something that in colour, form or through
  extra illumination or sound stands out against its surroundings
• sound signals that can help you discern direction, for example, sound
  signals at crossing points
• giving different floors different colours or characterising them by a
  symbol that is shown on signs, lift panels, orientation maps, etc.
• clear signs, see Section 3.3.1 Signs
• route indication markers that lead to selected strategic points.
A route indication marker forms an unbroken walking surface so that
people with visual impairment or who are blind can follow it. The route

                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 76
indication marker should feel natural and logical to follow and be without
impediments. It should be able to be perceived visually by the walking
surface, or a contrast line in the walking surface, contrasting in tone with
surroundings and/or by a fluorescent lamp in the ceiling that follows the
route indication marker. It should also be possible to be comprehended in
a tactile form with the help of a technical cane (a white cane used as an
aid for finding the way around).

This can, for example, be achieved by the surface covering having a
structure contrasting with that of the surrounding floor covering/ground
surfacing or by having a wall or kerb that can be followed with a cane.

Handrails, preferably with low lengthways guide bars, can also be one
way of making it possible to sense a route indication marker/ by touch.



3.3.2 Signs
Clear and well-illuminated signs are of great importance for people such
as those with impaired vision or hearing and people with developmental
disability to be able to orientate themselves.

Prerequisites to ensure that people with disability should also be able to
assimilate the information provided by signs include

• that information given on signs is as far as possible also given in an
  audible form (can be heard) and/or in a tactile form (can be felt)
• that information is given in such a way that it is easy to understand,
  such as with the aid of easily understood and well-known
  pictures/symbols
• that signs are placed so that people with disability can find and make
  use of them
• that signs are designed so that text is easy to read
• that signs are located where they are needed so that you can find your
  way around or obtain information from them.


Additional information



                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 77
Supplement with audible or tactile information
To ensure that people with impaired hearing are able to assimilate
information given via loudspeakers, the loudspeaker sound must be of
good quality. To ensure that people with hearing aids are able to
assimilate information, supplementary equipment such as an induction
loop is required.

Electronic signs should be adapted for use by people with various
disabilities such as impaired vision and hearing. The requirements for
design and positioning also apply to electronic signs. (For example,
reflections should be avoided on displays).

Tactile means that it should be possible to discern the sign by touch. This
can be done by means of Braille and/or individual words in enhanced
relief. Tactile information is only meaningful if the person with visual
impairment can find the sign.


Positioning
Position signs where they are expected to be found. It will then be easier
for people with weak vision to find their way around. Furthermore,
position signs so that it is possible to get up close to them. Some people
with visual impairment have a very short reading distance (approximately
10 cm).

Also position a sign so that it is not in the way of others and there is no
risk of a door opening into someone‟s face when the sign is being read.
Door signs should be placed on a wall on the same side as the door
handle.

Signs should be placed at a height that makes them legible both for
people standing and for those using wheelchairs. In order to ensure that a
person with visual impairment and a very short reading distance can
avoid having to bend down, an appropriate height is approximately 1.4 to
1.6 m above the floor. A sign that needs to be seen at a distance and
which could easily be obscured, should be placed at least 2.1 m above the
floor and supplemented with a sign placed lower down. A sign placed
lower down should be angled outwards from the base so that anyone
standing up can read it.


Sign design

                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 78
The requirements for signs partly depend on the kind of design that is
involved. A temporary building sign, an information sign at a museum or
a route direction sign in a public authority‟s office premises may have
different requirements.

Public authorities should produce requirement specifications and have
procurement procedures to ensure compliance with the requirements for
the respective kinds of sign.

The requirements below apply primarily to route indication signs and
position signs.

The prerequisites for a text being easy to read are
• that the text height is adapted according to the intended reading distance
• that a „simple typeface‟ is used, namely, letters without serifs and no
  italics
• that words are not interspaced and that capitals are not used for long
  words (words in relief should, however, be in capitals)
• that there is a good contrast in tone between the text and the sign base
  and between the sign and the background
• that the material is non-reflective
• that the sign is well illuminated.

Proposals for text height for new signs: approximately 15 mm if one can
get close up to the sign, approximately 25 to 40 mm if one should be able
to see the sign at a distance but at the same time can get close up to it,
approximately 70 to 100 mm on signs that are read at a distance of one to
three metres.

Ensure that the sign contrasts in tone against the background. This may,
for example, be achieved by a frame in a contrasting colour. A very good
contrast is required between the text and the sign‟s background. Black or
a very dark shade is placed against white or a very light shade. Signs
where text is placed on a transparent area, such as glass, are difficult to
read.

Existing buildings: The requirement for clarity as regards signs will
sometimes conflict with the requirement for discrete additions to
sensitive environments. Special solutions that as far as possible take both
                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 79
aspects into account may be required.

Where signs are needed
Generally, clear direction signs are required from a road to a parking
place reserved for people with disability. If the main entrance is not
accessible, an easily visible sign is required from the road to the parking
place and arrival point at the accessible entrance.

A sign that contains the name of the authority and street number and
which is clearly visible from both the walkway and road is needed at the
entrance. If the main entrance is inaccessible, a sign is needed to indicate
the accessible entrance. An orientation sign is required in the entrance
hall of large buildings that are open to the public.

Inside buildings, it is particularly important that, for example, toilets, lifts
and exits, are well sign-posted. Signs indicating the location of the stairs
are needed, as some people prefer using the stairs to taking the lift.

Direction and floor-layout signs are mainly required in stairwells and by
lifts. Rooms signs with names of meetings rooms, name signs outside
office rooms, toilet facilities, etc. are needed to make it easier to get to the
right place.

Do not display irrelevant and unnecessary signs and placards. Too many
signs are more of a disadvantage.



3.3.3 Daylight and illumination
Illumination may be decisive for whether a person with weak vision can
orientate themselves or not. People who are hearing impaired or deaf
need to have properly arranged light to be able to read sign language and
to read lips.

Prerequisites for good lighting include
• that light (illumination and daylight) does not dazzle
• that the level of light is sufficient
• that it is easy to arrange intensified general and spot illumination
• that the illumination is relatively uniform (but not so uniform that the
room appears formless) and that it is supplemented with additional
                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 80
illumination in areas that it is wished to mark in particular or where it is
important to be able to see particularly well
• that it is possible to regulate the light distribution, illumination level and
luminance distribution, taking into consideration the need for visual effort
and activity
• that the illumination installations and fittings have pleasing light
colours, good colour reproduction and do not emit disturbing heat waves,
visible or invisible flickering, sound or UV radiation
• that the electric and magnetic fields from the illumination installation
are limited.
See also Att se, höra and andas i skolan. En handbok om skolans
innemiljö. [To see, hear and breathe at school. A handbook on the
school‟s interior environment.] (The National Board of Housing,
Building and Planning and the National Board of Occupational Safety
and Health). 1996.



Additional information

Glare
In order to reduce the risk of glare, ensure that it is possible to screen off
large glass surfaces against open areas and windows at the end of
corridors by, for example, the use of thick curtains, awnings or blinds. In
evacuation routes a glare shield may be a solution.

Also ensure that fittings are placed so that the reflection of the light
source will not be seen from a normal angle of vision and that the light
direction does not create distracting reflections on, for example, glass
surfaces. The fact that children and people using wheelchairs have a
different angle of vision from that of adults should be taken into account.

When you move from a dark area into a light area, there is a risk of being
dazzled. Therefore, ensure that the contrast in tone between adjacent
spaces and between the outdoors and indoors is not too great.


Light levels
As you get older, you need more light. People who have weak vision
often need to have stronger light than those with normal vision. The
                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 81
intensity of the illumination is one of the factors affecting light level.
Other factors are the colour and brightness of the room surfaces, the
distribution of light and also how much daylight comes in. A prerequisite
for being able to maintain a good light environment is that the colour
scheme, illumination and daylight coming in are coordinated. Be
observant of the fact that high levels of illumination increase the risk of
glare.72

Distribution of light
Ensure that illumination where people move around is uniform and
arranged so that people with impaired vision and people with disability
can appreciate the nature of the surface under them.

It is particularly important to be able to see especially well at
workstations, seating areas, reception, signs, stair, etc. and it is also
necessary to have targeted, additional illumination at these points.


Controlling illumination
The ability to control illumination is important for reasons including that
some kinds of visual impairment involve sensitivity to intense light.

In existing buildings, it may be acceptable that measures to make it
possible to control illumination are only provided in conjunction with a
change of the lighting or in conjunction with an adaptation for an
individual.



3.3.4 Safe mobility
Prerequisites for people with disability being able to move around
without the risk of accidents include
• that obstacles in places where people walk and pause are removed or
  that the risk of the obstacle is eliminated by, for example, an access way
  being provided around it

72
   Recommendations concerning intensity of illumination can be found, among other
places, in: Ljuskultur. (1990)
Belysning inomhus. Riktligner och rekommendationer. [Indoor illumination. Guidelines
and recommendations.] This should be based on the intensified lux figures that are
specified for demanding conditions.


                                            ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 82
• that fixed obstacles that cannot be removed are clearly marked
• that large glass areas such as in doors, are marked at eye level with a
  colour that contrasts in brightness with the background in the direction
  of walking
• that stairs are designed to minimise the risk of accidents
• that the area in front of a downward flight of stairs is so large that there
  is no risk that people using wheelchairs and people with visual
  impairment will fall
• that floor coverings and ground surfacings are such that they do not
  present a trip or slip hazard.



Additional information

Remove or eliminate risks presented by the obstacle
Cycle racks, furniture, signs, etc., should be located to the side. This
means that they should not be placed in the area of the walkway itself, but
located so that people who are visually impaired can understand and feel
safe. Freestanding stairs should be built in or marked in another way so
that they are noticeable by people who are visually impaired.
(„Freestanding stairs‟ here means stairs between floors that are not built
in but stand freely within the room. People with visual impairment are
exposed to the risk of walking into such stairs and bumping their heads.)

Projecting parts of buildings or interiors that are located with a lower
edge less than 2.2 m above ground level should be clearly marked, walled
in or dealt with in some other way to ensure that they do not constitute a
hazard for people who are blind or visually weak.


Marking of obstacles
Both the visual and tactile marking of obstacles is necessary. Visual
marking can comprise a contrast in tone of at least 0.4, according to NCS
and/or extra illumination. Marking that is tactile/can be felt by touch can
be a device discernible by a technical cane (the white cane that is used as
an aid for finding one‟s way around). Anything that should be able to be
discerned with a technical cane should be sited at a maximum of 20 cm
above the floor, while the general design of the equipment should be such
that it does not present a risk hazard.
                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 83
Stairs
In order to reduce the risk of accidents, stairs must be clearly demarcated
so that people with visual weakness can make them out. The leading edge
of the lowest tread together with the leading edge of the landing of the
top riser should be clearly marked in each flight of stairs with a tone
contrast of at least 0.40, according to NCS, compared with the
surrounding floor and steps. The marking should be consistent throughout
the entire building.

On both sides of the stairs, a handrail is required extending past the
topmost and lowest step‟s leading edge by at least 30 cm and which
preferably runs uninterrupted past the intermediate landing. The handrail
should be pleasant to hold. Note that handrail brackets should be affixed
so that one does not run into them with one‟s fingers.73
Single steps are particularly difficult to perceive and should therefore be
avoided. If there are such steps in existing buildings, they should be
removed or very clearly marked.

In order to reduce the risk of tripping, all steps within a flight of stairs
should have the same rise and run. Straight and short flights of stairs are
preferable. Stairs should not be designed in such a way that the nosing of
the step causes a risk of tripping. Stairs without risers, namely, stairs that
one can „see right through‟, may feel unsafe to walk on and should be
avoided.

The positioning of stairways affects the risk of accidents. Regarding
freestanding stairs, see 3.3.4 Safe mobility. Stairs should be placed to the
side where people move about or at a right angle to the direction of
walking.

The top and bottom of stairs in existing buildings should be clearly
marked and should be supplemented with handrails where there are none.
Particular care should be taken with the marking of stairs in culturally
historic buildings and great consideration paid to the existing
environment. In exceptional cases, one must accept that a handrail cannot
be arranged on account of the cultural historic value of the building. An

73
  Design and attachment of handrails, see further Bygg ikapp handikapp [Building in pace
with disability] (2001), (Svensk byggtjänst) 3rd Edition, page 260.

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 84
existing handrail is acceptable, even if it is less grip-friendly but is
important to conserve from the cultural historic perspective. Otherwise,
existing stairs are acceptable.


Space before downward flights of stairs
Besides a manoeuvring space for wheelchairs, a „safety zone‟ of
approximately 0.4 to 0.5 m is required in front of downward flights of
stairs. The distance between a door and a downward flight of stairs
immediately opposite the door in a stairwell should be at least 2 m, to
take into consideration people with weak vision and people using
wheelchairs.


Floor covering and ground surfacing
In order to reduce trip and slip hazards, the covering should not be
slippery or risk becoming slippery when wet. Slip hazards should be
taken into account especially on sloping surfaces, in wet rooms and
outside.

Ensure that the covering does not have any small variations in level or
uneven patches and that there are no great variations in friction between
coverings that are adjacent to each other. Boot scrapers and thick
doormats should be set into the floor so that they do not present a trip
hazard. The risk of slipping or tripping on tactile plates and tactile
markings must also be taken into account.

It is also important that covering is such that people with weak vision can
clearly perceive the surface under them. This is made difficult if the floor
is shiny and reflective.

In an existing building, boot scrapers that are not set into the floor can be
replaced by a thin doormat.

What does BBR say?
According to BBR 8:311, buildings should be designed so as to limit the
risk of personal injury as a consequence of a collision with doors, stairs,
pillars, large glass surfaces, falling objects, projecting building parts or
similar obstacles.

Building parts that can constitute a hazard or obstacle should be
positioned and designed so that involuntary contact is avoided. Signs or
                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 85
other markings should be positioned so that they can be easily observed,
even by people with impaired visual capacity.

According to BBR 8:313, large glass areas in doors and glass areas that
could be confused with doors or doorways should be clearly marked.

Regulations and general advice on the design of stairs from a safety
perspective are contained in BBR 8:232. Among other things, BBR
8:2321 provides that any stairs with a total rise greater than 0.50 m
should have handrails or equivalent on both sides. The handrails or
equivalent should be easy to grip.

According to BBR 8:22, areas that are intended to be walked on should
be designed in such a way and made of such material so as to limit slip or
trip hazards. Unexpected changes in the slip properties of the surface
material should be avoided. Surface areas should be designed without any
unexpected small variations in level, uneven patches or low obstacles that
are difficult to detect.

According to advice contained in BBR 8:22, when assessing whether a
slip hazard exists, sloping areas and areas where dampness, water or ice
can occur should receive particular attention.




3.3.5 Walkways
Prerequisites for a walkway to be accessible include:
• the slope in the direction of travel is a maximum of 1:20 on short
  distances (maximum 10 m) and for others a maximum of 1:50
• the lateral gradient is no more than that necessary for water dispersal
  and does not exceed 1:50
• stairs are supplemented with a ramp
• a sufficiently wide passage for a person using a wheelchair including
  for passing oncomers and turning around
• the surface is firm, even, without edges and is neither slippery nor
  becomes slippery following rain



                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 86
• the walkway is easy and safe to follow for people with visual
  impairment74
• the walkway is well illuminated75
• there are places to sit along long walkways76
• allergenic or heavily scented plants are not planted alongside the
  walkway.77



Additional information

Gradient
The minimum gradient it is possible to achieve depends on the
topography. A gradient of up to 1:12 may be acceptable on stretches that
are not more than 6 m. A steeper gradient than 1:12 is not acceptable on
walkways that should be able to be used by people using wheelchairs
because of the risk of falling and tipping backwards. See also Section
3.3.6 Ramps. Lateral gradients can be very problematic for people using
wheelchairs.


Width
Long and busy walkways should be wide enough for two electrically
propelled wheelchairs for outdoor use to pass and also wide enough for
this type of wheelchair to turn around.78 This requires a width of at least
1.8 m together with a turning area of at least 2.0 x 2.0 m or a passing
place that it is possible to back into when turning around.

Short walkways and walkways that are used by few people should be
wide enough for an electrically propelled wheelchair for limited outdoor
use to turn around. A width of at least 1.5 m is required for this.

In existing environments, a width of approximately 1.5 m may be
74
   See Section 3.3.1 Orientatability and Section 3.3.4 Safe mobility.
75
   See Section 3.3.3 Daylight and illumination.
76
   See Places to sit under Section 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment.
77
   See for example Jansson, Eva and Sörensen Ann-Britt (1998) Grönare liv för
allergiker [A greener life for people with allergies], (Swedish Asthsma and Allergy
Association).
78
   Regarding electrically propelled wheelchairs for outdoor use, see Bygg ikapp handikapp
[Building in pace with disability] (2001) page 42.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 87
accepted for long and busy walkways. For short or less busy walkways, a
width of approximately 1.3 m may be acceptable. A width of 1.0 m is
acceptable for very short and straight passages.

Gates and the like should allow convenient passage for an electrically
propelled wheelchair for outdoor use. This means a clear passage width
of at least 0.9 m.


Surfacing
The use of paving stones as a surfacing should be avoided as such
surfaces are far too uneven.

Pavement edges that must be crossed when, for example, getting to an
entrance from an arrival point or parking place, should be chamfered to a
0 edge for a stretch of 0.9 to 1.0 m.


Orientation and safety
Good orientatability means that the walkway should be possible to
delineate from other areas, both visually and by touch. Visual delineation
makes it easier for people with impaired orientation capacity who can
partially orientate themselves with the aid of vision; tactile delineation is
required for people who do not have usable residual vision. Tactile
delineation could comprise a house wall, a kerb at least 4 cm high, a
fence, preferably with a handrail and a low-positioned guide bar, which
can be followed with a cane, or a surface made of some other material,
where a difference in material can be felt with a technical cane. See also
Section 3.3.1 Orientatability.

Prerequisites for safe movement include having a walkway clearly
separated from vehicular traffic by for example, a pavement kerb, and
also clearly separated from cycle traffic. The border with a cycle way
should be designed in such a way that there is no risk of a person using an
technical cane, when „tapping along‟, going into the cycleway and
thereby presenting a risk to cyclists.

Walkway passages across carriageways should be designed so that they
are accessible for people in wheelchairs and are perceived to be safe by
people with visual impairment. The kerb edge should be chamfered to a 0
edge for a stretch of 0.9 to 1.0 m, with a slope of at most 1:12. The

                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 88
kerbstone should remain at the side of the chamfering. Steps should be
located, wherever possible, to the side of the actual walkway area itself.
See also Section 3.3.4 Safe mobility.

Vegetation
In existing culturally historical environments, plants of cultural historical
interest may be acceptable even if they are allergenic.


What does BBR say?
According to advice contained in BBR 3:122, a walkway should:
a) be horizontal or slope a maximum of 1:12 between resting points that
are at least 2 m long
b) have a height difference of no more than 0.5 m between resting points
c) be at least 1.3 metres wide
d) be free of obstacles
e) have a hard surface
f) have kerbstones of at least 40 mm high which, at crossing points or the
like, are furnished with a 90 cm wide chamfering with a different surface
layer.



3.3.6 Ramps
A ramp is not a substitute for, but a supplement to stairs. Some people
prefer using stairs to a ramp. Prerequisites for a ramp to function well for
people with impaired mobility include
• that the maximum gradient is 1:20 in the direction of travel and that the
  maximum lateral gradient is 1:50
• that an individual ramp comprises a maximum difference in levels of
  0.5 m, preferably less (a maximum of approximately 5 m between
  resting points)
• that there are at most two ramps after each other, with intermediate
  resting points that are least 2 m long
• that the width is at least 1.30 m
• that the surface is firm, even and non-slip


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 89
• that there are handrails on both sides at a height of approximately 0.90
  m and that these start/end approximately 0.30 m both before and after
  the ramp
• that, where there is a height difference in relation to the surrounding
  ground, there are pathway barriers to prevent running off (guide bars
  positioned at a low level or edging of approximately 10 cm)
• that a resting point with a door is large enough so that a person using a
  wheelchair can remain on the level surface when the door opens.79



Additional information
Gradient
For existing ramps, a gradient of 1:12 is acceptable. Steeper gradients are
not acceptable. Every attempt should always be made to achieve a
gradient of 1:20 or less.

Intermediate resting points of a length of 1.3 m are acceptable for existing
ramps, except for resting points where one must turn. Such resting points
need to be at least 1.5 x 1.5 m.

The restriction of having a maximum of two ramps in succession cannot
always be satisfied because of, for example the topography of an existing
walkway. As far as possible, every effort should be made to fulfil the
requirements.


Width
For safety reasons, ramps should have the same width along the entire
ramp. For existing ramps, and also for very short ramps or where there is
not enough space for a 1.3 m wide ramp, a narrower width is acceptable
although it must be at least 1 m.


Handrails
Very short ramps, such as those between a carriageway and the pavement
do not need handrails.

79
     See Section 3.3.8 Doors.


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 90
Existing ramps with a handrail on one side only and which starts/ends
where the ramp actually starts/ends are acceptable.


What does BBR say?
According to BBR 3:124, ramps in premises or on movement routes
should have a maximum gradient of 1:12 and a maximum height
difference of 0.5 m between resting points at least 2 m long.

According to BBR 8:2321, stairs and ramps that have a total rise greater
than 0.5 m should have handrails or the like on both sides.



3.3.7 Lifts
This section deals with lifts and lift cars and also briefly with lift
equipment, such as platform lifts and stairlifts.

Prerequisites for a lift to function properly for people with impaired
orientation capacity are
• that there should be acoustic (audible) and visual (visible) information
  outside the lift to indicate when it has arrived
• that there is acoustic and visual information inside the lift car indicating
  on which floor the lift has stopped
• that there is feedback response so that an emergency alarm can be both
  seen and heard
• that it is possible to differentiate between stop and emergency signals
  by touch
• that lifts with a lift car are supplied with a two-way communication
  system that enables a permanent link with the emergency service
• that the buttons have tactile markings and figures that are easy to read
  and also that the button for the entrance level has a different form and
  colour from the other buttons.

Prerequisites for lifts to function properly for people with disability are,
in addition to the six items mentioned above,


                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 91
• that the lift is large enough to comfortably accommodate one person
  sitting in a wheelchair and an assistant
• that the door is an automatic opening, sliding or telescopic door with a
  clear width of at least 0.80, preferably 0.90 m
• that there is sufficient space outside the lift to be able to turn and back
  into the lift, namely, at least 1.5 x 1.5 m (not necessary in „through‟
  lifts; more space may sometimes be required)
• that the lift control panel, call button and alarm button are located
  within reach of people using wheelchairs and can be used by people
  with impaired arm or hand mobility
• that the lift stops level with the floor
• that the lift can be manoeuvred by users with weak hands and can bear
  the weight of an electrically propelled wheelchair.



Additional information

If only one lift in a group of lifts satisfies the requirements for people
with disability, then it must be possible to call this lift separately
(avoiding having to wait for the correct lift to arrive).

This lift should be clearly marked as being larger than the others.

All lifts, including lifts that do not have space for a person using a
wheelchair, should satisfy the first six items.


Information and communications system
In existing buildings of cultural historical value, it may be accepted that
the acoustic and visual information outside the lift is not installed if, for
example, this would seriously mar valuable surface coverings. However,
such information should be installed wherever this is considered possible.

In existing buildings it is acceptable that there is no two-way
communications system, but such a system should be installed in
conjunction with a new installation, whether in a new or existing
building.


                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 92
The size of a lift
A lift car, with standard dimensions of 1.1 x 1.4 m, can be too small to
hold both an assistant and a person using a particularly long wheelchair
(for example, a person sitting with outstretched legs).

A large lift car is required to allow more people to be able to use the lift
and to provide enough space for an assistant. A length of 1.8 m is
required for the assistant to be able to stand behind the wheelchair. If a
standard size lift is to be used, it would have to be the 1.1 x 2.1 m size.
Dimensions of 1.5 x 1.5 m provide enough room for an assistant beside
the wheelchair. Use one of these standard lift sizes in new construction.

In existing buildings where a lift is to be installed, a lift with dimensions
of 1.1 x 1.4 m, with a door on the short side, is acceptable. However, if it
is possible to install a somewhat longer and/or wider lift, this should be
done. A lift with doors at an angle, so that one has to turn 90 degrees,
should have dimensions of at least 1.5 x 1.5 m.

If there is an existing lift that does not satisfy the above-mentioned
dimensions, an investigation should be conducted to determine whether
the deviation in dimensions is so small that the lift can nevertheless
function as well as the feasibility and cost of a replacement. A
corresponding investigation should be conducted in the case of a newly
installed lift car and lift motor in an existing shaft where there is not
enough space for a lift of the specified dimensions.

For more information about platform lifts and stairlifts, see below.


Doors
In an existing building, an existing side-hung door is acceptable subject to
the prerequisites that it can be opened automatically, that the door opener
manoeuvring device can be reached from a wheelchair and also that there
is sufficient space around the door. See Section 3.3.8 Doors.


Lift control panel, call button and alarm button
The lift control panel should be positioned as a horizontal row of buttons
within the range 0.80 to 1.10 m above the floor so that they can reached
from a wheelchair. When the control panel is located 0.80 m above the
floor, it should be angled approximately 45 degrees out from the wall to
                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 93
enable people standing to read the information on the panel as well as it
being able to be read by touch. The panel should be positioned in the
middle of the lift‟s long side and no closer to a corner than 0.40 m.

Emergency telephone or alarm buttons should be located so that they are
easily accessible from a wheelchair, namely at a distance of 0.8 to 1.0 m
and in the middle of the lift‟s long side.

In existing buildings, it is acceptable that the lift control panel is
positioned in accordance with the recommendation for the Lift
Standard80, namely, with the central lift button located no higher than
1.20 m above the floor, preferably no higher than 1.10 m above the floor
and also at least 0.4 m from a corner.

See Section 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices for more information about the
design of buttons on lift control panels and the location and design of call
buttons.

The building developer must clearly specify in the order to the lift
supplier that the lift should be accessible for people with impaired
mobility or orientation capacity. Otherwise there is a risk that the lift
might be delivered with an inaccessible panel.81


Platform lifts and stairlifts
People with impaired hand function find continuous pressure switches
(controls that have to be depressed during travel) difficult or impossible
to use. Therefore, the installation of lifts that are manoeuvred with
continuous pressure switches (platform lifts and stairlifts) should be
avoided. They should only be installed in existing buildings where a lift
with a lift car is not a feasible alternative.

The platform on platform lifts and stairlifts should be large enough for a
wheelchair measuring 0.7 x 1.3 m.

In order to satisfy the requirements contained in BBR, the lift equipment
should also include enough space for an assistant, which means that it

80
   Lift Standard EN 81-70 Safety rules for the construction and installation
of lifts – Part 70: Particular applications for passenger and good passenger lifts
– Accessibility to lifts for persons including persons with disability.
81
   See Newsletter 2000:1 from the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning.

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 94
basically needs to have the same dimensions as those previously
stipulated for a lift car. The dimensions of the platform specified in the
Standard82 (0.9 x 1.4 m minimum) do not allow enough space for an
assistant. As people with weak hands may find it difficult to manoeuvre
the lift themselves, this platform size should not be installed in public
environments for higher lift heights.

For lower lift heights, such as at the entrance or at a podium of an
existing building, this platform size may be acceptable. It should be
possible to control the lift from the outside so that it can be used by a
person with weak hands.

Stairlifts are not a good solution in an environment used by many people
and should therefore only be used where another solution is not
technically possible. Safety aspects should be taken into account both for
those people using wheelchairs and for those people not using
wheelchairs, such as people with walking difficulties or people with
prams, who may need to use the stairlift.

A lift that is installed at an authority should be able to bear the weight of
an electrically propelled wheelchair including the user and any assistant.
An electrically propelled wheelchair can weigh up to 200 kg. The lift
must therefore be able to bear a load of at least 300 kg. However, it is
uncertain whether this is sufficient if an assistant is needed on/in the lift.


What does BBR and the Standards say?
According to BBR 3:124, where a lift or other lifting device is required to
make premises accessible for people with impaired mobility or
orientation capacity, a lift shall have at least enough space for a person
sitting in a wheelchair and an assistant.

Lifts should be designed so that people with impaired mobility or
orientation capacity know when the lift car has stopped in order for them
to get in and out. According to the advice, there are examples of lifts that
satisfy the requirements for internal car dimension contained in the
Standard SS 76 35 20 (1).

According to the advice contained in BBR 3:125, the entrance doors, lift
doors and corridor doors should have a clear passage dimension of at
82
     Swedish Standard SS 2097-1.

                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 95
least 0.80 m.

According to the European Lift Standard, the clear passage dimension of
the door should be at least 0.80 m. It is stated in a comment that,
according to ISO 4190-1:1999 (Series B), lifts measuring 1.1 x 1.4 m
should have a clear passage dimension of 0.90 m.83
More detailed requirements on the design of lifts are contained in a
proposed Standard.84



3.3.8 Doors
Prerequisites for people using wheelchairs to be able to open, pass
through and close a door include
• that the width of the door allows passage of a wheelchair
• that the door is completely without a threshold or that the threshold is a
  maximum of 2.5 cm and chamfered with a minimum gradient
• that the space around the door is sufficient for a person using a
     wheelchair to be able to reach the door handle, namely, there is a clear
     area of at least 0.7 and preferably 1.0 m wide beside the door and that
     the door is not located in a niche
• that the space around the door is sufficient for a person using a
  wheelchair to be able to turn around to close the door after them
• that the space around the door is sufficient for a person using a
  wheelchair to be able to open a side-hung door without the wheelchair
  getting in the way, (wheelchairs with dimensions of 1.3 x 0.7 m should
  thus have enough space outside the swing area of the door)85
• that the door handle and door lock are easy to reach, manipulate and
  that the grip surface is not made of any material containing nickel
• that heavy doors, such as doors with door closers, are furnished with
  automatic door openers



83
   Lift Standard EN 81-70 Safety rules for the construction and installation
of lifts – Part 70: Particular applications for passenger and good passenger lifts
– Accessibility to lifts for persons including persons with disability.
84
   EN 81-70, see previous footnote.
85
   See Bygg ikapp handikapp [Building in pace with disability] page 92.

                                               ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 96
• that manoeuvring devices for door openers are positioned so that the
  person using the manoeuvring device stands outside the swing area of
  the door, see Diagram 2
• that automatically opened doors are furnished with sensors so that the
  door does not close in on you.



Additional information

Width of door – entrance doors, etc.
Entrance doors, patio doors, corridor doors, doors to assembly halls,
lecture halls, meeting rooms, toilet facilities for people using wheelchairs,
etc. should have a clear passage dimension of at least 0.84 m when the
door is opened 90 degrees. This is subject to the prerequisite that there is
sufficient swing room outside the door, namely, that the corridor is at
least 1.5 m wide.

This requirement is usually satisfied by a door of type K10, provided that
the door leaf thickness is not particularly great, or the handle designed so
that it intrudes into the passage width or the door is in some other way
designed so that the passage dimension is reduced.

For existing doors, a clear passage dimension of at least 0.80 m is
acceptable. For lift doors, see under Section 3.2.7 Lifts.

Door width – small group rooms, office rooms, etc.
Doors to small rooms intended for a few people (for example, small
group rooms, office rooms, etc.) should have a clear passage dimension
of at least 0.80 m.

In existing buildings, a clear passage width of at least 0.76 m is
acceptable when the door is open 90 degrees.

The clear passage dimension of a K9 door, when the door is open 90
degrees, normally varies between approximately 0.76 and 0.78 m,
depending on whether the opening is measured straight or at an angle.
This is subject to the prerequisite that the thickness of the door leaf is a
maximum of 4 cm thick, the handle is not designed so that it intrudes into
the passage width or the door is in some other way designed so that the
passage dimension is reduced.

                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 97
With the aid of a special hinge, the clearance dimension may be increased
to 0.80 m. When the door is open 180 degrees, the clear passage
dimension should be 0.80 m.

If there is little space to manoeuvre outside (the corridor is narrower than
1.5 m), the door width should be adapted according to the corridor width.

Particularly wide doors are required in corridors where it is not possible
to pass through the door at a right angle. For example, if the corridor
width is 1.3 m, the clear passage should be almost 0.90 m. (A K10 door
that provides a clear passage dimension of 0.86 to 0.88 m is acceptable if
the door leaf is thin.) If the corridor is even narrower, a broader door is
required in which case a sliding door should used.


Thresholds
Alternatively, an automatic sealing threshold or low rubber threshold
with a flexible weather strip on the door may be used.86

In existing buildings with thresholds that cannot be removed for cultural
historical or building engineering reasons, wedges can be used with a
maximum gradient of 1:12.


Space around the door
A radius of 1.5 m of is an appropriate turning space for assessing
accessibility. (As indicated by the list of items above, a larger space is
required outside side-hung doors in order to be able to reach the door
handle.)

In the case of doors with door openers/door closers, space around the
door is not required to enable a person using a wheelchair to reach the
door handle or turn to close the door.

In existing buildings, it may be acceptable that the clear area beside the
door has a width of 0.25 m on the inside of the door. For light inner
doors, 0.45 m is acceptable on the outside of the door. Niches with a
maximum depth of 0.45 m are acceptable. If these measurements are not
achieved such as in the case of deeper niches, it is acceptable that doors
86
     See Bygg ikapp handikapp [Building in pace with disability] pages 96 to 98.

                                                ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 98
can remain open provided it is not a requirement for them to be kept
closed.

In existing buildings, doors to workrooms do not need to be able to be
opened or closed by people using wheelchairs (and thus need not satisfy
the above measurement requirements).

However, if necessary, this should always be rectified, including to one‟s
own workroom.

In existing buildings, it may be accepted that the specified area for
turning around is not completely satisfied in a room where it is not
important to be able to close the door behind you. For example, a corridor
1.3 m wide outside the door may be acceptable.

It is especially important to check that, in small spaces and rooms, such
as porches and at resting points at the end of ramps, etc., a space in front
of a side-hung door provides enough space for a wheelchair to stand
outside the door‟s swing area.


Door handles and locks
Door handles should be positioned not more than 1.0 m above the floor.
Double-handled grips should not be necessary. In existing buildings of
cultural historical value, existing door handles and locks may be
acceptable if they constitute part of the cultural historic value.


Door openers
A door with a door closer is normally so heavy that it is difficult for
people with disability to operate. It should therefore be furnished with a
door opener.

[Labels for diagram:

Left diagram:     0.7 minimum
                  preferably 1.0

Right diagram: 0.7 minimum
               preferably 1.0]


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 99
Diagram 2. Location of manoeuvring devices for door openers.


Manoeuvring devices for door openers should be positioned with their
centre 0.80 above the floor, and at least 0.70, preferably 1.0 m, from
corners or other obstacles. The distance from the door should be such that
a person using a wheelchair or walker is located outside the swing area of
the door when the manoeuvring device is used. In this way, one is not at
risk of being struck by the leading edge of the door. See Diagram 2.

Automatically opening side-hung doors in particular pose a safety risk.
The fact that a door can be opened automatically can be made clear by
marking out the area where the door swings open. This is particularly
important if the door does not have a safety sensor. Automatic sliding
doors are the best solution.


What does BBR say?
According to advice contained in BBR 3:125, the clear passage
dimension in entrance doors, lift doors and corridor doors should be at
least 0.80 m. According to advice contained in BBR 3:123, corridors and
the like should be at least 1.3 m wide.



3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices
In this context, manoeuvring devices mean, for example, door handles
and locks to fittings, mixer taps, power and lighting switches and
doorbells and controls for door openers, coffee vending machines, queue-
ticket dispensers, automatic service machines, door-entry phones, code
locks, etc.

                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 100
Door handles and locks are dealt with in Section 3.3.8 Doors.
Prerequisites for people with disability to be able to use manoeuvring
devices, etc. are
• that they can be reached and are easy to read
• that they are easy to operate
• that they are clear and easily understood
• that there are no grip surfaces that include material containing nickel.


Additional information

Possible to reach and read
Manoeuvring devices, etc., must be positioned at least 0.70 m, preferably
1.0 m, from corners or other obstacles so that they can be reached by
people using wheelchairs and people with reduced arm mobility or
impaired balance.

Manoeuvring devices should be positioned at an accessible height for
people using wheelchairs, people with reduced arm mobility or impaired
balance and people who are standing but may find it difficult to bend
down. The location should also not impede the perception of any
letters/figures/symbols or tactile (touch) markings.

For example, power and light switches, doorbells, manoeuvring devices
for fire alarms and other manoeuvring devices that are positioned on a
vertical or angled surface should be positioned between 0.80 and 1.0 m
above the floor.

Manoeuvring panels that have double rows of buttons and
letters/figures/symbols or tactile markings should be positioned between
0.80 and 1.10 m (if possible between 0.80 and 1.0 m) and angled
approximately 45 degrees out from the wall. A manoeuvring panel placed
on a vertical surface is less legible, particularly if it is placed low down.
Vertical panels should be positioned so that their lower edge is
approximately 0.90 m above the floor.

A manoeuvring device or manoeuvring panel on a horizontal surface
should be positioned approximately 0.80 m above the floor and at the

                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 101
upper edge of the surface so that it is not necessary to stretch to reach the
manoeuvring device.

Lift control panels are dealt with in Section 3.3.7 Lifts. For more
information about text provided for manoeuvring devices, see Section
3.3.2 Signs.
Existing positioning up to 10 cm higher is acceptable on a temporary
basis. The manoeuvring device should be lowered in conjunction with
rebuilding work or when the need arises, for example in conjunction with
workplace adaptation.

In buildings of cultural historic value, existing positioning may be
acceptable where any change would involve marring it. In this situation,
other solutions, such as presence sensors for lighting, should be
considered.


Easy to operate
Easy to operate means that manoeuvring devices, etc., can also be
operated by those with impaired strength, mobility or precision and by
people who have the use of only one hand.
Examples of good solutions:
• Mixer taps: level control or photoelectric control mixer taps (subject to
  the precondition that it is easy to understand how to use them).
• Mountings on fittings: large clasp handles.
• Household equipment: knobs and controls that have to be turned should
  not be cylindrical but have protruding wings. It is generally preferred
  that knobs and controls that have to be turned should be avoided.
• Buttons on lift panels or similar kinds of panel: should be at least 20
  mm in diameter, positioned at least 10 mm from each other, projecting
  from the base and not lying in a recessed position below the panel
  surface. Buttons should give a response so that it is possible to feel or
  hear that the button has been activated. The necessary power to depress
  buttons should be 2.5 to 5.0 N.
• Card readers: solutions where the card only has to be held up are
  preferable to card readers where the card has to be slid through the
  reader.



                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 102
Continuous pressure switches (controls that for safety reasons are found
in certain types of lifts and which have to be depressed during travel)
should be extra large and easy to operate. Preferably, these switches
should not be used.

Clear and easily understood
It should also be possible for people with impaired vision or cognitive
capacity to use manoeuvring devices.

Prerequisites for this are
• that the manoeuvring device is consistently located or marked with
  contrasting tone
• that it is easy to understand how it is used, namely, the design is „self-
  instructional‟
• that text and symbols are clear and easy to read and that preferably
  there are explanatory symbols
• that information is both visual (visible) and aural (audible) or tactile
  (touch).

What does BBR say?
According to BBR 3:125, handles, manoeuvring devices and locks should
be positioned and designed so that they can be used by people with
disability.



3.3.10 Fittings and equipment
The prerequisites for people with disability to be able to use fittings and
equipment are described below.

See Section 4.3 for guidelines for the design of technical equipment such
as computers, faxes, copiers and telephones that are to be used by visitors
with disability.


Design generally
Prerequisites include



                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 103
• that material that causes problems for people with allergies or other
  hypersensitivity should not be used.
• that the material used and the design make it easy to clean
• that manoeuvring devices on fittings and equipment are located within
  reach of people using wheelchairs, are easy to operate and are also clear
  and easily understood87
• that not only manoeuvring devices but also the product as a whole is
  clear and easily understood. As far as possible, the design should be
  „self-instructional‟, namely, the design should indicate how the product
  should be used. This should preferably be so clear that special
  instructions are not required.




87
     See 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices.

                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 104
Seats and grouped seating
Preconditions include
• that at least some seats have a rather high sitting height (0.45 to 0.50
  m), together with back and arm support
• that some of the chairs in areas where one is sitting for a long time are
  soft or can be furnished with cushions
• that grouped seating is designed so that people using wheelchairs can
  also sit there.



Additional information
If there are several seats, it is good if there is a choice of different sitting
heights. It should be possible to easily move chairs at tables out of the
way to make room for wheelchairs.



Tables, workbenches, computer desks
Prerequisites include
• that tables, workbenches, computer desks, etc. are designed so that they
  can also be used by people using wheelchairs, namely, that it is possible
  to get feet and knees in under the table surface.

The recommended dimensions for clear space under a table surface are a
height of approximately 0.68 m, width approximately 0.80 m and depth
approximately 0.60 m. For outdoor wheelchairs, the width should be 0.90
m and the height 0.75 m. Tables that can be raised and lowered make it
possible to vary the height according to individual needs.

Number-based queuing systems
Prerequisites include
• that the queue-ticket dispenser is easy to find and reach88
• that numbers on the queue ticket and displays are clear and easy to read
  and that there is a queue-ticket display at eye level (approximately 1.4
  to 1.6 m above the floor), so that it is possible to get close to it

88
     Positioning see Sections 3.3.1 Orientatability and 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices.

                                                ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 105
• that information is provided about the position reached in the queue and
     how long it will take before the allocated queue number is served
• that visual and audible information is provided (or is possible to get on
  request) when the queue number is allocated, when the queue system
  progresses and also when and where the number in question will be
  served.



Additional information

Repeated reminders of queue-ticket numbers should be given at a place
that is easily found such as by the queue-ticket dispenser.

Audible information makes it easier for those with impaired vision.
Despite the provision of audible information, it may be difficult for
people who are blind to get to the correct counter, particularly if there are
many desks and a lot of people. Those who cannot manage queue
systems should be afforded the opportunity to be given priority at one of
the counters.



Door-entry phones
Prerequisites include
• that the door-entry phone is easy to find and reach89
• that the microphone for calls on a door-entry phone is located at a
  height of 1.1 to1.2 m above the ground and that it is also possible for it
  to be used by people using wheelchairs
• that a visual acknowledgement is given on the door-entry phone so that
  it can be seen when someone has answered and that the door can be
  opened, for example, there may be text providing information about this
• that the door-entry phone is also generally designed so that it can be
  used by people with disability, for example, that text on the phone
  contrasts well against the background, that the text is clear and
  preferably tactile, that its position is such that the text can both be easily

89
  Positioning of controls vertically and distance from corners, see 3.3.9 Manoeuvring
devices.

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 106
     seen and read by touch, that it is easy to understand how to operate the
     door-entry phone and that the buttons are well designed. See also
     Section 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices. In the case of new installations, the
     use of video door-entry phones should be considered, bearing in mind
     visitors with speech impediments and visitors who are deaf.


Door-entry code keypads
Prerequisites include
• that the door-entry keypad is easy to find and reach and also is
  positioned so that it is easy to read90
• the number 5 is furnished with a point that can be felt by touch
• that the figures are clear, including having clear contrast in tone against
  the background.

Induction loops
Prerequisites for an induction loop to function include
• that it is installed and dimensioned correctly
• that several microphones, some of which are cordless, are linked to the
  equipment
• that the induction loop is regularly checked and that this is done by
  skilled technicians
• that the induction loop is clearly signed and that it is clearly indicated if
  it only functions in part of the premises.



Additional information

Ensure that installation work is carried out by a skilled fitter. The
installation of an induction loop is only complete when it has been
checked and measured according to IEC 118-4.91

Conclude a service contract in conjunction with the installation. There
90
  See Section 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices.
91
  See technical values that the loop must satisfy, according to an international standard
Magnetic field strength in autofrequency induction loops for hearing aid purposes.
IEC publication 118-4.

                                              ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 107
should be written instructions about the operation and care of the loop
and details of whom to contact about faults.

A prerequisite for an induction loop to function is that there is a low level
of electronic and magnetic interference in the premises. If disturbances
are great, another system should be chosen.

Another induction loop in the vicinity may cause problems with
overhearing. Furthermore, an induction loop should normally not be used
in premises with secrecy requirements.

It should be possible to turn the induction loop off (in consideration of
people who are oversensitive to electricity). In large premises, it should
be possible to turn it off in sections. The induction loop disconnecter
should be bipolar to have full effect.



Fittings and equipment in toilets for people with mobility impairment
The size and positioning of the toilet pedestal and handbasin have been
described previously.92 To ensure that the cubicle can be used by a person
using a wheelchair, the fittings and equipment must also be considered.



Additional information

It should be possible for a person using a wheelchair to get close up to the
handbasin and reach the mixer tap. The upper edge should be positioned
0.8 m above the floor and project approximately 0.2 m from the wall
behind it, with a shelf between. Alternatively, a handbasin with an extra
broad shelf behind the mixing tap can be used. Waste pipes and U-bends
should be positioned against or inside the wall.

The toilet pedestal should normally have an extra high sitting height (that
is, the sitting height should be approximately 0.48 m including the toilet
seat - available in the standard range) and a stable toilet seat and lid.
Toilet pedestals suspended on the wall may make it difficult to move
sideways as such a seat is located too near the wall, and should therefore

92
     See the Section Toilets, 3.2.9

                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 108
be avoided.

Arm supports are required on both sides of the toilet pedestal. It should
be possible to fold these up and they should be of the type that glide
down slowly and can also be handled by people with poor grip capacity
(who cannot „pinch grip‟). They should be positioned with the upper edge
0.8 m above the floor and with the centre spaced 0.6 m from both sides of
the toilet pedestal, and they should be designed and fitted so that they can
withstand heavy loads.

It is an advantage if there is a bidet shower with separate nozzle control
that can be reached from the toilet pedestal.

It should be possible to reach the toilet-paper holder from the toilet
pedestal. These should be located on the outside of each arm support,
turned towards the toilet pedestal.

There should be a call contact (alarm), reset button and a signal lamp that
indicates that the alarm has been triggered. The alarm should go to a
place that is manned at the times when the toilet might be used. Position
call contacts so that a contact can be reached by a person in a seated
position and also by a person lying on the floor.

Also ensure that other fittings and equipment in the room can be reached
and used by both a person using a wheelchair and by a person who does
not use a wheelchair.

Position soap dispensers, paper-towel holders and cup holders with the
lower edge 0.8 to 1.0 m above the floor and at least 0.4 m, preferably 0.7
m, from any corner. Provide, in addition to the paper-towel holder, a
basket with paper towels next to the handbasin (for people who have
impaired hand mobility and who find it difficult to reach towels from an
ordinary kind of paper-towel holder).

At least one coat hook should be located 1.0 to 1.2 m above the floor and
at least one coat hook approximately 1.6 m above the floor (for long
coats, etc.)

It should be possible both for people sitting and standing to use the
mirror. An appropriate position is with the lower edge at most 0.9 m and


                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 109
the upper edge at least 1.8 m above the floor. Alternatively, use a mirror
that can be angled out from the wall.




3.4 Maintenance and routines
It is not enough that a building is made accessible and usable when it is
erected. Accessibility and usability must be maintained through
operational maintenance. Routines are required for this.

Instructions are also required regarding how the premises should be
cleaned and where smoking is allowed, etc.

There should be instructions on the use of the premises to make it possible
for people with allergies or hypersensitivities to be there.

These instructions should ensure that
• it is possible for people with asthma, allergies or other hypersensitivity
to use the entrance without being troubled by tobacco smoke
• no one is involuntarily exposed to tobacco smoke inside the premises
or on a patio adjacent to the authority‟s premises
• animals, except service dogs and guide dogs, are not allowed in the
premises
• plants that can cause problems for people with asthma, allergies or
other hypersensitivity are not planted or placed by the entrance or brought
into the premises93
• cleaning methods are selected taking into consideration people with
allergies or other hypersensitivity
• products that can cause problems for people with allergies or other
hypersensitivity are not used in the premises.




93
   See Janson, E. & Sörensen, A–B. (1998) Grönare liv för allergiker [A greener life for
people with allergies], (Informationsförlaget) Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association
and Strandhede, Sven-Olof (2002)
Farliga och ofarliga växter från A–Ö [Dangerous and safe plants from A–Z]. (Bilda
förlag).

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 110
Additional information
Smoking
If there is a place designated for smokers at the entrance, this should be
located at least 15 m from the entrance and where it is not necessary to
pass it when approaching the entrance. This place must not be located by
a fresh air intake. It should also be possible for people using wheelchairs
to use it.

If smoking is allowed in the premises, there should be a special smoking
room with separate ventilation. The smoking room should be located so
that no one has to pass through it. It should be possible for people using
wheelchairs to reach it.

Ashtrays should be placed on the patio at a distance of at least 15 m from
the grouped seating that is the most attractive and at least 15 m from the
main entrance, staff entrance and entrance to the patio.


Plants
Do not, for instance, bring in branches of birch and willow. The Swedish
Asthma and Allergy Association can provide information about which
plants are suitable.

Existing buildings. Exceptions from the above-mentioned requirements
may be accepted in cultural historical environments for plants that are
especially important for the sake of historic completeness.


Cleaning
Cleaning should be kept at such a level that it provides a good
environment for everyone in the premises including people with allergies
or other hypersensitivity.

Cleaning agents, soap and floorcare agents must not contain perfume or
other allergenic substances. The smallest amounts of cleaning agent
possible should be used.

Products
Ensure that the soap in the toilets is unperfumed. Encourage staff who
come into contact with visitors not to use perfume or other scented
hygiene products.

                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 111
There should be procedures and routines regarding how the accessibility
and usability of the premises is to be maintained.

Among other things, procedures and routines are required to ensure that
• the outdoor environment is attended to and maintained
• doors that are used particularly by people with disability are kept open
  at the same time as other doors such as a door next to a rotating door, or
  a door to a special entrance if the main entrance is inaccessible
• technical devices are regularly checked and that there are precise
  instructions directed towards the relevant staff concerning the operation
  and care of these devices
• where it is warranted, there is a special service contract for, for
  example, induction loops, alarm equipment, lifting devices and lifts
• the illumination is maintained on an ongoing basis
• accessibility requirements are satisfied when additional new fittings
  and equipment are installed or in connection with other changes
• comments and complaints relating to the accessibility of the premises
  are dealt with in some way
• fixed and movable fittings are not placed in a way that obstructs
  accessibility.
For example, fixed and movable fittings should not be placed
• in passageways or evacuation routes so as to obstruct ease of access or
  pose a risk of accidents for people who are visually impaired
• too close to, for instance, door handles, manoeuvring devices for door
  openers, lift buttons or door-entry phones (a clear space is necessary
  next to handles, manoeuvring devices and locks, to ensure that a person
  using a wheelchair is able to reach them)
• in front of signs, so that people with visual impairment are prevented
  from getting sufficiently close.




                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 112
4. Guidelines for the workplace

Public authorities should be places of work where employees with
disability can work on equal terms. This involves having a suitable
personnel policy for how recruitment, promotion and in-house training
are carried out and how the work environment is organised and designed.
As an employer, the authority has a fundamental responsibility to ensure
that the physical and psychosocial work environment is good.

A precondition for colleagues with disability to be able to participate on
equal terms at work is that the workplace and operations are accessible.
All employees should be able to use the authority‟s premises, computers
and other office equipment. Employees with impaired mobility should,
for example, be able to move unimpeded inside the premises and the
Intranet should be structured so that an employee with a visual
impairment can assimilate the information.

In addition to this general accessibility, individual managers or
colleagues may need to have personal workstations adapted. According to
the Work Environment Act, the employer should adapt the work
conditions to the employee‟s individual capability. 94

This may sometimes mean that the employer needs to acquire aids such
as an enlargement program for the computer or a text telephone.

The organisation of the work can also have an impact on whether an
employee with disability can perform their tasks. Examples of adaptation
measures include flexible working hours and the opportunity to be able to
work partly from home. The underlying aim is not to create unnecessary
obstacles to the work.




94
  The Work Environment Act (1977:1160) and the Work Environment Ordinance
(1977:1166) together with associated AFS. In addition, see the Prohibition of
Discrimination in Working Life of People with Disability Act (1999:132) and the Equal
Treatment of Students at Universities Act (2001:1286).

                                            ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 113
This chapter contains guidelines for:
• personnel policy
• work premises
• office equipment.


4.1 Personnel policy
Public authorities should be places of work where employees with
disability can work on equal terms. Personnel and work-environment
work determine whether this is possible. The issue involves how
recruitment, promotion and in-house training are carried out and how the
work environment is designed. It also relates to the authority‟s
rehabilitation responsibility. The disability perspective must therefore be
brought to the fore in the authority‟s various policy documents such as in
its personnel policy, diversity plan and work environment policy.


4.1.1 Recruitment

Recruitment should not exclude people with disability.

This means that
• recruiters should be skilled in non-discriminatory recruitment and
  selection methods
• the composition of recruitment teams should be as multi-faceted as
  possible
• advertisement and application procedures should be formulated so that
  applicants with disability are not excluded
• the applicants‟ merits should be valued against the selection criteria
• the interview should satisfy the requirement for accessibility
• possible support and adaptation methods should be considered.

In order to demonstrate that the authority gives priority to diversity
issues, it may be appropriate to write in the job advertisement, for
example: “We welcome applicants regardless of sex, ethnic background,
disability and sexual orientation.” In order to further encourage people
with disability to apply, the advertisement can also describe the
authority‟s accessibility and mention that the authority is prepared to
                                        ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 114
adapt the workplace.

4.1.2 Promotion
It should be possible for employees with disability to be promoted on equal
terms with others.
This means that
• opportunities for promotion should be openly publicised
• informal routes for promotion should be avoided
• the promotion procedure should be conducted fairly and consistently
• personnel with supervisory responsibility should be trained in how to
  avoid discrimination in connection with promotion.


4.1.3 In-house training
It should be possible for employees with disability to be able to participate
in in-house training on equal terms with others.

This means that
• training should be arranged so that no one is excluded (for example,
  offer material in an adapted form)
• training should be located in premises that are accessible (if, for
  example, an induction loop is required).


4.1.4 Prohibition against discrimination
The Prohibition of Discrimination in Working Life of People with
Disability Act applies to the entire labour market. The Act prohibits
discrimination both against jobseekers and employees.

The prohibition applies when the employer
• recruits
• decides on promotion or training for promotion
• decides on other training
• decides on occupational work experience
• applies pay and other employment conditions
• supervises and distributes work

                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 115
• gives notice of termination, summarily dismisses, lays-off or
  implements other significant measure against an employee.
The prohibition against discrimination also applies even where the
employer does not intend to discriminate.

On appointment, promotion or in conjunction with education/training for
promotion, an employer must implement reasonable support and
adaptation measures to ensure that people with disability will be able to
perform their work on equal terms. An employer who does not implement
support and adaptation measures in these situations may be guilty of
discrimination.


4.2 Work premises
It should be possible for all employees to use the authority‟s premises.
This means that the same demands should be imposed on work premises
as on those parts that are used by the public. Moreover, it is important
that fittings, equipment and illumination in office rooms and other work
premises are adapted according to the individual needs of the user95.

Besides the requirements contained in Chapter 3 Guidelines for
Premises, the following should be especially emphasised:

It should be possible for people with disability to use shared staffrooms
such as the pantry, break room, lunchroom, rest room and changing room.




Additional information

Prerequisites for this include that the microwave oven, refrigerator,
storage cupboard, coffee vending machines, dishwashers, etc. are within
reach of people using wheelchairs and also are generally usable by people
with disability. In a pantry and the like, it should be possible for part of
the work area to be used by people using wheelchairs See also Sections
3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices and 3.3.10 Fittings and equipment.



 See also Workplace Design. The National Board of Occupational Safety and Health‟s
95

Regulations on the Design of Workplaces and General Advice on Application of the
Regulations AFS 2000:42.

                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 116
Another prerequisite for this is that staff do not wear strong perfume
which may, for instance, cause problems for particularly sensitive
colleagues.

What does the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health’s
Regulations say?
The National Board of Occupational Safety and Health‟s Regulations on
the Design of Workplaces (AFS 2000:42) determine how workplaces,
work premises and staff rooms with associated spaces should be designed
to prevent occupational diseases and accidents. The work environment
rules also contain requirements on accessibility. It is provided by Section
8 that, if necessary, it should be possible for employees with impaired
mobility, vision and hearing capacity to be able to use workplaces, work
premises and staff areas and that these should be accessible. The
Regulations are detailed and deal with various aspects, such as noise,
light, electricity, installations, stairs, etc.

In addition to an overall assessment and continuous control of the work
environment that an employer is obliged to carry out under the
Regulations for Systematic Environment Work (AFS 2001:1), there are
also requirements for procedures for workplace adaptation and
rehabilitation (AFS 1994:1, Section 10).

See also Laws and Rules under Chapter 3.



4.3 Office equipment

In order for people with various disabilities to be able to use computers,
telephones and other office equipment, requirements are imposed on the
design of equipment and on the ability to connect or use various aids with
the equipment. For example, how faxes and copiers are positioned is also
important. The following requirements are formulated with this in mind.96
96
   Compare also the following guidelines: Canadian Guidelines, Accessible
Procurement Toolkit see http://www.starlingweb.com/apt/index.asp
Automatic Service Machines – in our way, Swedish Handicap Institute 1997, see
http://www.hi.se/Tillganglig/ServAuto/contents.shtm.
Gill, John, Information for Designers of Public Access Terminals, RNIB,
Great Britain and other documents by John Gill, see http://www.tiresias.org/sru.htm
Statskontorets upphandlingskrav angående datorer [Swedish Agency for Public
Management‟s procurement requirements regarding computers]

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 117
In order to produce equipment that can be used by everybody, extensive
and coordinated procurement is required, such as that conducted by the
Swedish Agency for Public Management. Even if the requirements do not
correspond with the requirements below in all respects, it is sufficient for
an individual authority in the normal case to make a call under a
framework contract.

However, further guidance is required when the authority needs to
procure equipment that the public should be able to use or when the
authority needs to improve its accessibility to be able to employ people
with disability.

To assist such procurement, the general requirements for office
equipment have been marked below with the letters (A), (B) or (C). There
is currently no item of equipment that satisfies all requirements.
However, each requirement is satisfied by some equipment.

An authority that intends to purchase equipment should ensure in the first
instance compliance with letter (A), thereafter (B) and lastly (C).
• (A) means a requirement that is important for many and which is
  currently satisfied by many computers and associated equipment
• (B) means a requirement that affects many groups of people with
  disability
• (C) means a requirement that is especially important for a particular
  group of people with disability

When an authority changes its office equipment or environment, it is
recommended that the following order of priority is applied.
• Make office equipment that may be used by external visitors or the
  public accessible.


Trace center‟s Guidelines for Transaction Machines
http://www.trace.wisc.edu/world/kiosks/itms/itmguide.htm
Section 508 http://www.section508.gov/ Section 508 standard
http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12
Australian Guidelines http://www.standards.com.au/catalogue/script/search.asp
Automatic Teller Machines – User Access. AS3769-1990
Irish National Disability Authority IT Accessibility Guidelines Version 1.1
http://accessit.nda.ie/technologyindex_3.html


                                           ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 118
• Improve general accessibility to other office equipment. The need for
  individual adaptation on appointing people with disability would
  thereby be reduced or eliminated.


4.3.1 General requirements for office equipment
The following general requirements apply to all office equipment,
provided it is possible to apply them. If there are special requirements,
they have higher priority than the general requirements.

• Comply with the applicable standards, existing or de facto, and to the
greatest extent possible, to ensure that it is possible for the equipment to
be used by as many as possible.97 (A)

It should be possible for people with disability to initiate both start and
restart.

• Ensure that a reboot can be initiated on the keyboard. (A)
• Design the cables and connections so that they can be identified visually
  and by touch or so that they only fit into the right connection. (B)

Buttons and other controls should be user-friendly.

Ensure that they can be used, at least in some way, 1) without the need
for fine motor skills or simultaneous use of several functions, 2) by
people with greatly reduced reach, as well as 3) by people with greatly
reduced muscle power, and similarly, 4) by people with limited or non-
existent vision.


Grip-friendliness
• Position buttons so that the risk of pressing several buttons at the same
  time is minimised by, for example, the buttons being spaced at least a
  half-button width apart. (A)
• Design controls so that they are easy to get hold of. (C)




97
   CEN/ISSS Workshop Design for All
http://www.cenorm.be/isss/Workshop/dfa/default.htm

                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 119
• Design feed units for, for example, diskettes or paper baskets, so that it
  is easy to get hold of what is being fed out. Minimise the user‟s need of
  fine motor skills. (C)

Single-handed control
• Design buttons and controls so that they can be regulated with one hand.
  This also applies, for example, to functions such as folding up the
  visual display terminal on a laptop computer. (A)
• Make all functions accessible with sequential button depressions.
  (Sequential button depression means that a command that otherwise
  requires two or more buttons to be held down simultaneously should
  function when the buttons are pressed down one after the other.) (C)

Proximity
• Position the buttons on the front of the unit (applies to stationary units)
  (A)
• Position controls as close to the user as possible. (C)

Strength required
• Ensure that buttons can be pressed down by people with weak muscles
  by the required force being between 0.3 and 0.6N. (C)
• Ensure that controls can be used with little force. For controls that
  require fine motor skills, the same applies as for buttons. If the controls
  do not require fine motor skills, it is sufficient if the required force does
  not exceed 2N. (A)

Tactile recognition
Tactile recognition means that the buttons and controls can be identified
by touch by, for example, the fingertips.
• Design the controls in accordance with the standards where possible,
  and in that regard take into account the following. (B)
• Minimise the number of controls. (B)
• Ensure that the button pressure provides a response both by touch and
  with sound, but ensure that the sound can be adjusted and turned off.
  (A)


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 120
• Keep the controls apart so that they cannot be confused. (B)
• Design buttons and controls so that they cannot be activated by mistake.
  This means, for instance, that it is possible to identify a button by touch
  without activating it. (B)
• Ensure that the surface of the controls does not include nickel, chrome
  or other allergenic material. (B)

Colour
• Ensure that the controls contrast (differ in tone) sufficiently against the
  background. Black against white is best. Do not use red with a green
  background or vice versa. Also avoid combinations of blue, green and
  violet. (B)
• Choose colours on controls and buttons so that they can be used by
  people who are sensitive to glare by, for example, the colours being
  matt and pale. (A)
• Separate the buttons so that the user does not need to be able to
  distinguish colours. (A)
• Select colours and surfaces on cases and controls that help to equalise
  the light intensity characteristics within the field of vision and also so
  that there are no reflections. (C)

Text
• Choose text or symbols on buttons that are at least 4 mm high, wherever
  possible. (C)
• Use a linear typeface, such as Arial and Tiresias, for text on buttons and
  controls. (A)
• Ensure that text on buttons and controls contrasts (differs in tone) well
  against the background. Black against white is best. Do not use red on a
  green background or vice versa. Also avoid combinations of blue, green
  and violet. (A)

Marking
• Mark and/or design the controls and connections so that they are simple
to identify visually and tactilely. Alternatively, marking can be arranged
beside the control/connection for optimum legibility. (B)


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 121
• Ensure that raised marking protrudes at least 0.1 mm above the
  surrounding surface and is at least 5 mm in some direction along the
  surface. (C)
• Ensure that the status of the controls can be read either visually or by
  touch, or visually with sound in those cases where the status of the
  controls is important for the function. (B)

Equipment should not have electronic or magnetic radiation fields that
cause disturbance to people using hearing aids with telespool.

• Use equipment that is shielded to reduce radiation. (C)

Support services should be designed to take into account the
communications needs of people with disability.
• Design personal service so that it can be provided independently of a
  person‟s possible disabilities such as impaired vision, impaired hearing
  or deafness. (A)
• Ensure that computer support can be used with software (for example,
  screen-reading programmes) that supports speech synthesis, Braille
  screens, pointing devices for tactile sensing, extra enlargement and
  voice control. (B)
• Design signals from the hardware, such as alarms, warnings, status
  lamps and fault reports, so that they can be seen and can be retrieved
  with sound. (B)


4.3.2 Computers
Computers generally
The user should be able to connect personal aids.
Examples of personal aids include Braille screens, enlarged keyboards
and keyboard substitutes.
• Ensure that standards, in existence or de facto, are complied with in
  respect of connections, other data transfer facilities and card
  connections.


Laptop computers

                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 122
Buttons and other controls should be user-friendly.
• Ensure that the visual display terminal can be folded up with one hand.
• Design the pointing device so that it can be operated by either the left or
  the right hand if a separate pointing device cannot be connected.
• Design the computer with an integrated wrist support.


4.3.3 Keyboards

It should be possible for keyboards to be used by people with reduced
functional capacity.
Choose a keyboard that is easy to use and that, as far as possible,
complies with established standards.98 The following requirements are
particularly important in this regard
• Ensure that groups of keys are spaced at least a half-key width apart to
  facilitate keyboard orientation
• Ensure that groups of keys are distinguishable by shades that do not
  require colour vision.
• Ensure that the depression time for activation of the keys is adjustable.
• If a membrane keyboard is used, ensure that it offers frames that can be
  felt and keys that are touch sensitive – tactile feedback response.

A membrane keyboard is a keyboard where the keys are located under the
membrane. There are different designs. The respective key can be
delineated by colour and a frame that can be felt and also provides a
sense of pressure.

• Ensure that the function for key repetition can be switched off.
• Ensure that the delay before a repetition can be performed can be
  adjusted to at least two seconds in the event that a function requires a
  button to be pressed down several times in a row.


4.3.4 Visual display terminals/displays

It should be possible for people with reduced functional capacity to use
visual display terminals/displays.
98
     Regarding standards for keyboards, see Keyboards under References.

                                           ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 123
• Offer a visual display terminal that can be turned in all directions for the
  best setting in relation to the user where this is appropriate.
• Ensure that the frame frequency is such or can be set so that the visual
  display terminal‟s/display‟s content does not flicker. Flickering is
  avoided by frequencies of less than 2 Hz or greater than 75 Hz99,
  preferably 85 Hz100.
• Make it possible to choose fonts and to enlarge the typeface.
• Use touch screens that can be used by people with impaired fine motor
  skills and by people with large fingers by the touch area being at least
  2.6 square centimetres.


4.3.5 Pointing devices

It should be possible for pointing devices to be used by people with reduced
functional capacity.

• Offer alternative ways of using pointing devices to select and input data
  on the visual display terminal such as via the keyboard or by voice
  control. (This is primarily a requirement relating to the software that is
  used.)
• Ensure that the delay before the repetition of a key depression can be
  performed can be adjusted to at least two seconds or that the same
  function can be performed without the need for repetition.



4.3.6 Printers, faxes and copiers

It should be possible for printers, scanners, faxes and copiers to be used by
people with reduced functional capacity.




99
  TCO -95
100
    TCO -99. See under
http://www.tco.se/frame.htm?&titel=Datorer%20och%20miljñ&meny=hemmeny&
page=datamil/datamil

                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 124
• Locate printers, scanners, faxes and copiers so that they are accessible
  for people using wheelchairs.

For dimension specifications, see Section 3.3.9 Manoeuvring devices.


4.3.7 Other equipment

This includes, for example, card readers, CD players, equipment for
identification and electronic signatures.

It should be possible for other equipment to be used by people with
reduced functional capacity.

• Locate the equipment so that it is accessible for people using
  wheelchairs.
• In the event that the equipment requires software, ensure that this
  satisfies software requirements.


4.3.8 Software

Software should be designed so that it can be used by people with reduced
functional capacity.

Ensure that software complies with the Swedish Work Environment
Authority‟s regulations101 by, for example, satisfying standards or
publicised recommendations regarding ergonomics, usability and
accessibility for people with disability.102 The following requirements are
particularly important
• Offer software that can be used with readily available software for
  screen reading, Braille screens, speech synthesis, enlargement programs
  and voice-control programs.
• Check that the program can present information in an order that also
  functions in parallel with speech synthesis, Braille screens and
  enlargement programs.

101
    See http://www.av.se/amnessidor/ergonomi/default.shtm regarding Swedish Work
Environment Authority‟s information.
102
    ISO TS 16071 (accessibility of application software).

                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 125
• Ensure that the program information is not only based on colour.
• Ensure that the program provides the user with an opportunity to choose
  the typeface.
• Ensure that the program provides the user with an opportunity to
  enlarge and reduce the typeface.
• Only use graphics in the form of images, symbols, icons and buttons
  with text descriptions that can be read by speech synthesis.
• Use icons, symbols and buttons with differing forms and colours for
  various functions.
• Ensure that the program offers the user an alternative way to select and
  input data on the visual display terminal. (Refer to pointing devices.)
• Ensure that the program for touch screens offers the user a touch area of
  at least 2.6 cm2. (This is particularly important for people with impaired
  fine motor skills and/or large fingers.)
• Ensure that messages and feedback responses can be seen and obtained
  by sound (not speech) that can be turned off. In particularly, sound
  should be used to draw the user‟s attention to a list-end, page-end and
  new data-entry field.


4.3.9 Intranet

See Section 2.4, Web and e-services.


4.3.10 Telephone apparatus

It should be possible for telephones to be used by as many as possible.

It should be possible for employees with disability to be able to
communicate on equal terms with others. Consequently, it is important to
consider the design of telephones so that they function with various aids.

In order for the authority‟s telephones to be able to be used by as many
employees as possible, certain requirements must be imposed. These
involve, for instance, the design and positioning of buttons so that people
with visual impairment can use them. It also involves ensuring that
telephones should be able to be used easily by those using a hearing aid.


                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 126
Telephones
• Comply as far as possible with the established standards for the
  recommended size, positioning, marking and design of the keypad
  pressure surface.103
• Ensure that the buttons are tactile with an auditory feedback response,
  namely, that the user can see, feel and hear when a button is activated.
• Ensure that the telephone is designed so that it is not easy to activate
  any of the buttons by mistake.
• Ensure that the telephone has a display that, for instance, can show the
  number keyed in.
• Ensure that the volume in the telephone handset and in the loudspeaker
  can be varied.104
• Ensure that the telephone has a hands-free function, namely, both a
  microphone and loudspeaker. This is particularly important for people
  with impaired mobility.
• Provide telephones that have an inductive coupling to a hearing aid.105
• Ensure, if possible, that there is an opportunity for direct conductive
  coupling.106 This means that it should be possible for a cable to be
  coupled between the telephone and the hearing aid.

The standards specify, for instance, electrical sizes.



Additional information
Size and positioning
Ensure if possible that the figure buttons‟ upper surface is 150 mm2, with
a minimum distance of 12 mm in each direction. Also ensure if possible
that the separation of the buttons is 19 + 1 mm. Separation means the
distance from one key centre-point to another. If possible, also ensure that

103
    Reference: ETSI ETR 345 and ITU E.138.
104
    Reference: ETS 300 488.
105
    Reference: ETS 300 679.
106
    Reference: ETS 300 679. The corresponding standards for hearing aids are
IEC 118-6.

                                            ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 127
the size of the keys is at least 7.5 mm with linear font – that is, without
serif.

Ensure that the key buttons are placed in accordance with the Telephony
Standard (1, 2, 3 above) and also that the 5-key has a raised marking so
that it can be easily felt and identified by, for instance, people who are
blind or seriously visually impaired.


Tactile identification
It is important that the telephone is designed so that the buttons can be
identified by touch without their being activated. People with seriously
impaired vision should, for example, be able to feel every button without
activating any. Consequently, smooth touch buttons, for example, are
unsuitable.


Sound level
It is particularly important for people with impaired hearing to be able to
regulate the sound level themselves.

According to the Standard I-ETS 300 677, the maximum amplification
should be 15dB + 5dB above the normal reception level.

This means that public telephones, for example, at entrances, in reception
areas, coffee rooms and dining rooms, should be furnished with a
function that automatically reverts to the preceding volume level after
every time they are used. Alternatively, an automatic reset should occur
after a set time.

This also means that telephones that are not for public use should be
supplied with a function whereby the volume is not automatically reset
following use. In both cases, it should be possible to read the volume
level in question both visually and by touch.

Telephone and hearing aid connection
Telephones that have an individual link to function in conjunction with
hearing aids while the received signals – the transferred sound – are
transferred by a magnetic field to a hearing aid telespool. Read also about
induction loops in Section 3.3.10, Fittings and equipment.


                                       ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 128
The magnetic field should have a force of -17 till -30dB re 1 A/m, with a
recommended value of -20 dB.



Headsets
A headset (combined earpiece and microphone that is worn on the head)
can facilitate work for employees with reduced motor skills.
• If a headset is used, ensure that there is a volume control
• Also ensure that it is easy to connect and disconnect the telephone and
  headset. In that case, the employee can move away from the telephone
  without having to take the headset off. Cordless headsets may be
  acceptable in some cases.

Text telephone

• Provide text telephones that have been designed according to the
International Standards of the Swedish Handicap Institute requirements
specification. A main requirement is, for example, that it should be
possible to combine a text telephone with a voice telephone so that one
can alternate speech and text when conversing.107
Text telephones that satisfy the requirements are available on the Swedish
Handicap Institute‟s list of „Good aids‟.

Videophone
• Ensure that equipment for videophones is designed in accordance with
the applicable standards and recommendations.108

Total Conversation
The Office of the Disability Ombudsman currently imposes no
requirements on authorities to introduce Total Conversation109 but, if the
107
    References: ITU-T V.18, ITU-T T.140. Electrical requirements for data transmission
between terminals for text telephony (data rates, coding protocol, etc.)
ETSI ETR 333. Requirements for user interface and the procedures for use of text
telephones.
108
    Reference: ITU-T H.320 for video telephone through ISDN and ITU-T H.323 or IETF
SIP for video telephone through ISDN or IP networks (networks with Internet protocol).
109
    The Swedish Agency for Public Management has referred to the concept of Total
Conversation in its framework procurements with the telecommunications sector. The kind
of requirement that can be imposed is determined by the particular procurement. The

                                           ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 129
authority uses Total Conversation, it is important to consider the
following:
• Ensure that equipment for Total Conversation functions on a network
  with Internet Protocol (IP net) and is formulated in accordance with the
  applicable standards and recommendations.110

The requirements cover a control protocol, coding protocol for
transmission between terminals for Total Conversation.
• Ensure that equipment for lip-reading and sign language satisfies the
  recommended quality levels.111
These impose requirements for the transfer system having sufficient
image quality for sign language and lip-reading.


4.3.11 User instructions

User instructions should be designed so that they can be used by people
with reduced functional capacity.
• Offer user instructions for computers, telephones and other office
  equipment in an alternative format on request and at no extra cost.

This means, for instance, that the documentation can be ordered in
Braille, recorded on tape, on CD Rom or diskette. See Section 2.3.3
Accessible format and versions.




concept of „Total conversation‟, which combines speech telephony, text telephony and
video telephony, has been developed through Swedish involvement in international
cooperation. By a decision of the ITU and IETF, the concept has been completely
standardised as regards fixed networks. Standardisation within mobile telephony has been
implemented for GSM and UMTS within 3GPP.
110
    Reference: ITU-T F.703, ITU-T H.323 Annex G, IETF SIP and RFC 2793.
111
      Reference: ITU-T H series Supplement 1.

                                                ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 130
Glossary and abbreviations
3GPP                 Third Generation Partnership Program; consortium
                     for mobile telecommunications networks.
AFS                  National Board of Occupational Safety and Health
                     (AFS) Code of Statutes
AMF                  The Work Environment Ordinance (1977:1166)
AML                  Work Environment Act (1977:1160)
Arrival point        Temporary stopping space for dropping off and
                     collection from transportation service vehicle, taxi
                     or private car.
Roman style          Typeface which has serifs/heels.
Aural                In an audible way.
BBR                  The National Board of Housing, Building and
                     Planning‟s Building Regulations, (1993:57 with
                     amendments up to and including 2002:19)
BVF                  Ordinance on Technical Requirements for
                     Construction works, etc. (1994:1215)
BVL                  Act on Technical Requirements for Construction
                     works, etc. (1994:847)
BÄR                  The National Board of Housing, Building and
                     Planning‟s Handbook on General Advice on
                     Alterations to Buildings. (1996:4 amended 1999:1)
Daisy                Digital Accessible Information SYstem
E-mail               Electronic mail, transmission of messages
                     addressed to specific addressees via the Internet.
ETSI                 European Telecommunications Standards Institute
Direct conductive    This means that the signals are transferred
coupling             electrically via a cord that is linked between a
                     telephone and a hearing aid.
GSM                  Global Mobile Telephone System
ICT                  Information and Communications Technology
Inductive coupling   This means here that the telephone shall function
                     together with the hearing aid by the signal received
                     (the transformed sound) being transmitted via a
                     magnetic field to the hearing aid‟s telespool (cf.
                     induction loop).
ISDN                 Integrated Switched Data Network
ISO                  International Standardisation Organisation

                                   ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 131
ITU               International Telecommunications Union
Linear typeface   Typeface without serifs/heels.
PBL               The Planning and Building Act (1987:10)
Pictogram         A system of graphic symbols drawn in white
                  against a black background.
SMS               Short Message Service
Tactile           In a way that is tangible, can be felt.
Induction loop    An induction loop sends out the microphone sound
                  as electromagnetic oscillations. These are caught
                  up by the hearing aid‟s telespool, which transforms
                  the oscillations into sound again. The advantage of
                  listening via a loop system is that no disruptive
                  sound is amplified in the hearing aid.
Alignment         The distance between the letters. Tracking and
                  kerning are two techniques that are used to get
                  words to form clear units and make reading easier.
WAI               Web Content Accessibility: a consortium that has
                  published, among other things, WAI Web Content
                  Accessibility Guidelines and WAI Authoring Tool
                  Accessibility Guidelines.
Visual            In a way that can be seen.
WWW               World Wide Web/Internet




                                ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 132
Index

A
Accessible language     31
Acoustics               56, 62, 63-66, 144
Action plan             9, 11, 13-14, 18-19, 31, 35
Address and contact
details                 26, 29
Air quality             55-56
Alignment               31, 32, 132
Allergies               56, 63, 67, 87, 89, 104, 110-111, 121, 141
Alternative entrances   49-50
Alternative formats     2, 30, 33-35, 38-39, 130
Analogue technology     37
Analysis                19-20
Arrival points          46-48, 51, 80, 88, 131
Assembly halls          61-64, 97
Assessments             11, 19-21, 49, 76, 117
Audience places         44, 61-63, 64
Audio cassettes         28, 33, 34
Audio description       37-39
Auditoriums             39, 61



B
Balconies               71-72
BÄR                     40, 131
BBR                     40-41, 45, 48, 51, 64, 70, 73, 85-86, 89, 91, 94-
                        95, 100, 103, 131
Boot scrapers           50, 85
Braille                 10, 28, 33, 34, 78, 122, 125, 130
Breadcrumb trail        37
Breaks                  38
Building legislation    40, 44, 52, 131-132
Buttons                 91, 92, 93-94, 101, 102, 107, 109, 112, 119-127,
                        128




                                         ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 133
C
Cafeterias             66
CD players             125
CDs                    10, 33, 34, 130
Classrooms             65
Cleaning               56, 104, 110-111
Cloakrooms             60, 75
Colostomy              70
Colours                32, 37, 60, 63, 75-76, 79, 81-83, 91, 121, 123,
                       126
Communications service 26-27
Computers              27, 33, 58, 103-104, 113, 117-120, 122-123, 130
Conferences            10, 16, 24, 38-39, 42, 141
Contact details        26, 28, 29
Continuous pressure    94, 103
switches
Contrast               30, 32, 44, 60, 67, 75-76, 77, 79, 81, 83-84, 103,
                       106, 107, 121
Controls               67, 94, 100, 103, 106, 119-122, 123
Copiers                58, 103, 117, 124-125
Correspondence on      29
matters
Corridors              52, 53-54, 81, 95, 97-99, 100



D
Daisy audiobooks          10, 33-34, 131
Daylight                  55, 74, 80-82
Dazzle/Glare              44, 60, 63, 80-81, 121
Development of skills     12, 22
Diet                      38, 39
Digital technology        37
Dining rooms              57, 62, 66, 128
Displays                  78, 105, 123-134, 127, 144
Distance interpretation   26
Doorbells                 49, 100,101
Door-entry code           49, 107
panels/keypads
Door-entry phones         49, 100, 106-107, 112
Door handles              96, 98, 99, 101, 112
Doormats                  50, 85

                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 134
Door openers               70, 93, 96-97, 98, 99-100, 112
Doors                      10, 13, 44, 48-54, 67, 69-72, 75, 78, 83, 85-86,
                           90-91, 92, 93, 95, 96-100, 106, 112
DVD                        34



E
Easy-to-read Swedish       10, 28, 30, 33, 34, 36, 103-104, 142
Electrical fields          57, 81, 108, 122
Electronic service         35
Electronic standard form   30
E-mail                     11, 29, 34, 131
E-mail address             28-29
Entrance doors             48-51, 95-97, 100
Entrances                  11, 41, 43, 45-51, 54, 58-61, 76, 80, 88, 91, 95-
                           97, 100, 110-112, 128
E-services                 30, 35-36, 126
Evacuation plans           72-73
Evacuation routes          72-73, 81, 112
Existing buildings         41-43, 47-50, 53-54, 57-58, 61-63, 69, 72, 73,
                           75-76, 79-80, 82, 84-85, 92-95, 97-99, 111


F
Faxes                      28-29, 58, 103, 117, 124-125
Fire                       67, 72-74, 101
Fire alarms                72, 101
Fittings                   58, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66-67, 71, 74-76, 81, 100,
                           102, 103-104, 108-109, 112, 116
Floor coverings            56, 67, 83
Floors                     52, 54, 56-57, 59, 61-62, 65, 67, 70, 71, 75, 77,
                           78, 83-85, 2, 93, 94, 99, 100, 101, 105, 108,
                           109, 110, 111
Font size                  31, 32
Formats                    10, 28, 30, 33-35, 38-39, 130, 131
Form design                31



G
Glare/Dazzle               44, 60, 63, 80-81, 121
Glass surfaces             81, 83, 85
Gradient                   41, 46, 47-48, 50, 67, 86, 87, 89, 90-91, 96, 98
Grip-friendly              85, 119-120

                                            ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 135
Ground surfacings      71, 77, 83, 85
Grouped seating        105, 111
Group rooms            44, 65, 97



H
Handrails              77, 84-86, 90-91
Headsets               129



I
Illumination           45, 55, 57, 60-61, 63, 76, 80-83, 87, 102, 116,
                       142
Impaired mobility      48, 49, 51-52, 54, 68-70, 89, 94, 95, 113, 117,
                       127
Impaired orientation   54, 55, 88, 91
capacity
Induction loops        10, 38, 57, 64, 65, 78, 107-108, 112, 115, 128,
                       131, 132, 144
In-house training      11, 113, 114, 115
Internet               11, 30, 35, 130, 131, 132, 146
Interpreter service    27
Intranet               35-36, 113, 126
Inventory              3, 11, 14, 19-20



K
Kerning                32, 131
Keyboards              119, 122, 123, 124, 144-145, 146



L
Language               25-28, 30-33, 34, 36, 37, 130, 147
Laptop computers       120, 122-123
Large print            28, 34
Laws                   14, 31, 40, 41, 44, 113, 115, 117, 132, 122, 125,
                       127
Layout                 68, 69, 74, 75-76, 80
Lecture halls          44, 61, 97
Level of light         87-88
Lifts                  41, 48, 52, 55, 62, 75, 80, 91-96, 97, 102, 103,
                       112
Light                  55-56, 57, 59-61, 63, 73-77, 79, 80-86, 87, 117,

                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 136
                         121, 142
Linear style             32, 121, 128, 132
Line length              32
Line spacing             31-32
Locks                    50, 51, 67, 70, 96, 99, 100, 101, 103, 112
Lunchrooms               57, 66, 116



M
Magnetic fields          57, 64, 81, 108, 122, 128-129, 131, 132
Maintenance              45, 56, 72, 110-111
Manoeuvring devices      44, 58, 69, 72, 93-94, 100-110, 112, 116, 125
Marking                  44, 67, 75, 76, 83-84, 85, 86, 91, 100, 101, 121-
                         122, 127, 128, 146
Meeting rooms            10, 44, 53, 65, 97
Method of assessment     21
Mixer taps               67, 71, 100, 102, 108
Multimedia               27, 37, 142, 146, 147



N
Nappy-changing benches   69
„Needs principle‟        43
Noise environment        56-57, 64, 74
Noise/Din                56, 117



O
Obstacles                9, 11, 12, 21, 82, 83, 85-86, 89, 100, 101, 113
Office equipment         9, 58, 60, 113, 114, 117-122, 130
Opacity                  32
Orientatability          55, 60, 61, 63, 74, 88
Orientation points       76



P
Paper quality            32-33
Parking                  41, 46-48, 51, 80, 88
Passages                 49, 52-53, 69, 86, 88, 95-98, 100, 112
Patios                   49, 71-72, 97, 110-111
PBL                      40, 44, 132
PDF files                2, 34

                                          ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 137
Personnel policy            9, 113, 114-116
Pictograms                  33, 132
Plain Swedish Group         31, 142
Plan for measures           11, 16, 19, 20-21, 22, 43
Plants                      87-89, 110, 111, 142
Platform lifts              91, 93, 94-95
Podiums                     44, 61-62, 63, 64, 95
Pointing devices            122, 123, 124, 126
Policy                      9, 13-14, 15, 18, 19, 113-114
Porches                     49, 50, 99
„Precautionary principle‟   57-58
Printers                    124-125
Prioritisation              20, 43-44
Procurement                 11, 15, 21-22, 27, 43, 79, 117, 118, 129, 143
Promotion                   11, 113-116
Publication tool            36



Q
Queuing systems             105-106



R
Ramps                       10, 41, 62, 72, 87, 89-91, 99
Reception                   26, 48, 51, 55, 59-60, 75-76, 82, 128
Recruitment                 11, 14, 113-115
Responding                  16, 22-23, 142
Roman style                 32, 131
Rotating doors              49, 112
Route indication markers    60, 76-77
Route indication systems    74, 76-77
Routines                    18, 29, 45, 56, 72, 110-112



S
Safety                      16, 20-21, 42, 44, 45, 47, 54, 58, 72-74, 76, 81,
                            85, 86, 88-89, 90, 95, 100, 103, 117, 131, 142,
                            144
Scanners                    124-125
Seats                       48, 58-60, 62-63, 71, 82, 105
Serif                       32, 79, 128, 131, 132
Sign language               27, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 63, 80, 130, 147

                                             ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 138
Sign language              10, 34, 36, 38, 39, 61, 63
interpretation
Signs/Signposting          46, 49, 51, 55, 67, 72, 76, 77-80, 82, 83, 85,
                           102, 107, 112
Simply rectified           40, 44, 141
impediments
Single-handed controls     120
Sisus                      16, 23, 142
Smoking                    56, 72, 110-111
SMS                        28-29, 132
Software                   122, 124-125
Sound signals              73, 76
Stages                     61
Stairlifts                 91, 93, 94-96
Stairs                     10, 44, 48, 52, 71, 72, 75, 80-86, 89, 91, 117
Strength                   102, 120
Structure                  30, 31, 35-37, 77, 113



T
Tables                     53, 66, 71, 105
Tactile recognition        120-121
Taltjänst (Speech service) 25-26
Telephone calls            24-28, 29
Telephones                 10-11, 14, 24-29, 49, 51, 58, 60, 94, 100, 103,
                           106-107, 112, 117, 126-130, 131
Telephone support          25
Text                       26-28, 31-32, 37, 77, 79, 102, 103, 106, 121,
                           126, 129, 142, 144, 147
Text layout                30, 31-33
Text telephone numbers 26, 28
Text telephones            10, 24-28, 113, 129, 147
Three-way calls            25
Thresholds                 13, 70, 72, 96, 98
Tint block                 32
Toilets                    20, 44, 62, 66-71, 75, 80, 97, 108-110, 111
Tone contrast              75-76, 79, 84, 103, 107
Total Conversation         27-28, 129-130, 142, 146, 147
Tracking                   32, 131
Training                   11, 12, 22-23, 73, 113-116
Typeface                   31, 32, 79, 121, 124, 126, 131, 132
Type size                  32
Typography                 30

                                            ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 139
U
Universities/Colleges     20, 41, 44, 69, 112, 141



V
Vegetation                89
Ventilation               41, 56, 67, 70, 111
Videophones/Video         26-27, 129
telephones
Videos                   24, 27, 34, 37-39, 51, 61, 107, 147
Video telephony service  26-27
Visits                   10, 14, 20, 22, 25, 40, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 55, 58-
                         60, 68, 103, 107, 111, 118
Visual display terminals 15, 27, 120, 123-126, 144
(VDTs)
Voice response system 24-25, 146
Voice telephones         27, 129



W
WAI‟s Guidelines          30, 35-36, 132, 143
Walkways                  46-49, 51, 71, 80, 86-91
Web                       35, 142, 143
Website                   3, 10, 13, 14, 24, 34, 35-37, 142-144
„While we‟re at it        15, 43
principle‟
Word file                 2, 34
Workbenches               105
Work Environment Act      14, 40, 113, 131
Work premises             40, 52, 71, 114, 116-117




                                            ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 140
Bibliography
Printed sources
The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (2001)
Delaktighet för alla, Regeringsuppdrag
M2000/2750/Hs om tillgänglighet i den publika miljön, insyn och
samråd och lokala åtgärdsprogram för tillgänglighet. [Participation for
all; Government assignment M2000/2750/Hs on accessibility in public
environment, insight and consultation and local measures programmes
for accessibility.]
The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, Förslag till
föreskrifter och allmänna råd om undanröjande
av enkelt avhjälpta hinder till premises dit allmänheten har
tillträde och på allmänna platser. [Proposal for regulations and general
advice on the elimination of simply rectified impediments at premises to
which the public has access and in public places.] Reference number
10812-3416/2001.
The Administrative Procedure Act (Fvl) (1986:223).
Office of the Disability Ombudsman (2003) En myndighet för alla [An
authority for all]. A series of brochures from the Office of the Disability
Ombudsman: Så gör vi [What we do], Information [Information], Lokaler
[Premises] and Personal [Staff].
HSO (2000) Tillgängliga konferenser och möten. En lathund från
Handikappförbundens samarbetsorgan. [Accessible conferences and
meetings. An easy guide from the Swedish Co-operative Body of
Organisations of Disabled People.]
Jansson, Eva and Sörensen Ann-Britt (1998) Grönare liv för
allergiker [A greener life for people with allergies], (Swedish Asthma
and Allergy Association).
Prohibition of Discrimination in Working Life of People with Disability
Act (1999:132).
Equal Treatment of Students at Universities Act (2001:1286).
Lamby, Jan (2001) Bra tillgänglighet – bättre kommunikation för



                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 141
Hörselskadade. [Good accessibility – better communication for people
with hearing impairment] (Swedish Association of Hard of Hearing
People).
Ljuskultur.(1990) Belysning inomhus. Riktlinjer och rekommendationer.
[Indoor illumination. Guidelines and recommendations.] (Ljuskultur).
Månsson, Karin (1999) Bygg för alla [Building for all], Svensk
Byggtjänst.

Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA) (2001) Utrymningssäkerhet
för rörelsehindrade [Evacuation safety for people with impaired
mobility], order number P21-388/01.
Sisus (2003) Responding to persons with disability –
A national programme to improve responsive competence.
SRF (1993) Många kan läsa mer – vägledning för bättre utformning
av tryckt text [Many can read more – guidelines for the improved design
of printed text], Swedish Association of the Visually Impaired (SRF).

Strandhede, Sven-Olof (1993) Vådliga och vänliga växter i vår närmiljö
[Dangerous and friendly plants in our immediate environment],
(Brevskolan).
Svensson, Elisabet (2001) Bygg ikapp Handikapp [Building in pace with
disability], (Svensk Byggtjänst) 3rd Edition.


Electronic sources

The Plain Swedish Group is at the Ministry of Justice. A link to the Plain
Swedish Group‟s website, can be found at
www.justitie.regeringen.se/klarsprak/index.htm
The Centre for Easy-to-Read is a foundation that, among other things,
translates texts into easy-to-read Swedish. Read more about easy-to-read
Swedish at www.lattlast.se
Total conversation is defined in F.703 Multimedia Conversational
Services at
http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.asp?type=items&lang
=e&parent=T-REC-F.703-200011-I.


                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 142
Gill, John, Information for Designers of Public Access Terminals, RNIB,
Great Britain and other documents by John Gill, see
http://www.tiresias.org/sru.htm
Irish Guidelines for ITcom, web, telephones, etc.
http://www.accessit.nda.ie/
Canadian Guidelines, Accessible Procurement Toolkit see
http://www.starlingweb.com/apt/index.asp
Automatic Service Machines – in our way, Swedish Handicap Institute
1997,
se http://www.hi.se/Tillganglig/ServAuto/contents.shtm. Section 508
http://www.section508.gov/ Section 508 standard
http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12
Australian Guidelines
http://www.standards.com.au/catalogue/script/search.asp
Standards Australia Automatic Teller Machines – User Access.
AS3769-1990 and
http://www.standards.com.au/catalogue/script/search.asp
Irish National Disability Authority IT Accessibility Guidelines
Version 1.1 http://accessit.nda.ie/technologyindex_3.html

Trace Center‟s Guidelines for Transaction Machines
http://www.trace.wisc.edu/world/kiosks/itms/itmguide.htm
Access Board http://www.trace.wisc.edu/world/kiosks/itms/usa
24/7 Agency‟s website Recommendations and advice
http://www.statskontoret.se/24/200213/index.html Chapter 14 concerning
Design for All http://www.statskontoret.se/24/200213/design-foralla.
html#webbplatsen-skall-folja-web-co .
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) http://www.w3.org/Consortium
leads an international cooperation between more than 500 member
organisations in the form of businesses, countries and researchers
throughout the world, aimed at promoting the development of the web.
WAI is a working group within W3C and is responsible for the web
being usable by people with disability. Regarding WAI‟s Guidelines,
WCAG 1.0, see http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/. A Swedish
translation can be found at
http://w3c.sics.se/resources/office/translations/wai-webcontent-
se.html. Also see http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG10/ och

                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 143
http://www.w3.org/WAI/eval/
CEN/ISSS Workshop Design for All
http://www.cenorm.be/isss/Workshop/dfa/default.htm
TCO-95 och TCO-99. See
http://www.tco.se/frame.htm?&titel=Datorer%20och%20mil
jñ&meny=hemmeny&page=datamil/datamil
Swedish Work Environment Authority‟s information, see
http://www.av.se/amnessidor/ergonomi/default.shtm.


Standards

To obtain the Standards, you can contact the Swedish Standards Institute
(SIS). Their telephone number is 08 - 555 520 00 [Int.: +46 8 - 555 520
00] and website www.sis.se

Premises
IEC publication 118-4 Magnetic field strength in autofrequency
induction loops for hearing aid purposes.

EN 81-70 Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts – Part
70: Particular applications for passenger and good passenger lifts
– Accessibility to lifts for persons including persons with disability.
SS 02 52 68 Byggnadsakustik – ljudklassning av utrymmen i
byggnader – Vårdlokaler, undervisningslokaler, dag- and fritidshem,
kontor and hotell [Acoustics – Measurement of Sound Insulation in
Buildings – Care premises, teaching premises, day nurseries and after-
school leisure homes, offices and hotels]


Keyboards
ISO/IEC 6937:1994 (E): Information technology – Coded graphic
character set for text communication – Latin alphabet
ISO 9241-4:1998 (E): Ergonomic requirements for office work with
visual display terminals (VDTs) – Part 4: Keyboard requirements
ISO/IEC 9995-1:1994 (E): Information technology – Keyboard
layouts for text and office systems – (Part 1: General principles

                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 144
governing keyboard layouts. Part 2: Alphanumeric section. Part 3:
Complementary layouts of the alphanumeric zone of the alphanumeric
section. Part 4: Numeric section. Part 5: Editing section.
Part 6: Function section. Part 7: Symbols used to represent functions)
ISO/IEC 9995-2:1994/Amd.1:1999 (E/F): Amendment 1
ISO/IEC 9995-3:1994/Amd.1:1998 (E/F): Amendment1
ISO/IEC 9995-7:1994/Amd.1:1996 (E/F): Amendment 1
ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000 (E): Information technology – Universal
Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) – Part 1: Architecture
and Basic Multilingual Plane.
SS 66 22 41, 2nd Edition, Informationsteknisk utrustning -
Alfanumeriska keyboards för svenskt bruk. [Information technology
equipment – Alphanumeric keyboard for Swedish use.]


Telecommunications
SS-EN ISO 9241-11 Ergonomical requirements for office work with
visual display terminal (VDTs) - Part II: Guidance on usability (ISO
9241-11:1998)

SS-EN ISO 13407 Human-centred design processes for interactive
systems (ISO 13407:1999)
ISO/TS 16071 Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Guidance on
accessibility for human-computer interfaces.
ETSI ETR 029 Access to telecommunications for people with
special needs: Recommendations for improving and adapting
telecommunication.
ETSI ETR 051 Usability checklist for telephones; Basic requirements,
describes aspects to take into account in connection with the design of
telephony terminals.
ITU-T E.138 Arrangement of digits, letters and symbols on telephones
and other devices that can be used for gaining access to a telephone
network.
ITU-T P.370 Coupling hearing aids to telephone handsets and ETSI
ETS 300 381 Telephony for hearing impaired people; Characteristics

                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 145
of telephone sets that provide additional receiving amplification for
the benefit of the hearing impaired, states requirements for the use of
voice telephony by people who are hearing impaired regarding
connection possibilities for inductive loop and direct conductive
coupling.
ETS 300 679: Telephony for the hearing impaired; Electrical coupling
of telephone sets to hearing aids, states requirements for the use of voice
telephony by people who are hearing impaired regarding connection
possibilities for inductive loop and direct conductive coupling.
ETS 300 488: Telephony for hearing impaired people; Characteristics
of telephone sets that provide additional receiving amplification for
the benefit of the hearing impaired, states requirements for volume
control on telephone apparatus.
ITU-E.161 and ETSI ETR 345 Characteristics of telephone keypads
and keyboards; Requirements of elderly and disabled people,
contains recommendations for the size, placement, marking of the
number buttons and design of the pressure surface in the keypad set on
telephone apparatus.
ETSI ETR 116 Human factors guidelines for ISDN Terminal equipment
design is a handbook for the ergonomic design of terminals for both voice
telephony and data communications.
ETSI ETR 334 The implications of human ageing for the design of
telephone terminals describes what changes in various functions may be
expected for older people and how these should be taken into account in
connection with the design of telephone apparatus.
ETSI ETR 329 Guidelines for procedures and announcements in
Stored Voice Services (SVS) and UPT, provides guidelines for the design
of a voice response system.


Total conversation and text telephony
The concept „Total Conversation‟ is completely standardised as regards
both fixed telephony, the Internet and mobile networks. The
standardisation primarily occurred in the Study Group ITU-T / SG16
„Multimedia Systems and Services‟. The concept is described in the
document ITU-T F.703. Multimedia conversational services.



                                     ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 146
ITU T.140 Protocol for multimedia application text conversation deals
with text coding and presentation.
ITU-T H.320 Narrow-band visual telephone systems and terminal
equipment deals with multimedia in ISDN networks with the text
transported in accordance with H.224.
ITU-T H.323 Framework and wire-protocol for multiplexed call
signalling transport deals with multimedia in IP networks with text
transported in accordance with H.323 Annex G. Multimedia in IP
networks in accordance with IETF SIP, with the text transported in
accordance with IETF RFC 2793. and multimedia in 3G mobile networks
in accordance with 3GPP TS 22.226 and 3GPP TS 26.235.
ITU-T V.18. Operational and interworking requirements for DCEs
operating in the text telephone mode, on text telephony.
ITU-T H.248 Annex F. Facsimile, text conversation and call
discrimination packages, about interconnection between total
conversation services in different networks.
ETSI ETR 333 Text Telephony; Basic user requirements and
recommendations. Contains description of needs and recommendations
for the design of terminals.
ITU-T H Series Supplement 1 Application profile – Sign language
and lip-reading real-time conversation using low bit-rate video
communication. Requirements for video communication for sign
language and lip-reading.

Expert groups
The Guidelines are based on established knowledge. Several experts have
contributed to the work. During 2002 the material was sent to
government authorities and organisations of people with disability for
views.

In connection with this, the reference group meeting was arranged, where
the material was presented and discussed. A reworked proposal was
submitted in November 2002.

The views that have been received from 75 consultative bodies have been
taken into account in the Guidelines now approved.


                                    ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 147
Workgroup from the Office of the Disability Ombudsman/
National Accessibility Centre
Hans von Axelson, Operations Manager (as of 1 January 2003)
Susanne Berg, Research Officer (until July 2002)
Eva Carlson Wåhlberg, Information Officer
Ken Gammelgård, Research Officer (as of October 2002)
Sören Hansson, Engineering Technology Officer
Anna-Klara Hedman, Information Officer (as of May 2003)
Anneli Joyce, Director of Communications and Information
Lars Lindberg, Manager (leave of absence as of 1 January 2003)
Birgitta Mekibes, Architect
Elisabet Svensson, Architect


Experts within ICT (Information and communications technology)
Norman Gleiss, Project Employee at the Office of the Disability
Ombudsman (until July 2002)
Gunnar Hellström, Omnitor AB
Stefan Johansson, Funka.nu AB
Jan-Ingvar Lindström, Project Employee at the Office of the Disability
Ombudsman (until July 2002)
Clas Thorén, Swedish Agency for Public Management

Experts within building environment
Maj Almén, Lernia Hadar AB
Eva Björklund, Bostadslaget AB
Ingrid Hernsell, The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Leif Jahlenius, Bostadsanpassningsenheten (Housing Adaptation Section)
in the Municipality of Stockholm
Maria Peterson, The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning




                                      ACCESSIBLE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 148

				
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