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					Chapter 8 – Ionic Compounds
          Ionic Compounds

Chemical Bond –

Results from:
- Attraction between (+) and (-) ions

                    OR
- Attraction between (+) nucleus of one
  atom and (-) electrons on another atom
      Ionic Compounds

KEY:
valence e- are involved in
 formation of chemical
 bonds
              Ionic Compounds
                Ion Formation
Lewis Dot Structure for atoms:
 Li    Be B         C     N      O   F   Ne

Lewis Dot Structure for ions:
Li     Be B         C     N      O   F   Ne
           Ionic Compounds
             Ion Formation
Predict the most stable ion formed for each
  of the following:

 K             S         Ca        Br

 Al            N         Ar        O
           Ionic Compounds
             Ion Formation
Some Metals always form the same ion:




All nonmetals always form the same ion:
          Ionic Compounds
            Ion Formation
Some Metals can form multiple charges:

Ex. Ga - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1

    Cu - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d8

    Fe - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6
              Ionic Compounds
                Ion Formation
Some transition metals only have one charge:
 Zn       1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10
  Ion formed?

   Ag       [Ar]4s23d9
    Ion formed?

   Cd       1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10
    Ion formed?
          Ionic Compounds
            Ion Formation
Aluminum can only have one charge:
 Al      1s22s22p63s23p1
  Ion formed?
              Ionic Compounds
                Ion Formation
   Some Metals always form the same ion:
    Group 1 = +1
    Group 2 = +2


   All nonmetals always form the same ion:
    Group 7 = -1
    Group 6 = -2
    Group 5 = -3
          Ionic Compounds
           Bond Formation
Lewis dot diagram:



Bohr Diagram:
Ionic Compounds
 Bond Formation




         Video Clip
   Ionic/Covalent Bonding
               Ionic Compounds
                Bond Formation
Q - Is the reaction of
  sodium and
  chlorine a
  chemical or
  physical change?
  Chemical Change
 The product has new
 properties. Elements
 do NOT retain their
 properties in a chemical
 change.
Ionic Compounds
 Bond Formation




         Video Clip
  Ionic Compound Formation
  (and Molecular Compound)
           Ionic Compounds
            Bond Formation
Ionic Bond – the electrostatic force that
  holds oppositely charges particles together
  in an ionic compound
In general,
              +            binary ionic
                                compound
            Ionic Compounds
             Bond Formation




Polyatomic ion –
a group of atoms that act as an individual ion
              Ionic Compounds
               Formula Writing
Predict the formula for
    the compound
    formed between:
a. K and O                d. Ca and CO32-


b. Al and N               e. Ca and NO3-


c. Al and S               f. NH4+ and S
          Ionic Compounds
           Formula Writing
RULE SUMMARY:
 1) Write ________ ion first
 2) Sum of charges must equal ______.
 3) Always express formula as
    the _____________ ratio of ions.
 4) Use parentheses when more than one
    polyatomic ion is needed.
Ionic Compounds
     Naming
            Ionic Compounds
                 Naming
RULES
1) Name the cation first.
    If the element has more than one charge, use
    roman numerals.
only 1 Charge          > 1 charge possible




2) Name the anion
   - Use stem of element name and add “-ide”, -
                      OR
   - simply cite the name of the polyatomic ion
              Ionic Compounds
                   Naming
 PRACTICE: Name each of the following.

1) K2O              5) Cu2O

2) MgS              6) Li2S

3) Ca(NO3)3         7) MnCl2

4) FeO              8) AlPO4
        Ionic Compounds
             Naming
NAMING POLYATOMIC IONS


NO3-       SO42-         PO43-

NO2-       SO32-         PO33-
           Ionic Compounds
                Naming
Another Example

                  ClO4-
                  ClO3-
                  ClO2-
                  ClO1-
              Ionic Compounds
             Structure/Properties
Properties of compounds are
  determined by chemical bonds
In ionic
compounds,
(+)/(-) ions pack
into a regular
pattern that
balances
attractive/
repulsive forces.
 Ionic Compounds
Structure/Properties
                              PROPERTIES
          1.       high m.p./b.p.
          2.       hard, rigid, brittle
                   solids
          3.       non-conductors as
                   solids
          4.       conductors as liquids
                   and when dissolved
                   in water
          http://phet.colorado.edu/web-pages/simulations-base.html
 Ionic Compounds
Structure/Properties
          Lattice Energy –
          the energy required to
             separate ions in a
             crystal lattice

          Depends on
          1. size of ions

          2. charge of ions
          Ionic Compounds
         Structure/Properties
Predict which compound in each pair has a
   larger lattice energy.
a. KI or KBr

b. NaCl or KCl

c. Na2O or NaF
d. BeO or MgS
               Ionic Compounds
                    Naming
REVIEW OF TERMS:
  formula unit –
      simplest ratio of ions in an ionic cpd
  oxidation # -
      charge of ion
  monatomic ion –
      atom with a (+)/(-) charge
  polyatomic ion –
      group of atoms with a charge
  oxyanion –
      a polyatomic ion w/oxygen
                             Metals
                            Bonding
   Metals form lattices in
    the solid state
   All metal atoms in
    lattice share valence
    electrons
    (this leaves metal cations
    throughout structure)

Metallic bond
Attraction of a metal
  cation to delocalized e-
                   Metals
                 Properties

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling points
                   Metals
                 Properties

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling pt.
   Malleable




                           Aluminum Metal
                   Metals
                 Properties

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling pt.
   Malleable
   Ductile




                           Copper Metal
                   Metals
                 Properties

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling pt.
   Malleable
   Ductile
   Durable


                              Nail
                   Metals
                 Properties

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling pt.
   Malleable
   Ductile
   Durable
   Good conductors           Silver
                   Metals
                 Properties

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling pt.
   Malleable
   Ductile
   Durable
   Good conductors
   Lustrous
                              Aluminum
                  Metals
            Properties – Why…

   Wide variety of m.p. KEY:
   High boiling pt.       Properties are
   Malleable            based on Bonding
   Ductile                      i.e.
                          the fact that the
   Durable
                            electrons are
   Good conductors         delocalized in
   Lustrous                   metals
                  Metals
            Properties – Why…

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling pt.
   Malleable
   Ductile
   Durable
   Good conductors
   Lustrous
                  Metals
            Properties – Why…

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling pt.
   Malleable
   Ductile
   Durable
   Good conductors
   Lustrous
                  Metals
            Properties – Why…

   Wide variety of m.p.
   High boiling pt.
   Malleable
   Ductile
   Durable
   Good conductors
   Lustrous
            Metals
            Alloys

Alloy –
Mixture of elements that has
 metallic properties
                    Metals
                    Alloys
Common Name                 Composition
Brass             Copper and Zinc
Bronze            Copper, Zinc, and Tin
Pewter            Tin, Antimony, Lead
Gold, 10 carat    Gold (42%), Silver (10-20%);
                  Copper (38-46%)
Stainless Steel   Iron, Chromium, Nickel
Sterling Silver   Silver and Copper
Carbon Steel      Iron and Carbon
Interstitial                           Metals
Alloys -
                                       Alloys
 Common Name                 Composition
 Brass             Copper and Zinc
 Bronze            Copper, Zinc, and Tin
 Pewter            Tin, Antimony, Lead
 Gold, 10 carat    Gold (42%), Silver (10-20%);
                   Copper (38-46%)
 Stainless Steel   Iron, Chromium, Nickel
 Sterling Silver   Silver and Copper
 Carbon Steel      Iron and Carbon
Substitutional                            Metals
Alloys -
                                          Alloys
Common Name                 Composition
Brass             Copper and Zinc
Bronze            Copper, Zinc, and Tin
Pewter            Tin, Antimony, Lead
Gold, 10 carat    Gold (42%), Silver (10-20%);
                  Copper (38-46%)
Stainless Steel   Iron, Chromium, Nickel
Sterling Silver   Silver and Copper
Carbon Steel      Iron and Carbon

				
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