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Hardware

VIEWS: 26 PAGES: 114

									                 Hardware
     Computer Hardware Slide Show Presentation



Terry Begley
Creighton University
College of Business Administration
Created Spring 1996
Revised Fall 2003




                                                 1
Computer
      An electronic device that has the
  ability to accept data, internally store
 and execute a program of instructions,
   perform mathematical, logical and
  manipulative operations on data, and
             report the results.



                                             2
History of Computers - 1
   Abacus




                           3
History of Computers - 2
   Joseph Jacquard and weaving looms




                                        4
Charles Babbage
   Father of Computing
    –   1833: Difference Engine
    –   1840: Analytical Engine




                                  5
Born December 26, 1791 in Teignmouth, Devonshire UK, Died 1871, London; Known to some as the "Father
of Computing" for his contributions to the basic design of the computer through his Analytical machine. His
previous Difference Engine was a special purpose device intended for the production of tables.
While he did produce prototypes of portions of the Difference Engine, it was left to Georg and Edvard
Schuetz to construct the first working devices to the same design which were successful in limited
applications.
Significant Events in His Life: 1791: Born; 1810: Entered Trinity College, Cambridge; 1814: graduated
Peterhouse; 1817 received MA from Cambridge; 1820: founded the Analytical Society with Herschel and
Peacock; 1823: started work on the Difference Engine through funding from the British Government; 1827:
published a table of logarithms from 1 to 108000; 1828: appointed to the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at
Cambridge (never presented a lecture); 1831: founded the British Association for the Advancement of
Science; 1832: published "Economy of Manufactures and Machinery"; 1833: began work on the Analytical
Engine; 1834: founded the Statistical Society of London; 1864: published Passages from the Life of a
Philosopher; 1871: Died.
Other inventions: The cowcatcher, dynamometer, standard railroad gauge, uniform postal rates, occulting
lights for lighthouses, Greenwich time signals, heliograph opthalmoscope. He also had an interest in cyphers
and lock-picking, but abhorred street musicians.



          Source: http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Babbage.html

                                                                                                               6
Ada Lovelace
              When inspired Ada could be very
                focused and a mathematical
          taskmaster. Ada suggested to Babbage
          writing a plan for how the engine might
          calculate Bernoulli numbers. This plan,
           is now regarded as the first "computer
               program." A software language
            developed by the U.S. Department of
          Defense was named "Ada" in her honor
                           in 1979.




                                                    7
Babbage‘s Analytical Engine




                              8
History of Computers - 3
   the 1880 and 1890 Census‘
    –   Herman Hollerith







                                9
10
History of Computers - 4
   Electromechanical devices




                                11
History of Computers - 5
   Electronic computers
    –   John Von Neumann
          Stored   program architecture paper
    –   World War II
    –   First business computer, 1954




                                                 12
Computers The UNIVAC I delivered to the U.S.
Census Bureau was the first commercial computer
to attract widespread public attention. Although
manufactured by Remington Rand, the machine
often was mistakenly referred to as the "IBM
UNIVAC." Remington Rand eventually sold 46
machines at more than $1 million each.F.O.B.
factory $750,000 plus $185,000 for a high speed
printer. Speed:1,905 operations per second
Input/output:magnetic tape, unityper, printer
Memory size:1,000 12-digit words in delay lines
Memory type:delay lines, magnetic tape
Technology:serial vacuum tubes, delay lines,
magnetic tape Floor space:943 cubic feet
Cost:F.O.B. factory $750,000 plus $185,000 for a
high speed printer Project leaders:J. Presper
Eckert and John Mauchly
                                                   13
14
Microcomputers
 –   1973: Xerox Alto
 –   1975: Altair
 –   1978: Apple II
 –   1981: IBM PC (5150)
 –   1983: Apple Macintosh




                             15
Xerox Alto
             Computers Researchers at the
             Xerox Palo Alto Research Center
             designed the Alto — the first work
             station with a built-in mouse for input.
             The Alto stored several files
             simultaneously in windows, offered
             menus and icons, and could link to a
             local area network. Although Xerox
             never sold the Alto commercially, it
             gave a number of them to universities.
             Engineers later incorporated its
             features into work stations and
             personal computers.




                                                    16
Altair 8080
                 The January edition of Popular
                  Electronics featured the Altair 8800
                  computer kit, based on Intel´s 8080
                  microprocessor, on its cover. Within
                  weeks of the computer´s debut,
                  customers inundated the
                  manufacturing company, MITS, with
                  orders. Bill Gates and Paul Allen
                  licensed BASIC as the software
                  language for the Altair. Ed Roberts
                  invented the 8800 — which sold for
                  $297, or $395 with a case — and
                  coined the term "personal computer."
                  The machine came with 256 bytes of
                  memory (expandable to 64K) and an
                  open 100-line bus structure that
                  evolved into the S-100 standard. In
                  1977, MITS sold out to Pertec, which
                  continued producing Altairs through
                  1978.
                                                         17
Computer Generations
 First
 Second
 Third
 Fourth
 Fifth ???




                       18
Computer Generations
                      First        Second       Third       Fourth

Years           1951-1958     1959-1964     1965-1970    1971-

Technology      Vacuum        Transistor    Integrated   Large Scale
                Tubes                       Circuits     Integrated
                                                         Circuits
Failure Rate    Hours         Days          Weeks        Months -
                                                         years
I/O             Cards         Tape          Disks        Variety

Size            Room          Closet        Desk         Small

$ per million   $10           $1            $0.10        $0.0001 or
Ops                                                      less




                                                                       19
The First Transistor (1948)




                              20
Eniac




        21
IBM 360 Computer System




                          22
IBM 709 Mainframe

                Last of the
                 vacuum
                    tube
                computers,
                  c. 1959




                              23
IBM 704

             Used
            discrete
          transistors




                        24
DEC PDP I




            25
Digital Equipment Corp

         Left: DEC PDP-8, c.
         1965


         Right: DEC PDP-11,
         c. 1970




                               26
The “Bunch” – Burroughs,
Univac,NCR, Control Data and
Honeywell




                               27
Computer Classifications
 Microcomputer
 Minicomputer
 Mainframe
 Supercomputer




                           28
Microcomputer
 Users:      One
 Speed:      Slow
 Price:      $500 - $3,000
 Size:       desktop or smaller
 Examples:   IBM PC, Apple ][, Apple
              Macintosh, Imac
 “personal computers”


    http://home.hccnet.nl/e.p.de.vries/ibm5150.htm   29
Minicomputer
 Users:      2 - 50
 Speed:      Faster
 Price:      $10,000 - $250,000
 Size:       file cabinet
 Examples:   HP 9000
              DEC VAX
 “departmental computers”

                                   30
Mainframe Computer
 Users:        50 +
 Speed:        Fast
 Price:        $500,000 - millions
 Size:         refrigerator-sized on up
 Examples:     IBM 3090, Unisys 2200

   company-wide (“enterprise”)

                                           31
Supercomputer
 Users:          a few
 Speed:          very, very fast
 Price:          $ millions
 Size:           room
 Examples:       Cray, Fujitsu

   scientific uses

                                    32
Computer
      An electronic device that has the
  ability to accept data, internally store
 and execute a program of instructions,
   perform mathematical, logical and
  manipulative operations on data, and
             report the results.
   IBM



                                             33
Hardware
   consists of all machinery and equipment
    –   input devices
    –   output devices
    –   processing and memory devices
    –   secondary storage devices
    –   communications devices




                                          34
Software
   the step-by-step instructions that tell the
    computer what to do
    –   applications software
          performs  useful work on general-purpose tasks
          available from many places

    –   systems software
          enables the application software to interact with
           the computer
          generally comes from the hardware vendor


                                                            35
Computer Components
            Secondary Storage



Input      Primary Storage          Output
Devices                             Devices
           Control Unit

           Arithmetic/Logic Unit

          Central Processing Unit


                                              36
Input Devices
 keyboard
 disk
 tape
 cards
 voice
 scanner (various types)
 modem
 mouse/trackballs/glidepoints
                                 37
Input Devices




                38
Output Devices
 monitor
 printer
    –   impact printers
    –   nonimpact printers
 disk
 modem
 voice
 microfilm
                             39
Central Processing Unit
   Primary Storage
    –   random access memory, ―scratchpad‖
    –   volatile storage
    –   limited in capacity
   Control Unit
    –   controls CPU and it‘s interactions
   Arithmetic/Logic Unit
    –   math and logic calculations
                                             40
Microprocessors




                  41
Microprocessor
 A single integrated circuit (chip),
  mounted on a system board
  (motherboard) of a personal computer.
 manufacturers:
    –   Intel
    –   Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
    –   Cyrix
    –   Motorola

                                          42
Secondary Storage
 nonvolatile storage
 generally removable
 types
    –   tape
    –   cards
    –   magnetic disk
    –   optical disk


                        43
Size Capacity Measurements
 Bit
 Byte
 Kilobyte
 Megabyte
 Gigabyte
 Terabyte
 Petabyte

                             44
Size Capacity - 1
   Bit
    –   Binary Digit
    –   either a Zero or a One; basic unit for
        storing data; 0=off, 1=on
   Byte
    –   Binary Digit Eight; a unit of information
        usually consisting of 8 bits; each byte
        usually represents a character, letter or
        symbol
                                                    45
Size Capacity - 2
   Kilobyte
    –   approximately 1 thousand characters
    –   1,024 bits (210)
   Megabyte
    –   approximately 1 million characters
    –   1,048,576 bytes (220)
   Gigabyte
    –   approximately 1 billion characters
    –   1,073,741,824 bytes (230)             46
Size Capacity - 3
   Terabyte
    –   One trillion bytes; 10^12.Or, 2^40
        (1,099,511,627,776)
   Petabyte
    –   A quadrillion bytes (10^15 bytes or 2^50
        bytes)




                                                   47
Size Capacity Measurements
       Name     Definition       Approx.            Actual

 Bit          BInary Digit

 Byte         8 contigous
              bits
 Kilobyte     thousand                  1,000                1,024

 Megabyte     million               1,000,000          1,048,576

 Gigabyte     billion           1,000,000,000      1,073,741,824

 Terabyte     trillion       1,000,000,000,000 1,099,511,627,776




                                                                     48
Floppy Disks
 A removable, round, flexible plastic disk
  that stores data as magnetized spots on
  the disk.
 developed by IBM in the 1960‘s
 disk spins only when accessed
 read/write head makes physical contact
  with the disk

                                              49
Floppy Disk Size and Capacity
   8‖
    –    developed by IBM for minicomputer line
    –    300 - 800K capacity
   5¼‖
    –    developed by Al Shugart
    –    used on Apple ][, IBM PC, IBM AT
    –    DSDD: 360K
    –    DSHD: 1.2meg

                                                  50
Floppy Disk Size and Capacity
   3½‖
    –   developed by Sony
    –   first used on Apple Macintosh, 1984
    –   DSDD: 720K
    –   DSHD: 1.44meg
    –   DSQD: 2.88meg
   2½‖
    –   developed by Zenith in 1988
    –   never caught on with consumers
                                              51
Hard Disks




             52
Hard Disks - 1
 generally nonremovable disk made out
  of metal and covered with a magnetic
  recording surface, holding data in the
  form of magnetic spots.
 hermetically sealed
 disk spins constantly
 read/write head does not make physical
  contact with the disk

                                       53
Hard Disks - 2
   cost per megabyte
    –   1983: $1100 for a 10meg drive
    –   2002: $165 for a 120 gigabyte drive
    –   Rule of thumb: $.80 per gigabyte
   Interface
    –   Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
    –   Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)


                                                  54
Hard Disk Size and Capacity
 (5¼‖), 3½‖ and 2½‖ platter size
 trend is for greater capacity, with
  smaller size and lower cost
 standard drive today is 60 gigabyte
  capacity (and growing….)

   Watch out for rotation speed
    –   5400, 7600, 10,000 and 15,000 RPM

                                            55
Optical Disk
   a disk that is written and read by lasers
    –   Compact Disk, Read-Only Media
         CD-ROM
         5¼‖  size
         write once, read many times (WORM)
         650 megabyte capacity
         speeds: 1x, 2x, 4x, 6x, 16x, 24x, 32x, 40x ++

    –   Compact Disk, Write-Once, Read-Many
         writeable   CD-ROM

                                                          56
CD-ROM
   CD-ROM Writers (―burners‖)
    –   approximately $150
    –   blank disks are $0.25 in quantity




                                            57
DVD
   ―Burners‖ just coming on the market
    –   Cost is approximately $700
    –   Blanks are about $10 each




                                          58
Magnetic Tape
   flexible plastic coated on one side with a
    magnetic material, data is represented
    by magnetized spots
    –   common for mini/mainframe backup
    –   cartridge form available for mini/pc
    –   sequential storage medium




                                               59
Modems




         60
Modem Speed Measurement
 baud and bits-per-second (bps)
 the speed at which a modem can
  transfer information over telephone lines
    –   baud: measure of signal changes that take
        place over one second of data transfer
    –   bps: measure of the actual number of bits
        transferred during that second



                                                    61
Modem Speed Measurement
 300
 1200
 2400
 9600
 14,400
 28,800 / 33,600
 56,600

                          62
(Internal) Modem Connections




                      optional




                                 63
External Modems




                  64
Cable Modems
 A "Cable Modem" is a device that
  allows high speed data access (such as
  to the Internet) via a cable TV (CATV)
  network. A cable modem will typically
  have two connections, one to the cable
  wall outlet and the other to a computer
  (PC).
 Cable modem speeds range from
  128Kbps to 10Mbps
                                            65
 Cable Modems

                                     Motorola
                                     CyberSurfer Cable
                                     modem; used by
                                     Cox@Home service
                                     in Omaha
                                     New DOCSYS
                                     standard


http://www.mot.com/MIMS/Multimedia/prod/specs/modemSpec.html

                                                               66
       Cable Modems




http://www.cablemodems.com/whatis.shtml


                                          67
Clock Speed Measurement
   how fast a computer‘s CPU processes
    information
    –   hertz
          one clock cycle per second
    –   kilohertz
          one thousand hertz per second
    –   megahertz
          one million hertz per second
    –   gigahertz
          one billion hertz per second
                                           68
Intel microprocessors


            Intel produces 80% of
            the microprocessors
            used in all personal
            computers, and
            90%+ of all CPUs
            used in IBM-
            compatible personal
            computers.

                                    69
the   Intel Chip Family - 1
   8088              P5 - Pentium
   80186             Pentium Pro
   80286             Pentium II
   80386              –   Celeron
   80486             Pentium III
                      Pentium IV




                                      70
the     Intel Chip Family - 2
   8088
    –   first used in IBM PC (1981)
    –   4.77mhz
    –   8086
          used  by clone manufacturers
          6, 8, 10mhz

    –   used 8087 math coprocessor



                                          71
the     Intel Chip Family - 3
   80186
    –   used only in a Radio Shack clone model
    –   used in traffic lights and cars!




                                                 72
the     Intel Chip Family - 4
   80826
    –   first used in IBM PC/AT (1984)
    –   6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20mhz
    –   16 bit external processing
    –   address 16meg of memory
    –   used 80287 for math coprocessing




                                           73
the     Intel Chip Family - 5
   80386
    –   first used by Compaq, then IBM
    –   16, 20, 25, 33, 40mhz
    –   32 bit external processing
    –   address 16gig of memory
    –   used 80387 for math coprocessing
          SX: 16 bit bus
          DX: 32 bit bus



                                           74
the     Intel Chip Family - 6
   80486
    –   introduced in 1989
    –   20, 25, 33, 50, 66, 80, 100, 120, 133mhz
    –   32 bit external processing
    –   address 64gig of memory
          SX: no math coprocessor built-in
          DX: math coprocessor built-in




                                                   75
the     Intel Chip Family - 7
   Pentium (P5)
    –   introduced in 1993
    –   60, 66mhz (6 volt)
    –   75, 90, 100, 120, 133, 150, 166 (3.3 volt)
    –   32 bit external processing
    –   address 64+gig of memory
    –   no longer in production as of 4-1-98


                                                     76
the     Intel Chip Family - 8
   Pentium Pro
    –   introduced in 1996
    –   dead-end processor
    –   150, 180, 200mhz
    –   32 bit external processing
    –   address 64+gig of memory




                                     77
the     Intel Chip Family - 9
   Pentium II
    –   next version of the Pentium (P6)
    –   speeds of 200, 233, 266, 300, 400,
        450mhz
    –   out of production in Fall ‗99




                                             78
the     Intel Chip Family - 10
   Pentium III
    –   next version of the Pentium family
    –   speeds of 450, 500, 550, 600, 700, 733,
        800, 850, 866, 933, 1GHz
    –   No longer in production




                                                  79
the   Intel Chip Family - 10
   Pentium IV
         Speeds from 1.2GHz, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 2.2,
          2.8GHz
           –   4GHz is due out any time now




                                                         80
Intel Microprocessor Prices
Computer Shopper, March 1996

  Pentium 166   $855
  Pentium 150    645
  Pentium 133    545
  Pentium 120    335
  Pentium 100    345
  Pentium 90     239
  Pentium 75     175
  486DX/100       89
  486DX/66        69


                               81
    Intel Microprocessor Prices
              pricewatch.com
   http://www.pricewatch.com/




                                  82
Other Microprocessor Prices
Computer Shopper, March 1996


  AMD 486/120      $109
  AMD 486/100        89
  AMD 486/80         59
  Cyrix 486/100      89
  Cyrix 486/80       69
  Cyrix 486/66       69

                               83
Monitors




           84
Monitor Specifications
 Mono Display Adapter (MDA)
 Mono Graphics Adapter (MGA)
 Color Graphics Adapter (CGA)
 Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)
 Video Graphics Array (VGA)
 Super VGA (SVGA)



                                    85
Monitor Types
   CRT
    –   Cathode ray tube
   LCD
    –   Liquid crystal display




                                 86
CRT
   Works by moving an electron beam back and
    forth across the back of the screen. Each
    time the beam makes a pass at the back of
    the screen, it lights up phospor dots on the
    inside of the glass tube, illuminating the
    active portions of the screen. By drawing lots
    of lines from the top to the bottom of the
    screen, it creates an entire screenful of
    images.

                                                     87
Things to Look for - CRTs
   Dot Pitch
    –   size of smallest dot on the monitor
    –   the smaller, the better
    –   Poor .55                      .26 Great
   Interlaced -vs- Noninterlaced
    –   how the display is updated
    –   avoid interlaced monitors!!!
   Viewable area
                                                  88
LCD
   Uses two sheets of polarizing
    material, with a lquid crystal
    solution between them. An
    electric current passed
    through the liquid causes the
    crystals to align so that light
    cannot pass through them –
    like a shutter



                                      89
LCD
   Monochrome
    –   Blue or gray on a gray background
   Color
    –   Passive matrix
          cheaper
    –   Active matric
          More   expensive, sharper images
   May be backlit to be easier to read

                                              90
LCD
 Uses much less electricity than CRTs
 Take up less desk space
 Will become the dominant monitor type
  in a few years




                                          91
Monitor Sizes
 12‖
         Measure the screen diagonally
 14‖
         (like a television).
 15‖
         Be cautious of the viewable area
 17‖    of the monitor.
 19‖
         Prices have dropped recently due to an
 21‖    increase in the production yields of the
         glass used to make the screens.


                                               92
Monitor Resolutions
   SVGA
    –   a function of the monitor and the video
        card
          640 x 480 (standard VGA resolution)
          800 x 640
          1024 x 768
          1280 x 1024
          1680 x 1280




                                                  93
Case Designs and Sizes - 1
   desktop
    –   smaller size
    –   fewer expansion slots
    –   can be turned over to stand on it‘s side
   tower
    –   larger size
    –   more expansion slots
    –   possibly larger power supply
    –   frees desktop space
                                                   94
Case Designs and Sizes - 2
   desktop
    –   AT
    –   baby AT
    –   pizza box
   tower
    –   full tower
    –   mid-tower
    –   mini tower

                             95
Integrated (one piece unit)




                              96
97
Case Terms
   Bays
    –   number of open spaces for devices
          ½-height   bays
          full height bays
          size
            –   5¼―
                 •    for CD-ROM and tape backup units
            –   3½―
                 •    for floppy drives, hard drives, some tape units



                                                                        98
Connection Points (ports)
 Serial port
 Parallel port
 Keyboard port
 Mouse port
 Joystick port
 USB ports
    –   universal serial bus

                               99
Serial Ports
 AKA: RS-232 port
 Two-way data transfer
 Theoretically have 4
 Realistically have 2
 names:
    –   com1:   - com2:
    –   com3:   - com4:
   uses: modems, mice, data collection
                                          100
Parallel Ports - 1
 originally one-way data transfer, but
  new bi-directional ports allow two-way
  data transfer
 theoretically have 4
 realistically have 2, commonly have 1
 can be emulated in software thru the
  use of network software (Novell, NT)

                                           101
Parallel Ports - 2
   names
    –   lpt1: to lpt4:
   uses: printers, lap-link data transfer




                                             102
Joystick, Keyboard & Mouse Ports

 most home computers have a joystick
  port
 mouse port frees serial ports for other
  uses
 keyboard port can be regular pin or mini
  pin configuration (adapters available)



                                         103
USB Ports
   A personal computer bus which can support
    up to 127 peripheral devices in a daisy chain
    configuration, and has a total bandwidth of
    1.5 megabytes per second. It uses
    inexpensive cable, which can be up to 5
    meters long.
    –   Supported on Win95 R2 and Win98 and Windows
        2000, but not Win95 and NT
    –   more peripherals available now (cameras, input
        devices, scanners)


                                                     104
Motherboard
 aka: system board
 where components are located, where
  expansion slots are located
 different bus designs




                                        105
Bus Design - 1
 Bus - links the CPU to hardware
  devices
 Different bus designs
    –   ISA
    –   MCA
    –   EISA
    –   VESA
    –   PCI
    –   AGP
                                    106
Bus Designs - 2
   ISA
    –   Industry Standard Architecture
    –   developed for original IBM PC
    –   originally 8 bits, extended to 16 bits




                                                 107
Bus Design - 3
   MCA
    –   Micro Channel Architecture
    –   developed by IBM for the PS/2 family of
        computers in 1986
    –   requires different expansion cards
    –   16 bit design
    –   rarely licensed to other vendors
    –   out of production now

                                                  108
Bus Design - 4
   EISA
    –   Extended Industry Standard Architecture
    –   developed by a consortium in response to
        IBM‘s MCA (led by Compaq)
    –   32 bit design
    –   could use ISA cards in EISA slots
    –   popular in servers for a few years
    –   out of production now

                                                   109
Bus Design - 5
   VESA
    –   Video Electronics Standards Assoc.
    –   connects directly to the microprocessor
    –   32 bit design
    –   used to speed up video, then hard drive
        controllers
    –   No longer found on systems



                                                  110
Bus Design - 6
   PCI
    –   Peripheral Components Interconnect
    –   local bus using 64 bit design
    –   used in high-end 486 and P5 systems
    –   replaced VESA




                                              111
Bus Design - 7
   PCMCIA
    –   Personal Computer Memory Card
        International Association
    –   used for notebooks, to insert credit-card
        sized devices into open expansion slots
    –   moving onto the desktop
    –   available in modems, network cards, extra
        RAM


                                                    112
Bus Design - 8
   AGP
    –   Advanced Graphics Processing
         used to speed up the video card display
         found on newer machines




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!! The End !!




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