Relationships-Similarity by zhangyun

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									                  Beauty As A Social Problem


                            Perception of
View Attractive
                            attractiveness
   Female(s)
                               level of
                          subsequent images
                              of females


             Down                                   Up

  • Contrast Effect                  • Outside relevant universe

  • Adaptation Level (Helson)        • Association of average female
  Frame of reference is              with attractive image
  affected by our past               (reinforcing effect)
  experience
                    Media Impact

What images are most common on prime-time TV?


          Young, attractive, wealthy
Study 1: Procedure and Results?


   Charlie’s Angels Viewers
          Mean = 3.4


        Control Groups
         Mean = 4.0
Study 2: Procedure and Results?


Experimental Group
(viewed picture of         Mean = 4.4
attractive female)                      Higher scores
                                        indicates less
Control Group (no                       attractiveness
                           Mean = 3.5
picture viewed)
   Study 3: Procedure and Results?

   Role of Informational Social Influence (confederate comments)




  Comments were
   negative for the
  highly attractive
 photos and positive
for the less attractive
          ones
Overall Implications?
          Consequences of Being Physically Attractive

                    What is Beautiful is Good


Procedure and Results?
                    Physical Attractiveness
Advantages:
• Greater overall liking (best predictor of desire to date)
• More desirable character traits (e.g., sensitive, warm, intelligent)
• Higher income
• Higher evaluation of work performance
• More lenient treatment in the legal system               Often different in
                                                               physical
• Better mental health
                                                              attraction
• Matching         Length of            Short
                  relationship                                  Couple is
                                        Long                     equal in
                                                                 physical
                                                                attraction
               Attractiveness as a Business

• In 2002, 6.9 million spent on cosmetic surgical and non-surgical
procedures in the U.S. --- a 22% increase from 1997 (American Society for
Plastic Surgery, 2003)


• Most common procedure (Botox injections) was performed 1.6 million
times in 2002


• Across the world, the cosmetic industry makes 20 billion/year


• Nearly 1 million adults wear braces (mostly to improves smiles)


• 35 billion is spent on weight loss programs, diet foods, and health club
membership per year in the U.S.
     Schemas and Behavior
                                                          Phone conversation
                                                             with males
                                   Low

  Physical attractiveness
  of female described to
          males

                                      High                        Males gave positive
                                                                       impressions
                                                                    personality, were
  Females did not know how                                           warmer, more
 they were described to males                                      friendly, and used
                                                                  more humor when
                                                                      talking to the
                                                                  “attractive” female

 Females behavior, rated by listeners, was judged to be
warmer, friendlier, and possess greater confidence when       Snyder et al. (1977)
    they were described to the male as “attractive”
                                    Attractive photo
 Positive
                                     Average photo
  Mood

      High




        Low

                         Same-Sex   Opposite-Sex
                          Photos      Photos
(Kenrick et al., 1993)
Impression                   Romantically linked
  of man
                             Strangers


       7.5

                                                   7.1
       7.0


       6.5

                   6.1                                    5.9
       6.0


             5.5
       5.5


       5.0


                   Low                             High
                         Female’s attractiveness
                   Eating Lightly and Self-Presentation

Basic Premise: People are motivated to behave in ways to enhance their image

• Females have greater number of eating disorders and dieting than males
(emphasis on thin as attractive)

     “Undesirable”
        Male


Equal intake of candy by
  males and females

      “Desirable”
        Male


  • Females ate significantly less food when interacting with a
  desirable male (Mori, et al., 1987)
          Gender and the Personal Columns



           Males                      Females


  Offer          Seek         Offer                   Seek


Money           Young         Physical               Money
                           attractiveness       Job information
 Status       Physically
              attractive                        Personality traits
Career
                                                 (e.g., sincerity)

(Deaux & Hanna, 1984)
  Gender Differences in Mate Preferences
                                                                               Men
% Money                                      % Monet                           Women
 spent                                        spent

   40                                           40
                High Budget                                 Low Budget


   30                                           30


   20                                           20


    10                                           10


     0                                            0
               Physical      Social status                Physical      Social status
            attractiveness                             attractiveness

    (Li et al., 2002)
           Gender Differences in
% “yes”                                       Females
             Sexual Behavior
   100                                        Males
   90
   80
   70
   60
   50
   40
   30
   20
   10
   0                                   0

          Go on a date     Go to       Sexual
                         apartment   invitation
                    Thought Frequency As Pie Charts
                                                                           The
    The          Women                                   Men           relationship
relationship
                                       Sports                                Sex




                                     Sex
   Men                            Pets
                                                                            Going
thrashing                       Food                                        bald
  Aging               Things we                 Career
               Having shouldn’t                          Strange ear     Aging
               to pee have eaten                         & nose hair
                                                            growth
                                                          Attitude similarity and attraction
Attraction toward other person (range = 2-14)




                                                                                            Byrne and Nelson (1965) asked
                                                                                            to rate how much they liked a
                                                13.00
                                                                                            stranger after learning he agreed
                                                12.00                                       with varying proportions of their
                                                                                            attitudes expressed on a
                                                11.00                                       questionnaire. (Higher numbers
                                                                                            indication greater liking.)
                                                10.00
                                                9.00
                                                                                              As the graph shows, the
                                                8.00
                                                                                              greater the proportion of
                                                7.00                                          attitudes subjects shared
                                                6.00                                           with the stranger, the
                                                        .00 .20 .40       .60 .80 1.00         more subjects liked him
                                                        Proportion of similar attitudes held by
                                                                    other person
           Why such a powerful effect of similarity?


A) Cognitive Consistency
   (We like ourselves, therefore we like those who are like us)


B) Social Comparison (validation of one's beliefs)


C) Anticipate/Predict other's behavior (e.G., Likes/dislikes,
   interests)


D) They will like us also (reciprocal)
                     Application of Similarity Theory
                        Key Dimensions Used by eHarmony
              [http://www.eharmony.com/singles/servlet/about/dimensions]

Stated goal: “eHarmony … creates compatible matches based on 29 dimensions
scientifically proven to predict happier, healthier relationships”

Core Traits ---
Social Style (Character, Kindness, Dominance, Sociability, Autonomy, Adaptability):
How do you relate to other people? Do you crave company, or prefer to be alone? Are
you more comfortable leading, or do you prefer to go along with the group?
Cognitive Mode (Intellect, Curiosity, Humor, Artistic Passion)
How do you think about the world around you? Are you motivated by an insatiable
curiosity about the world and events around you? Are you constantly looking for
intellectual challenges? Do you find humor to be your favorite coping strategy when
dealing with the world?
Physicality (Energy – Physical, Passion – Sexual, Vitality & Security, Industry,
Appearance). How do you relate physically with the world? How do you relate
physically with yourself? Are you energetic, athletic and constantly in motion? Or are
you more comfortable and happy walking than running?
               Application of Similarity Theory (cont.)
                              From eHarmony
Relationship Skills (Communication Style, Emotion Management – Anger,
Emotion Management – Mood, Conflict Resolution)
The amount of effort and skill that you devote to making a relationship work are
key elements of who you are, and what type of person you are most likely to
succeed with in a relationship
Values and Beliefs (Spirituality, Family Goals, Traditionalism, Ambition,
Altruism). Values and Beliefs are at the center of most of our life experiences.
How we feel about spirituality, religion, family and even politics for a enormous
part of how we think about the world, and who we are going to be most
comfortable sharing our lives with.
Key Experiences (Family Background, Family Status, Education) All of your life
experiences combine to affect who you are and how you relate to the world.
Although many of the effects of these experiences are represented by the other
Core Traits and Learned Attributes, the following components of the 29
Dimensions are considered separately as part of your Key Experiences in your
compatibility profile
                      Repulsion Hypothesis

  Basic premise: Differences are disliked; perceived as threatening

“Lab” studies                                    Avg. attraction score
• Similar attitudes                              5.5            No
• No information regarding attitudes             5.2        difference

• Dissimilar attitudes                           2.1 (less attraction)

Iowa Caucus Study (Democratic)
                                            Democrat
                                                                          No
                                                                      difference
Description of person                      No party affiliation

                                           Republican             Disliked
D S S D S
DS    S D D
                                   Reject those who are
DDD S      S D                          dissimilar
DDSDDD
S D D S D



                                     S       S       S       S
                                         S       S       S
      End result is that we are
     left with similar people to                     S
            interact with
     The motivational value of dissimilarity is various other
                 theories in social psychology:

•   Balance Theory                Imbalance is motivating

•   Congruity Theory              Incongruity is motivating

•   Dissonance Theory             Dissonance is motivating

•   Equity Theory                  Inequity is motivating


     Naturally discovering similarity/dissimilarity (rather
      than being given other’s attitudes is quite different



                        Active search process
“No man or woman really knows what love is until they have been
married a quarter of a century.” --- Mark Twain

                                                                          Love marriages
                                                                          Arranged marriages
      90


      80


      70


      60


      50


      40


                  0-1            1-2           2-5                5-10   10+

                                              Years of marriage
            Marriage, Health and Longevity
Health &
Longevity
            Happily married
  High      Unhappily married

            Unmarried




 Low
             Men                  Women
         Interpersonal Relationship --- Newer
                     Approaches


                • Individual subjective reactions to cues in
                               an interaction

Relationships   • Active search/detection process for cues

                • Timing and sequencing of cues (e.g.,
                       baking a cake example)
          Interpersonal Relationship --- Newer
                   Approaches (cont.)



Thoughts about              Evaluation of           • Future
                                                    possibilities
 interpersonal           interaction as good,
  interactions              average, poor           • Strategies



                     • Who is told? When they are told?
Narratives/stories     What is said? Why they are told?
      about
  relationships      • Difference in perceptions; memory for facts
              Misattributions of Friendly Behavior

                              Female
  Routine
Conversation                                  Viewed female as
                              Male     promiscuous; were attracted to
                                       the female; saw themselves as
                                          flirtatious and seductive
                            Female

  Observers
                                       Viewed males as behaving
                              Male        in a sexual manner;
                                        females as promiscuous
               Sexual
                      Interaction
                lens
             Relationship Conflict --- Some Issues

• Jealousy ---
Men              Sexual infidelity (60%)
Women            Emotional infidelity (83%)

• Communication ---
         Demand-withdraw interaction pattern (Females wish to
discuss problems, men avoid/withdraw from such discussions)



• Sex
• Children
• Money
• Different expectations
 Relationship-Enhancing and Distress-Maintaining Attributions

                   Relationship-Enhancing    Distress-Maintaining
                         Attribution              Attribution
  Positive Event
My partner takes me      My partner is         My partner took
out to an expensive       sweet and           me out to write the
       dinner             thoughtful           cost off on taxes
                        Internal, stable,     External, unstable,
                             global                specific

 Negative Event
                           Something             My partner is
My partner forgot my
     birthday           unexpected must        always uncaring
                         have come up             and selfish
                       External, unstable,      Internal, stable,
                            specific                 global

								
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