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					Continuous Forest Inventory
for the Northwest Region
Bureau of Indian Affairs
    Arnie Browning, Forester
    NWRO BIA Portland, OR.
         (503) 231-6205
BIA Northwest Region
BIA Northwest Region
   • 2,664,000 acres timberland mostly
     on Category 1 reservations (over
     1MMBF AAC, or 10,000 + acres)
   • 385 MMBF Annual Allowable Cut
   • All Cat 1 reservations have
     Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI)
     plots except Grand Ronde. Many
     have Stand Inventory also.
History of CFI

  • Late 1940s Calvin B. Stott, USFS
    introduced CFI to Lake States
  • The original purpose of the CFI was to
    collect stocking, growth, removal, and
    mortality information indispensable to
    the establishment of broad
    management policies on large forest
    areas. (Stott, 1960)
East-side CFI Statistics
            COMM.                                      NUM          NUMBER
RESERVATION FOREST 1985 2001                INVENTORY    OF          OF TREE
             ACRES AAC AAC                       DATE PLOTS         RECORDS

Coeur D'Alene    23,774     7     7            63,79,87,97    499      15,846
Colville        603,415   120    77   58,65,72,79,85,95,04   1110      28,752
Flathead        296,425    56    38         65,72,80,89,99    755      31,231
Nez Perce        25,226     8     5            75,85,94,03    395      10,459
Spokane          93,554    12    14      57,63,69,75,85,98   1200      20,595
Umatilla         16,886     4     3                 90, 04    306       7,036
Warm Springs    285,529   102    40      58,65,72,79,88,97   1533      74,289
Yakama          446,075   186   143      58,64,70,76,87,95   1286      52,490
Steps in the CFI Process
   • Pre-Inventory
       – Review previous CFI Field Manual
       – Revise Manual for the re-measurement
       – Write data entry and edit program
   •   Data collection and error checking
   •   Regression analysis, more data cleaning
   •   Write CFI program (VB 6 and Fortran 90)
   •   Write User Manual and assist with program
       installation and operation
   •   Assist with inventory analysis, growth and
       yield modeling, harvest scheduling, AAC.
PRE-
INVENTORY
Each re-
measurement
starts by
preparing a Field
Handbook
describing what
data will be
taken
Nez Perce CFI Plot Design
Changes in Sample Design
      • 1950 -1980
         – Cluster of 2 or 3 one-fifth or one-quarter acre subplots,
           usually on one-mile grid
         – 1/20th acre minor plot for height and form class
         – 1/100th acre minor plot for seedlings/saplings
         – Plot data: timber type, habitat type, slope, aspect, etc
         – Tree data: spc, dbh, crown ratio, height, tree history,
           problem/severity, age or age class, etc
         – Re-measure every 10 years

      • 1980 – present
         – re-measure only one plot per cluster (each subplot was
           always treated as an independent sample point)
         – Double the grid, usually ½ mile grid (more even-aged
           treatments, more stratification of the data)
         – Add snag data, fuel transect data, 3 tree problem/severity
           codes per tree (usually FVS codes), new height sample
Changes in Height Sample
   • Before 1990
     – Measure total height on all trees 5
       inches dbh and larger on 1/20th or
       1/16th acre minor plot
   • After 1990
     – On 1/5 acre plot, measure total height
       on the first tree of each species in each
       5 inch dbh class, and all trees 20 in. dbh
       and larger.
CFI Data Entry and Edit (CFIDEER)

• An ACCESS database is prepared with
 tables of Plot Records, Tree Records,
 Regen Records, sometimes Fuels Records
  – Separate tables for each measurement
• A version of CFIDEER is made
  – makes files to load into Allegro Field Data
   Recorders.
  – thorough error checking routines
DATA COLLECTION AND ERROR
CHECKING
• Field crews are trained then begin re-
  measuring CFI plots
• Plot Location Cards, aerial photos are
  updated as needed
• Plot centers are recorded with GPS units
• Quality control on at least 10 % of plots
• Download handhelds each day
Regression Analysis

• After data is cleaned, NWRO develops
  height models by species.
• Sometimes diameter growth and form
  class data are also regressed
• Analysis is done with SigmaStat and Sigma
  Plot software
Changes in Height Model
    • 1950 – 1987
      – Ht = b0 + b1 DBH + b2 (DBH)2
      –   (2nd or 3rd degree polynomial)
      – poor fit outside range of data, must “cap”
    • 1988 – 2002
      – Ht = 4.5 + exp (b0 + b1 / (DBH+1))
      – Wycoff et.al,1982
      – Usually stratify height sample by productivity
        class
    • 2002 – present
      – Ht = 4.5 + b0 (exp (-b1 (DBH)b2 ))
      – Arney, 1985
Comparison of Ht Models – FVS
                                                             DOUGLAS-FIR (202) - HABITAT TYPE GROUP C
                                                                       FLATHEAD 1999 CFI

                                                   150




• Slightly over estimates
                                                   140

                                                   130



    at 5 – 10 inches dbh                           120

                                                   110



•   Slight under estimates                         100




                             TOTAL HEIGHT (feet)
    at large diameters
                                                    90

                                                    80




•   Almost always a
                                                    70

                                                    60


    reasonable model                                50

                                                    40

                                                    30

                                                    20

                                                    10

                                                     0
                                                         0     5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   45   50

                                                                             DBH (inches)
FPS Height Model
                                                     Western Hemlock Height To Diameter - Quinault 2002 CFI

  • Usually slightly                               240




      improved fit through
                                                   230

                                                   220

                                                   210



      the entire range of                          200

                                                   190



      DBH (when                                    180

                                                   170




      compared with FVS
                                                   160

                                                   150




                             TOTAL HEIGHT (feet)
      height model)
                                                   140

                                                   130

                                                   120




  •   Still getting
                                                   110

                                                   100




      experience with this
                                                   90

                                                   80




      model (only Warm
                                                   70

                                                   60

                                                   50



      Springs and                                  40

                                                   30




      Quinault)
                                                   20

                                                   10

                                                    0
                                                         0   10     20     30      40     50     60      70

                                                                          DBH (inches)
Plot the data and the model
   • Our experience                              240
                                                       White Pine Height To Diameter, FPS - Quinault 2002 CFI




       with FPS height                           230

                                                 220




       model is limited;
                                                 210

                                                 200

                                                 190




       one unreasonable                          180

                                                 170




       model so far.
                                                 160

                                                 150




                           TOTAL HEIGHT (feet)
                                                 140




   •   Thanks to error-
                                                 130

                                                 120

                                                 110




       trapping in                               100

                                                 90




       Flewelling taper
                                                 80

                                                 70

                                                 60




       code, we                                  50

                                                 40




       discovered this
                                                 30

                                                 20

                                                 10




       problem                                    0
                                                       0      10     20      30      40

                                                                            DBH (inches)
                                                                                            50      60      70
Write CFI Program

• A Windows Program is written by NWRO
  – Uses Visual Basic 6 for the User Interface
  – “Number crunching” done by a FORTRAN 90
    dynamic link library (dll)
  – CFI.EXE contains many user options to sort
    the data, selects a variety of output tables,
    select merchantability standards, etc.
Alternatives for Volume and Taper

   • Behre’s Hyperbola – Explained in 1983
     Forest Mgt Inven. Handbook, App 1D
   • Form Class = DIB17/DBH
   • Used in CFIs from 1950s to present
   • Most DIB at 17 feet measured in
     1970s to 1980s on CFI minor plots
Form Class
   • “The theory of form class volume
     tables is that for a given height, trees
     vary in taper in the first log, but
     above the first log, taper is quite
     similar for trees of the same size and
     merchantable height, regardless of
     species.” John Bell, 1988.

   • Most of the taper is in the first log.
Behre’s Hyperbola

              • BHT = THT - 17.3
              • RHT = THT - upper stem
                  ht
              •   L = RHT / BHT
              •   D = L / (0.49 * L + 0.51)
              •   DIB = DIB17 * D
   BIA Board Foot Volume
• Regression formulas were developed by
 regressing the Factors published on page 38
 of the Official Rules for the Log Scaling and
 Grading Bureaus, January 1, 1982

BDFT /Log = (a + b(DIB) + c(DIB)2) x Length
Johnson’s Cubic Foot Volume

• Until 1995 only Johnson’s Cubic Foot
 formula was used to calculate volumes

• CUFT calculated for a “Butt” and “Upper”
 segments of a tree with formulas using
 Form Class, DBH, and DIB.
West-side Taper Coop

  • Completed May 2, 1994
  • For Douglas-Fir, Western Hemlock,
    and Western Redcedar
  • Quinault Tribe, Washington DNR,
    Industrial Forest Owners, contributed
    felled tree data
  • Data modeled by James Flewelling,
    PhD copywrited.
INGY Taper Coop
 • Distributed to INGY Members Sep. 1996
 • Sectioned tree data collected for
   AF,DF,ES,GF,LP,MH,PP,RC,SF,WF,WH,
   WL,WP
 • INGY participants included Flathead,
   NezPerce, Spokane, and WS Tribes,
   Boise Cascade, Champion, Potlatch,
   DNR, USFS, BC Min of Forests
 • Modeled, copywrited by James
   Flewelling
                   Ponderosa Pine fc 77 - 20, 30, 40 in dbh

            4500
            4000
            3500
            3000
boardfeet




            2500
            2000
            1500
            1000
             500
               0
                    2 point   3 point   bia table   bia regr
                   Douglas-fir fc 77 - 20, 30, 40 in dbh

            3500
            3000
            2500
boardfeet




            2000
            1500
            1000
            500
              0
                   2 point   3 point   bia table   bia regr
After
processing
each re-
measurement
a User Guide
is made for
each CFI
Program
Uses of CFI data and programs
• Quantify changes and trends in the forest;
  stocking, growth, harvest, mortality
• Data used to calibrate growth and yield
  models (both FVS and FPS have used CFI
  data from reservation forests)
• Harvest Scheduling, Annual Allowable Cut
• Assess Forest Management Plans
  achievement of goals
• Strategic Forest and Fire Management
  Planning
Boardfoot Stocking Trends
             Colville, Spokane, Warm Springs, and Yakama

                    BOARDFOOT STOCKING TRENDS

            25000

            20000
  BF/Acre




            15000

            10000

             5000

               0




                                                      A 75

                                                            95
                                    W 79

                                          97
              L. 2
                   85




                        SP 974


                               8
            CO 97




                             99




                                                          19

                                                          19
                                        19

                                        19
                 19
                 1




                           .1

                           .1




                                                       K.

                                                       K.
                                     S.

                                     S.
              L.




                          O

                          O
            CO




                                    W
                        SP




                                                A
                                                Y

                                                    Y
                        RESERVATION AND MEASUREMENT YEAR
Boardfoot Stocking Trends
             Flathead and Nez Perce


                        BOARDFOOT STOCKING TRENDS

             12000

             10000

              8000
   BF/Acre




              6000

              4000

              2000

                    0
                                EZ 8 5

                                       3
                FL 971

                       89




                                    00
                                   19
                     19




                                  .2
                     1




                               .
               T.

                  T.



                            EZ
             FL




                            N

                                   N
Harvest vs. Net Growth
                     Colville, Warm Springs, Yakama

               HARVEST VS. NET GROWTH - FROM CFI DATA

               400
               350
  BF/AC/YEAR




               300
               250                                    Harvest
               200
               150                                    Net Grow th
               100
                50
                 0
                   L. -78
                   L. -85

                            4




                   K. -75
                   K. -86

                           5
                   S. 79
                   S. 88

                           7
                         -9




                         -9
                        -9
                W 72-
                W 80-
               CO 72
               CO 79
                      86




               Y 70
               Y 76
                      87
                      89
                   L.




                   K.
                   S.
               CO




                W




                 A
                 A
                 A
               Y
Harvest vs. Net Growth
                         Flathead and Nez Perce

                       HARVEST VS. NET GROWTH - FROM CFI DATA

                 300
  BF/AC/YEAR




                 250
                 200
                                                                Harvest
                 150
                 100                                            Net Grow th
                  50
                   0
                                      5


                                              3
                     9


                              9

                                    -8


                                            -0
                   -7


                            -9

                                  75


                                          93
                 71


                          89

                                Z.


                                        Z.
                 T.


                         T.

                              NE


                                      NE
               FL


                       FL
                BF/AC/YEAR
CD
   A.




                  0
                 20
                 40
                 60
                 80
                100
                120
                140
                160
                180
CD 64
   A. - 78
CD 79
   A. - 87
      88
                                                                                                     Mortality


         -9
            7
CO
   L.
CO 72
   L. -78
CO 79
   L. -85
      86
         -9
            4
W
  S.
W 72 -
  S. 79
W 80 -
  S. 88
      89
         -9
           7
                             MORTALITY - FROM CFI DATA




YA
  K.
YA 7 0
  K. -75
YA 7 6
  K. -86
      87
         -9
            5
                                                         Coeur d’Alene, Colville, Warm Springs, Yakama
               BF/AC/YEAR




                 0
                10
                20
                30
                40
                50
                60
                70
                80
                90
               100
FL
  T.
     7
FL 1-7
  T.     9
     79
                                                                                   Mortality


FL     -
  T. 89
     89
       -9
         9
N
    EZ
       .
      75
N
  EZ -85
    .8
N      5
  EZ -93
    .9
       3-
          03
SP
   O
                                                        Flathead, Nez Perce, Spokane




    .
SP 69 -
   O 74
    .7
SP 4 -
   O 85
    .8
       5-
         98
                            MORTALITY - FROM CFI DATA
             Warm Springs Ponderosa Pine
             Stocking Trend 1972-1997
                           Ponderosa Pine Stocking by Size Class


           4500


           4000


           3500


           3000


           2500                                                            1972
Bd Ft/AC




                                                                           1979
                                                                           1988
           2000
                                                                           1997


           1500


           1000


            500


              0
                  10-20"                     22"+                  TOTAL
                                       DBH class (inches)
             Warm Springs stocking trend, all
             species combined, 1972 – 1997
                                   Stocking
                            All Species Combined


           18000


           16000


           14000


           12000


                                                             1972
           10000
Bd Ft/Ac




                                                             1979
                                                             1988
            8000
                                                             1997


            6000


            4000


            2000


               0
                   10-20"              22"+          TOTAL
                                DBH class (inches)
               Warm Springs Harvest and Net
               Growth Trends 1972 - 1997
                                 Comparison of Growth VS Harvest


             400



             350



             300



             250
BDFT/AC/YR




                                                                                 BDFT Harvest
             200
                                                                                 BDFT Growth


             150



             100



              50



               0
                   1972 - 1978           1979 - 1987               1987 - 1997
  Changes in Annual Allowable Cut

                   ANNUAL ALLOWABLE HARVEST LEVEL
                        EAST SIDE RESERVATIONS


             200
MMBF/Year




             150
                                                    1985 AAC
             100
                                                    2001 AAC
             50
              0
                             e
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                       lv i




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                     th




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                   Co
                    'A




                  Sp

                  Ya
                 Fla




                 Sp
                 rD




                  z
               Ne




                m
              eu




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            Co




            W
Nez Perce 2003
CFI

Tree locations were
Taken by measuring
Azimuth and distance
to each tree

Used laser range
Finder and electronic
Compass

Added 45 minutes to
Each plot
Nez Perce Plot 602 in 2003
Plt 602 SVS and ArcGIS comparison
WS – P. Pine, bitterbrush, fescue
• Middle Creek
    Logging Unit
    (before harvest)
•   March 1979
Warm Springs, Tenino HFR Project
Warm Springs, Tenino HFR Project
WS Cache Creek Rehab, 1981
WS Snowbrush Rehab 9, 2005
Planted 1986
WS Camas Prairie Blowdown 1978
  WS Camas Prairie blocks 4 - 8
1978 Blowdown, looking west, N. Pinhead Butte
      Yakama Weaver Photos
Pine Butterfly (1920) area   Upper Satus Canyon
       Yakama Weaver Photo
Ponderosa Pine 84.5” DBH Douglas-fir 98” DBH
Yakama Pine type to Fir type
       YAKAMA FOREST
     PINE VS. FIR ACRES

 350,000
 300,000
 250,000
 200,000                        PP
 150,000                        PF,DF,MC

 100,000
  50,000
      0
           1930   1978   1997
Yakama Spruce Budworm 1996-2000
Umatilla Mt Pine Beetle & Spruce Budworm
Flathead Unevenaged Stocking Plots
FLT Wilcox Plots 2500bf (25 sq.ft/ac.)
FLT Wilcox Plots 3500 bf (35 sq.ft./ac.)
Makah Started Second Growth
Harvest 1980 WH, WRC, S. Spruce
Site quality changes with position
on the slope (near Makah)
Coeur d’Alene, CFI Plot 39
CFI Plot 39, Plot Center Stake
CFI Plot
510,
Kurt
Mettler
inspects
tree tag

				
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